Loading ...
Sorry, an error occurred while loading the content.

29 March

Expand Messages
  • ambrós
    Celtic and Old English Saints 29 March =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-= * St. Gwynllyw of Wales * St. Gwladys * St. Eustace of Luxeuil * St.
    Message 1 of 14 , Mar 27, 2002
    • 0 Attachment
      Celtic and Old English Saints 29 March

      =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=
      * St. Gwynllyw of Wales
      * St. Gwladys
      * St. Eustace of Luxeuil
      * St. Lasar
      * St. Rupert of Salzburg
      =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=


      St. Gwynllyw of Wales, Hermit
      (Gundleus, Woolo, Woollos)
      ----------------------------------------------------------
      Died c. 500. Gundleus (Latin for Gwynllyw, which is anglicised as
      Woolo) was a Welsh chieftain. Although he was the eldest, when his
      father died, Gundleus divided his inheritance among his six brothers.
      According to legend, he desired to marry Gwladys (f.d. today), daughter
      of Saint Brychan of Brecknock (f.d. April 6). When Brychan refused his
      daughter's hand, Gundleus kidnapped and married her. (One aspect of the
      legend has King Arthur helping to defeat the pursuing Brychan and being
      dissuaded from capturing Gwladys for himself by two of his knights.)

      Nevertheless, Gundleus and Gwladys led a riotous life, engaging in
      violence and banditry until their first son, Saint Cadoc (f.d.
      September 25), convinced them to adopt and follow a religious life
      together at Stow Hill near Newport (Gwent), Monmouthshire. Later he had
      them separate and live as hermits.

      Gundleus spent his last years completely retired from the world in a
      solitary little dwelling near a church which he had built. He wore
      sackcloth, ate barley-bread strewn with ashes, and drank water. To
      constant prayer and contemplation he added the work of his hands. On
      his deathbed, Gundleus was visited by Saint Dyfrig (f.d. November 14)
      and his own son Cadoc, who provided him with the Last Rites of the
      Church. There is a church dedicated to him at Newport (Attwater2,
      Benedictines, Delaney, Farmer, Husenbeth).

      Icon of St. Gwynllyw
      http://www.prismnet.com/~hilarion/Icons-Gundleus.htm##1

      Troparion of St Gladys and St Gwynllyn tone 5
      Rejoice, thrice-blessed Gladys,/ daughter of King Brychan,/ wife of holy
      Gwynllyn and mother of Saint Cadoc./ O worthy Gwynllyn,/ thou didst
      forsake thy pagan warfare to fight as a Christian ascetic/ and didst end
      thy days as a hermit./ We praise you, Gladys and Gwynllyn.


      St. Gwaladys (Gladys, Gladusa, Claudia), Hermit
      ----------------------------------------------------------
      Born in Wales in the 5th century. One of the 24 children of Brychan of
      Brecknock, wife of Saint Gundleus (f.d. today), and
      mother of Saints Cadoc (f.d. September 25) and, possibly, Keyna (f.d.
      October 8), Saint Gladys led a very interesting life. It is said that
      after their conversion by the example and exhortation of their son, she
      and Gundleus lived an austere life. It included the rather interesting
      practice throughout the year of taking a nightly baths in the Usk,
      followed by a mile-long walk unclothed. Her son finally convinced them
      to end the practice and to separate. Gladys moved to Pencanau in
      Bassaleg. The details of her story come from a 12th-century "vita,"
      which includes miracles that took place in the time of Saint Edward the
      Confessor (f.d. October 13) and William I (Attwater2, Benedictines,
      Delaney, Farmer, Husenbeth).


      St. Eustace (Eustasius) of Luxeuil, Abbot
      ----------------------------------------------------------
      Died 625. Saint Eustace was a favourite disciple and monk of Saint
      Columbanus (f.d. November 23), whom he succeeded as second abbot of
      Luxeuil in 611. He ruled over about 600 monks. During his abbacy the
      monastery was a veritable seminary for bishops and saints, perhaps
      because of the example he gave by his own humility, continual prayer,
      and fasting (Benedictines, Husenbeth).

      St. Lasar (Lassar, Lassera), Virgin
      ----------------------------------------------------------
      6th century. The Irish nun Saint Lasar (meaning 'Flame') was the niece
      of Saint Forchera. Still very young, she entered religious life under
      the care of SS. Finnian (f.d. December 12) and Ciaran (f.d. September 9)
      at Clonard (Benedictines).


      St. Rupert (Hrodbert, Robert, Rupprecht) of Salzburg, Bishop
      ---------------------------------------------------------
      Died in Salzburg, Austria, on March 27, c. 710-720; feast day formerly
      March 27; feast of the translation of his relics is kept
      in Bavaria and Austria on September 25.

      There have been varying opinions as to where Rupert was born and when
      (with variations of 100 years). While more reliable sources make him a
      Frankish nobleman, others, including Colgan insist he was an Irishman
      with the Gaelic name Robertach. From his youth he was renowned for his
      learning, extraordinary virtues, austerity, and charity that sought to
      impoverish himself to enrich the poor. People came from remote provinces
      to receive his advice. He would remove all their doubts and scruples,
      comfort the afflicted, cure the sick, and heal the disorders of souls.
      His virtuous life led to his being consecrated bishop of Worms, Germany,
      from where he began his missionary work in southern Bavaria and Austria.
      (One version says he was expelled by the pagans at Worms, others that he
      was simply a zealous, evangelical Christian.)

      Rupert travelled to Regensburg (Ratisbon) with a small company about
      697, perhaps with credentials from the French King Childebert III, or
      because Duke Theodo of Bavaria had heard of his reputation for miracles
      and invited him. They went to Duke Theodo, whose permission they needed
      to proceed. While Theodo was not a Christian, his sister, Bagintrude,
      is said to have been one. He agreed to listen to their preaching and
      was converted and baptized. Many of the leading men and women of the
      land followed the duke's example and embraced Christianity, which had
      been preached there 200 years earlier by Saint Severinus of Noricum
      (f.d. January 8).

      Instead of knocking down pagan temples, as many missionaries did, Rupert
      preferred to consecrate them as Christian churches. For example, those
      at Regensburg and Altoetting were soon altered for Christian services.
      (It is said that the statue of the Blessed Mother at Altoetting was
      brought there from Ireland by an Irishman named Rupert.) Where there
      was no suitable temple to adapt churches were built, and Regensburg
      became primarily Christian. God confirmed Rupert's preaching by many
      miracles. Soon the missionary work met with such success that many more
      helpers from Franconia were needed to meet the spiritual needs of
      Rupert's converts.

      The group continued down the Danube, converting still more. After
      Ratisbon, the capital, the next seat of his labours was "Laureacum," now
      called Lorch, where he healed several diseases by prayer, and won many
      other souls to Christ. But in neither of these flourishing towns did
      Rupert establish his bishopric. He made the old, fallen-down town of
      Juvavum, given to him by the duke of Bavaria, his headquarters. The
      town was restored and he named it Salzburg (Salt Fortress). There with
      the help of his companions Saints Virgilius (f.d. November 27), Chuniald
      (f.d. September 24), and Gislar (f.d. September 24), Rupert founded
      Saint Peter's church and monastery with a school along the lines of the
      Irish monasteries.

      He made a trip home to gather twelve more recruits. His sister, Saint
      Ermentrudis (f.d. June 30), entered a convent he founded at Nonnberg
      (setting for "The Sound of Music") and became its first abbess. He did
      much to foster the operation of the salt mines. Rupert, the first
      archbishop of Salzburg, is considered to be the Apostle of Bavaria and
      Austria. He died on Easter Day. Thereafter, he became so renowned that
      countries such as Ireland claimed him as a native son and celebrate his
      memory liturgically. The Duchy of Salzburg cast his likeness with that
      of the Saint Virgilius on the coin of the realm called a rubentaler
      (Attwater, Attwater2, Benedictines, Bentley, D'Arcy, Encyclopaedia,
      Farmer, Gougaud, Husenbeth, Kenney,
      Walsh, White).

      Rupert's emblem in art is a barrel of salt, because of his association
      with the reopening of the salt mines. He may be shown
      holding a basket of eggs; baptizing Duke Theodo(re) of Bavaria; or with
      Saint Virgilius of Salzburg (Farmer, Roeder, White).



      Sources:
      ========

      Attwater, D. (1958). A Dictionary of Saints. New York:
      P. J. Kennedy & Sons. [Attwater 2]

      Benedictine Monks of Saint Augustine Abbey, Ramsgate.
      (1947). The Book of Saints. NY: Macmillan.

      Bentley, J. (1986). A Calendar of Saints: The Lives of the
      Principal Saints of the Christian Year, NY: Facts on File.

      D'Arcy, M. R. (1974). The Saints of Ireland. Saint Paul, Minnesota:
      Irish American Cultural Institute. [This is probably the most
      useful book to choose to own on the Irish saints. The author
      provides a great deal of historical context in which to place the
      lives of the saints.]

      Encyclopaedia of Catholic Saints, March. (1966).
      Philadelphia: Chilton Books.

      Farmer, D. H. (1997). The Oxford Dictionary of Saints.
      Oxford: Oxford University Press.

      Husenbeth, Rev. F. C., DD, VG (ed.). (1928). Butler's
      Lives of the Fathers, Martyrs, and Other Principal Saints.
      London: Virtue & Co.

      Kenney, J. F. (1929). Sources for Early History of Ireland, vol.
      1, Ecclesiastical. New York: Columbia University Press.

      Roeder, H. (1956). Saints and Their Attributes, Chicago: Henry
      Regnery.

      Walsh, M. (ed.). (1985). Butler's Lives of the Saints. San Francisco.
      Harper & Row. Walsh, W. T. (1943).

      White, K. E. (1992). Guide to the Saints. NY: Ivy Books.

      For All the Saints:
      http://users.erols.com/saintpat/ss/ss-index.htm

      Celtic Orthodox Christianity Home Page:
      http://www.orthodoxireland.com/celtic.htm

      These Lives are archived at:
      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/celt-saints
      *****************************************
    • ambrós
      Celtic and Old English Saints 29 March =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-= * St. Gwynllyw of Wales * St. Gwladys * St. Eustace of Luxeuil * St.
      Message 2 of 14 , Mar 27, 2003
      • 0 Attachment
        Celtic and Old English Saints 29 March

        =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=
        * St. Gwynllyw of Wales
        * St. Gwladys
        * St. Eustace of Luxeuil
        * St. Lasar
        * St. Rupert of Salzburg
        =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=


        St. Gwynllyw of Wales, Hermit
        (Gundleus, Woolo, Woollos)
        ----------------------------------------------------------
        Died c. 500. Gundleus (Latin for Gwynllyw, which is anglicised as
        Woolo) was a Welsh chieftain. Although he was the eldest, when his
        father died, Gundleus divided his inheritance among his six brothers.
        According to legend, he desired to marry Gwladys (f.d. today), daughter
        of Saint Brychan of Brecknock (f.d. April 6). When Brychan refused his
        daughter's hand, Gundleus kidnapped and married her. (One aspect of the
        legend has King Arthur helping to defeat the pursuing Brychan and being
        dissuaded from capturing Gwladys for himself by two of his knights.)

        Nevertheless, Gundleus and Gwladys led a riotous life, engaging in
        violence and banditry until their first son, Saint Cadoc (f.d.
        September 25), convinced them to adopt and follow a religious life
        together at Stow Hill near Newport (Gwent), Monmouthshire. Later he had
        them separate and live as hermits.

        Gundleus spent his last years completely retired from the world in a
        solitary little dwelling near a church which he had built. He wore
        sackcloth, ate barley-bread strewn with ashes, and drank water. To
        constant prayer and contemplation he added the work of his hands. On
        his deathbed, Gundleus was visited by Saint Dyfrig (f.d. November 14)
        and his own son Cadoc, who provided him with the Last Rites of the
        Church. There is a church dedicated to him at Newport (Attwater2,
        Benedictines, Delaney, Farmer, Husenbeth).

        Icon of St. Gwynllyw
        http://www.prismnet.com/~hilarion/Icons-Gundleus.htm##1

        Troparion of St Gladys and St Gwynllyn tone 5
        Rejoice, thrice-blessed Gladys,/ daughter of King Brychan,/ wife of holy
        Gwynllyn and mother of Saint Cadoc./ O worthy Gwynllyn,/ thou didst
        forsake thy pagan warfare to fight as a Christian ascetic/ and didst end
        thy days as a hermit./ We praise you, Gladys and Gwynllyn.


        St. Gwaladys (Gladys, Gladusa, Claudia), Hermit
        ----------------------------------------------------------
        Born in Wales in the 5th century. One of the 24 children of Brychan of
        Brecknock, wife of Saint Gundleus (f.d. today), and
        mother of Saints Cadoc (f.d. September 25) and, possibly, Keyna (f.d.
        October 8), Saint Gladys led a very interesting life. It is said that
        after their conversion by the example and exhortation of their son, she
        and Gundleus lived an austere life. It included the rather interesting
        practice throughout the year of taking a nightly baths in the Usk,
        followed by a mile-long walk unclothed. Her son finally convinced them
        to end the practice and to separate. Gladys moved to Pencanau in
        Bassaleg. The details of her story come from a 12th-century "vita,"
        which includes miracles that took place in the time of Saint Edward the
        Confessor (f.d. October 13) and William I (Attwater2, Benedictines,
        Delaney, Farmer, Husenbeth).


        St. Eustace (Eustasius) of Luxeuil, Abbot
        ----------------------------------------------------------
        Died 625. Saint Eustace was a favourite disciple and monk of Saint
        Columbanus (f.d. November 23), whom he succeeded as second abbot of
        Luxeuil in 611. He ruled over about 600 monks. During his abbacy the
        monastery was a veritable seminary for bishops and saints, perhaps
        because of the example he gave by his own humility, continual prayer,
        and fasting (Benedictines, Husenbeth).

        St. Lasar (Lassar, Lassera), Virgin
        ----------------------------------------------------------
        6th century. The Irish nun Saint Lasar (meaning 'Flame') was the niece
        of Saint Forchera. Still very young, she entered religious life under
        the care of SS. Finnian (f.d. December 12) and Ciaran (f.d. September 9)
        at Clonard (Benedictines).


        St. Rupert (Hrodbert, Robert, Rupprecht) of Salzburg, Bishop
        ---------------------------------------------------------
        Died in Salzburg, Austria, on March 27, c. 710-720; feast day formerly
        March 27; feast of the translation of his relics is kept
        in Bavaria and Austria on September 25.

        There have been varying opinions as to where Rupert was born and when
        (with variations of 100 years). While more reliable sources make him a
        Frankish nobleman, others, including Colgan insist he was an Irishman
        with the Gaelic name Robertach. From his youth he was renowned for his
        learning, extraordinary virtues, austerity, and charity that sought to
        impoverish himself to enrich the poor. People came from remote provinces
        to receive his advice. He would remove all their doubts and scruples,
        comfort the afflicted, cure the sick, and heal the disorders of souls.
        His virtuous life led to his being consecrated bishop of Worms, Germany,
        from where he began his missionary work in southern Bavaria and Austria.
        (One version says he was expelled by the pagans at Worms, others that he
        was simply a zealous, evangelical Christian.)

