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30 March

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  • ambrós
    Celtic and Old English Saints 30 March =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-= * St. Rule of Scotland * St. Fergus of Downpatrick * St. Patto of
    Message 1 of 14 , Mar 28, 2002
      Celtic and Old English Saints 30 March

      =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=
      * St. Rule of Scotland
      * St. Fergus of Downpatrick
      * St. Patto of Werden
      * St. Tola
      =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=


      St. Rule of Scotland (of Saint Andrews), Abbot
      (Regulus, Riaghai)
      ---------------------------------------------------------------
      4th or 6th century; feast also October 17. The real story of Saint Rule
      is uncertain. There was no "vita"
      before the 9th century. Some it seems confuse this abbot with a Greek
      monk, also named Regulus, who is said to have brought relics of Saint
      Andrew (f.d. November 30) to Rigmond, Scotland, thus founding Saint
      Andrews.

      The tradition relates that Saint Regulus was born in Patras and led by a
      dream to take some of the relics in his care to an unknown destination
      to which an angel would lead him. He followed the angel to Fife, where
      he built a church to house the relics of Saint Andrew. (The rest of the
      relics were taken to Constantinople.)

      In fact, the relics were acquired by a Pictish king, who founded the
      city, in 736; the abbot at that time was the Irish Tuathal.
      Regulus is the patron of Kylrewni and is commemorated in the Aberdeen
      Breviary (Attwater2, Benedictines, Farmer, Montague).



      St Rule And The Foundation of St. Andrew's 4th Century
      ___________________________________________

      The medieval legend tells us that a Greek monk had a vision in 345,
      warning him that the first Christian Emperor Constantine was intending
      to remove the relics of St. Andrew, the first-called of the Apostles,
      from Patras, the place of his martyrdom, to Constantinople, the new
      eastern capital of the Empire. This monk, called Rule, or Regulus,
      considered that the vision gave him commission to take some of the
      relics to the west, "to the utmost region of the world", and so he took
      from the Apostle's shrine an arm-bone, three fingers of the right hand,
      a tooth and a knee-cap. He set forth with a company of devout men and
      women, and after a perilous voyage, landed at a place called Kilrymount
      in Scotland. There he built a church to house the relics in thanksgiving
      for their survival.

      Now comes a difficulty, because the legend goes on to tell how a king of
      the Picts, Angus MacFergus, also had a vision of St. Andrew, promising
      him victory in battle. Angus in gratitude donated the land round the
      settlement founded by Regulus and declared that the church he had built
      should be the head and mother of all the churches in the kingdom. This
      puts the foundation of St Andrews four hundred years later, in the
      eighth century.

      It has been suggested that Regulus did establish a community at this
      place and that the relics were introduced during the reign of Angus,
      being brought from Hexham by St. Acca, who was forced to leave his
      diocese in 732. Hexham had been founded by St. Wilfrid, and it is
      recorded that he had obtained relics of St. Andrew for his church there.
      Mention of the relics both of St. Andrew and St. Regulus are found from
      this time, and the bishopric was transferred from Abernethy to St
      Andrews in 908 (Bowen).

      St Rule's Tower where his relics rest
      http://www.saint-andrews.co.uk/Tour/tower.htm



      St. Fergus (Fergustus, Ferguisius) of Downpatrick, Bishop
      ---------------------------------------------------------------
      6th century. Not much is known with certainly about this bishop of
      Downpatrick, Ireland. He may be identical to Saint Fergus of Scotland
      (f.d. November 18) (Benedictines).


      St. Patto (Pacificus) of Werden, Bishop
      ---------------------------------------------------------------
      Born in Britain; died at Werden (Verden), Saxony, Germany, c. 788.
      Saint Patto was abbot of the Irish monastery of Anabaric in Saxony,
      which was established by Charlemagne about 780. Later he was
      consecrated bishop of Werden to succeeded its first bishop, Suibert.
      Because many miracles have been attributed to him, his body was exhumed
      in 1630, but no record was made of the result. This may have been
      because the remains of Bishops Suibert, Saint Tanco (f.d. February 16),
      Saint Patto, Cerelon, Nortrila, Saint Erlulf (f.d. February 10), and
      Saint Harruch (f.d. July 15), plus debris of mitres, sandals, and
      episcopal ornaments were all found in the same tomb. The relics were
      collected into a new casket and rested behind the high altar until they
      were taken by the bishop to Regensburg during the Swedish invasions in
      1659 (Benedictines, D'Arcy, Fitzpatrick2, Kenney, Montague, O'Hanlon).



      St. Tola, Bishop
      ---------------------------------------------------------------
      Died c. 733. This Irish saint was the abbot-bishop of Disert Tola in
      Meath (Benedictines).


      Sources:
      ========

      Attwater, D. (1958). A Dictionary of Saints. New York:
      P. J. Kennedy & Sons. [Attwater 2]

      Benedictine Monks of Saint Augustine Abbey, Ramsgate.
      (1947). The Book of Saints. NY: Macmillan.

      D'Arcy, M. R. (1974). The Saints of Ireland. Saint Paul, Minnesota:
      Irish American Cultural Institute. [This is probably the most
      useful book to choose to own on the Irish saints. The author
      provides a great deal of historical context in which to place the
      lives of the saints.]

      Farmer, D. H. (1997). The Oxford Dictionary of Saints.
      Oxford: Oxford University Press.

      Fitzpatrick, B. (1927). Ireland and the Foundations of Europe.
      New York: Funk & Wagnalls.

      Kenney, J. F. (1929). Sources for Early History of Ireland, vol.
      1, Ecclesiastical. New York: Columbia University Press.

      Montague, H. P. (1981). The Saints and Martyrs of Ireland.
      Guildford: Billing & Sons.

      O'Hanlon, J. (1875). Lives of Irish Saints, 10 vol. Dublin.

      For All the Saints:
      http://users.erols.com/saintpat/ss/ss-index.htm

      Celtic Orthodox Christianity Home Page:
      http://www.orthodoxireland.com/celtic.htm

      These Lives are archived at:
      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/celt-saints
      *****************************************
    • ambrós
      Celtic and Old English Saints 30 March =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-= * St. Rule of Scotland * St. Fergus of Downpatrick * St. Patto of
      Message 2 of 14 , Mar 28, 2003
        Celtic and Old English Saints 30 March

        =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=
        * St. Rule of Scotland
        * St. Fergus of Downpatrick
        * St. Patto of Werden
        * St. Tola
        =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=


        St. Rule of Scotland (of Saint Andrews), Abbot
        (Regulus, Riaghai)
        ---------------------------------------------------------------
        4th or 6th century; feast also October 17. The real story of Saint Rule
        is uncertain. There was no "vita"
        before the 9th century. Some it seems confuse this abbot with a Greek
        monk, also named Regulus, who is said to have brought relics of Saint
        Andrew (f.d. November 30) to Rigmond, Scotland, thus founding Saint
        Andrews.

        The tradition relates that Saint Regulus was born in Patras and led by a
        dream to take some of the relics in his care to an unknown destination
        to which an angel would lead him. He followed the angel to Fife, where
        he built a church to house the relics of Saint Andrew. (The rest of the
        relics were taken to Constantinople.)

        In fact, the relics were acquired by a Pictish king, who founded the
        city, in 736; the abbot at that time was the Irish Tuathal.
        Regulus is the patron of Kylrewni and is commemorated in the Aberdeen
        Breviary (Attwater2, Benedictines, Farmer, Montague).



        St Rule And The Foundation of St. Andrew's 4th Century
        ___________________________________________

        The medieval legend tells us that a Greek monk had a vision in 345,
        warning him that the first Christian Emperor Constantine was intending
        to remove the relics of St. Andrew, the first-called of the Apostles,
        from Patras, the place of his martyrdom, to Constantinople, the new
        eastern capital of the Empire. This monk, called Rule, or Regulus,
        considered that the vision gave him commission to take some of the
        relics to the west, "to the utmost region of the world", and so he took
        from the Apostle's shrine an arm-bone, three fingers of the right hand,
        a tooth and a knee-cap. He set forth with a company of devout men and
        women, and after a perilous voyage, landed at a place called Kilrymount
        in Scotland. There he built a church to house the relics in thanksgiving
        for their survival.

        Now comes a difficulty, because the legend goes on to tell how a king of
        the Picts, Angus MacFergus, also had a vision of St. Andrew, promising
        him victory in battle. Angus in gratitude donated the land round the
        settlement founded by Regulus and declared that the church he had built
        should be the head and mother of all the churches in the kingdom. This
        puts the foundation of St Andrews four hundred years later, in the
        eighth century.

        It has been suggested that Regulus did establish a community at this
        place and that the relics were introduced during the reign of Angus,
        being brought from Hexham by St. Acca, who was forced to leave his
        diocese in 732. Hexham had been founded by St. Wilfrid, and it is
        recorded that he had obtained relics of St. Andrew for his church there.
        Mention of the relics both of St. Andrew and St. Regulus are found from
        this time, and the bishopric was transferred from Abernethy to St
        Andrews in 908 (Bowen).

        St Rule's Tower where his relics rest
        http://www.saint-andrews.co.uk/Tour/tower.htm



        St. Fergus (Fergustus, Ferguisius) of Downpatrick, Bishop
        ---------------------------------------------------------------
        6th century. Not much is known with certainly about this bishop of
        Downpatrick, Ireland. He may be identical to Saint Fergus of Scotland
        (f.d. November 18) (Benedictines).