        Rupert travelled to Regensburg (Ratisbon) with a small company about
        697, perhaps with credentials from the French King Childebert III, or
        because Duke Theodo of Bavaria had heard of his reputation for miracles
        and invited him. They went to Duke Theodo, whose permission they needed
        to proceed. While Theodo was not a Christian, his sister, Bagintrude,
        is said to have been one. He agreed to listen to their preaching and
        was converted and baptized. Many of the leading men and women of the
        land followed the duke's example and embraced Christianity, which had
        been preached there 200 years earlier by Saint Severinus of Noricum
        (f.d. January 8).

        Instead of knocking down pagan temples, as many missionaries did, Rupert
        preferred to consecrate them as Christian churches. For example, those
        at Regensburg and Altoetting were soon altered for Christian services.
        (It is said that the statue of the Blessed Mother at Altoetting was
        brought there from Ireland by an Irishman named Rupert.) Where there
        was no suitable temple to adapt churches were built, and Regensburg
        became primarily Christian. God confirmed Rupert's preaching by many
        miracles. Soon the missionary work met with such success that many more
        helpers from Franconia were needed to meet the spiritual needs of
        Rupert's converts.

        The group continued down the Danube, converting still more. After
        Ratisbon, the capital, the next seat of his labours was "Laureacum," now
        called Lorch, where he healed several diseases by prayer, and won many
        other souls to Christ. But in neither of these flourishing towns did
        Rupert establish his bishopric. He made the old, fallen-down town of
        Juvavum, given to him by the duke of Bavaria, his headquarters. The
        town was restored and he named it Salzburg (Salt Fortress). There with
        the help of his companions Saints Virgilius (f.d. November 27), Chuniald
        (f.d. September 24), and Gislar (f.d. September 24), Rupert founded
        Saint Peter's church and monastery with a school along the lines of the
        Irish monasteries.

        He made a trip home to gather twelve more recruits. His sister, Saint
        Ermentrudis (f.d. June 30), entered a convent he founded at Nonnberg
        (setting for "The Sound of Music") and became its first abbess. He did
        much to foster the operation of the salt mines. Rupert, the first
        archbishop of Salzburg, is considered to be the Apostle of Bavaria and
        Austria. He died on Easter Day. Thereafter, he became so renowned that
        countries such as Ireland claimed him as a native son and celebrate his
        memory liturgically. The Duchy of Salzburg cast his likeness with that
        of the Saint Virgilius on the coin of the realm called a rubentaler
        (Attwater, Attwater2, Benedictines, Bentley, D'Arcy, Encyclopaedia,
        Farmer, Gougaud, Husenbeth, Kenney,
        Walsh, White).

        Rupert's emblem in art is a barrel of salt, because of his association
        with the reopening of the salt mines. He may be shown
        holding a basket of eggs; baptizing Duke Theodo(re) of Bavaria; or with
        Saint Virgilius of Salzburg (Farmer, Roeder, White).



        Sources:
        ========

        Attwater, D. (1958). A Dictionary of Saints. New York:
        P. J. Kennedy & Sons. [Attwater 2]

        Benedictine Monks of Saint Augustine Abbey, Ramsgate.
        (1947). The Book of Saints. NY: Macmillan.

        Bentley, J. (1986). A Calendar of Saints: The Lives of the
        Principal Saints of the Christian Year, NY: Facts on File.

        D'Arcy, M. R. (1974). The Saints of Ireland. Saint Paul, Minnesota:
        Irish American Cultural Institute. [This is probably the most
        useful book to choose to own on the Irish saints. The author
        provides a great deal of historical context in which to place the
        lives of the saints.]

        Encyclopaedia of Catholic Saints, March. (1966).
        Philadelphia: Chilton Books.

        Farmer, D. H. (1997). The Oxford Dictionary of Saints.
        Oxford: Oxford University Press.

        Husenbeth, Rev. F. C., DD, VG (ed.). (1928). Butler's
        Lives of the Fathers, Martyrs, and Other Principal Saints.
        London: Virtue & Co.

        Kenney, J. F. (1929). Sources for Early History of Ireland, vol.
        1, Ecclesiastical. New York: Columbia University Press.

        Roeder, H. (1956). Saints and Their Attributes, Chicago: Henry
        Regnery.

        Walsh, M. (ed.). (1985). Butler's Lives of the Saints. San Francisco.
        Harper & Row. Walsh, W. T. (1943).

        White, K. E. (1992). Guide to the Saints. NY: Ivy Books.

        For All the Saints:
        http://users.erols.com/saintpat/ss/ss-index.htm

        Celtic Orthodox Christianity Home Page:
        http://www.orthodoxireland.com/celtic.htm

        A Beginner's Guide to Irish Gaelic pronunciation
        http://www.standingstones.com/gaelpron.html

        These Lives are archived at:
        http://groups.yahoo.com/group/celt-saints
        *****************************************
      • emrys@globe.net.nz
        Celtic and Old English Saints 29 March =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-= * St. Gwynllyw of Wales * St. Gwladys * St. Eustace of Luxeuil * St.
        Message 3 of 14 , Mar 28, 2004
        • 0 Attachment
          Celtic and Old English Saints 29 March

          =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=
          * St. Gwynllyw of Wales
          * St. Gwladys
          * St. Eustace of Luxeuil
          * St. Lasar
          * St. Rupert of Salzburg
          =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=


          St. Gwynllyw of Wales, Hermit
          (Gundleus, Woolo, Woollos)
          ----------------------------------------------------------
          Died c. 500. Gundleus (Latin for Gwynllyw, which is anglicised as
          Woolo) was a Welsh chieftain. Although he was the eldest, when his
          father died, Gundleus divided his inheritance among his six brothers.
          According to legend, he desired to marry Gwladys (f.d. today), daughter
          of Saint Brychan of Brecknock (f.d. April 6). When Brychan refused his
          daughter's hand, Gundleus kidnapped and married her. (One aspect of the
          legend has King Arthur helping to defeat the pursuing Brychan and being
          dissuaded from capturing Gwladys for himself by two of his knights.)

          Nevertheless, Gundleus and Gwladys led a riotous life, engaging in
          violence and banditry until their first son, Saint Cadoc (f.d.
          September 25), convinced them to adopt and follow a religious life
          together at Stow Hill near Newport (Gwent), Monmouthshire. Later he had
          them separate and live as hermits.

          Gundleus spent his last years completely retired from the world in a
          solitary little dwelling near a church which he had built. He wore
          sackcloth, ate barley-bread strewn with ashes, and drank water. To
          constant prayer and contemplation he added the work of his hands. On
          his deathbed, Gundleus was visited by Saint Dyfrig (f.d. November 14)
          and his own son Cadoc, who provided him with the Last Rites of the
          Church. There is a church dedicated to him at Newport (Attwater2,
          Benedictines, Delaney, Farmer, Husenbeth).

          Icon of St. Gwynllyw
          http://www.prismnet.com/~hilarion/Icons-Gundleus.htm##1

          Troparion of St Gladys and St Gwynllyn tone 5
          Rejoice, thrice-blessed Gladys,/ daughter of King Brychan,/ wife of holy
          Gwynllyn and mother of Saint Cadoc./ O worthy Gwynllyn,/ thou didst
          forsake thy pagan warfare to fight as a Christian ascetic/ and didst end
          thy days as a hermit./ We praise you, Gladys and Gwynllyn.


          St. Gwaladys (Gladys, Gladusa, Claudia), Hermit
          ----------------------------------------------------------
          Born in Wales in the 5th century. One of the 24 children of Brychan of
          Brecknock, wife of Saint Gundleus (f.d. today), and
          mother of Saints Cadoc (f.d. September 25) and, possibly, Keyna (f.d.
          October 8), Saint Gladys led a very interesting life. It is said that
          after their conversion by the example and exhortation of their son, she
          and Gundleus lived an austere life. It included the rather interesting
          practice throughout the year of taking a nightly baths in the Usk,
          followed by a mile-long walk unclothed. Her son finally convinced them
          to end the practice and to separate. Gladys moved to Pencanau in
          Bassaleg. The details of her story come from a 12th-century "vita,"
          which includes miracles that took place in the time of Saint Edward the
          Confessor (f.d. October 13) and William I (Attwater2, Benedictines,
          Delaney, Farmer, Husenbeth).


          St. Eustace (Eustasius) of Luxeuil, Abbot
          ----------------------------------------------------------
          Died 625. Saint Eustace was a favourite disciple and monk of Saint
          Columbanus (f.d. November 23), whom he succeeded as second abbot of
          Luxeuil in 611. He ruled over about 600 monks. During his abbacy the
          monastery was a veritable seminary for bishops and saints, perhaps
          because of the example he gave by his own humility, continual prayer,
          and fasting (Benedictines, Husenbeth).

          St. Lasar (Lassar, Lassera), Virgin
          ----------------------------------------------------------
          6th century. The Irish nun Saint Lasar (meaning 'Flame') was the niece
          of Saint Forchera. Still very young, she entered religious life under
          the care of SS. Finnian (f.d. December 12) and Ciaran (f.d. September 9)
          at Clonard (Benedictines).


          St. Rupert (Hrodbert, Robert, Rupprecht) of Salzburg, Bishop
          ---------------------------------------------------------
          Died in Salzburg, Austria, on March 27, c. 710-720; feast day formerly
          March 27; feast of the translation of his relics is kept
          in Bavaria and Austria on September 25.

          There have been varying opinions as to where Rupert was born and when
          (with variations of 100 years). While more reliable sources make him a
          Frankish nobleman, others, including Colgan insist he was an Irishman
          with the Gaelic name Robertach. From his youth he was renowned for his
          learning, extraordinary virtues, austerity, and charity that sought to
          impoverish himself to enrich the poor. People came from remote provinces
          to receive his advice. He would remove all their doubts and scruples,
          comfort the afflicted, cure the sick, and heal the disorders of souls.
          His virtuous life led to his being consecrated bishop of Worms, Germany,
          from where he began his missionary work in southern Bavaria and Austria.
          (One version says he was expelled by the pagans at Worms, others that he
          was simply a zealous, evangelical Christian.)

          Rupert travelled to Regensburg (Ratisbon) with a small company about
          697, perhaps with credentials from the French King Childebert III, or
          because Duke Theodo of Bavaria had heard of his reputation for miracles
          and invited him. They went to Duke Theodo, whose permission they needed
          to proceed. While Theodo was not a Christian, his sister, Bagintrude,
          is said to have been one. He agreed to listen to their preaching and
          was converted and baptized. Many of the leading men and women of the
          land followed the duke's example and embraced Christianity, which had
          been preached there 200 years earlier by Saint Severinus of Noricum
          (f.d. January 8).

          Instead of knocking down pagan temples, as many missionaries did, Rupert
          preferred to consecrate them as Christian churches. For example, those
          at Regensburg and Altoetting were soon altered for Christian services.
          (It is said that the statue of the Blessed Mother at Altoetting was
          brought there from Ireland by an Irishman named Rupert.) Where there
          was no suitable temple to adapt churches were built, and Regensburg
          became primarily Christian. God confirmed Rupert's preaching by many
          miracles. Soon the missionary work met with such success that many more
          helpers from Franconia were needed to meet the spiritual needs of
          Rupert's converts.

          The group continued down the Danube, converting still more. After
          Ratisbon, the capital, the next seat of his labours was "Laureacum," now
          called Lorch, where he healed several diseases by prayer, and won many
          other souls to Christ. But in neither of these flourishing towns did
          Rupert establish his bishopric. He made the old, fallen-down town of
          Juvavum, given to him by the duke of Bavaria, his headquarters. The
          town was restored and he named it Salzburg (Salt Fortress). There with
          the help of his companions Saints Virgilius (f.d. November 27), Chuniald
          (f.d. September 24), and Gislar (f.d. September 24), Rupert founded
          Saint Peter's church and monastery with a school along the lines of the
          Irish monasteries.

          He made a trip home to gather twelve more recruits. His sister, Saint
          Ermentrudis (f.d. June 30), entered a convent he founded at Nonnberg
          (setting for "The Sound of Music") and became its first abbess. He did
          much to foster the operation of the salt mines. Rupert, the first
          archbishop of Salzburg, is considered to be the Apostle of Bavaria and
          Austria. He died on Easter Day. Thereafter, he became so renowned that
          countries such as Ireland claimed him as a native son and celebrate his
          memory liturgically. The Duchy of Salzburg cast his likeness with that
          of the Saint Virgilius on the coin of the realm called a rubentaler
          (Attwater, Attwater2, Benedictines, Bentley, D'Arcy, Encyclopaedia,
          Farmer, Gougaud, Husenbeth, Kenney,
          Walsh, White).

          Rupert's emblem in art is a barrel of salt, because of his association
          with the reopening of the salt mines. He may be shown
          holding a basket of eggs; baptizing Duke Theodo(re) of Bavaria; or with
          Saint Virgilius of Salzburg (Farmer, Roeder, White).



          Sources:
          ========

          Attwater, D. (1958). A Dictionary of Saints. New York:
          P. J. Kennedy & Sons. [Attwater 2]

          Benedictine Monks of Saint Augustine Abbey, Ramsgate.
          (1947). The Book of Saints. NY: Macmillan.

          Bentley, J. (1986). A Calendar of Saints: The Lives of the
          Principal Saints of the Christian Year, NY: Facts on File.

          D'Arcy, M. R. (1974). The Saints of Ireland. Saint Paul, Minnesota:
          Irish American Cultural Institute. [This is probably the most
          useful book to choose to own on the Irish saints. The author
          provides a great deal of historical context in which to place the
          lives of the saints.]

          Encyclopaedia of Catholic Saints, March. (1966).
          Philadelphia: Chilton Books.

          Farmer, D. H. (1997). The Oxford Dictionary of Saints.
          Oxford: Oxford University Press.

          Husenbeth, Rev. F. C., DD, VG (ed.). (1928). Butler's
          Lives of the Fathers, Martyrs, and Other Principal Saints.
          London: Virtue & Co.

          Kenney, J. F. (1929). Sources for Early History of Ireland, vol.
          1, Ecclesiastical. New York: Columbia University Press.

          Roeder, H. (1956). Saints and Their Attributes, Chicago: Henry
          Regnery.

          Walsh, M. (ed.). (1985). Butler's Lives of the Saints. San Francisco.
          Harper & Row. Walsh, W. T. (1943).

          White, K. E. (1992). Guide to the Saints. NY: Ivy Books.

          For All the Saints:
          http://www.saintpatrickdc.org/ss/ss-index.htm

          Orthodox Ireland Saints
          http://www.orthodoxireland.com/saints/

          An Alphabetical Index of the Saints of the West
          http://www.orthodoxengland.btinternet.co.uk/saintsa.htm

          These Lives are archived at:
          http://groups.yahoo.com/group/celt-saints
          *****************************************
        • emrys@globe.net.nz
          Celtic and Old English Saints 29 March =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-= * St. Gwynllyw of Wales * St. Gwladys * St. Eustace of Luxeuil * St.
          Message 4 of 14 , Mar 28, 2005
          • 0 Attachment
            Celtic and Old English Saints 29 March

            =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=
            * St. Gwynllyw of Wales
            * St. Gwladys
            * St. Eustace of Luxeuil
            * St. Lasar
            * St. Rupert of Salzburg
            =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=


            St. Gwynllyw of Wales, Hermit
            (Gundleus, Woolo, Woollos)
            ----------------------------------------------------------
            Died c. 500. Gundleus (Latin for Gwynllyw, which is anglicised as
            Woolo) was a Welsh chieftain. Although he was the eldest, when his
            father died, Gundleus divided his inheritance among his six brothers.
            According to legend, he desired to marry Gwladys (f.d. today), daughter
            of Saint Brychan of Brecknock (f.d. April 6). When Brychan refused his
            daughter's hand, Gundleus kidnapped and married her. (One aspect of the
            legend has King Arthur helping to defeat the pursuing Brychan and being
            dissuaded from capturing Gwladys for himself by two of his knights.)