        St. Patto (Pacificus) of Werden, Bishop
        ---------------------------------------------------------------
        Born in Britain; died at Werden (Verden), Saxony, Germany, c. 788.
        Saint Patto was abbot of the Irish monastery of Anabaric in Saxony,
        which was established by Charlemagne about 780. Later he was
        consecrated bishop of Werden to succeeded its first bishop, Suibert.
        Because many miracles have been attributed to him, his body was exhumed
        in 1630, but no record was made of the result. This may have been
        because the remains of Bishops Suibert, Saint Tanco (f.d. February 16),
        Saint Patto, Cerelon, Nortrila, Saint Erlulf (f.d. February 10), and
        Saint Harruch (f.d. July 15), plus debris of mitres, sandals, and
        episcopal ornaments were all found in the same tomb. The relics were
        collected into a new casket and rested behind the high altar until they
        were taken by the bishop to Regensburg during the Swedish invasions in
        1659 (Benedictines, D'Arcy, Fitzpatrick2, Kenney, Montague, O'Hanlon).



        St. Tola, Bishop
        ---------------------------------------------------------------
        Died c. 733. This Irish saint was the abbot-bishop of Disert Tola in
        Meath (Benedictines).


        Sources:
        ========

        Attwater, D. (1958). A Dictionary of Saints. New York:
        P. J. Kennedy & Sons. [Attwater 2]

        Benedictine Monks of Saint Augustine Abbey, Ramsgate.
        (1947). The Book of Saints. NY: Macmillan.

        D'Arcy, M. R. (1974). The Saints of Ireland. Saint Paul, Minnesota:
        Irish American Cultural Institute. [This is probably the most
        useful book to choose to own on the Irish saints. The author
        provides a great deal of historical context in which to place the
        lives of the saints.]

        Farmer, D. H. (1997). The Oxford Dictionary of Saints.
        Oxford: Oxford University Press.

        Fitzpatrick, B. (1927). Ireland and the Foundations of Europe.
        New York: Funk & Wagnalls.

        Kenney, J. F. (1929). Sources for Early History of Ireland, vol.
        1, Ecclesiastical. New York: Columbia University Press.

        Montague, H. P. (1981). The Saints and Martyrs of Ireland.
        Guildford: Billing & Sons.

        O'Hanlon, J. (1875). Lives of Irish Saints, 10 vol. Dublin.

        For All the Saints:
        http://users.erols.com/saintpat/ss/ss-index.htm

        Celtic Orthodox Christianity Home Page:
        http://www.orthodoxireland.com/celtic.htm

        A Beginner's Guide to Irish Gaelic pronunciation
        http://www.standingstones.com/gaelpron.html

        These Lives are archived at:
        http://groups.yahoo.com/group/celt-saints
        *****************************************
      • emrys@globe.net.nz
        Celtic and Old English Saints 30 March =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-= * St. Rule of Scotland * St. Fergus of Downpatrick * St. Patto of
        Message 3 of 14 , Mar 29, 2004
          Celtic and Old English Saints 30 March

          =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=
          * St. Rule of Scotland
          * St. Fergus of Downpatrick
          * St. Patto of Werden
          * St. Tola
          =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=


          St. Rule of Scotland (of Saint Andrews), Abbot
          (Regulus, Riaghai)
          ---------------------------------------------------------------
          4th or 6th century; feast also October 17. The real story of Saint Rule
          is uncertain. There was no "vita"
          before the 9th century. Some it seems confuse this abbot with a Greek
          monk, also named Regulus, who is said to have brought relics of Saint
          Andrew (f.d. November 30) to Rigmond, Scotland, thus founding Saint
          Andrews.

          The tradition relates that Saint Regulus was born in Patras and led by a
          dream to take some of the relics in his care to an unknown destination
          to which an angel would lead him. He followed the angel to Fife, where
          he built a church to house the relics of Saint Andrew. (The rest of the
          relics were taken to Constantinople.)

          In fact, the relics were acquired by a Pictish king, who founded the
          city, in 736; the abbot at that time was the Irish Tuathal.
          Regulus is the patron of Kylrewni and is commemorated in the Aberdeen
          Breviary (Attwater2, Benedictines, Farmer, Montague).



          St Rule And The Foundation of St. Andrew's 4th Century
          ___________________________________________

          The medieval legend tells us that a Greek monk had a vision in 345,
          warning him that the first Christian Emperor Constantine was intending
          to remove the relics of St. Andrew, the first-called of the Apostles,
          from Patras, the place of his martyrdom, to Constantinople, the new
          eastern capital of the Empire. This monk, called Rule, or Regulus,
          considered that the vision gave him commission to take some of the
          relics to the west, "to the utmost region of the world", and so he took
          from the Apostle's shrine an arm-bone, three fingers of the right hand,
          a tooth and a knee-cap. He set forth with a company of devout men and
          women, and after a perilous voyage, landed at a place called Kilrymount
          in Scotland. There he built a church to house the relics in thanksgiving
          for their survival.

          Now comes a difficulty, because the legend goes on to tell how a king of
          the Picts, Angus MacFergus, also had a vision of St. Andrew, promising
          him victory in battle. Angus in gratitude donated the land round the
          settlement founded by Regulus and declared that the church he had built
          should be the head and mother of all the churches in the kingdom. This
          puts the foundation of St Andrews four hundred years later, in the
          eighth century.

          It has been suggested that Regulus did establish a community at this
          place and that the relics were introduced during the reign of Angus,
          being brought from Hexham by St. Acca, who was forced to leave his
          diocese in 732. Hexham had been founded by St. Wilfrid, and it is
          recorded that he had obtained relics of St. Andrew for his church there.
          Mention of the relics both of St. Andrew and St. Regulus are found from
          this time, and the bishopric was transferred from Abernethy to St
          Andrews in 908 (Bowen).

          St Rule's Tower where his relics rest
          http://www.saint-andrews.co.uk/Tour/tower.htm



          St. Fergus (Fergustus, Ferguisius) of Downpatrick, Bishop
          ---------------------------------------------------------------
          6th century. Not much is known with certainly about this bishop of
          Downpatrick, Ireland. He may be identical to Saint Fergus of Scotland
          (f.d. November 18) (Benedictines).


          St. Patto (Pacificus) of Werden, Bishop
          ---------------------------------------------------------------
          Born in Britain; died at Werden (Verden), Saxony, Germany, c. 788.
          Saint Patto was abbot of the Irish monastery of Anabaric in Saxony,
          which was established by Charlemagne about 780. Later he was
          consecrated bishop of Werden to succeeded its first bishop, Suibert.
          Because many miracles have been attributed to him, his body was exhumed
          in 1630, but no record was made of the result. This may have been
          because the remains of Bishops Suibert, Saint Tanco (f.d. February 16),
          Saint Patto, Cerelon, Nortrila, Saint Erlulf (f.d. February 10), and
          Saint Harruch (f.d. July 15), plus debris of mitres, sandals, and
          episcopal ornaments were all found in the same tomb. The relics were
          collected into a new casket and rested behind the high altar until they
          were taken by the bishop to Regensburg during the Swedish invasions in
          1659 (Benedictines, D'Arcy, Fitzpatrick2, Kenney, Montague, O'Hanlon).



          St. Tola, Bishop
          ---------------------------------------------------------------
          Died c. 733. This Irish saint was the abbot-bishop of Disert Tola in
          Meath (Benedictines).


          Sources:
          ========

          Attwater, D. (1958). A Dictionary of Saints. New York:
          P. J. Kennedy & Sons. [Attwater 2]

          Benedictine Monks of Saint Augustine Abbey, Ramsgate.
          (1947). The Book of Saints. NY: Macmillan.

          D'Arcy, M. R. (1974). The Saints of Ireland. Saint Paul, Minnesota:
          Irish American Cultural Institute. [This is probably the most
          useful book to choose to own on the Irish saints. The author
          provides a great deal of historical context in which to place the
          lives of the saints.]

          Farmer, D. H. (1997). The Oxford Dictionary of Saints.
          Oxford: Oxford University Press.

          Fitzpatrick, B. (1927). Ireland and the Foundations of Europe.
          New York: Funk & Wagnalls.

          Kenney, J. F. (1929). Sources for Early History of Ireland, vol.
          1, Ecclesiastical. New York: Columbia University Press.

          Montague, H. P. (1981). The Saints and Martyrs of Ireland.
          Guildford: Billing & Sons.

          O'Hanlon, J. (1875). Lives of Irish Saints, 10 vol. Dublin.

          For All the Saints:
          http://www.saintpatrickdc.org/ss/ss-index.htm

          Orthodox Ireland Saints
          http://www.orthodoxireland.com/saints/

          An Alphabetical Index of the Saints of the West
          http://www.orthodoxengland.btinternet.co.uk/saintsa.htm

          A Beginner's Guide to Irish Gaelic pronunciation
          http://www.standingstones.com/gaelpron.html

          These Lives are archived at:
          http://groups.yahoo.com/group/celt-saints
          *****************************************
        • emrys@globe.net.nz
          Celtic and Old English Saints 30 March =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-= * St. Rule of Scotland * St. Fergus of Downpatrick * St. Patto of
          Message 4 of 14 , Mar 28, 2005
            Celtic and Old English Saints 30 March

            =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=
            * St. Rule of Scotland
            * St. Fergus of Downpatrick
            * St. Patto of Werden
            * St. Tola
            =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=


            St. Rule of Scotland (of Saint Andrews), Abbot
            (Regulus, Riaghai)
            ---------------------------------------------------------------
            4th or 6th century; feast also October 17. The real story of Saint Rule
            is uncertain. There was no "vita"
            before the 9th century. Some it seems confuse this abbot with a Greek
            monk, also named Regulus, who is said to have brought relics of Saint
            Andrew (f.d. November 30) to Rigmond, Scotland, thus founding Saint
            Andrews.