            Nevertheless, Gundleus and Gwladys led a riotous life, engaging in
            violence and banditry until their first son, Saint Cadoc (f.d.
            September 25), convinced them to adopt and follow a religious life
            together at Stow Hill near Newport (Gwent), Monmouthshire. Later he had
            them separate and live as hermits.

            Gundleus spent his last years completely retired from the world in a
            solitary little dwelling near a church which he had built. He wore
            sackcloth, ate barley-bread strewn with ashes, and drank water. To
            constant prayer and contemplation he added the work of his hands. On
            his deathbed, Gundleus was visited by Saint Dyfrig (f.d. November 14)
            and his own son Cadoc, who provided him with the Last Rites of the
            Church. There is a church dedicated to him at Newport (Attwater2,
            Benedictines, Delaney, Farmer, Husenbeth).

            Icon of St. Gwynllyw
            http://www.odox.net/A-gwynll.jpg

            Troparion of St Gladys and St Gwynllyn tone 5
            Rejoice, thrice-blessed Gladys,/ daughter of King Brychan,/ wife of holy
            Gwynllyn and mother of Saint Cadoc./ O worthy Gwynllyn,/ thou didst
            forsake thy pagan warfare to fight as a Christian ascetic/ and didst end
            thy days as a hermit./ We praise you, Gladys and Gwynllyn.


            St. Gwaladys (Gladys, Gladusa, Claudia), Hermit
            ----------------------------------------------------------
            Born in Wales in the 5th century. One of the 24 children of Brychan of
            Brecknock, wife of Saint Gundleus (f.d. today), and
            mother of Saints Cadoc (f.d. September 25) and, possibly, Keyna (f.d.
            October 8), Saint Gladys led a very interesting life. It is said that
            after their conversion by the example and exhortation of their son, she
            and Gundleus lived an austere life. It included the rather interesting
            practice throughout the year of taking a nightly baths in the Usk,
            followed by a mile-long walk unclothed. Her son finally convinced them
            to end the practice and to separate. Gladys moved to Pencanau in
            Bassaleg. The details of her story come from a 12th-century "vita,"
            which includes miracles that took place in the time of Saint Edward the
            Confessor (f.d. October 13) and William I (Attwater2, Benedictines,
            Delaney, Farmer, Husenbeth).


            St. Eustace (Eustasius) of Luxeuil, Abbot
            ----------------------------------------------------------
            Died 625. Saint Eustace was a favourite disciple and monk of Saint
            Columbanus (f.d. November 23), whom he succeeded as second abbot of
            Luxeuil in 611. He ruled over about 600 monks. During his abbacy the
            monastery was a veritable seminary for bishops and saints, perhaps
            because of the example he gave by his own humility, continual prayer,
            and fasting (Benedictines, Husenbeth).

            St. Lasar (Lassar, Lassera), Virgin
            ----------------------------------------------------------
            6th century. The Irish nun Saint Lasar (meaning 'Flame') was the niece
            of Saint Forchera. Still very young, she entered religious life under
            the care of SS. Finnian (f.d. December 12) and Ciaran (f.d. September 9)
            at Clonard (Benedictines).


            St. Rupert (Hrodbert, Robert, Rupprecht) of Salzburg, Bishop
            ---------------------------------------------------------
            Died in Salzburg, Austria, on March 27, c. 710-720; feast day formerly
            March 27; feast of the translation of his relics is kept
            in Bavaria and Austria on September 25.

            There have been varying opinions as to where Rupert was born and when
            (with variations of 100 years). While more reliable sources make him a
            Frankish nobleman, others, including Colgan insist he was an Irishman
            with the Gaelic name Robertach. From his youth he was renowned for his
            learning, extraordinary virtues, austerity, and charity that sought to
            impoverish himself to enrich the poor. People came from remote provinces
            to receive his advice. He would remove all their doubts and scruples,
            comfort the afflicted, cure the sick, and heal the disorders of souls.
            His virtuous life led to his being consecrated bishop of Worms, Germany,
            from where he began his missionary work in southern Bavaria and Austria.
            (One version says he was expelled by the pagans at Worms, others that he
            was simply a zealous, evangelical Christian.)

            Rupert travelled to Regensburg (Ratisbon) with a small company about
            697, perhaps with credentials from the French King Childebert III, or
            because Duke Theodo of Bavaria had heard of his reputation for miracles
            and invited him. They went to Duke Theodo, whose permission they needed
            to proceed. While Theodo was not a Christian, his sister, Bagintrude,
            is said to have been one. He agreed to listen to their preaching and
            was converted and baptized. Many of the leading men and women of the
            land followed the duke's example and embraced Christianity, which had
            been preached there 200 years earlier by Saint Severinus of Noricum
            (f.d. January 8).

            Instead of knocking down pagan temples, as many missionaries did, Rupert
            preferred to consecrate them as Christian churches. For example, those
            at Regensburg and Altoetting were soon altered for Christian services.
            (It is said that the statue of the Blessed Mother at Altoetting was
            brought there from Ireland by an Irishman named Rupert.) Where there
            was no suitable temple to adapt churches were built, and Regensburg
            became primarily Christian. God confirmed Rupert's preaching by many
            miracles. Soon the missionary work met with such success that many more
            helpers from Franconia were needed to meet the spiritual needs of
            Rupert's converts.

            The group continued down the Danube, converting still more. After
            Ratisbon, the capital, the next seat of his labours was "Laureacum," now
            called Lorch, where he healed several diseases by prayer, and won many
            other souls to Christ. But in neither of these flourishing towns did
            Rupert establish his bishopric. He made the old, fallen-down town of
            Juvavum, given to him by the duke of Bavaria, his headquarters. The
            town was restored and he named it Salzburg (Salt Fortress). There with
            the help of his companions Saints Virgilius (f.d. November 27), Chuniald
            (f.d. September 24), and Gislar (f.d. September 24), Rupert founded
            Saint Peter's church and monastery with a school along the lines of the
            Irish monasteries.

            He made a trip home to gather twelve more recruits. His sister, Saint
            Ermentrudis (f.d. June 30), entered a convent he founded at Nonnberg
            (setting for "The Sound of Music") and became its first abbess. He did
            much to foster the operation of the salt mines. Rupert, the first
            archbishop of Salzburg, is considered to be the Apostle of Bavaria and
            Austria. He died on Easter Day. Thereafter, he became so renowned that
            countries such as Ireland claimed him as a native son and celebrate his
            memory liturgically. The Duchy of Salzburg cast his likeness with that
            of the Saint Virgilius on the coin of the realm called a rubentaler
            (Attwater, Attwater2, Benedictines, Bentley, D'Arcy, Encyclopaedia,
            Farmer, Gougaud, Husenbeth, Kenney,
            Walsh, White).

            Rupert's emblem in art is a barrel of salt, because of his association
            with the reopening of the salt mines. He may be shown
            holding a basket of eggs; baptizing Duke Theodo(re) of Bavaria; or with
            Saint Virgilius of Salzburg (Farmer, Roeder, White).



            Sources:
            ========

            Attwater, D. (1958). A Dictionary of Saints. New York:
            P. J. Kennedy & Sons. [Attwater 2]

            Benedictine Monks of Saint Augustine Abbey, Ramsgate.
            (1947). The Book of Saints. NY: Macmillan.

            Bentley, J. (1986). A Calendar of Saints: The Lives of the
            Principal Saints of the Christian Year, NY: Facts on File.

            D'Arcy, M. R. (1974). The Saints of Ireland. Saint Paul, Minnesota:
            Irish American Cultural Institute. [This is probably the most
            useful book to choose to own on the Irish saints. The author
            provides a great deal of historical context in which to place the
            lives of the saints.]

            Encyclopaedia of Catholic Saints, March. (1966).
            Philadelphia: Chilton Books.

            Farmer, D. H. (1997). The Oxford Dictionary of Saints.
            Oxford: Oxford University Press.

            Husenbeth, Rev. F. C., DD, VG (ed.). (1928). Butler's
            Lives of the Fathers, Martyrs, and Other Principal Saints.
            London: Virtue & Co.

            Kenney, J. F. (1929). Sources for Early History of Ireland, vol.
            1, Ecclesiastical. New York: Columbia University Press.

            Roeder, H. (1956). Saints and Their Attributes, Chicago: Henry
            Regnery.

            Walsh, M. (ed.). (1985). Butler's Lives of the Saints. San Francisco.
            Harper & Row. Walsh, W. T. (1943).

            White, K. E. (1992). Guide to the Saints. NY: Ivy Books.

            For All the Saints:
            http://www.saintpatrickdc.org/ss/ss-index.htm

            An Alphabetical Index of the Saints of the West
            http://www.orthodoxengland.btinternet.co.uk/saintsa.htm

            These Lives are archived at:
            http://groups.yahoo.com/group/celt-saints
            *****************************************
          • emrys@globe.net.nz
            Celtic and Old English Saints 29 March =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-= * St. Gwynllyw of Wales * St. Gwladys * St. Eustace of Luxeuil * St.
            Message 5 of 14 , Mar 28, 2006
            • 0 Attachment
              Celtic and Old English Saints 29 March

              =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=
              * St. Gwynllyw of Wales
              * St. Gwladys
              * St. Eustace of Luxeuil
              * St. Lasar
              * St. Rupert of Salzburg
              =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=


              St. Gwynllyw of Wales, Hermit
              (Gundleus, Woolo, Woollos)
              ----------------------------------------------------------
              Died c. 500. Gundleus (Latin for Gwynllyw, which is anglicised as
              Woolo) was a Welsh chieftain. Although he was the eldest, when his
              father died, Gundleus divided his inheritance among his six brothers.
              According to legend, he desired to marry Gwladys (f.d. today), daughter
              of Saint Brychan of Brecknock (f.d. April 6). When Brychan refused his
              daughter's hand, Gundleus kidnapped and married her. (One aspect of the
              legend has King Arthur helping to defeat the pursuing Brychan and being
              dissuaded from capturing Gwladys for himself by two of his knights.)

              Nevertheless, Gundleus and Gwladys led a riotous life, engaging in
              violence and banditry until their first son, Saint Cadoc (f.d.
              September 25), convinced them to adopt and follow a religious life
              together at Stow Hill near Newport (Gwent), Monmouthshire. Later he had
              them separate and live as hermits.

              Gundleus spent his last years completely retired from the world in a
              solitary little dwelling near a church which he had built. He wore
              sackcloth, ate barley-bread strewn with ashes, and drank water. To
              constant prayer and contemplation he added the work of his hands. On
              his deathbed, Gundleus was visited by Saint Dyfrig (f.d. November 14)
              and his own son Cadoc, who provided him with the Last Rites of the
              Church. There is a church dedicated to him at Newport (Attwater2,
              Benedictines, Delaney, Farmer, Husenbeth).

              Icon of St. Gwynllyw
              http://www.odox.net/A-gwynll.jpg

              Troparion of St Gladys and St Gwynllyn tone 5
              Rejoice, thrice-blessed Gladys,/ daughter of King Brychan,/ wife of holy
              Gwynllyn and mother of Saint Cadoc./ O worthy Gwynllyn,/ thou didst
              forsake thy pagan warfare to fight as a Christian ascetic/ and didst end
              thy days as a hermit./ We praise you, Gladys and Gwynllyn.


              St. Gwaladys (Gladys, Gladusa, Claudia), Hermit
              ----------------------------------------------------------
              Born in Wales in the 5th century. One of the 24 children of Brychan of
              Brecknock, wife of Saint Gundleus (f.d. today), and
              mother of Saints Cadoc (f.d. September 25) and, possibly, Keyna (f.d.
              October 8), Saint Gladys led a very interesting life. It is said that
              after their conversion by the example and exhortation of their son, she
              and Gundleus lived an austere life. It included the rather interesting
              practice throughout the year of taking a nightly baths in the Usk,
              followed by a mile-long walk unclothed. Her son finally convinced them
              to end the practice and to separate. Gladys moved to Pencanau in
              Bassaleg. The details of her story come from a 12th-century "vita,"
              which includes miracles that took place in the time of Saint Edward the
              Confessor (f.d. October 13) and William I (Attwater2, Benedictines,
              Delaney, Farmer, Husenbeth).


              St. Eustace (Eustasius) of Luxeuil, Abbot
              ----------------------------------------------------------
              Died 625. Saint Eustace was a favourite disciple and monk of Saint
              Columbanus (f.d. November 23), whom he succeeded as second abbot of
              Luxeuil in 611. He ruled over about 600 monks. During his abbacy the
              monastery was a veritable seminary for bishops and saints, perhaps
              because of the example he gave by his own humility, continual prayer,
              and fasting (Benedictines, Husenbeth).

              St. Lasar (Lassar, Lassera), Virgin
              ----------------------------------------------------------
              6th century. The Irish nun Saint Lasar (meaning 'Flame') was the niece
              of Saint Forchera. Still very young, she entered religious life under
              the care of SS. Finnian (f.d. December 12) and Ciaran (f.d. September 9)
              at Clonard (Benedictines).


              St. Rupert (Hrodbert, Robert, Rupprecht) of Salzburg, Bishop
              ---------------------------------------------------------
              Died in Salzburg, Austria, on March 27, c. 710-720; feast day formerly
              March 27; feast of the translation of his relics is kept
              in Bavaria and Austria on September 25.

              There have been varying opinions as to where Rupert was born and when
              (with variations of 100 years). While more reliable sources make him a
              Frankish nobleman, others, including Colgan insist he was an Irishman
              with the Gaelic name Robertach. From his youth he was renowned for his
              learning, extraordinary virtues, austerity, and charity that sought to
              impoverish himself to enrich the poor. People came from remote provinces
              to receive his advice. He would remove all their doubts and scruples,
              comfort the afflicted, cure the sick, and heal the disorders of souls.
              His virtuous life led to his being consecrated bishop of Worms, Germany,
              from where he began his missionary work in southern Bavaria and Austria.
              (One version says he was expelled by the pagans at Worms, others that he
              was simply a zealous, evangelical Christian.)

              Rupert travelled to Regensburg (Ratisbon) with a small company about
              697, perhaps with credentials from the French King Childebert III, or
              because Duke Theodo of Bavaria had heard of his reputation for miracles
              and invited him. They went to Duke Theodo, whose permission they needed
              to proceed. While Theodo was not a Christian, his sister, Bagintrude,
              is said to have been one. He agreed to listen to their preaching and
              was converted and baptized. Many of the leading men and women of the
              land followed the duke's example and embraced Christianity, which had
              been preached there 200 years earlier by Saint Severinus of Noricum
              (f.d. January 8).