            The tradition relates that Saint Regulus was born in Patras and led by a
            dream to take some of the relics in his care to an unknown destination
            to which an angel would lead him. He followed the angel to Fife, where
            he built a church to house the relics of Saint Andrew. (The rest of the
            relics were taken to Constantinople.)

            In fact, the relics were acquired by a Pictish king, who founded the
            city, in 736; the abbot at that time was the Irish Tuathal.
            Regulus is the patron of Kylrewni and is commemorated in the Aberdeen
            Breviary (Attwater2, Benedictines, Farmer, Montague).



            St Rule And The Foundation of St. Andrew's 4th Century
            ___________________________________________

            The medieval legend tells us that a Greek monk had a vision in 345,
            warning him that the first Christian Emperor Constantine was intending
            to remove the relics of St. Andrew, the first-called of the Apostles,
            from Patras, the place of his martyrdom, to Constantinople, the new
            eastern capital of the Empire. This monk, called Rule, or Regulus,
            considered that the vision gave him commission to take some of the
            relics to the west, "to the utmost region of the world", and so he took
            from the Apostle's shrine an arm-bone, three fingers of the right hand,
            a tooth and a knee-cap. He set forth with a company of devout men and
            women, and after a perilous voyage, landed at a place called Kilrymount
            in Scotland. There he built a church to house the relics in thanksgiving
            for their survival.

            Now comes a difficulty, because the legend goes on to tell how a king of
            the Picts, Angus MacFergus, also had a vision of St. Andrew, promising
            him victory in battle. Angus in gratitude donated the land round the
            settlement founded by Regulus and declared that the church he had built
            should be the head and mother of all the churches in the kingdom. This
            puts the foundation of St Andrews four hundred years later, in the
            eighth century.

            It has been suggested that Regulus did establish a community at this
            place and that the relics were introduced during the reign of Angus,
            being brought from Hexham by St. Acca, who was forced to leave his
            diocese in 732. Hexham had been founded by St. Wilfrid, and it is
            recorded that he had obtained relics of St. Andrew for his church there.
            Mention of the relics both of St. Andrew and St. Regulus are found from
            this time, and the bishopric was transferred from Abernethy to St
            Andrews in 908 (Bowen).

            St Rule's Tower where his relics rest
            http://www.saint-andrews.co.uk/Tour/tower.htm



            St. Fergus (Fergustus, Ferguisius) of Downpatrick, Bishop
            ---------------------------------------------------------------
            6th century. Not much is known with certainly about this bishop of
            Downpatrick, Ireland. He may be identical to Saint Fergus of Scotland
            (f.d. November 18) (Benedictines).


            St. Patto (Pacificus) of Werden, Bishop
            ---------------------------------------------------------------
            Born in Britain; died at Werden (Verden), Saxony, Germany, c. 788.
            Saint Patto was abbot of the Irish monastery of Anabaric in Saxony,
            which was established by Charlemagne about 780. Later he was
            consecrated bishop of Werden to succeeded its first bishop, Suibert.
            Because many miracles have been attributed to him, his body was exhumed
            in 1630, but no record was made of the result. This may have been
            because the remains of Bishops Suibert, Saint Tanco (f.d. February 16),
            Saint Patto, Cerelon, Nortrila, Saint Erlulf (f.d. February 10), and
            Saint Harruch (f.d. July 15), plus debris of mitres, sandals, and
            episcopal ornaments were all found in the same tomb. The relics were
            collected into a new casket and rested behind the high altar until they
            were taken by the bishop to Regensburg during the Swedish invasions in
            1659 (Benedictines, D'Arcy, Fitzpatrick2, Kenney, Montague, O'Hanlon).



            St. Tola, Bishop
            ---------------------------------------------------------------
            Died c. 733. This Irish saint was the abbot-bishop of Disert Tola in
            Meath (Benedictines).


            Sources:
            ========

            Attwater, D. (1958). A Dictionary of Saints. New York:
            P. J. Kennedy & Sons. [Attwater 2]

            Benedictine Monks of Saint Augustine Abbey, Ramsgate.
            (1947). The Book of Saints. NY: Macmillan.

            D'Arcy, M. R. (1974). The Saints of Ireland. Saint Paul, Minnesota:
            Irish American Cultural Institute. [This is probably the most
            useful book to choose to own on the Irish saints. The author
            provides a great deal of historical context in which to place the
            lives of the saints.]

            Farmer, D. H. (1997). The Oxford Dictionary of Saints.
            Oxford: Oxford University Press.

            Fitzpatrick, B. (1927). Ireland and the Foundations of Europe.
            New York: Funk & Wagnalls.

            Kenney, J. F. (1929). Sources for Early History of Ireland, vol.
            1, Ecclesiastical. New York: Columbia University Press.

            Montague, H. P. (1981). The Saints and Martyrs of Ireland.
            Guildford: Billing & Sons.

            O'Hanlon, J. (1875). Lives of Irish Saints, 10 vol. Dublin.

            For All the Saints:
            http://www.saintpatrickdc.org/ss/ss-index.htm

            An Alphabetical Index of the Saints of the West
            http://www.orthodoxengland.btinternet.co.uk/saintsa.htm

            A Beginner's Guide to Irish Gaelic pronunciation
            http://www.standingstones.com/gaelpron.html

            These Lives are archived at:
            http://groups.yahoo.com/group/celt-saints
            *****************************************
          • emrys@globe.net.nz
            Celtic and Old English Saints 30 March =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-= * St. Rule of Scotland * St. Fergus of Downpatrick * St. Patto of
            Message 5 of 14 , Mar 28, 2006
              Celtic and Old English Saints 30 March

              =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=
              * St. Rule of Scotland
              * St. Fergus of Downpatrick
              * St. Patto of Werden
              * St. Tola
              =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=


              St. Rule of Scotland (of Saint Andrews), Abbot
              (Regulus, Riaghai)
              ---------------------------------------------------------------
              4th or 6th century; feast also October 17. The real story of Saint Rule
              is uncertain. There was no "vita"
              before the 9th century. Some it seems confuse this abbot with a Greek
              monk, also named Regulus, who is said to have brought relics of Saint
              Andrew (f.d. November 30) to Rigmond, Scotland, thus founding Saint
              Andrews.

              The tradition relates that Saint Regulus was born in Patras and led by a
              dream to take some of the relics in his care to an unknown destination
              to which an angel would lead him. He followed the angel to Fife, where
              he built a church to house the relics of Saint Andrew. (The rest of the
              relics were taken to Constantinople.)

              In fact, the relics were acquired by a Pictish king, who founded the
              city, in 736; the abbot at that time was the Irish Tuathal.
              Regulus is the patron of Kylrewni and is commemorated in the Aberdeen
              Breviary (Attwater2, Benedictines, Farmer, Montague).



              St Rule And The Foundation of St. Andrew's 4th Century
              ___________________________________________

              The medieval legend tells us that a Greek monk had a vision in 345,
              warning him that the first Christian Emperor Constantine was intending
              to remove the relics of St. Andrew, the first-called of the Apostles,
              from Patras, the place of his martyrdom, to Constantinople, the new
              eastern capital of the Empire. This monk, called Rule, or Regulus,
              considered that the vision gave him commission to take some of the
              relics to the west, "to the utmost region of the world", and so he took
              from the Apostle's shrine an arm-bone, three fingers of the right hand,
              a tooth and a knee-cap. He set forth with a company of devout men and
              women, and after a perilous voyage, landed at a place called Kilrymount
              in Scotland. There he built a church to house the relics in thanksgiving
              for their survival.

              Now comes a difficulty, because the legend goes on to tell how a king of
              the Picts, Angus MacFergus, also had a vision of St. Andrew, promising
              him victory in battle. Angus in gratitude donated the land round the
              settlement founded by Regulus and declared that the church he had built
              should be the head and mother of all the churches in the kingdom. This
              puts the foundation of St Andrews four hundred years later, in the
              eighth century.

              It has been suggested that Regulus did establish a community at this
              place and that the relics were introduced during the reign of Angus,
              being brought from Hexham by St. Acca, who was forced to leave his
              diocese in 732. Hexham had been founded by St. Wilfrid, and it is
              recorded that he had obtained relics of St. Andrew for his church there.
              Mention of the relics both of St. Andrew and St. Regulus are found from
              this time, and the bishopric was transferred from Abernethy to St
              Andrews in 908 (Bowen).

              St Rule's Tower where his relics rest
              http://www.saint-andrews.co.uk/Tour/tower.htm



              St. Fergus (Fergustus, Ferguisius) of Downpatrick, Bishop
              ---------------------------------------------------------------
              6th century. Not much is known with certainly about this bishop of
              Downpatrick, Ireland. He may be identical to Saint Fergus of Scotland
              (f.d. November 18) (Benedictines).