              Instead of knocking down pagan temples, as many missionaries did, Rupert
              preferred to consecrate them as Christian churches. For example, those
              at Regensburg and Altoetting were soon altered for Christian services.
              (It is said that the statue of the Blessed Mother at Altoetting was
              brought there from Ireland by an Irishman named Rupert.) Where there
              was no suitable temple to adapt churches were built, and Regensburg
              became primarily Christian. God confirmed Rupert's preaching by many
              miracles. Soon the missionary work met with such success that many more
              helpers from Franconia were needed to meet the spiritual needs of
              Rupert's converts.

              The group continued down the Danube, converting still more. After
              Ratisbon, the capital, the next seat of his labours was "Laureacum," now
              called Lorch, where he healed several diseases by prayer, and won many
              other souls to Christ. But in neither of these flourishing towns did
              Rupert establish his bishopric. He made the old, fallen-down town of
              Juvavum, given to him by the duke of Bavaria, his headquarters. The
              town was restored and he named it Salzburg (Salt Fortress). There with
              the help of his companions Saints Virgilius (f.d. November 27), Chuniald
              (f.d. September 24), and Gislar (f.d. September 24), Rupert founded
              Saint Peter's church and monastery with a school along the lines of the
              Irish monasteries.

              He made a trip home to gather twelve more recruits. His sister, Saint
              Ermentrudis (f.d. June 30), entered a convent he founded at Nonnberg
              (setting for "The Sound of Music") and became its first abbess. He did
              much to foster the operation of the salt mines. Rupert, the first
              archbishop of Salzburg, is considered to be the Apostle of Bavaria and
              Austria. He died on Easter Day. Thereafter, he became so renowned that
              countries such as Ireland claimed him as a native son and celebrate his
              memory liturgically. The Duchy of Salzburg cast his likeness with that
              of the Saint Virgilius on the coin of the realm called a rubentaler
              (Attwater, Attwater2, Benedictines, Bentley, D'Arcy, Encyclopaedia,
              Farmer, Gougaud, Husenbeth, Kenney,
              Walsh, White).

              Rupert's emblem in art is a barrel of salt, because of his association
              with the reopening of the salt mines. He may be shown
              holding a basket of eggs; baptizing Duke Theodo(re) of Bavaria; or with
              Saint Virgilius of Salzburg (Farmer, Roeder, White).



              Sources:
              ========

              Attwater, D. (1958). A Dictionary of Saints. New York:
              P. J. Kennedy & Sons. [Attwater 2]

              Benedictine Monks of Saint Augustine Abbey, Ramsgate.
              (1947). The Book of Saints. NY: Macmillan.

              Bentley, J. (1986). A Calendar of Saints: The Lives of the
              Principal Saints of the Christian Year, NY: Facts on File.

              D'Arcy, M. R. (1974). The Saints of Ireland. Saint Paul, Minnesota:
              Irish American Cultural Institute. [This is probably the most
              useful book to choose to own on the Irish saints. The author
              provides a great deal of historical context in which to place the
              lives of the saints.]

              Encyclopaedia of Catholic Saints, March. (1966).
              Philadelphia: Chilton Books.

              Farmer, D. H. (1997). The Oxford Dictionary of Saints.
              Oxford: Oxford University Press.

              Husenbeth, Rev. F. C., DD, VG (ed.). (1928). Butler's
              Lives of the Fathers, Martyrs, and Other Principal Saints.
              London: Virtue & Co.

              Kenney, J. F. (1929). Sources for Early History of Ireland, vol.
              1, Ecclesiastical. New York: Columbia University Press.

              Roeder, H. (1956). Saints and Their Attributes, Chicago: Henry
              Regnery.

              Walsh, M. (ed.). (1985). Butler's Lives of the Saints. San Francisco.
              Harper & Row. Walsh, W. T. (1943).

              White, K. E. (1992). Guide to the Saints. NY: Ivy Books.

              For All the Saints:
              http://www.saintpatrickdc.org/ss/ss-index.htm

              An Alphabetical Index of the Saints of the West
              http://www.orthodoxengland.btinternet.co.uk/saintsa.htm

              These Lives are archived at:
              http://groups.yahoo.com/group/celt-saints
              ¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤
            • emrys@globe.net.nz
              Celtic and Old English Saints 29 March =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-= * St. Gwynllyw of Wales * St. Gwladys * St. Eustace of Luxeuil * St.
              Message 6 of 14 , Mar 27, 2007
              • 0 Attachment
                Celtic and Old English Saints 29 March

                =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=
                * St. Gwynllyw of Wales
                * St. Gwladys
                * St. Eustace of Luxeuil
                * St. Lasar
                * St. Rupert of Salzburg
                =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=


                St. Gwynllyw of Wales, Hermit
                (Gundleus, Woolo, Woollos)
                ----------------------------------------------------------
                Died c. 500. Gundleus (Latin for Gwynllyw, which is anglicised as
                Woolo) was a Welsh chieftain. Although he was the eldest, when his
                father died, Gundleus divided his inheritance among his six brothers.
                According to legend, he desired to marry Gwladys (f.d. today), daughter
                of Saint Brychan of Brecknock (f.d. April 6). When Brychan refused his
                daughter's hand, Gundleus kidnapped and married her. (One aspect of the
                legend has King Arthur helping to defeat the pursuing Brychan and being
                dissuaded from capturing Gwladys for himself by two of his knights.)

                Nevertheless, Gundleus and Gwladys led a riotous life, engaging in
                violence and banditry until their first son, Saint Cadoc (f.d.
                September 25), convinced them to adopt and follow a religious life
                together at Stow Hill near Newport (Gwent), Monmouthshire. Later he had
                them separate and live as hermits.

                Gundleus spent his last years completely retired from the world in a
                solitary little dwelling near a church which he had built. He wore
                sackcloth, ate barley-bread strewn with ashes, and drank water. To
                constant prayer and contemplation he added the work of his hands. On
                his deathbed, Gundleus was visited by Saint Dyfrig (f.d. November 14)
                and his own son Cadoc, who provided him with the Last Rites of the
                Church. There is a church dedicated to him at Newport (Attwater2,
                Benedictines, Delaney, Farmer, Husenbeth).

                Icon of St. Gwynllyw
                http://www.odox.net/A-gwynll.jpg

                Troparion of St Gladys and St Gwynllyn tone 5
                Rejoice, thrice-blessed Gladys,/ daughter of King Brychan,/ wife of holy
                Gwynllyn and mother of Saint Cadoc./ O worthy Gwynllyn,/ thou didst
                forsake thy pagan warfare to fight as a Christian ascetic/ and didst end
                thy days as a hermit./ We praise you, Gladys and Gwynllyn.


                St. Gwaladys (Gladys, Gladusa, Claudia), Hermit
                ----------------------------------------------------------
                Born in Wales in the 5th century. One of the 24 children of Brychan of
                Brecknock, wife of Saint Gundleus (f.d. today), and
                mother of Saints Cadoc (f.d. September 25) and, possibly, Keyna (f.d.
                October 8), Saint Gladys led a very interesting life. It is said that
                after their conversion by the example and exhortation of their son, she
                and Gundleus lived an austere life. It included the rather interesting
                practice throughout the year of taking a nightly baths in the Usk,
                followed by a mile-long walk unclothed. Her son finally convinced them
                to end the practice and to separate. Gladys moved to Pencanau in
                Bassaleg. The details of her story come from a 12th-century "vita,"
                which includes miracles that took place in the time of Saint Edward the
                Confessor (f.d. October 13) and William I (Attwater2, Benedictines,
                Delaney, Farmer, Husenbeth).


                St. Eustace (Eustasius) of Luxeuil, Abbot
                ----------------------------------------------------------
                Died 625. Saint Eustace was a favourite disciple and monk of Saint
                Columbanus (f.d. November 23), whom he succeeded as second abbot of
                Luxeuil in 611. He ruled over about 600 monks. During his abbacy the
                monastery was a veritable seminary for bishops and saints, perhaps
                because of the example he gave by his own humility, continual prayer,
                and fasting (Benedictines, Husenbeth).

                St. Lasar (Lassar, Lassera), Virgin
                ----------------------------------------------------------
                6th century. The Irish nun Saint Lasar (meaning 'Flame') was the niece
                of Saint Forchera. Still very young, she entered religious life under
                the care of SS. Finnian (f.d. December 12) and Ciaran (f.d. September 9)
                at Clonard (Benedictines).


                St. Rupert (Hrodbert, Robert, Rupprecht) of Salzburg, Bishop
                ---------------------------------------------------------
                Died in Salzburg, Austria, on March 27, c. 710-720; feast day formerly
                March 27; feast of the translation of his relics is kept
                in Bavaria and Austria on September 25.

                There have been varying opinions as to where Rupert was born and when
                (with variations of 100 years). While more reliable sources make him a
                Frankish nobleman, others, including Colgan insist he was an Irishman
                with the Gaelic name Robertach. From his youth he was renowned for his
                learning, extraordinary virtues, austerity, and charity that sought to
                impoverish himself to enrich the poor. People came from remote provinces
                to receive his advice. He would remove all their doubts and scruples,
                comfort the afflicted, cure the sick, and heal the disorders of souls.
                His virtuous life led to his being consecrated bishop of Worms, Germany,
                from where he began his missionary work in southern Bavaria and Austria.
                (One version says he was expelled by the pagans at Worms, others that he
                was simply a zealous, evangelical Christian.)

                Rupert travelled to Regensburg (Ratisbon) with a small company about
                697, perhaps with credentials from the French King Childebert III, or
                because Duke Theodo of Bavaria had heard of his reputation for miracles
                and invited him. They went to Duke Theodo, whose permission they needed
                to proceed. While Theodo was not a Christian, his sister, Bagintrude,
                is said to have been one. He agreed to listen to their preaching and
                was converted and baptized. Many of the leading men and women of the
                land followed the duke's example and embraced Christianity, which had
                been preached there 200 years earlier by Saint Severinus of Noricum
                (f.d. January 8).

                Instead of knocking down pagan temples, as many missionaries did, Rupert
                preferred to consecrate them as Christian churches. For example, those
                at Regensburg and Altoetting were soon altered for Christian services.
                (It is said that the statue of the Blessed Mother at Altoetting was
                brought there from Ireland by an Irishman named Rupert.) Where there
                was no suitable temple to adapt churches were built, and Regensburg
                became primarily Christian. God confirmed Rupert's preaching by many
                miracles. Soon the missionary work met with such success that many more
                helpers from Franconia were needed to meet the spiritual needs of
                Rupert's converts.

                The group continued down the Danube, converting still more. After
                Ratisbon, the capital, the next seat of his labours was "Laureacum," now
                called Lorch, where he healed several diseases by prayer, and won many
                other souls to Christ. But in neither of these flourishing towns did
                Rupert establish his bishopric. He made the old, fallen-down town of
                Juvavum, given to him by the duke of Bavaria, his headquarters. The
                town was restored and he named it Salzburg (Salt Fortress). There with
                the help of his companions Saints Virgilius (f.d. November 27), Chuniald
                (f.d. September 24), and Gislar (f.d. September 24), Rupert founded
                Saint Peter's church and monastery with a school along the lines of the
                Irish monasteries.

                He made a trip home to gather twelve more recruits. His sister, Saint
                Ermentrudis (f.d. June 30), entered a convent he founded at Nonnberg
                (setting for "The Sound of Music") and became its first abbess. He did
                much to foster the operation of the salt mines. Rupert, the first
                archbishop of Salzburg, is considered to be the Apostle of Bavaria and
                Austria. He died on Easter Day. Thereafter, he became so renowned that
                countries such as Ireland claimed him as a native son and celebrate his
                memory liturgically. The Duchy of Salzburg cast his likeness with that
                of the Saint Virgilius on the coin of the realm called a rubentaler
                (Attwater, Attwater2, Benedictines, Bentley, D'Arcy, Encyclopaedia,
                Farmer, Gougaud, Husenbeth, Kenney,
                Walsh, White).

                Rupert's emblem in art is a barrel of salt, because of his association
                with the reopening of the salt mines. He may be shown
                holding a basket of eggs; baptizing Duke Theodo(re) of Bavaria; or with
                Saint Virgilius of Salzburg (Farmer, Roeder, White).



                Sources:
                ========

                Attwater, D. (1958). A Dictionary of Saints. New York:
                P. J. Kennedy & Sons. [Attwater 2]

                Benedictine Monks of Saint Augustine Abbey, Ramsgate.
                (1947). The Book of Saints. NY: Macmillan.

                Bentley, J. (1986). A Calendar of Saints: The Lives of the
                Principal Saints of the Christian Year, NY: Facts on File.

                D'Arcy, M. R. (1974). The Saints of Ireland. Saint Paul, Minnesota:
                Irish American Cultural Institute. [This is probably the most
                useful book to choose to own on the Irish saints. The author
                provides a great deal of historical context in which to place the
                lives of the saints.]

                Encyclopaedia of Catholic Saints, March. (1966).
                Philadelphia: Chilton Books.

                Farmer, D. H. (1997). The Oxford Dictionary of Saints.
                Oxford: Oxford University Press.

                Husenbeth, Rev. F. C., DD, VG (ed.). (1928). Butler's
                Lives of the Fathers, Martyrs, and Other Principal Saints.
                London: Virtue & Co.

                Kenney, J. F. (1929). Sources for Early History of Ireland, vol.
                1, Ecclesiastical. New York: Columbia University Press.

                Roeder, H. (1956). Saints and Their Attributes, Chicago: Henry
                Regnery.

                Walsh, M. (ed.). (1985). Butler's Lives of the Saints. San Francisco.
                Harper & Row. Walsh, W. T. (1943).

                White, K. E. (1992). Guide to the Saints. NY: Ivy Books.

                For All the Saints:
                http://www.saintpatrickdc.org/ss/ss-index.htm

                An Alphabetical Index of the Saints of the West
                http://www.orthodoxengland.btinternet.co.uk/saintsa.htm

                These Lives are archived at:
                http://groups.yahoo.com/group/celt-saints
                ¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤
              • emrys@globe.net.nz
                Celtic and Old English Saints 29 March =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-= * St. Gwynllyw of Wales * St. Gwladys * St. Eustace of Luxeuil * St.
                Message 7 of 14 , Mar 27, 2008
                • 0 Attachment
                  Celtic and Old English Saints 29 March

                  =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=
                  * St. Gwynllyw of Wales
                  * St. Gwladys
                  * St. Eustace of Luxeuil
                  * St. Lasar
                  * St. Rupert of Salzburg
                  =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=


                  St. Gwynllyw of Wales, Hermit
                  (Gundleus, Woolo, Woollos)
                  ----------------------------------------------------------
                  Died c. 500. Gundleus (Latin for Gwynllyw, which is anglicised as
                  Woolo) was a Welsh chieftain. Although he was the eldest, when his
                  father died, Gundleus divided his inheritance among his six brothers.
                  According to legend, he desired to marry Gwladys (f.d. today), daughter
                  of Saint Brychan of Brecknock (f.d. April 6). When Brychan refused his
                  daughter's hand, Gundleus kidnapped and married her. (One aspect of the
                  legend has King Arthur helping to defeat the pursuing Brychan and being
                  dissuaded from capturing Gwladys for himself by two of his knights.)