              St. Patto (Pacificus) of Werden, Bishop
              ---------------------------------------------------------------
              Born in Britain; died at Werden (Verden), Saxony, Germany, c. 788.
              Saint Patto was abbot of the Irish monastery of Anabaric in Saxony,
              which was established by Charlemagne about 780. Later he was
              consecrated bishop of Werden to succeeded its first bishop, Suibert.
              Because many miracles have been attributed to him, his body was exhumed
              in 1630, but no record was made of the result. This may have been
              because the remains of Bishops Suibert, Saint Tanco (f.d. February 16),
              Saint Patto, Cerelon, Nortrila, Saint Erlulf (f.d. February 10), and
              Saint Harruch (f.d. July 15), plus debris of mitres, sandals, and
              episcopal ornaments were all found in the same tomb. The relics were
              collected into a new casket and rested behind the high altar until they
              were taken by the bishop to Regensburg during the Swedish invasions in
              1659 (Benedictines, D'Arcy, Fitzpatrick2, Kenney, Montague, O'Hanlon).



              St. Tola, Bishop
              ---------------------------------------------------------------
              Died c. 733. This Irish saint was the abbot-bishop of Disert Tola in
              Meath (Benedictines).


              Sources:
              ========

              Attwater, D. (1958). A Dictionary of Saints. New York:
              P. J. Kennedy & Sons. [Attwater 2]

              Benedictine Monks of Saint Augustine Abbey, Ramsgate.
              (1947). The Book of Saints. NY: Macmillan.

              D'Arcy, M. R. (1974). The Saints of Ireland. Saint Paul, Minnesota:
              Irish American Cultural Institute. [This is probably the most
              useful book to choose to own on the Irish saints. The author
              provides a great deal of historical context in which to place the
              lives of the saints.]

              Farmer, D. H. (1997). The Oxford Dictionary of Saints.
              Oxford: Oxford University Press.

              Fitzpatrick, B. (1927). Ireland and the Foundations of Europe.
              New York: Funk & Wagnalls.

              Kenney, J. F. (1929). Sources for Early History of Ireland, vol.
              1, Ecclesiastical. New York: Columbia University Press.

              Montague, H. P. (1981). The Saints and Martyrs of Ireland.
              Guildford: Billing & Sons.

              O'Hanlon, J. (1875). Lives of Irish Saints, 10 vol. Dublin.

              For All the Saints:
              http://www.saintpatrickdc.org/ss/ss-index.htm

              An Alphabetical Index of the Saints of the West
              http://www.orthodoxengland.btinternet.co.uk/saintsa.htm

              A Beginner's Guide to Irish Gaelic pronunciation
              http://www.standingstones.com/gaelpron.html

              These Lives are archived at:
              http://groups.yahoo.com/group/celt-saints
              ¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤
            • emrys@globe.net.nz
              Celtic and Old English Saints 30 March =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-= * St. Rule of Scotland * St. Fergus of Downpatrick * St. Patto of
              Message 6 of 14 , Mar 28, 2007
                Celtic and Old English Saints 30 March

                =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=
                * St. Rule of Scotland
                * St. Fergus of Downpatrick
                * St. Patto of Werden
                * St. Tola
                =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=


                St. Rule of Scotland (of Saint Andrews), Abbot
                (Regulus, Riaghai)
                ---------------------------------------------------------------
                4th or 6th century; feast also October 17. The real story of Saint Rule
                is uncertain. There was no "vita"
                before the 9th century. Some it seems confuse this abbot with a Greek
                monk, also named Regulus, who is said to have brought relics of Saint
                Andrew (f.d. November 30) to Rigmond, Scotland, thus founding Saint
                Andrews.

                The tradition relates that Saint Regulus was born in Patras and led by a
                dream to take some of the relics in his care to an unknown destination
                to which an angel would lead him. He followed the angel to Fife, where
                he built a church to house the relics of Saint Andrew. (The rest of the
                relics were taken to Constantinople.)

                In fact, the relics were acquired by a Pictish king, who founded the
                city, in 736; the abbot at that time was the Irish Tuathal.
                Regulus is the patron of Kylrewni and is commemorated in the Aberdeen
                Breviary (Attwater2, Benedictines, Farmer, Montague).



                St Rule And The Foundation of St. Andrew's 4th Century
                ___________________________________________

                The medieval legend tells us that a Greek monk had a vision in 345,
                warning him that the first Christian Emperor Constantine was intending
                to remove the relics of St. Andrew, the first-called of the Apostles,
                from Patras, the place of his martyrdom, to Constantinople, the new
                eastern capital of the Empire. This monk, called Rule, or Regulus,
                considered that the vision gave him commission to take some of the
                relics to the west, "to the utmost region of the world", and so he took
                from the Apostle's shrine an arm-bone, three fingers of the right hand,
                a tooth and a knee-cap. He set forth with a company of devout men and
                women, and after a perilous voyage, landed at a place called Kilrymount
                in Scotland. There he built a church to house the relics in thanksgiving
                for their survival.

                Now comes a difficulty, because the legend goes on to tell how a king of
                the Picts, Angus MacFergus, also had a vision of St. Andrew, promising
                him victory in battle. Angus in gratitude donated the land round the
                settlement founded by Regulus and declared that the church he had built
                should be the head and mother of all the churches in the kingdom. This
                puts the foundation of St Andrews four hundred years later, in the
                eighth century.

                It has been suggested that Regulus did establish a community at this
                place and that the relics were introduced during the reign of Angus,
                being brought from Hexham by St. Acca, who was forced to leave his
                diocese in 732. Hexham had been founded by St. Wilfrid, and it is
                recorded that he had obtained relics of St. Andrew for his church there.
                Mention of the relics both of St. Andrew and St. Regulus are found from
                this time, and the bishopric was transferred from Abernethy to St
                Andrews in 908 (Bowen).

                St Rule's Tower where his relics rest
                http://www.saint-andrews.co.uk/Tour/tower.htm



                St. Fergus (Fergustus, Ferguisius) of Downpatrick, Bishop
                ---------------------------------------------------------------
                6th century. Not much is known with certainly about this bishop of
                Downpatrick, Ireland. He may be identical to Saint Fergus of Scotland
                (f.d. November 18) (Benedictines).


                St. Patto (Pacificus) of Werden, Bishop
                ---------------------------------------------------------------
                Born in Britain; died at Werden (Verden), Saxony, Germany, c. 788.
                Saint Patto was abbot of the Irish monastery of Anabaric in Saxony,
                which was established by Charlemagne about 780. Later he was
                consecrated bishop of Werden to succeeded its first bishop, Suibert.
                Because many miracles have been attributed to him, his body was exhumed
                in 1630, but no record was made of the result. This may have been
                because the remains of Bishops Suibert, Saint Tanco (f.d. February 16),
                Saint Patto, Cerelon, Nortrila, Saint Erlulf (f.d. February 10), and
                Saint Harruch (f.d. July 15), plus debris of mitres, sandals, and
                episcopal ornaments were all found in the same tomb. The relics were
                collected into a new casket and rested behind the high altar until they
                were taken by the bishop to Regensburg during the Swedish invasions in
                1659 (Benedictines, D'Arcy, Fitzpatrick2, Kenney, Montague, O'Hanlon).



                St. Tola, Bishop
                ---------------------------------------------------------------
                Died c. 733. This Irish saint was the abbot-bishop of Disert Tola in
                Meath (Benedictines).


                Sources:
                ========

                Attwater, D. (1958). A Dictionary of Saints. New York:
                P. J. Kennedy & Sons. [Attwater 2]

                Benedictine Monks of Saint Augustine Abbey, Ramsgate.
                (1947). The Book of Saints. NY: Macmillan.

                D'Arcy, M. R. (1974). The Saints of Ireland. Saint Paul, Minnesota:
                Irish American Cultural Institute. [This is probably the most
                useful book to choose to own on the Irish saints. The author
                provides a great deal of historical context in which to place the
                lives of the saints.]

                Farmer, D. H. (1997). The Oxford Dictionary of Saints.
                Oxford: Oxford University Press.

                Fitzpatrick, B. (1927). Ireland and the Foundations of Europe.
                New York: Funk & Wagnalls.

                Kenney, J. F. (1929). Sources for Early History of Ireland, vol.
                1, Ecclesiastical. New York: Columbia University Press.

                Montague, H. P. (1981). The Saints and Martyrs of Ireland.
                Guildford: Billing & Sons.

                O'Hanlon, J. (1875). Lives of Irish Saints, 10 vol. Dublin.

                For All the Saints:
                http://www.saintpatrickdc.org/ss/ss-index.htm

                An Alphabetical Index of the Saints of the West
                http://www.orthodoxengland.btinternet.co.uk/saintsa.htm

                A Beginner's Guide to Irish Gaelic pronunciation
                http://www.standingstones.com/gaelpron.html

                These Lives are archived at:
                http://groups.yahoo.com/group/celt-saints
                ¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤
              • emrys@globe.net.nz
                Celtic and Old English Saints 30 March =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-= * St. Rule of Scotland * St. Fergus of Downpatrick * St. Patto of
                Message 7 of 14 , Mar 29, 2008
                  Celtic and Old English Saints 30 March

                  =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=
                  * St. Rule of Scotland
                  * St. Fergus of Downpatrick
                  * St. Patto of Werden
                  * St. Tola
                  =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=


                  St. Rule of Scotland (of Saint Andrews), Abbot
                  (Regulus, Riaghai)
                  ---------------------------------------------------------------
                  4th or 6th century; feast also October 17. The real story of Saint Rule
                  is uncertain. There was no "vita"
                  before the 9th century. Some it seems confuse this abbot with a Greek
                  monk, also named Regulus, who is said to have brought relics of Saint
                  Andrew (f.d. November 30) to Rigmond, Scotland, thus founding Saint
                  Andrews.

                  The tradition relates that Saint Regulus was born in Patras and led by a
                  dream to take some of the relics in his care to an unknown destination
                  to which an angel would lead him. He followed the angel to Fife, where
                  he built a church to house the relics of Saint Andrew. (The rest of the
                  relics were taken to Constantinople.)

                  In fact, the relics were acquired by a Pictish king, who founded the
                  city, in 736; the abbot at that time was the Irish Tuathal.
                  Regulus is the patron of Kylrewni and is commemorated in the Aberdeen
                  Breviary (Attwater2, Benedictines, Farmer, Montague).



                  St Rule And The Foundation of St. Andrew's 4th Century
                  ___________________________________________

                  The medieval legend tells us that a Greek monk had a vision in 345,
                  warning him that the first Christian Emperor Constantine was intending
                  to remove the relics of St. Andrew, the first-called of the Apostles,
                  from Patras, the place of his martyrdom, to Constantinople, the new
                  eastern capital of the Empire. This monk, called Rule, or Regulus,
                  considered that the vision gave him commission to take some of the
                  relics to the west, "to the utmost region of the world", and so he took
                  from the Apostle's shrine an arm-bone, three fingers of the right hand,
                  a tooth and a knee-cap. He set forth with a company of devout men and
                  women, and after a perilous voyage, landed at a place called Kilrymount
                  in Scotland. There he built a church to house the relics in thanksgiving
                  for their survival.

                  Now comes a difficulty, because the legend goes on to tell how a king of
                  the Picts, Angus MacFergus, also had a vision of St. Andrew, promising
                  him victory in battle. Angus in gratitude donated the land round the
                  settlement founded by Regulus and declared that the church he had built
                  should be the head and mother of all the churches in the kingdom. This
                  puts the foundation of St Andrews four hundred years later, in the
                  eighth century.

                  It has been suggested that Regulus did establish a community at this
                  place and that the relics were introduced during the reign of Angus,
                  being brought from Hexham by St. Acca, who was forced to leave his
                  diocese in 732. Hexham had been founded by St. Wilfrid, and it is
                  recorded that he had obtained relics of St. Andrew for his church there.
                  Mention of the relics both of St. Andrew and St. Regulus are found from
                  this time, and the bishopric was transferred from Abernethy to St
                  Andrews in 908 (Bowen).

                  St Rule's Tower where his relics rest
                  http://www.saint-andrews.co.uk/Tour/tower.htm



                  St. Fergus (Fergustus, Ferguisius) of Downpatrick, Bishop
                  ---------------------------------------------------------------
                  6th century. Not much is known with certainly about this bishop of
                  Downpatrick, Ireland. He may be identical to Saint Fergus of Scotland
                  (f.d. November 18) (Benedictines).


                  St. Patto (Pacificus) of Werden, Bishop
                  ---------------------------------------------------------------
                  Born in Britain; died at Werden (Verden), Saxony, Germany, c. 788.
                  Saint Patto was abbot of the Irish monastery of Anabaric in Saxony,
                  which was established by Charlemagne about 780. Later he was
                  consecrated bishop of Werden to succeeded its first bishop, Suibert.
                  Because many miracles have been attributed to him, his body was exhumed
                  in 1630, but no record was made of the result. This may have been
                  because the remains of Bishops Suibert, Saint Tanco (f.d. February 16),
                  Saint Patto, Cerelon, Nortrila, Saint Erlulf (f.d. February 10), and
                  Saint Harruch (f.d. July 15), plus debris of mitres, sandals, and
                  episcopal ornaments were all found in the same tomb. The relics were
                  collected into a new casket and rested behind the high altar until they
                  were taken by the bishop to Regensburg during the Swedish invasions in
                  1659 (Benedictines, D'Arcy, Fitzpatrick2, Kenney, Montague, O'Hanlon).



                  St. Tola, Bishop
                  ---------------------------------------------------------------
                  Died c. 733. This Irish saint was the abbot-bishop of Disert Tola in
                  Meath (Benedictines).


                  Sources:
                  ========

                  Attwater, D. (1958). A Dictionary of Saints. New York:
                  P. J. Kennedy & Sons. [Attwater 2]

                  Benedictine Monks of Saint Augustine Abbey, Ramsgate.
                  (1947). The Book of Saints. NY: Macmillan.

                  D'Arcy, M. R. (1974). The Saints of Ireland. Saint Paul, Minnesota:
                  Irish American Cultural Institute. [This is probably the most
                  useful book to choose to own on the Irish saints. The author
                  provides a great deal of historical context in which to place the
                  lives of the saints.]

                  Farmer, D. H. (1997). The Oxford Dictionary of Saints.
                  Oxford: Oxford University Press.

                  Fitzpatrick, B. (1927). Ireland and the Foundations of Europe.
                  New York: Funk & Wagnalls.

                  Kenney, J. F. (1929). Sources for Early History of Ireland, vol.
                  1, Ecclesiastical. New York: Columbia University Press.

                  Montague, H. P. (1981). The Saints and Martyrs of Ireland.
                  Guildford: Billing & Sons.

                  O'Hanlon, J. (1875). Lives of Irish Saints, 10 vol. Dublin.

                  For All the Saints:
                  http://www.saintpatrickdc.org/ss/ss-index.htm

                  An Alphabetical Index of the Saints of the West
                  http://www.orthodoxengland.btinternet.co.uk/saintsa.htm

                  A Beginner's Guide to Irish Gaelic pronunciation
                  http://www.standingstones.com/gaelpron.html

                  These Lives are archived at:
                  http://groups.yahoo.com/group/celt-saints
                  ¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤
                • emrys@globe.net.nz
                  Celtic and Old English Saints 30 March =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-= * St. Rule of Scotland * St. Fergus of Downpatrick * St. Patto of
                  Message 8 of 14 , Mar 30, 2009
                    Celtic and Old English Saints 30 March

                    =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=
                    * St. Rule of Scotland
                    * St. Fergus of Downpatrick
                    * St. Patto of Werden
                    * St. Tola
                    =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=


                    St. Rule of Scotland (of Saint Andrews), Abbot
                    (Regulus, Riaghai)
                    ---------------------------------------------------------------
                    4th or 6th century; feast also October 17. The real story of Saint Rule
                    is uncertain. There was no "vita"
                    before the 9th century. Some it seems confuse this abbot with a Greek
                    monk, also named Regulus, who is said to have brought relics of Saint
                    Andrew (f.d. November 30) to Rigmond, Scotland, thus founding Saint
                    Andrews.

                    The tradition relates that Saint Regulus was born in Patras and led by a
                    dream to take some of the relics in his care to an unknown destination
                    to which an angel would lead him. He followed the angel to Fife, where
                    he built a church to house the relics of Saint Andrew. (The rest of the
                    relics were taken to Constantinople.)

                    In fact, the relics were acquired by a Pictish king, who founded the
                    city, in 736; the abbot at that time was the Irish Tuathal.
                    Regulus is the patron of Kylrewni and is commemorated in the Aberdeen
                    Breviary (Attwater2, Benedictines, Farmer, Montague).



                    St Rule And The Foundation of St. Andrew's 4th Century
                    ___________________________________________

                    The medieval legend tells us that a Greek monk had a vision in 345,
                    warning him that the first Christian Emperor Constantine was intending
                    to remove the relics of St. Andrew, the first-called of the Apostles,
                    from Patras, the place of his martyrdom, to Constantinople, the new
                    eastern capital of the Empire. This monk, called Rule, or Regulus,
                    considered that the vision gave him commission to take some of the
                    relics to the west, "to the utmost region of the world", and so he took
                    from the Apostle's shrine an arm-bone, three fingers of the right hand,
                    a tooth and a knee-cap. He set forth with a company of devout men and
                    women, and after a perilous voyage, landed at a place called Kilrymount
                    in Scotland. There he built a church to house the relics in thanksgiving
                    for their survival.

                    Now comes a difficulty, because the legend goes on to tell how a king of
                    the Picts, Angus MacFergus, also had a vision of St. Andrew, promising
                    him victory in battle. Angus in gratitude donated the land round the
                    settlement founded by Regulus and declared that the church he had built
                    should be the head and mother of all the churches in the kingdom. This
                    puts the foundation of St Andrews four hundred years later, in the
                    eighth century.

                    It has been suggested that Regulus did establish a community at this
                    place and that the relics were introduced during the reign of Angus,
                    being brought from Hexham by St. Acca, who was forced to leave his
                    diocese in 732. Hexham had been founded by St. Wilfrid, and it is
                    recorded that he had obtained relics of St. Andrew for his church there.
                    Mention of the relics both of St. Andrew and St. Regulus are found from
                    this time, and the bishopric was transferred from Abernethy to St
                    Andrews in 908 (Bowen).

                    St Rule's Tower where his relics rest
                    http://www.saint-andrews.co.uk/Tour/tower.htm



                    St. Fergus (Fergustus, Ferguisius) of Downpatrick, Bishop
                    ---------------------------------------------------------------
                    6th century. Not much is known with certainly about this bishop of
                    Downpatrick, Ireland. He may be identical to Saint Fergus of Scotland
                    (f.d. November 18) (Benedictines).