                  Nevertheless, Gundleus and Gwladys led a riotous life, engaging in
                  violence and banditry until their first son, Saint Cadoc (f.d.
                  September 25), convinced them to adopt and follow a religious life
                  together at Stow Hill near Newport (Gwent), Monmouthshire. Later he had
                  them separate and live as hermits.

                  Gundleus spent his last years completely retired from the world in a
                  solitary little dwelling near a church which he had built. He wore
                  sackcloth, ate barley-bread strewn with ashes, and drank water. To
                  constant prayer and contemplation he added the work of his hands. On
                  his deathbed, Gundleus was visited by Saint Dyfrig (f.d. November 14)
                  and his own son Cadoc, who provided him with the Last Rites of the
                  Church. There is a church dedicated to him at Newport (Attwater2,
                  Benedictines, Delaney, Farmer, Husenbeth).

                  Icon of St. Gwynllyw
                  http://www.odox.net/A-gwynll.jpg

                  Troparion of St Gladys and St Gwynllyn tone 5
                  Rejoice, thrice-blessed Gladys,/ daughter of King Brychan,/ wife of holy
                  Gwynllyn and mother of Saint Cadoc./ O worthy Gwynllyn,/ thou didst
                  forsake thy pagan warfare to fight as a Christian ascetic/ and didst end
                  thy days as a hermit./ We praise you, Gladys and Gwynllyn.


                  St. Gwaladys (Gladys, Gladusa, Claudia), Hermit
                  ----------------------------------------------------------
                  Born in Wales in the 5th century. One of the 24 children of Brychan of
                  Brecknock, wife of Saint Gundleus (f.d. today), and
                  mother of Saints Cadoc (f.d. September 25) and, possibly, Keyna (f.d.
                  October 8), Saint Gladys led a very interesting life. It is said that
                  after their conversion by the example and exhortation of their son, she
                  and Gundleus lived an austere life. It included the rather interesting
                  practice throughout the year of taking a nightly baths in the Usk,
                  followed by a mile-long walk unclothed. Her son finally convinced them
                  to end the practice and to separate. Gladys moved to Pencanau in
                  Bassaleg. The details of her story come from a 12th-century "vita,"
                  which includes miracles that took place in the time of Saint Edward the
                  Confessor (f.d. October 13) and William I (Attwater2, Benedictines,
                  Delaney, Farmer, Husenbeth).


                  St. Eustace (Eustasius) of Luxeuil, Abbot
                  ----------------------------------------------------------
                  Died 625. Saint Eustace was a favourite disciple and monk of Saint
                  Columbanus (f.d. November 23), whom he succeeded as second abbot of
                  Luxeuil in 611. He ruled over about 600 monks. During his abbacy the
                  monastery was a veritable seminary for bishops and saints, perhaps
                  because of the example he gave by his own humility, continual prayer,
                  and fasting (Benedictines, Husenbeth).

                  St. Lasar (Lassar, Lassera), Virgin
                  ----------------------------------------------------------
                  6th century. The Irish nun Saint Lasar (meaning 'Flame') was the niece
                  of Saint Forchera. Still very young, she entered religious life under
                  the care of SS. Finnian (f.d. December 12) and Ciaran (f.d. September 9)
                  at Clonard (Benedictines).


                  St. Rupert (Hrodbert, Robert, Rupprecht) of Salzburg, Bishop
                  ---------------------------------------------------------
                  Died in Salzburg, Austria, on March 27, c. 710-720; feast day formerly
                  March 27; feast of the translation of his relics is kept
                  in Bavaria and Austria on September 25.

                  There have been varying opinions as to where Rupert was born and when
                  (with variations of 100 years). While more reliable sources make him a
                  Frankish nobleman, others, including Colgan insist he was an Irishman
                  with the Gaelic name Robertach. From his youth he was renowned for his
                  learning, extraordinary virtues, austerity, and charity that sought to
                  impoverish himself to enrich the poor. People came from remote provinces
                  to receive his advice. He would remove all their doubts and scruples,
                  comfort the afflicted, cure the sick, and heal the disorders of souls.
                  His virtuous life led to his being consecrated bishop of Worms, Germany,
                  from where he began his missionary work in southern Bavaria and Austria.
                  (One version says he was expelled by the pagans at Worms, others that he
                  was simply a zealous, evangelical Christian.)

                  Rupert travelled to Regensburg (Ratisbon) with a small company about
                  697, perhaps with credentials from the French King Childebert III, or
                  because Duke Theodo of Bavaria had heard of his reputation for miracles
                  and invited him. They went to Duke Theodo, whose permission they needed
                  to proceed. While Theodo was not a Christian, his sister, Bagintrude,
                  is said to have been one. He agreed to listen to their preaching and
                  was converted and baptized. Many of the leading men and women of the
                  land followed the duke's example and embraced Christianity, which had
                  been preached there 200 years earlier by Saint Severinus of Noricum
                  (f.d. January 8).

                  Instead of knocking down pagan temples, as many missionaries did, Rupert
                  preferred to consecrate them as Christian churches. For example, those
                  at Regensburg and Altoetting were soon altered for Christian services.
                  (It is said that the statue of the Blessed Mother at Altoetting was
                  brought there from Ireland by an Irishman named Rupert.) Where there
                  was no suitable temple to adapt churches were built, and Regensburg
                  became primarily Christian. God confirmed Rupert's preaching by many
                  miracles. Soon the missionary work met with such success that many more
                  helpers from Franconia were needed to meet the spiritual needs of
                  Rupert's converts.

                  The group continued down the Danube, converting still more. After
                  Ratisbon, the capital, the next seat of his labours was "Laureacum," now
                  called Lorch, where he healed several diseases by prayer, and won many
                  other souls to Christ. But in neither of these flourishing towns did
                  Rupert establish his bishopric. He made the old, fallen-down town of
                  Juvavum, given to him by the duke of Bavaria, his headquarters. The
                  town was restored and he named it Salzburg (Salt Fortress). There with
                  the help of his companions Saints Virgilius (f.d. November 27), Chuniald
                  (f.d. September 24), and Gislar (f.d. September 24), Rupert founded
                  Saint Peter's church and monastery with a school along the lines of the
                  Irish monasteries.

                  He made a trip home to gather twelve more recruits. His sister, Saint
                  Ermentrudis (f.d. June 30), entered a convent he founded at Nonnberg
                  (setting for "The Sound of Music") and became its first abbess. He did
                  much to foster the operation of the salt mines. Rupert, the first
                  archbishop of Salzburg, is considered to be the Apostle of Bavaria and
                  Austria. He died on Easter Day. Thereafter, he became so renowned that
                  countries such as Ireland claimed him as a native son and celebrate his
                  memory liturgically. The Duchy of Salzburg cast his likeness with that
                  of the Saint Virgilius on the coin of the realm called a rubentaler
                  (Attwater, Attwater2, Benedictines, Bentley, D'Arcy, Encyclopaedia,
                  Farmer, Gougaud, Husenbeth, Kenney,
                  Walsh, White).

                  Rupert's emblem in art is a barrel of salt, because of his association
                  with the reopening of the salt mines. He may be shown
                  holding a basket of eggs; baptizing Duke Theodo(re) of Bavaria; or with
                  Saint Virgilius of Salzburg (Farmer, Roeder, White).



                  Sources:
                  ========

                  Attwater, D. (1958). A Dictionary of Saints. New York:
                  P. J. Kennedy & Sons. [Attwater 2]

                  Benedictine Monks of Saint Augustine Abbey, Ramsgate.
                  (1947). The Book of Saints. NY: Macmillan.

                  Bentley, J. (1986). A Calendar of Saints: The Lives of the
                  Principal Saints of the Christian Year, NY: Facts on File.

                  D'Arcy, M. R. (1974). The Saints of Ireland. Saint Paul, Minnesota:
                  Irish American Cultural Institute. [This is probably the most
                  useful book to choose to own on the Irish saints. The author
                  provides a great deal of historical context in which to place the
                  lives of the saints.]

                  Encyclopaedia of Catholic Saints, March. (1966).
                  Philadelphia: Chilton Books.

                  Farmer, D. H. (1997). The Oxford Dictionary of Saints.
                  Oxford: Oxford University Press.

                  Husenbeth, Rev. F. C., DD, VG (ed.). (1928). Butler's
                  Lives of the Fathers, Martyrs, and Other Principal Saints.
                  London: Virtue & Co.

                  Kenney, J. F. (1929). Sources for Early History of Ireland, vol.
                  1, Ecclesiastical. New York: Columbia University Press.

                  Roeder, H. (1956). Saints and Their Attributes, Chicago: Henry
                  Regnery.

                  Walsh, M. (ed.). (1985). Butler's Lives of the Saints. San Francisco.
                  Harper & Row. Walsh, W. T. (1943).

                  White, K. E. (1992). Guide to the Saints. NY: Ivy Books.

                  For All the Saints:
                  http://www.saintpatrickdc.org/ss/ss-index.htm

                  An Alphabetical Index of the Saints of the West
                  http://www.orthodoxengland.btinternet.co.uk/saintsa.htm

                  These Lives are archived at:
                  http://groups.yahoo.com/group/celt-saints
                  ¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤
                • emrys@globe.net.nz
                  Celtic and Old English Saints 29 March =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-= * St. Gwynllyw of Wales * St. Gwladys * St. Eustace of Luxeuil * St.
                  Message 8 of 14 , Mar 28, 2009
                  • 0 Attachment
                    Celtic and Old English Saints 29 March

                    =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=
                    * St. Gwynllyw of Wales
                    * St. Gwladys
                    * St. Eustace of Luxeuil
                    * St. Lasar
                    * St. Rupert of Salzburg
                    =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=


                    St. Gwynllyw of Wales, Hermit
                    (Gundleus, Woolo, Woollos)
                    ----------------------------------------------------------
                    Died c. 500. Gundleus (Latin for Gwynllyw, which is anglicised as
                    Woolo) was a Welsh chieftain. Although he was the eldest, when his
                    father died, Gundleus divided his inheritance among his six brothers.
                    According to legend, he desired to marry Gwladys (f.d. today), daughter
                    of Saint Brychan of Brecknock (f.d. April 6). When Brychan refused his
                    daughter's hand, Gundleus kidnapped and married her. (One aspect of the
                    legend has King Arthur helping to defeat the pursuing Brychan and being
                    dissuaded from capturing Gwladys for himself by two of his knights.)

                    Nevertheless, Gundleus and Gwladys led a riotous life, engaging in
                    violence and banditry until their first son, Saint Cadoc (f.d.
                    September 25), convinced them to adopt and follow a religious life
                    together at Stow Hill near Newport (Gwent), Monmouthshire. Later he had
                    them separate and live as hermits.

                    Gundleus spent his last years completely retired from the world in a
                    solitary little dwelling near a church which he had built. He wore
                    sackcloth, ate barley-bread strewn with ashes, and drank water. To
                    constant prayer and contemplation he added the work of his hands. On
                    his deathbed, Gundleus was visited by Saint Dyfrig (f.d. November 14)
                    and his own son Cadoc, who provided him with the Last Rites of the
                    Church. There is a church dedicated to him at Newport (Attwater2,
                    Benedictines, Delaney, Farmer, Husenbeth).

                    Icon of St. Gwynllyw
                    http://www.odox.net/A-gwynll.jpg

                    Troparion of St Gladys and St Gwynllyn tone 5
                    Rejoice, thrice-blessed Gladys,/ daughter of King Brychan,/ wife of holy
                    Gwynllyn and mother of Saint Cadoc./ O worthy Gwynllyn,/ thou didst
                    forsake thy pagan warfare to fight as a Christian ascetic/ and didst end
                    thy days as a hermit./ We praise you, Gladys and Gwynllyn.


                    St. Gwaladys (Gladys, Gladusa, Claudia), Hermit
                    ----------------------------------------------------------
                    Born in Wales in the 5th century. One of the 24 children of Brychan of
                    Brecknock, wife of Saint Gundleus (f.d. today), and
                    mother of Saints Cadoc (f.d. September 25) and, possibly, Keyna (f.d.
                    October 8), Saint Gladys led a very interesting life. It is said that
                    after their conversion by the example and exhortation of their son, she
                    and Gundleus lived an austere life. It included the rather interesting
                    practice throughout the year of taking a nightly baths in the Usk,
                    followed by a mile-long walk unclothed. Her son finally convinced them
                    to end the practice and to separate. Gladys moved to Pencanau in
                    Bassaleg. The details of her story come from a 12th-century "vita,"
                    which includes miracles that took place in the time of Saint Edward the
                    Confessor (f.d. October 13) and William I (Attwater2, Benedictines,
                    Delaney, Farmer, Husenbeth).


                    St. Eustace (Eustasius) of Luxeuil, Abbot
                    ----------------------------------------------------------
                    Died 625. Saint Eustace was a favourite disciple and monk of Saint
                    Columbanus (f.d. November 23), whom he succeeded as second abbot of
                    Luxeuil in 611. He ruled over about 600 monks. During his abbacy the
                    monastery was a veritable seminary for bishops and saints, perhaps
                    because of the example he gave by his own humility, continual prayer,
                    and fasting (Benedictines, Husenbeth).

                    St. Lasar (Lassar, Lassera), Virgin
                    ----------------------------------------------------------
                    6th century. The Irish nun Saint Lasar (meaning 'Flame') was the niece
                    of Saint Forchera. Still very young, she entered religious life under
                    the care of SS. Finnian (f.d. December 12) and Ciaran (f.d. September 9)
                    at Clonard (Benedictines).


                    St. Rupert (Hrodbert, Robert, Rupprecht) of Salzburg, Bishop
                    ---------------------------------------------------------
                    Died in Salzburg, Austria, on March 27, c. 710-720; feast day formerly
                    March 27; feast of the translation of his relics is kept
                    in Bavaria and Austria on September 25.

                    There have been varying opinions as to where Rupert was born and when
                    (with variations of 100 years). While more reliable sources make him a
                    Frankish nobleman, others, including Colgan insist he was an Irishman
                    with the Gaelic name Robertach. From his youth he was renowned for his
                    learning, extraordinary virtues, austerity, and charity that sought to
                    impoverish himself to enrich the poor. People came from remote provinces
                    to receive his advice. He would remove all their doubts and scruples,
                    comfort the afflicted, cure the sick, and heal the disorders of souls.
                    His virtuous life led to his being consecrated bishop of Worms, Germany,
                    from where he began his missionary work in southern Bavaria and Austria.
                    (One version says he was expelled by the pagans at Worms, others that he
                    was simply a zealous, evangelical Christian.)

                    Rupert travelled to Regensburg (Ratisbon) with a small company about
                    697, perhaps with credentials from the French King Childebert III, or
                    because Duke Theodo of Bavaria had heard of his reputation for miracles
                    and invited him. They went to Duke Theodo, whose permission they needed
                    to proceed. While Theodo was not a Christian, his sister, Bagintrude,
                    is said to have been one. He agreed to listen to their preaching and
                    was converted and baptized. Many of the leading men and women of the
                    land followed the duke's example and embraced Christianity, which had
                    been preached there 200 years earlier by Saint Severinus of Noricum
                    (f.d. January 8).

                    Instead of knocking down pagan temples, as many missionaries did, Rupert
                    preferred to consecrate them as Christian churches. For example, those
                    at Regensburg and Altoetting were soon altered for Christian services.
                    (It is said that the statue of the Blessed Mother at Altoetting was
                    brought there from Ireland by an Irishman named Rupert.) Where there
                    was no suitable temple to adapt churches were built, and Regensburg
                    became primarily Christian. God confirmed Rupert's preaching by many
                    miracles. Soon the missionary work met with such success that many more
                    helpers from Franconia were needed to meet the spiritual needs of
                    Rupert's converts.

                    The group continued down the Danube, converting still more. After
                    Ratisbon, the capital, the next seat of his labours was "Laureacum," now
                    called Lorch, where he healed several diseases by prayer, and won many
                    other souls to Christ. But in neither of these flourishing towns did
                    Rupert establish his bishopric. He made the old, fallen-down town of
                    Juvavum, given to him by the duke of Bavaria, his headquarters. The
                    town was restored and he named it Salzburg (Salt Fortress). There with
                    the help of his companions Saints Virgilius (f.d. November 27), Chuniald
                    (f.d. September 24), and Gislar (f.d. September 24), Rupert founded
                    Saint Peter's church and monastery with a school along the lines of the
                    Irish monasteries.

                    He made a trip home to gather twelve more recruits. His sister, Saint
                    Ermentrudis (f.d. June 30), entered a convent he founded at Nonnberg
                    (setting for "The Sound of Music") and became its first abbess. He did
                    much to foster the operation of the salt mines. Rupert, the first
                    archbishop of Salzburg, is considered to be the Apostle of Bavaria and
                    Austria. He died on Easter Day. Thereafter, he became so renowned that
                    countries such as Ireland claimed him as a native son and celebrate his
                    memory liturgically. The Duchy of Salzburg cast his likeness with that
                    of the Saint Virgilius on the coin of the realm called a rubentaler
                    (Attwater, Attwater2, Benedictines, Bentley, D'Arcy, Encyclopaedia,
                    Farmer, Gougaud, Husenbeth, Kenney,
                    Walsh, White).

                    Rupert's emblem in art is a barrel of salt, because of his association
                    with the reopening of the salt mines. He may be shown
                    holding a basket of eggs; baptizing Duke Theodo(re) of Bavaria; or with
                    Saint Virgilius of Salzburg (Farmer, Roeder, White).



                    Sources:
                    ========

                    Attwater, D. (1958). A Dictionary of Saints. New York:
                    P. J. Kennedy & Sons. [Attwater 2]

                    Benedictine Monks of Saint Augustine Abbey, Ramsgate.
                    (1947). The Book of Saints. NY: Macmillan.

                    Bentley, J. (1986). A Calendar of Saints: The Lives of the
                    Principal Saints of the Christian Year, NY: Facts on File.

                    D'Arcy, M. R. (1974). The Saints of Ireland. Saint Paul, Minnesota:
                    Irish American Cultural Institute. [This is probably the most
                    useful book to choose to own on the Irish saints. The author
                    provides a great deal of historical context in which to place the
                    lives of the saints.]

                    Encyclopaedia of Catholic Saints, March. (1966).
                    Philadelphia: Chilton Books.

                    Farmer, D. H. (1997). The Oxford Dictionary of Saints.
                    Oxford: Oxford University Press.

                    Husenbeth, Rev. F. C., DD, VG (ed.). (1928). Butler's
                    Lives of the Fathers, Martyrs, and Other Principal Saints.
                    London: Virtue & Co.

                    Kenney, J. F. (1929). Sources for Early History of Ireland, vol.
                    1, Ecclesiastical. New York: Columbia University Press.

                    Roeder, H. (1956). Saints and Their Attributes, Chicago: Henry
                    Regnery.

                    Walsh, M. (ed.). (1985). Butler's Lives of the Saints. San Francisco.
                    Harper & Row. Walsh, W. T. (1943).

                    White, K. E. (1992). Guide to the Saints. NY: Ivy Books.

                    For All the Saints:
                    http://www.saintpatrickdc.org/ss/ss-index.htm

                    An Alphabetical Index of the Saints of the West
                    http://www.orthodoxengland.btinternet.co.uk/saintsa.htm

                    These Lives are archived at:
                    http://groups.yahoo.com/group/celt-saints
                    ¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤
                  • emrys@globe.net.nz
                    Celtic and Old English Saints 29 March =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-= * St. Gwynllyw of Wales * St. Gwladys * St. Eustace of Luxeuil * St.
                    Message 9 of 14 , Mar 28, 2010
                    • 0 Attachment
                      Celtic and Old English Saints 29 March

                      =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=
                      * St. Gwynllyw of Wales
                      * St. Gwladys
                      * St. Eustace of Luxeuil
                      * St. Lasar
                      * St. Rupert of Salzburg
                      =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=


                      St. Gwynllyw of Wales, Hermit
                      (Gundleus, Woolo, Woollos)
                      ----------------------------------------------------------
                      Died c. 500. Gundleus (Latin for Gwynllyw, which is anglicised as
                      Woolo) was a Welsh chieftain. Although he was the eldest, when his
                      father died, Gundleus divided his inheritance among his six brothers.
                      According to legend, he desired to marry Gwladys (f.d. today), daughter
                      of Saint Brychan of Brecknock (f.d. April 6). When Brychan refused his
                      daughter's hand, Gundleus kidnapped and married her. (One aspect of the
                      legend has King Arthur helping to defeat the pursuing Brychan and being
                      dissuaded from capturing Gwladys for himself by two of his knights.)

                      Nevertheless, Gundleus and Gwladys led a riotous life, engaging in
                      violence and banditry until their first son, Saint Cadoc (f.d.
                      September 25), convinced them to adopt and follow a religious life
                      together at Stow Hill near Newport (Gwent), Monmouthshire. Later he had
                      them separate and live as hermits.

                      Gundleus spent his last years completely retired from the world in a
                      solitary little dwelling near a church which he had built. He wore
                      sackcloth, ate barley-bread strewn with ashes, and drank water. To
                      constant prayer and contemplation he added the work of his hands. On
                      his deathbed, Gundleus was visited by Saint Dyfrig (f.d. November 14)
                      and his own son Cadoc, who provided him with the Last Rites of the
                      Church. There is a church dedicated to him at Newport (Attwater2,
                      Benedictines, Delaney, Farmer, Husenbeth).

                      Icon of St. Gwynllyw
                      http://www.odox.net/A-gwynll.jpg

                      Troparion of St Gladys and St Gwynllyn tone 5
                      Rejoice, thrice-blessed Gladys,/ daughter of King Brychan,/ wife of holy
                      Gwynllyn and mother of Saint Cadoc./ O worthy Gwynllyn,/ thou didst
                      forsake thy pagan warfare to fight as a Christian ascetic/ and didst end
                      thy days as a hermit./ We praise you, Gladys and Gwynllyn.


                      St. Gwaladys (Gladys, Gladusa, Claudia), Hermit
                      ----------------------------------------------------------
                      Born in Wales in the 5th century. One of the 24 children of Brychan of
                      Brecknock, wife of Saint Gundleus (f.d. today), and
                      mother of Saints Cadoc (f.d. September 25) and, possibly, Keyna (f.d.
                      October 8), Saint Gladys led a very interesting life. It is said that
                      after their conversion by the example and exhortation of their son, she
                      and Gundleus lived an austere life. It included the rather interesting
                      practice throughout the year of taking a nightly baths in the Usk,
                      followed by a mile-long walk unclothed. Her son finally convinced them
                      to end the practice and to separate. Gladys moved to Pencanau in
                      Bassaleg. The details of her story come from a 12th-century "vita,"
                      which includes miracles that took place in the time of Saint Edward the
                      Confessor (f.d. October 13) and William I (Attwater2, Benedictines,
                      Delaney, Farmer, Husenbeth).


                      St. Eustace (Eustasius) of Luxeuil, Abbot
                      ----------------------------------------------------------
                      Died 625. Saint Eustace was a favourite disciple and monk of Saint
                      Columbanus (f.d. November 23), whom he succeeded as second abbot of
                      Luxeuil in 611. He ruled over about 600 monks. During his abbacy the
                      monastery was a veritable seminary for bishops and saints, perhaps
                      because of the example he gave by his own humility, continual prayer,
                      and fasting (Benedictines, Husenbeth).

                      St. Lasar (Lassar, Lassera), Virgin
                      ----------------------------------------------------------
                      6th century. The Irish nun Saint Lasar (meaning 'Flame') was the niece
                      of Saint Forchera. Still very young, she entered religious life under
                      the care of SS. Finnian (f.d. December 12) and Ciaran (f.d. September 9)
                      at Clonard (Benedictines).


                      St. Rupert (Hrodbert, Robert, Rupprecht) of Salzburg, Bishop
                      ---------------------------------------------------------
                      Died in Salzburg, Austria, on March 27, c. 710-720; feast day formerly
                      March 27; feast of the translation of his relics is kept
                      in Bavaria and Austria on September 25.

                      There have been varying opinions as to where Rupert was born and when
                      (with variations of 100 years). While more reliable sources make him a
                      Frankish nobleman, others, including Colgan insist he was an Irishman
                      with the Gaelic name Robertach. From his youth he was renowned for his
                      learning, extraordinary virtues, austerity, and charity that sought to
                      impoverish himself to enrich the poor. People came from remote provinces
                      to receive his advice. He would remove all their doubts and scruples,
                      comfort the afflicted, cure the sick, and heal the disorders of souls.
                      His virtuous life led to his being consecrated bishop of Worms, Germany,
                      from where he began his missionary work in southern Bavaria and Austria.
                      (One version says he was expelled by the pagans at Worms, others that he
                      was simply a zealous, evangelical Christian.)

                      Rupert travelled to Regensburg (Ratisbon) with a small company about
                      697, perhaps with credentials from the French King Childebert III, or
                      because Duke Theodo of Bavaria had heard of his reputation for miracles
                      and invited him. They went to Duke Theodo, whose permission they needed
                      to proceed. While Theodo was not a Christian, his sister, Bagintrude,
                      is said to have been one. He agreed to listen to their preaching and
                      was converted and baptized. Many of the leading men and women of the
                      land followed the duke's example and embraced Christianity, which had
                      been preached there 200 years earlier by Saint Severinus of Noricum
                      (f.d. January 8).

                      Instead of knocking down pagan temples, as many missionaries did, Rupert
                      preferred to consecrate them as Christian churches. For example, those
                      at Regensburg and Altoetting were soon altered for Christian services.
                      (It is said that the statue of the Blessed Mother at Altoetting was
                      brought there from Ireland by an Irishman named Rupert.) Where there
                      was no suitable temple to adapt churches were built, and Regensburg
                      became primarily Christian. God confirmed Rupert's preaching by many
                      miracles. Soon the missionary work met with such success that many more
                      helpers from Franconia were needed to meet the spiritual needs of
                      Rupert's converts.

                      The group continued down the Danube, converting still more. After
                      Ratisbon, the capital, the next seat of his labours was "Laureacum," now
                      called Lorch, where he healed several diseases by prayer, and won many
                      other souls to Christ. But in neither of these flourishing towns did
                      Rupert establish his bishopric. He made the old, fallen-down town of
                      Juvavum, given to him by the duke of Bavaria, his headquarters. The
                      town was restored and he named it Salzburg (Salt Fortress). There with
                      the help of his companions Saints Virgilius (f.d. November 27), Chuniald
                      (f.d. September 24), and Gislar (f.d. September 24), Rupert founded
                      Saint Peter's church and monastery with a school along the lines of the
                      Irish monasteries.

                      He made a trip home to gather twelve more recruits. His sister, Saint
                      Ermentrudis (f.d. June 30), entered a convent he founded at Nonnberg
                      (setting for "The Sound of Music") and became its first abbess. He did
                      much to foster the operation of the salt mines. Rupert, the first
                      archbishop of Salzburg, is considered to be the Apostle of Bavaria and
                      Austria. He died on Easter Day. Thereafter, he became so renowned that
                      countries such as Ireland claimed him as a native son and celebrate his
                      memory liturgically. The Duchy of Salzburg cast his likeness with that
                      of the Saint Virgilius on the coin of the realm called a rubentaler
                      (Attwater, Attwater2, Benedictines, Bentley, D'Arcy, Encyclopaedia,
                      Farmer, Gougaud, Husenbeth, Kenney,
                      Walsh, White).

                      Rupert's emblem in art is a barrel of salt, because of his association
                      with the reopening of the salt mines. He may be shown
                      holding a basket of eggs; baptizing Duke Theodo(re) of Bavaria; or with
                      Saint Virgilius of Salzburg (Farmer, Roeder, White).



                      Sources:
                      ========

                      Attwater, D. (1958). A Dictionary of Saints. New York:
                      P. J. Kennedy & Sons. [Attwater 2]

                      Benedictine Monks of Saint Augustine Abbey, Ramsgate.
                      (1947). The Book of Saints. NY: Macmillan.

                      Bentley, J. (1986). A Calendar of Saints: The Lives of the
                      Principal Saints of the Christian Year, NY: Facts on File.

                      D'Arcy, M. R. (1974). The Saints of Ireland. Saint Paul, Minnesota:
                      Irish American Cultural Institute. [This is probably the most
                      useful book to choose to own on the Irish saints. The author
                      provides a great deal of historical context in which to place the
                      lives of the saints.]

                      Encyclopaedia of Catholic Saints, March. (1966).
                      Philadelphia: Chilton Books.

                      Farmer, D. H. (1997). The Oxford Dictionary of Saints.
                      Oxford: Oxford University Press.

                      Husenbeth, Rev. F. C., DD, VG (ed.). (1928). Butler's
                      Lives of the Fathers, Martyrs, and Other Principal Saints.
                      London: Virtue & Co.

                      Kenney, J. F. (1929). Sources for Early History of Ireland, vol.
                      1, Ecclesiastical. New York: Columbia University Press.

                      Roeder, H. (1956). Saints and Their Attributes, Chicago: Henry
                      Regnery.

                      Walsh, M. (ed.). (1985). Butler's Lives of the Saints. San Francisco.
                      Harper & Row. Walsh, W. T. (1943).

                      White, K. E. (1992). Guide to the Saints. NY: Ivy Books.

                      For All the Saints:
                      http://www.saintpatrickdc.org/ss/ss-index.htm

                      An Alphabetical Index of the Saints of the West
                      http://www.orthodoxengland.btinternet.co.uk/saintsa.htm

                      These Lives are archived at:
                      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/celt-saints
                      ¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤
                    • ambrois@xtra.co.nz
                      Celtic and Old English Saints 29 March =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-= * St. Gwynllyw of Wales * St. Gwladys * St. Eustace of Luxeuil * St.
                      Message 10 of 14 , Mar 28, 2011
                      • 0 Attachment
                        Celtic and Old English Saints 29 March

                        =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=
                        * St. Gwynllyw of Wales
                        * St. Gwladys
                        * St. Eustace of Luxeuil
                        * St. Lasar
                        * St. Rupert of Salzburg
                        =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=


                        St. Gwynllyw of Wales, Hermit
                        (Gundleus, Woolo, Woollos)
                        ----------------------------------------------------------
                        Died c. 500. Gundleus (Latin for Gwynllyw, which is anglicised as
                        Woolo) was a Welsh chieftain. Although he was the eldest, when his
                        father died, Gundleus divided his inheritance among his six brothers.
                        According to legend, he desired to marry Gwladys (f.d. today), daughter
                        of Saint Brychan of Brecknock (f.d. April 6). When Brychan refused his
                        daughter's hand, Gundleus kidnapped and married her. (One aspect of the
                        legend has King Arthur helping to defeat the pursuing Brychan and being
                        dissuaded from capturing Gwladys for himself by two of his knights.)