                    St. Patto (Pacificus) of Werden, Bishop
                    ---------------------------------------------------------------
                    Born in Britain; died at Werden (Verden), Saxony, Germany, c. 788.
                    Saint Patto was abbot of the Irish monastery of Anabaric in Saxony,
                    which was established by Charlemagne about 780. Later he was
                    consecrated bishop of Werden to succeeded its first bishop, Suibert.
                    Because many miracles have been attributed to him, his body was exhumed
                    in 1630, but no record was made of the result. This may have been
                    because the remains of Bishops Suibert, Saint Tanco (f.d. February 16),
                    Saint Patto, Cerelon, Nortrila, Saint Erlulf (f.d. February 10), and
                    Saint Harruch (f.d. July 15), plus debris of mitres, sandals, and
                    episcopal ornaments were all found in the same tomb. The relics were
                    collected into a new casket and rested behind the high altar until they
                    were taken by the bishop to Regensburg during the Swedish invasions in
                    1659 (Benedictines, D'Arcy, Fitzpatrick2, Kenney, Montague, O'Hanlon).



                    St. Tola, Bishop
                    ---------------------------------------------------------------
                    Died c. 733. This Irish saint was the abbot-bishop of Disert Tola in
                    Meath (Benedictines).


                    Sources:
                    ========

                    Attwater, D. (1958). A Dictionary of Saints. New York:
                    P. J. Kennedy & Sons. [Attwater 2]

                    Benedictine Monks of Saint Augustine Abbey, Ramsgate.
                    (1947). The Book of Saints. NY: Macmillan.

                    D'Arcy, M. R. (1974). The Saints of Ireland. Saint Paul, Minnesota:
                    Irish American Cultural Institute. [This is probably the most
                    useful book to choose to own on the Irish saints. The author
                    provides a great deal of historical context in which to place the
                    lives of the saints.]

                    Farmer, D. H. (1997). The Oxford Dictionary of Saints.
                    Oxford: Oxford University Press.

                    Fitzpatrick, B. (1927). Ireland and the Foundations of Europe.
                    New York: Funk & Wagnalls.

                    Kenney, J. F. (1929). Sources for Early History of Ireland, vol.
                    1, Ecclesiastical. New York: Columbia University Press.

                    Montague, H. P. (1981). The Saints and Martyrs of Ireland.
                    Guildford: Billing & Sons.

                    O'Hanlon, J. (1875). Lives of Irish Saints, 10 vol. Dublin.

                    For All the Saints:
                    http://www.saintpatrickdc.org/ss/ss-index.htm

                    An Alphabetical Index of the Saints of the West
                    http://www.orthodoxengland.btinternet.co.uk/saintsa.htm

                    A Beginner's Guide to Irish Gaelic pronunciation
                    http://www.standingstones.com/gaelpron.html

                    These Lives are archived at:
                    http://groups.yahoo.com/group/celt-saints
                    ¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤
                  • emrys@globe.net.nz
                    Celtic and Old English Saints 30 March =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-= * St. Rule of Scotland * St. Fergus of Downpatrick * St. Patto of
                    Message 9 of 14 , Mar 29, 2010
                      Celtic and Old English Saints 30 March

                      =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=
                      * St. Rule of Scotland
                      * St. Fergus of Downpatrick
                      * St. Patto of Werden
                      * St. Tola
                      =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=


                      St. Rule of Scotland (of Saint Andrews), Abbot
                      (Regulus, Riaghai)
                      ---------------------------------------------------------------
                      4th or 6th century; feast also October 17. The real story of Saint Rule
                      is uncertain. There was no "vita"
                      before the 9th century. Some it seems confuse this abbot with a Greek
                      monk, also named Regulus, who is said to have brought relics of Saint
                      Andrew (f.d. November 30) to Rigmond, Scotland, thus founding Saint
                      Andrews.

                      The tradition relates that Saint Regulus was born in Patras and led by a
                      dream to take some of the relics in his care to an unknown destination
                      to which an angel would lead him. He followed the angel to Fife, where
                      he built a church to house the relics of Saint Andrew. (The rest of the
                      relics were taken to Constantinople.)

                      In fact, the relics were acquired by a Pictish king, who founded the
                      city, in 736; the abbot at that time was the Irish Tuathal.
                      Regulus is the patron of Kylrewni and is commemorated in the Aberdeen
                      Breviary (Attwater2, Benedictines, Farmer, Montague).



                      St Rule And The Foundation of St. Andrew's 4th Century
                      ___________________________________________

                      The medieval legend tells us that a Greek monk had a vision in 345,
                      warning him that the first Christian Emperor Constantine was intending
                      to remove the relics of St. Andrew, the first-called of the Apostles,
                      from Patras, the place of his martyrdom, to Constantinople, the new
                      eastern capital of the Empire. This monk, called Rule, or Regulus,
                      considered that the vision gave him commission to take some of the
                      relics to the west, "to the utmost region of the world", and so he took
                      from the Apostle's shrine an arm-bone, three fingers of the right hand,
                      a tooth and a knee-cap. He set forth with a company of devout men and
                      women, and after a perilous voyage, landed at a place called Kilrymount
                      in Scotland. There he built a church to house the relics in thanksgiving
                      for their survival.

                      Now comes a difficulty, because the legend goes on to tell how a king of
                      the Picts, Angus MacFergus, also had a vision of St. Andrew, promising
                      him victory in battle. Angus in gratitude donated the land round the
                      settlement founded by Regulus and declared that the church he had built
                      should be the head and mother of all the churches in the kingdom. This
                      puts the foundation of St Andrews four hundred years later, in the
                      eighth century.

                      It has been suggested that Regulus did establish a community at this
                      place and that the relics were introduced during the reign of Angus,
                      being brought from Hexham by St. Acca, who was forced to leave his
                      diocese in 732. Hexham had been founded by St. Wilfrid, and it is
                      recorded that he had obtained relics of St. Andrew for his church there.
                      Mention of the relics both of St. Andrew and St. Regulus are found from
                      this time, and the bishopric was transferred from Abernethy to St
                      Andrews in 908 (Bowen).

                      St Rule's Tower where his relics rest
                      http://www.saint-andrews.co.uk/Tour/tower.htm



                      St. Fergus (Fergustus, Ferguisius) of Downpatrick, Bishop
                      ---------------------------------------------------------------
                      6th century. Not much is known with certainly about this bishop of
                      Downpatrick, Ireland. He may be identical to Saint Fergus of Scotland
                      (f.d. November 18) (Benedictines).


                      St. Patto (Pacificus) of Werden, Bishop
                      ---------------------------------------------------------------
                      Born in Britain; died at Werden (Verden), Saxony, Germany, c. 788.
                      Saint Patto was abbot of the Irish monastery of Anabaric in Saxony,
                      which was established by Charlemagne about 780. Later he was
                      consecrated bishop of Werden to succeeded its first bishop, Suibert.
                      Because many miracles have been attributed to him, his body was exhumed
                      in 1630, but no record was made of the result. This may have been
                      because the remains of Bishops Suibert, Saint Tanco (f.d. February 16),
                      Saint Patto, Cerelon, Nortrila, Saint Erlulf (f.d. February 10), and
                      Saint Harruch (f.d. July 15), plus debris of mitres, sandals, and
                      episcopal ornaments were all found in the same tomb. The relics were
                      collected into a new casket and rested behind the high altar until they
                      were taken by the bishop to Regensburg during the Swedish invasions in
                      1659 (Benedictines, D'Arcy, Fitzpatrick2, Kenney, Montague, O'Hanlon).



                      St. Tola, Bishop
                      ---------------------------------------------------------------
                      Died c. 733. This Irish saint was the abbot-bishop of Disert Tola in
                      Meath (Benedictines).


                      Sources:
                      ========

                      Attwater, D. (1958). A Dictionary of Saints. New York:
                      P. J. Kennedy & Sons. [Attwater 2]

                      Benedictine Monks of Saint Augustine Abbey, Ramsgate.
                      (1947). The Book of Saints. NY: Macmillan.

                      D'Arcy, M. R. (1974). The Saints of Ireland. Saint Paul, Minnesota:
                      Irish American Cultural Institute. [This is probably the most
                      useful book to choose to own on the Irish saints. The author
                      provides a great deal of historical context in which to place the
                      lives of the saints.]

                      Farmer, D. H. (1997). The Oxford Dictionary of Saints.
                      Oxford: Oxford University Press.

                      Fitzpatrick, B. (1927). Ireland and the Foundations of Europe.
                      New York: Funk & Wagnalls.

                      Kenney, J. F. (1929). Sources for Early History of Ireland, vol.
                      1, Ecclesiastical. New York: Columbia University Press.

                      Montague, H. P. (1981). The Saints and Martyrs of Ireland.
                      Guildford: Billing & Sons.

                      O'Hanlon, J. (1875). Lives of Irish Saints, 10 vol. Dublin.

                      For All the Saints:
                      http://www.saintpatrickdc.org/ss/ss-index.htm

                      An Alphabetical Index of the Saints of the West
                      http://www.orthodoxengland.btinternet.co.uk/saintsa.htm

                      A Beginner's Guide to Irish Gaelic pronunciation
                      http://www.standingstones.com/gaelpron.html

                      These Lives are archived at:
                      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/celt-saints
                      ¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤
                    • ambrois@xtra.co.nz
                      Celtic and Old English Saints 30 March =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-= * St. Rule of Scotland * St. Fergus of Downpatrick * St. Patto of
                      Message 10 of 14 , Mar 29, 2011
                        Celtic and Old English Saints 30 March

                        =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=
                        * St. Rule of Scotland
                        * St. Fergus of Downpatrick
                        * St. Patto of Werden
                        * St. Tola
                        =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=


                        St. Rule of Scotland (of Saint Andrews), Abbot
                        (Regulus, Riaghai)
                        ---------------------------------------------------------------
                        4th or 6th century; feast also October 17. The real story of Saint Rule
                        is uncertain. There was no "vita"
                        before the 9th century. Some it seems confuse this abbot with a Greek
                        monk, also named Regulus, who is said to have brought relics of Saint
                        Andrew (f.d. November 30) to Rigmond, Scotland, thus founding Saint
                        Andrews.