                        Nevertheless, Gundleus and Gwladys led a riotous life, engaging in
                        violence and banditry until their first son, Saint Cadoc (f.d.
                        September 25), convinced them to adopt and follow a religious life
                        together at Stow Hill near Newport (Gwent), Monmouthshire. Later he had
                        them separate and live as hermits.

                        Gundleus spent his last years completely retired from the world in a
                        solitary little dwelling near a church which he had built. He wore
                        sackcloth, ate barley-bread strewn with ashes, and drank water. To
                        constant prayer and contemplation he added the work of his hands. On
                        his deathbed, Gundleus was visited by Saint Dyfrig (f.d. November 14)
                        and his own son Cadoc, who provided him with the Last Rites of the
                        Church. There is a church dedicated to him at Newport (Attwater2,
                        Benedictines, Delaney, Farmer, Husenbeth).

                        Icon of St. Gwynllyw
                        http://www.odox.net/A-gwynll.jpg

                        Troparion of St Gladys and St Gwynllyn tone 5
                        Rejoice, thrice-blessed Gladys,/ daughter of King Brychan,/ wife of holy
                        Gwynllyn and mother of Saint Cadoc./ O worthy Gwynllyn,/ thou didst
                        forsake thy pagan warfare to fight as a Christian ascetic/ and didst end
                        thy days as a hermit./ We praise you, Gladys and Gwynllyn.


                        St. Gwaladys (Gladys, Gladusa, Claudia), Hermit
                        ----------------------------------------------------------
                        Born in Wales in the 5th century. One of the 24 children of Brychan of
                        Brecknock, wife of Saint Gundleus (f.d. today), and
                        mother of Saints Cadoc (f.d. September 25) and, possibly, Keyna (f.d.
                        October 8), Saint Gladys led a very interesting life. It is said that
                        after their conversion by the example and exhortation of their son, she
                        and Gundleus lived an austere life. It included the rather interesting
                        practice throughout the year of taking a nightly baths in the Usk,
                        followed by a mile-long walk unclothed. Her son finally convinced them
                        to end the practice and to separate. Gladys moved to Pencanau in
                        Bassaleg. The details of her story come from a 12th-century "vita,"
                        which includes miracles that took place in the time of Saint Edward the
                        Confessor (f.d. October 13) and William I (Attwater2, Benedictines,
                        Delaney, Farmer, Husenbeth).


                        St. Eustace (Eustasius) of Luxeuil, Abbot
                        ----------------------------------------------------------
                        Died 625. Saint Eustace was a favourite disciple and monk of Saint
                        Columbanus (f.d. November 23), whom he succeeded as second abbot of
                        Luxeuil in 611. He ruled over about 600 monks. During his abbacy the
                        monastery was a veritable seminary for bishops and saints, perhaps
                        because of the example he gave by his own humility, continual prayer,
                        and fasting (Benedictines, Husenbeth).

                        St. Lasar (Lassar, Lassera), Virgin
                        ----------------------------------------------------------
                        6th century. The Irish nun Saint Lasar (meaning 'Flame') was the niece
                        of Saint Forchera. Still very young, she entered religious life under
                        the care of SS. Finnian (f.d. December 12) and Ciaran (f.d. September 9)
                        at Clonard (Benedictines).


                        St. Rupert (Hrodbert, Robert, Rupprecht) of Salzburg, Bishop
                        ---------------------------------------------------------
                        Died in Salzburg, Austria, on March 27, c. 710-720; feast day formerly
                        March 27; feast of the translation of his relics is kept
                        in Bavaria and Austria on September 25.

                        There have been varying opinions as to where Rupert was born and when
                        (with variations of 100 years). While more reliable sources make him a
                        Frankish nobleman, others, including Colgan insist he was an Irishman
                        with the Gaelic name Robertach. From his youth he was renowned for his
                        learning, extraordinary virtues, austerity, and charity that sought to
                        impoverish himself to enrich the poor. People came from remote provinces
                        to receive his advice. He would remove all their doubts and scruples,
                        comfort the afflicted, cure the sick, and heal the disorders of souls.
                        His virtuous life led to his being consecrated bishop of Worms, Germany,
                        from where he began his missionary work in southern Bavaria and Austria.
                        (One version says he was expelled by the pagans at Worms, others that he
                        was simply a zealous, evangelical Christian.)

                        Rupert travelled to Regensburg (Ratisbon) with a small company about
                        697, perhaps with credentials from the French King Childebert III, or
                        because Duke Theodo of Bavaria had heard of his reputation for miracles
                        and invited him. They went to Duke Theodo, whose permission they needed
                        to proceed. While Theodo was not a Christian, his sister, Bagintrude,
                        is said to have been one. He agreed to listen to their preaching and
                        was converted and baptized. Many of the leading men and women of the
                        land followed the duke's example and embraced Christianity, which had
                        been preached there 200 years earlier by Saint Severinus of Noricum
                        (f.d. January 8).

                        Instead of knocking down pagan temples, as many missionaries did, Rupert
                        preferred to consecrate them as Christian churches. For example, those
                        at Regensburg and Altoetting were soon altered for Christian services.
                        (It is said that the statue of the Blessed Mother at Altoetting was
                        brought there from Ireland by an Irishman named Rupert.) Where there
                        was no suitable temple to adapt churches were built, and Regensburg
                        became primarily Christian. God confirmed Rupert's preaching by many
                        miracles. Soon the missionary work met with such success that many more
                        helpers from Franconia were needed to meet the spiritual needs of
                        Rupert's converts.

                        The group continued down the Danube, converting still more. After
                        Ratisbon, the capital, the next seat of his labours was "Laureacum," now
                        called Lorch, where he healed several diseases by prayer, and won many
                        other souls to Christ. But in neither of these flourishing towns did
                        Rupert establish his bishopric. He made the old, fallen-down town of
                        Juvavum, given to him by the duke of Bavaria, his headquarters. The
                        town was restored and he named it Salzburg (Salt Fortress). There with
                        the help of his companions Saints Virgilius (f.d. November 27), Chuniald
                        (f.d. September 24), and Gislar (f.d. September 24), Rupert founded
                        Saint Peter's church and monastery with a school along the lines of the
                        Irish monasteries.

                        He made a trip home to gather twelve more recruits. His sister, Saint
                        Ermentrudis (f.d. June 30), entered a convent he founded at Nonnberg
                        (setting for "The Sound of Music") and became its first abbess. He did
                        much to foster the operation of the salt mines. Rupert, the first
                        archbishop of Salzburg, is considered to be the Apostle of Bavaria and
                        Austria. He died on Easter Day. Thereafter, he became so renowned that
                        countries such as Ireland claimed him as a native son and celebrate his
                        memory liturgically. The Duchy of Salzburg cast his likeness with that
                        of the Saint Virgilius on the coin of the realm called a rubentaler
                        (Attwater, Attwater2, Benedictines, Bentley, D'Arcy, Encyclopaedia,
                        Farmer, Gougaud, Husenbeth, Kenney,
                        Walsh, White).

                        Rupert's emblem in art is a barrel of salt, because of his association
                        with the reopening of the salt mines. He may be shown
                        holding a basket of eggs; baptizing Duke Theodo(re) of Bavaria; or with
                        Saint Virgilius of Salzburg (Farmer, Roeder, White).



                        Sources:
                        ========

                        Attwater, D. (1958). A Dictionary of Saints. New York:
                        P. J. Kennedy & Sons. [Attwater 2]

                        Benedictine Monks of Saint Augustine Abbey, Ramsgate.
                        (1947). The Book of Saints. NY: Macmillan.

                        Bentley, J. (1986). A Calendar of Saints: The Lives of the
                        Principal Saints of the Christian Year, NY: Facts on File.

                        D'Arcy, M. R. (1974). The Saints of Ireland. Saint Paul, Minnesota:
                        Irish American Cultural Institute. [This is probably the most
                        useful book to choose to own on the Irish saints. The author
                        provides a great deal of historical context in which to place the
                        lives of the saints.]

                        Encyclopaedia of Catholic Saints, March. (1966).
                        Philadelphia: Chilton Books.

                        Farmer, D. H. (1997). The Oxford Dictionary of Saints.
                        Oxford: Oxford University Press.

                        Husenbeth, Rev. F. C., DD, VG (ed.). (1928). Butler's
                        Lives of the Fathers, Martyrs, and Other Principal Saints.
                        London: Virtue & Co.

                        Kenney, J. F. (1929). Sources for Early History of Ireland, vol.
                        1, Ecclesiastical. New York: Columbia University Press.

                        Roeder, H. (1956). Saints and Their Attributes, Chicago: Henry
                        Regnery.

                        Walsh, M. (ed.). (1985). Butler's Lives of the Saints. San Francisco.
                        Harper & Row. Walsh, W. T. (1943).

                        White, K. E. (1992). Guide to the Saints. NY: Ivy Books.

                        For All the Saints:
                        http://www.saintpatrickdc.org/ss/ss-index.htm

                        An Alphabetical Index of the Saints of the West
                        http://www.orthodoxengland.btinternet.co.uk/saintsa.htm

                        These Lives are archived at:
                        http://groups.yahoo.com/group/celt-saints
                        ¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤
                      • ambrois@xtra.co.nz
                        Celtic and Old English Saints 29 March =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-= * St. Gwynllyw of Wales * St. Gwladys * St. Eustace of Luxeuil * St.
                        Message 11 of 14 , Mar 29, 2012
                        • 0 Attachment
                          Celtic and Old English Saints 29 March

                          =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=
                          * St. Gwynllyw of Wales
                          * St. Gwladys
                          * St. Eustace of Luxeuil
                          * St. Lasar
                          * St. Rupert of Salzburg
                          =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=


                          St. Gwynllyw of Wales, Hermit
                          (Gundleus, Woolo, Woollos)
                          ----------------------------------------------------------
                          Died c. 500. Gundleus (Latin for Gwynllyw, which is anglicised as
                          Woolo) was a Welsh chieftain. Although he was the eldest, when his
                          father died, Gundleus divided his inheritance among his six brothers.
                          According to legend, he desired to marry Gwladys (f.d. today), daughter
                          of Saint Brychan of Brecknock (f.d. April 6). When Brychan refused his
                          daughter's hand, Gundleus kidnapped and married her. (One aspect of the
                          legend has King Arthur helping to defeat the pursuing Brychan and being
                          dissuaded from capturing Gwladys for himself by two of his knights.)

                          Nevertheless, Gundleus and Gwladys led a riotous life, engaging in
                          violence and banditry until their first son, Saint Cadoc (f.d.
                          September 25), convinced them to adopt and follow a religious life
                          together at Stow Hill near Newport (Gwent), Monmouthshire. Later he had
                          them separate and live as hermits.

                          Gundleus spent his last years completely retired from the world in a
                          solitary little dwelling near a church which he had built. He wore
                          sackcloth, ate barley-bread strewn with ashes, and drank water. To
                          constant prayer and contemplation he added the work of his hands. On
                          his deathbed, Gundleus was visited by Saint Dyfrig (f.d. November 14)
                          and his own son Cadoc, who provided him with the Last Rites of the
                          Church. There is a church dedicated to him at Newport (Attwater2,
                          Benedictines, Delaney, Farmer, Husenbeth).

                          Icon of St. Gwynllyw
                          http://www.odox.net/A-gwynll.jpg

                          Troparion of St Gladys and St Gwynllyn tone 5
                          Rejoice, thrice-blessed Gladys,/ daughter of King Brychan,/ wife of holy
                          Gwynllyn and mother of Saint Cadoc./ O worthy Gwynllyn,/ thou didst
                          forsake thy pagan warfare to fight as a Christian ascetic/ and didst end
                          thy days as a hermit./ We praise you, Gladys and Gwynllyn.


                          St. Gwaladys (Gladys, Gladusa, Claudia), Hermit
                          ----------------------------------------------------------
                          Born in Wales in the 5th century. One of the 24 children of Brychan of
                          Brecknock, wife of Saint Gundleus (f.d. today), and
                          mother of Saints Cadoc (f.d. September 25) and, possibly, Keyna (f.d.
                          October 8), Saint Gladys led a very interesting life. It is said that
                          after their conversion by the example and exhortation of their son, she
                          and Gundleus lived an austere life. It included the rather interesting
                          practice throughout the year of taking a nightly baths in the Usk,
                          followed by a mile-long walk unclothed. Her son finally convinced them
                          to end the practice and to separate. Gladys moved to Pencanau in
                          Bassaleg. The details of her story come from a 12th-century "vita,"
                          which includes miracles that took place in the time of Saint Edward the
                          Confessor (f.d. October 13) and William I (Attwater2, Benedictines,
                          Delaney, Farmer, Husenbeth).


                          St. Eustace (Eustasius) of Luxeuil, Abbot
                          ----------------------------------------------------------
                          Died 625. Saint Eustace was a favourite disciple and monk of Saint
                          Columbanus (f.d. November 23), whom he succeeded as second abbot of
                          Luxeuil in 611. He ruled over about 600 monks. During his abbacy the
                          monastery was a veritable seminary for bishops and saints, perhaps
                          because of the example he gave by his own humility, continual prayer,
                          and fasting (Benedictines, Husenbeth).

                          St. Lasar (Lassar, Lassera), Virgin
                          ----------------------------------------------------------
                          6th century. The Irish nun Saint Lasar (meaning 'Flame') was the niece
                          of Saint Forchera. Still very young, she entered religious life under
                          the care of SS. Finnian (f.d. December 12) and Ciaran (f.d. September 9)
                          at Clonard (Benedictines).


                          St. Rupert (Hrodbert, Robert, Rupprecht) of Salzburg, Bishop
                          ---------------------------------------------------------
                          Died in Salzburg, Austria, on March 27, c. 710-720; feast day formerly
                          March 27; feast of the translation of his relics is kept
                          in Bavaria and Austria on September 25.

                          There have been varying opinions as to where Rupert was born and when
                          (with variations of 100 years). While more reliable sources make him a
                          Frankish nobleman, others, including Colgan insist he was an Irishman
                          with the Gaelic name Robertach. From his youth he was renowned for his
                          learning, extraordinary virtues, austerity, and charity that sought to
                          impoverish himself to enrich the poor. People came from remote provinces
                          to receive his advice. He would remove all their doubts and scruples,
                          comfort the afflicted, cure the sick, and heal the disorders of souls.
                          His virtuous life led to his being consecrated bishop of Worms, Germany,
                          from where he began his missionary work in southern Bavaria and Austria.
                          (One version says he was expelled by the pagans at Worms, others that he
                          was simply a zealous, evangelical Christian.)