                        The tradition relates that Saint Regulus was born in Patras and led by a
                        dream to take some of the relics in his care to an unknown destination
                        to which an angel would lead him. He followed the angel to Fife, where
                        he built a church to house the relics of Saint Andrew. (The rest of the
                        relics were taken to Constantinople.)

                        In fact, the relics were acquired by a Pictish king, who founded the
                        city, in 736; the abbot at that time was the Irish Tuathal.
                        Regulus is the patron of Kylrewni and is commemorated in the Aberdeen
                        Breviary (Attwater2, Benedictines, Farmer, Montague).



                        St Rule And The Foundation of St. Andrew's 4th Century
                        ___________________________________________

                        The medieval legend tells us that a Greek monk had a vision in 345,
                        warning him that the first Christian Emperor Constantine was intending
                        to remove the relics of St. Andrew, the first-called of the Apostles,
                        from Patras, the place of his martyrdom, to Constantinople, the new
                        eastern capital of the Empire. This monk, called Rule, or Regulus,
                        considered that the vision gave him commission to take some of the
                        relics to the west, "to the utmost region of the world", and so he took
                        from the Apostle's shrine an arm-bone, three fingers of the right hand,
                        a tooth and a knee-cap. He set forth with a company of devout men and
                        women, and after a perilous voyage, landed at a place called Kilrymount
                        in Scotland. There he built a church to house the relics in thanksgiving
                        for their survival.

                        Now comes a difficulty, because the legend goes on to tell how a king of
                        the Picts, Angus MacFergus, also had a vision of St. Andrew, promising
                        him victory in battle. Angus in gratitude donated the land round the
                        settlement founded by Regulus and declared that the church he had built
                        should be the head and mother of all the churches in the kingdom. This
                        puts the foundation of St Andrews four hundred years later, in the
                        eighth century.

                        It has been suggested that Regulus did establish a community at this
                        place and that the relics were introduced during the reign of Angus,
                        being brought from Hexham by St. Acca, who was forced to leave his
                        diocese in 732. Hexham had been founded by St. Wilfrid, and it is
                        recorded that he had obtained relics of St. Andrew for his church there.
                        Mention of the relics both of St. Andrew and St. Regulus are found from
                        this time, and the bishopric was transferred from Abernethy to St
                        Andrews in 908 (Bowen).

                        St Rule's Tower where his relics rest
                        http://www.saint-andrews.co.uk/Tour/tower.htm



                        St. Fergus (Fergustus, Ferguisius) of Downpatrick, Bishop
                        ---------------------------------------------------------------
                        6th century. Not much is known with certainly about this bishop of
                        Downpatrick, Ireland. He may be identical to Saint Fergus of Scotland
                        (f.d. November 18) (Benedictines).


                        St. Patto (Pacificus) of Werden, Bishop
                        ---------------------------------------------------------------
                        Born in Britain; died at Werden (Verden), Saxony, Germany, c. 788.
                        Saint Patto was abbot of the Irish monastery of Anabaric in Saxony,
                        which was established by Charlemagne about 780. Later he was
                        consecrated bishop of Werden to succeeded its first bishop, Suibert.
                        Because many miracles have been attributed to him, his body was exhumed
                        in 1630, but no record was made of the result. This may have been
                        because the remains of Bishops Suibert, Saint Tanco (f.d. February 16),
                        Saint Patto, Cerelon, Nortrila, Saint Erlulf (f.d. February 10), and
                        Saint Harruch (f.d. July 15), plus debris of mitres, sandals, and
                        episcopal ornaments were all found in the same tomb. The relics were
                        collected into a new casket and rested behind the high altar until they
                        were taken by the bishop to Regensburg during the Swedish invasions in
                        1659 (Benedictines, D'Arcy, Fitzpatrick2, Kenney, Montague, O'Hanlon).



                        St. Tola, Bishop
                        ---------------------------------------------------------------
                        Died c. 733. This Irish saint was the abbot-bishop of Disert Tola in
                        Meath (Benedictines).


                        Sources:
                        ========

                        Attwater, D. (1958). A Dictionary of Saints. New York:
                        P. J. Kennedy & Sons. [Attwater 2]

                        Benedictine Monks of Saint Augustine Abbey, Ramsgate.
                        (1947). The Book of Saints. NY: Macmillan.

                        D'Arcy, M. R. (1974). The Saints of Ireland. Saint Paul, Minnesota:
                        Irish American Cultural Institute. [This is probably the most
                        useful book to choose to own on the Irish saints. The author
                        provides a great deal of historical context in which to place the
                        lives of the saints.]

                        Farmer, D. H. (1997). The Oxford Dictionary of Saints.
                        Oxford: Oxford University Press.

                        Fitzpatrick, B. (1927). Ireland and the Foundations of Europe.
                        New York: Funk & Wagnalls.

                        Kenney, J. F. (1929). Sources for Early History of Ireland, vol.
                        1, Ecclesiastical. New York: Columbia University Press.

                        Montague, H. P. (1981). The Saints and Martyrs of Ireland.
                        Guildford: Billing & Sons.

                        O'Hanlon, J. (1875). Lives of Irish Saints, 10 vol. Dublin.

                        For All the Saints:
                        http://www.saintpatrickdc.org/ss/ss-index.htm

                        An Alphabetical Index of the Saints of the West
                        http://www.orthodoxengland.btinternet.co.uk/saintsa.htm

                        A Beginner's Guide to Irish Gaelic pronunciation
                        http://www.standingstones.com/gaelpron.html

                        These Lives are archived at:
                        http://groups.yahoo.com/group/celt-saints
                        ¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤
                      • ambrois@xtra.co.nz
                        Celtic and Old English Saints 30 March =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-= * St. Rule of Scotland * St. Fergus of Downpatrick * St. Patto of
                        Message 11 of 14 , Mar 30, 2012
                          Celtic and Old English Saints 30 March

                          =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=
                          * St. Rule of Scotland
                          * St. Fergus of Downpatrick
                          * St. Patto of Werden
                          * St. Tola
                          =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=


                          St. Rule of Scotland (of Saint Andrews), Abbot
                          (Regulus, Riaghai)
                          ---------------------------------------------------------------
                          4th or 6th century; feast also October 17. The real story of Saint Rule
                          is uncertain. There was no "vita"
                          before the 9th century. Some it seems confuse this abbot with a Greek
                          monk, also named Regulus, who is said to have brought relics of Saint
                          Andrew (f.d. November 30) to Rigmond, Scotland, thus founding Saint
                          Andrews.

                          The tradition relates that Saint Regulus was born in Patras and led by a
                          dream to take some of the relics in his care to an unknown destination
                          to which an angel would lead him. He followed the angel to Fife, where
                          he built a church to house the relics of Saint Andrew. (The rest of the
                          relics were taken to Constantinople.)

                          In fact, the relics were acquired by a Pictish king, who founded the
                          city, in 736; the abbot at that time was the Irish Tuathal.
                          Regulus is the patron of Kylrewni and is commemorated in the Aberdeen
                          Breviary (Attwater2, Benedictines, Farmer, Montague).



                          St Rule And The Foundation of St. Andrew's 4th Century
                          ___________________________________________

                          The medieval legend tells us that a Greek monk had a vision in 345,
                          warning him that the first Christian Emperor Constantine was intending
                          to remove the relics of St. Andrew, the first-called of the Apostles,
                          from Patras, the place of his martyrdom, to Constantinople, the new
                          eastern capital of the Empire. This monk, called Rule, or Regulus,
                          considered that the vision gave him commission to take some of the
                          relics to the west, "to the utmost region of the world", and so he took
                          from the Apostle's shrine an arm-bone, three fingers of the right hand,
                          a tooth and a knee-cap. He set forth with a company of devout men and
                          women, and after a perilous voyage, landed at a place called Kilrymount
                          in Scotland. There he built a church to house the relics in thanksgiving
                          for their survival.

                          Now comes a difficulty, because the legend goes on to tell how a king of
                          the Picts, Angus MacFergus, also had a vision of St. Andrew, promising
                          him victory in battle. Angus in gratitude donated the land round the
                          settlement founded by Regulus and declared that the church he had built
                          should be the head and mother of all the churches in the kingdom. This
                          puts the foundation of St Andrews four hundred years later, in the
                          eighth century.

                          It has been suggested that Regulus did establish a community at this
                          place and that the relics were introduced during the reign of Angus,
                          being brought from Hexham by St. Acca, who was forced to leave his
                          diocese in 732. Hexham had been founded by St. Wilfrid, and it is
                          recorded that he had obtained relics of St. Andrew for his church there.
                          Mention of the relics both of St. Andrew and St. Regulus are found from
                          this time, and the bishopric was transferred from Abernethy to St
                          Andrews in 908 (Bowen).

                          St Rule's Tower where his relics rest
                          http://www.saint-andrews.co.uk/Tour/tower.htm



                          St. Fergus (Fergustus, Ferguisius) of Downpatrick, Bishop
                          ---------------------------------------------------------------
                          6th century. Not much is known with certainly about this bishop of
                          Downpatrick, Ireland. He may be identical to Saint Fergus of Scotland
                          (f.d. November 18) (Benedictines).


                          St. Patto (Pacificus) of Werden, Bishop
                          ---------------------------------------------------------------
                          Born in Britain; died at Werden (Verden), Saxony, Germany, c. 788.
                          Saint Patto was abbot of the Irish monastery of Anabaric in Saxony,
                          which was established by Charlemagne about 780. Later he was
                          consecrated bishop of Werden to succeeded its first bishop, Suibert.
                          Because many miracles have been attributed to him, his body was exhumed
                          in 1630, but no record was made of the result. This may have been
                          because the remains of Bishops Suibert, Saint Tanco (f.d. February 16),
                          Saint Patto, Cerelon, Nortrila, Saint Erlulf (f.d. February 10), and
                          Saint Harruch (f.d. July 15), plus debris of mitres, sandals, and
                          episcopal ornaments were all found in the same tomb. The relics were
                          collected into a new casket and rested behind the high altar until they
                          were taken by the bishop to Regensburg during the Swedish invasions in
                          1659 (Benedictines, D'Arcy, Fitzpatrick2, Kenney, Montague, O'Hanlon).



                          St. Tola, Bishop
                          ---------------------------------------------------------------
                          Died c. 733. This Irish saint was the abbot-bishop of Disert Tola in
                          Meath (Benedictines).


                          Sources:
                          ========

                          Attwater, D. (1958). A Dictionary of Saints. New York:
                          P. J. Kennedy & Sons. [Attwater 2]

                          Benedictine Monks of Saint Augustine Abbey, Ramsgate.
                          (1947). The Book of Saints. NY: Macmillan.

                          D'Arcy, M. R. (1974). The Saints of Ireland. Saint Paul, Minnesota:
                          Irish American Cultural Institute. [This is probably the most
                          useful book to choose to own on the Irish saints. The author
                          provides a great deal of historical context in which to place the
                          lives of the saints.]

                          Farmer, D. H. (1997). The Oxford Dictionary of Saints.
                          Oxford: Oxford University Press.

                          Fitzpatrick, B. (1927). Ireland and the Foundations of Europe.
                          New York: Funk & Wagnalls.

                          Kenney, J. F. (1929). Sources for Early History of Ireland, vol.
                          1, Ecclesiastical. New York: Columbia University Press.

                          Montague, H. P. (1981). The Saints and Martyrs of Ireland.
                          Guildford: Billing & Sons.

                          O'Hanlon, J. (1875). Lives of Irish Saints, 10 vol. Dublin.

                          For All the Saints:
                          http://www.saintpatrickdc.org/ss/ss-index.htm

                          An Alphabetical Index of the Saints of the West
                          http://www.orthodoxengland.btinternet.co.uk/saintsa.htm

                          A Beginner's Guide to Irish Gaelic pronunciation
                          http://www.standingstones.com/gaelpron.html

                          These Lives are archived at:
                          http://groups.yahoo.com/group/celt-saints
                          ¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤
                        • ambrois@xtra.co.nz
                          Celtic and Old English Saints 30 March =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-= * St. Rule of Scotland * St. Fergus of Downpatrick * St. Patto of
                          Message 12 of 14 , Mar 29, 2013
                            Celtic and Old English Saints 30 March

                            =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=
                            * St. Rule of Scotland
                            * St. Fergus of Downpatrick
                            * St. Patto of Werden
                            * St. Tola
                            =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=


                            St. Rule of Scotland (of Saint Andrews), Abbot
                            (Regulus, Riaghai)
                            ---------------------------------------------------------------
                            4th or 6th century; feast also October 17. The real story of Saint Rule
                            is uncertain. There was no "vita"
                            before the 9th century. Some it seems confuse this abbot with a Greek
                            monk, also named Regulus, who is said to have brought relics of Saint
                            Andrew (f.d. November 30) to Rigmond, Scotland, thus founding Saint
                            Andrews.

                            The tradition relates that Saint Regulus was born in Patras and led by a
                            dream to take some of the relics in his care to an unknown destination
                            to which an angel would lead him. He followed the angel to Fife, where
                            he built a church to house the relics of Saint Andrew. (The rest of the
                            relics were taken to Constantinople.)

                            In fact, the relics were acquired by a Pictish king, who founded the
                            city, in 736; the abbot at that time was the Irish Tuathal.
                            Regulus is the patron of Kylrewni and is commemorated in the Aberdeen
                            Breviary (Attwater2, Benedictines, Farmer, Montague).



                            St Rule And The Foundation of St. Andrew's 4th Century
                            ___________________________________________

                            The medieval legend tells us that a Greek monk had a vision in 345,
                            warning him that the first Christian Emperor Constantine was intending
                            to remove the relics of St. Andrew, the first-called of the Apostles,
                            from Patras, the place of his martyrdom, to Constantinople, the new
                            eastern capital of the Empire. This monk, called Rule, or Regulus,
                            considered that the vision gave him commission to take some of the
                            relics to the west, "to the utmost region of the world", and so he took
                            from the Apostle's shrine an arm-bone, three fingers of the right hand,
                            a tooth and a knee-cap. He set forth with a company of devout men and
                            women, and after a perilous voyage, landed at a place called Kilrymount
                            in Scotland. There he built a church to house the relics in thanksgiving
                            for their survival.

                            Now comes a difficulty, because the legend goes on to tell how a king of
                            the Picts, Angus MacFergus, also had a vision of St. Andrew, promising
                            him victory in battle. Angus in gratitude donated the land round the
                            settlement founded by Regulus and declared that the church he had built
                            should be the head and mother of all the churches in the kingdom. This
                            puts the foundation of St Andrews four hundred years later, in the
                            eighth century.

                            It has been suggested that Regulus did establish a community at this
                            place and that the relics were introduced during the reign of Angus,
                            being brought from Hexham by St. Acca, who was forced to leave his
                            diocese in 732. Hexham had been founded by St. Wilfrid, and it is
                            recorded that he had obtained relics of St. Andrew for his church there.
                            Mention of the relics both of St. Andrew and St. Regulus are found from
                            this time, and the bishopric was transferred from Abernethy to St
                            Andrews in 908 (Bowen).

                            St Rule's Tower where his relics rest
                            http://www.saint-andrews.co.uk/Tour/tower.htm



                            St. Fergus (Fergustus, Ferguisius) of Downpatrick, Bishop
                            ---------------------------------------------------------------
                            6th century. Not much is known with certainly about this bishop of
                            Downpatrick, Ireland. He may be identical to Saint Fergus of Scotland
                            (f.d. November 18) (Benedictines).


                            St. Patto (Pacificus) of Werden, Bishop
                            ---------------------------------------------------------------
                            Born in Britain; died at Werden (Verden), Saxony, Germany, c. 788.
                            Saint Patto was abbot of the Irish monastery of Anabaric in Saxony,
                            which was established by Charlemagne about 780. Later he was
                            consecrated bishop of Werden to succeeded its first bishop, Suibert.
                            Because many miracles have been attributed to him, his body was exhumed
                            in 1630, but no record was made of the result. This may have been
                            because the remains of Bishops Suibert, Saint Tanco (f.d. February 16),
                            Saint Patto, Cerelon, Nortrila, Saint Erlulf (f.d. February 10), and
                            Saint Harruch (f.d. July 15), plus debris of mitres, sandals, and
                            episcopal ornaments were all found in the same tomb. The relics were
                            collected into a new casket and rested behind the high altar until they
                            were taken by the bishop to Regensburg during the Swedish invasions in
                            1659 (Benedictines, D'Arcy, Fitzpatrick2, Kenney, Montague, O'Hanlon).



                            St. Tola, Bishop
                            ---------------------------------------------------------------
                            Died c. 733. This Irish saint was the abbot-bishop of Disert Tola in
                            Meath (Benedictines).


                            Sources:
                            ========

                            Attwater, D. (1958). A Dictionary of Saints. New York:
                            P. J. Kennedy & Sons. [Attwater 2]

                            Benedictine Monks of Saint Augustine Abbey, Ramsgate.
                            (1947). The Book of Saints. NY: Macmillan.

                            D'Arcy, M. R. (1974). The Saints of Ireland. Saint Paul, Minnesota:
                            Irish American Cultural Institute. [This is probably the most
                            useful book to choose to own on the Irish saints. The author
                            provides a great deal of historical context in which to place the
                            lives of the saints.]

                            Farmer, D. H. (1997). The Oxford Dictionary of Saints.
                            Oxford: Oxford University Press.

                            Fitzpatrick, B. (1927). Ireland and the Foundations of Europe.
                            New York: Funk & Wagnalls.

                            Kenney, J. F. (1929). Sources for Early History of Ireland, vol.
                            1, Ecclesiastical. New York: Columbia University Press.

                            Montague, H. P. (1981). The Saints and Martyrs of Ireland.
                            Guildford: Billing & Sons.

                            O'Hanlon, J. (1875). Lives of Irish Saints, 10 vol. Dublin.

                            For All the Saints: - new active link
                            http://www.saintpatrickdc.org/ss/saint_a.shtml

                            An Alphabetical Index of the Saints of the West - new active link
                            http://orthodoxengland.org.uk/saintsa.htm

                            A Beginner's Guide to Irish Gaelic pronunciation
                            http://www.standingstones.com/gaelpron.html

                            These Lives are archived at:
                            http://groups.yahoo.com/group/celt-saints
                            ¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤
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