                          Rupert travelled to Regensburg (Ratisbon) with a small company about
                          697, perhaps with credentials from the French King Childebert III, or
                          because Duke Theodo of Bavaria had heard of his reputation for miracles
                          and invited him. They went to Duke Theodo, whose permission they needed
                          to proceed. While Theodo was not a Christian, his sister, Bagintrude,
                          is said to have been one. He agreed to listen to their preaching and
                          was converted and baptized. Many of the leading men and women of the
                          land followed the duke's example and embraced Christianity, which had
                          been preached there 200 years earlier by Saint Severinus of Noricum
                          (f.d. January 8).

                          Instead of knocking down pagan temples, as many missionaries did, Rupert
                          preferred to consecrate them as Christian churches. For example, those
                          at Regensburg and Altoetting were soon altered for Christian services.
                          (It is said that the statue of the Blessed Mother at Altoetting was
                          brought there from Ireland by an Irishman named Rupert.) Where there
                          was no suitable temple to adapt churches were built, and Regensburg
                          became primarily Christian. God confirmed Rupert's preaching by many
                          miracles. Soon the missionary work met with such success that many more
                          helpers from Franconia were needed to meet the spiritual needs of
                          Rupert's converts.

                          The group continued down the Danube, converting still more. After
                          Ratisbon, the capital, the next seat of his labours was "Laureacum," now
                          called Lorch, where he healed several diseases by prayer, and won many
                          other souls to Christ. But in neither of these flourishing towns did
                          Rupert establish his bishopric. He made the old, fallen-down town of
                          Juvavum, given to him by the duke of Bavaria, his headquarters. The
                          town was restored and he named it Salzburg (Salt Fortress). There with
                          the help of his companions Saints Virgilius (f.d. November 27), Chuniald
                          (f.d. September 24), and Gislar (f.d. September 24), Rupert founded
                          Saint Peter's church and monastery with a school along the lines of the
                          Irish monasteries.

                          He made a trip home to gather twelve more recruits. His sister, Saint
                          Ermentrudis (f.d. June 30), entered a convent he founded at Nonnberg
                          (setting for "The Sound of Music") and became its first abbess. He did
                          much to foster the operation of the salt mines. Rupert, the first
                          archbishop of Salzburg, is considered to be the Apostle of Bavaria and
                          Austria. He died on Easter Day. Thereafter, he became so renowned that
                          countries such as Ireland claimed him as a native son and celebrate his
                          memory liturgically. The Duchy of Salzburg cast his likeness with that
                          of the Saint Virgilius on the coin of the realm called a rubentaler
                          (Attwater, Attwater2, Benedictines, Bentley, D'Arcy, Encyclopaedia,
                          Farmer, Gougaud, Husenbeth, Kenney,
                          Walsh, White).

                          Rupert's emblem in art is a barrel of salt, because of his association
                          with the reopening of the salt mines. He may be shown
                          holding a basket of eggs; baptizing Duke Theodo(re) of Bavaria; or with
                          Saint Virgilius of Salzburg (Farmer, Roeder, White).



                          Sources:
                          ========

                          Attwater, D. (1958). A Dictionary of Saints. New York:
                          P. J. Kennedy & Sons. [Attwater 2]

                          Benedictine Monks of Saint Augustine Abbey, Ramsgate.
                          (1947). The Book of Saints. NY: Macmillan.

                          Bentley, J. (1986). A Calendar of Saints: The Lives of the
                          Principal Saints of the Christian Year, NY: Facts on File.

                          D'Arcy, M. R. (1974). The Saints of Ireland. Saint Paul, Minnesota:
                          Irish American Cultural Institute. [This is probably the most
                          useful book to choose to own on the Irish saints. The author
                          provides a great deal of historical context in which to place the
                          lives of the saints.]

                          Encyclopaedia of Catholic Saints, March. (1966).
                          Philadelphia: Chilton Books.

                          Farmer, D. H. (1997). The Oxford Dictionary of Saints.
                          Oxford: Oxford University Press.

                          Husenbeth, Rev. F. C., DD, VG (ed.). (1928). Butler's
                          Lives of the Fathers, Martyrs, and Other Principal Saints.
                          London: Virtue & Co.

                          Kenney, J. F. (1929). Sources for Early History of Ireland, vol.
                          1, Ecclesiastical. New York: Columbia University Press.

                          Roeder, H. (1956). Saints and Their Attributes, Chicago: Henry
                          Regnery.

                          Walsh, M. (ed.). (1985). Butler's Lives of the Saints. San Francisco.
                          Harper & Row. Walsh, W. T. (1943).

                          White, K. E. (1992). Guide to the Saints. NY: Ivy Books.

                          For All the Saints:
                          http://www.saintpatrickdc.org/ss/ss-index.htm

                          An Alphabetical Index of the Saints of the West
                          http://www.orthodoxengland.btinternet.co.uk/saintsa.htm

                          These Lives are archived at:
                          http://groups.yahoo.com/group/celt-saints
                          ¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤
                        • ambrois@xtra.co.nz
                          Celtic and Old English Saints 29 March =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-= * St. Gwynllyw of Wales * St. Gwladys * St. Eustace of Luxeuil * St.
                          Message 12 of 14 , Mar 28, 2013
                          • 0 Attachment
                            Celtic and Old English Saints 29 March

                            =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=
                            * St. Gwynllyw of Wales
                            * St. Gwladys
                            * St. Eustace of Luxeuil
                            * St. Lasar
                            * St. Rupert of Salzburg
                            =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=


                            St. Gwynllyw of Wales, Hermit
                            (Gundleus, Woolo, Woollos)
                            ----------------------------------------------------------
                            Died c. 500. Gundleus (Latin for Gwynllyw, which is anglicised as
                            Woolo) was a Welsh chieftain. Although he was the eldest, when his
                            father died, Gundleus divided his inheritance among his six brothers.
                            According to legend, he desired to marry Gwladys (f.d. today), daughter
                            of Saint Brychan of Brecknock (f.d. April 6). When Brychan refused his
                            daughter's hand, Gundleus kidnapped and married her. (One aspect of the
                            legend has King Arthur helping to defeat the pursuing Brychan and being
                            dissuaded from capturing Gwladys for himself by two of his knights.)

                            Nevertheless, Gundleus and Gwladys led a riotous life, engaging in
                            violence and banditry until their first son, Saint Cadoc (f.d.
                            September 25), convinced them to adopt and follow a religious life
                            together at Stow Hill near Newport (Gwent), Monmouthshire. Later he had
                            them separate and live as hermits.

                            Gundleus spent his last years completely retired from the world in a
                            solitary little dwelling near a church which he had built. He wore
                            sackcloth, ate barley-bread strewn with ashes, and drank water. To
                            constant prayer and contemplation he added the work of his hands. On
                            his deathbed, Gundleus was visited by Saint Dyfrig (f.d. November 14)
                            and his own son Cadoc, who provided him with the Last Rites of the
                            Church. There is a church dedicated to him at Newport (Attwater2,
                            Benedictines, Delaney, Farmer, Husenbeth).

                            Icon of St. Gwynllyw
                            http://www.odox.net/A-gwynll.jpg

                            Troparion of St Gladys and St Gwynllyn tone 5
                            Rejoice, thrice-blessed Gladys,/ daughter of King Brychan,/ wife of holy
                            Gwynllyn and mother of Saint Cadoc./ O worthy Gwynllyn,/ thou didst
                            forsake thy pagan warfare to fight as a Christian ascetic/ and didst end
                            thy days as a hermit./ We praise you, Gladys and Gwynllyn.


                            St. Gwaladys (Gladys, Gladusa, Claudia), Hermit
                            ----------------------------------------------------------
                            Born in Wales in the 5th century. One of the 24 children of Brychan of
                            Brecknock, wife of Saint Gundleus (f.d. today), and
                            mother of Saints Cadoc (f.d. September 25) and, possibly, Keyna (f.d.
                            October 8), Saint Gladys led a very interesting life. It is said that
                            after their conversion by the example and exhortation of their son, she
                            and Gundleus lived an austere life. It included the rather interesting
                            practice throughout the year of taking a nightly baths in the Usk,
                            followed by a mile-long walk unclothed. Her son finally convinced them
                            to end the practice and to separate. Gladys moved to Pencanau in
                            Bassaleg. The details of her story come from a 12th-century "vita,"
                            which includes miracles that took place in the time of Saint Edward the
                            Confessor (f.d. October 13) and William I (Attwater2, Benedictines,
                            Delaney, Farmer, Husenbeth).


                            St. Eustace (Eustasius) of Luxeuil, Abbot
                            ----------------------------------------------------------
                            Died 625. Saint Eustace was a favourite disciple and monk of Saint
                            Columbanus (f.d. November 23), whom he succeeded as second abbot of
                            Luxeuil in 611. He ruled over about 600 monks. During his abbacy the
                            monastery was a veritable seminary for bishops and saints, perhaps
                            because of the example he gave by his own humility, continual prayer,
                            and fasting (Benedictines, Husenbeth).

                            St. Lasar (Lassar, Lassera), Virgin
                            ----------------------------------------------------------
                            6th century. The Irish nun Saint Lasar (meaning 'Flame') was the niece
                            of Saint Forchera. Still very young, she entered religious life under
                            the care of SS. Finnian (f.d. December 12) and Ciaran (f.d. September 9)
                            at Clonard (Benedictines).


                            St. Rupert (Hrodbert, Robert, Rupprecht) of Salzburg, Bishop
                            ---------------------------------------------------------
                            Died in Salzburg, Austria, on March 27, c. 710-720; feast day formerly
                            March 27; feast of the translation of his relics is kept
                            in Bavaria and Austria on September 25.

                            There have been varying opinions as to where Rupert was born and when
                            (with variations of 100 years). While more reliable sources make him a
                            Frankish nobleman, others, including Colgan insist he was an Irishman
                            with the Gaelic name Robertach. From his youth he was renowned for his
                            learning, extraordinary virtues, austerity, and charity that sought to
                            impoverish himself to enrich the poor. People came from remote provinces
                            to receive his advice. He would remove all their doubts and scruples,
                            comfort the afflicted, cure the sick, and heal the disorders of souls.
                            His virtuous life led to his being consecrated bishop of Worms, Germany,
                            from where he began his missionary work in southern Bavaria and Austria.
                            (One version says he was expelled by the pagans at Worms, others that he
                            was simply a zealous, evangelical Christian.)

                            Rupert travelled to Regensburg (Ratisbon) with a small company about
                            697, perhaps with credentials from the French King Childebert III, or
                            because Duke Theodo of Bavaria had heard of his reputation for miracles
                            and invited him. They went to Duke Theodo, whose permission they needed
                            to proceed. While Theodo was not a Christian, his sister, Bagintrude,
                            is said to have been one. He agreed to listen to their preaching and
                            was converted and baptized. Many of the leading men and women of the
                            land followed the duke's example and embraced Christianity, which had
                            been preached there 200 years earlier by Saint Severinus of Noricum
                            (f.d. January 8).

                            Instead of knocking down pagan temples, as many missionaries did, Rupert
                            preferred to consecrate them as Christian churches. For example, those
                            at Regensburg and Altoetting were soon altered for Christian services.
                            (It is said that the statue of the Blessed Mother at Altoetting was
                            brought there from Ireland by an Irishman named Rupert.) Where there
                            was no suitable temple to adapt churches were built, and Regensburg
                            became primarily Christian. God confirmed Rupert's preaching by many
                            miracles. Soon the missionary work met with such success that many more
                            helpers from Franconia were needed to meet the spiritual needs of
                            Rupert's converts.

                            The group continued down the Danube, converting still more. After
                            Ratisbon, the capital, the next seat of his labours was "Laureacum," now
                            called Lorch, where he healed several diseases by prayer, and won many
                            other souls to Christ. But in neither of these flourishing towns did
                            Rupert establish his bishopric. He made the old, fallen-down town of
                            Juvavum, given to him by the duke of Bavaria, his headquarters. The
                            town was restored and he named it Salzburg (Salt Fortress). There with
                            the help of his companions Saints Virgilius (f.d. November 27), Chuniald
                            (f.d. September 24), and Gislar (f.d. September 24), Rupert founded
                            Saint Peter's church and monastery with a school along the lines of the
                            Irish monasteries.

                            He made a trip home to gather twelve more recruits. His sister, Saint
                            Ermentrudis (f.d. June 30), entered a convent he founded at Nonnberg
                            (setting for "The Sound of Music") and became its first abbess. He did
                            much to foster the operation of the salt mines. Rupert, the first
                            archbishop of Salzburg, is considered to be the Apostle of Bavaria and
                            Austria. He died on Easter Day. Thereafter, he became so renowned that
                            countries such as Ireland claimed him as a native son and celebrate his
                            memory liturgically. The Duchy of Salzburg cast his likeness with that
                            of the Saint Virgilius on the coin of the realm called a rubentaler
                            (Attwater, Attwater2, Benedictines, Bentley, D'Arcy, Encyclopaedia,
                            Farmer, Gougaud, Husenbeth, Kenney,
                            Walsh, White).

                            Rupert's emblem in art is a barrel of salt, because of his association
                            with the reopening of the salt mines. He may be shown
                            holding a basket of eggs; baptizing Duke Theodo(re) of Bavaria; or with
                            Saint Virgilius of Salzburg (Farmer, Roeder, White).



                            Sources:
                            ========

                            Attwater, D. (1958). A Dictionary of Saints. New York:
                            P. J. Kennedy & Sons. [Attwater 2]

                            Benedictine Monks of Saint Augustine Abbey, Ramsgate.
                            (1947). The Book of Saints. NY: Macmillan.

                            Bentley, J. (1986). A Calendar of Saints: The Lives of the
                            Principal Saints of the Christian Year, NY: Facts on File.

                            D'Arcy, M. R. (1974). The Saints of Ireland. Saint Paul, Minnesota:
                            Irish American Cultural Institute. [This is probably the most
                            useful book to choose to own on the Irish saints. The author
                            provides a great deal of historical context in which to place the
                            lives of the saints.]

                            Encyclopaedia of Catholic Saints, March. (1966).
                            Philadelphia: Chilton Books.

                            Farmer, D. H. (1997). The Oxford Dictionary of Saints.
                            Oxford: Oxford University Press.

                            Husenbeth, Rev. F. C., DD, VG (ed.). (1928). Butler's
                            Lives of the Fathers, Martyrs, and Other Principal Saints.
                            London: Virtue & Co.

                            Kenney, J. F. (1929). Sources for Early History of Ireland, vol.
                            1, Ecclesiastical. New York: Columbia University Press.

                            Roeder, H. (1956). Saints and Their Attributes, Chicago: Henry
                            Regnery.

                            Walsh, M. (ed.). (1985). Butler's Lives of the Saints. San Francisco.
                            Harper & Row. Walsh, W. T. (1943).

                            White, K. E. (1992). Guide to the Saints. NY: Ivy Books.

                            For All the Saints: - new active link
                            http://www.saintpatrickdc.org/ss/saint_a.shtml

                            An Alphabetical Index of the Saints of the West - new active link
                            http://orthodoxengland.org.uk/saintsa.htm

                            These Lives are archived at:
                            http://groups.yahoo.com/group/celt-saints
                            ¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤
                          Your message has been successfully submitted and would be delivered to recipients shortly.