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30 May

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  • emrys@globe.net.nz
    Celtic and Old English Saints 30 May =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-= * St. Walstan the Generous * Saint Mauguille of Picardy
    Message 1 of 14 , May 28, 2009
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      Celtic and Old English Saints 30 May

      =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=
      * St. Walstan the Generous
      * Saint Mauguille of Picardy
      =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=


      St. Walstan the Generous, of Bawburgh (of Taverham)
      -----------------------------------------------------------

      In the year 975 a child was born in the village of Bawburgh, a few miles
      to the west of Norwich in Norfolk(1). His parents were called Benedict
      and Blide and were nobles related to the English Royal Family of the
      House of Wessex. His mother indeed was a kinswoman of King Ethelred and
      his son Edmund Ironside(2). This child was baptized Walstan.

      From the example of his parents, who possessed books, the child Walstan
      studied the Scriptures. In particular he was troubled by the meaning and
      implications of a verse in the Gospel of St Luke (14, 33): 'Whosoever he
      be of you that forsaketh not all that he hath, he cannot be my
      disciple'. At the age of seven Walstan received instruction in the Faith
      from Bishop Theodred of Elmham with the assistance of Fr Жlred, the
      parish priest of Bawburgh. At this early date the child Walstan pledged
      to renounce all for love of God, asking not for an earthly crown as he
      of noble blood might perhaps expect, but for a crown of thorns and an
      eternal reward. He vowed to devote himself to God in humility and
      anonymity, forsaking the material security of his home and his ties of
      nobility.

      Shortly before his thirteenth birthday, Walstan told his parents that he
      must now leave their home. Although forewarned of their son's
      renunciation in a dream, Benedict and Blide were reluctant to let their
      son depart. Eventually, however, they realised that this was God's Will
      for him and they consented to his wish(3).

      Thus Walstan left his parents' home and took to the road. Almost at once
      he met two beggars to whom he gave his rich garments. He then walked on
      northwards, clad in the poorest of clothes, with no outward sign of his
      parents' wealth. Within an hour or so the path had taken him to the
      village of Taverham, only a few miles north of Bawburgh, where he
      rested. A landed peasant called Nalga saw him and, in need of a
      labourer, offered Walstan work. The latter agreed.

      Walstan soon gained a reputation for hard work and piety and also
      developed an affinity with the poor and was charitable in the extreme,
      giving both his food and clothing to those less fortunate than himself.
      Often he would carry out his work barefoot, having given away even his
      shoes. Nalga's wife, seeing him thus, once gave him new shoes and extra
      food. Within a short time Walstan had given all away to two passing
      beggars, one of them barefoot. When Nalga and his wife heard this, they
      were angry with him, but Walstan answered that the men had been sent
      providentially by God to find out whether he, Walstan, loved God more
      than himself: 'I shod Christ in the poor man', he said. The wife sneered
      at this and ordered Walstan to take a cart to the forest to fetch a load
      of briars, treading the thorns well down with his unshod feet.
      Miraculously, Walstan appeared to be treading on rose leaves and the
      thorns, as soft as petals ever were, gave out a sweet fragrance. Seeing
      this, Nalga and his wife fell at Walstan's feet and begged forgiveness.
      Thus did Walstan 'forsake all' to be the Lord's disciple and win 'a
      crown of thorns'.

      Over the years Walstan became known and loved for his prayer and
      fasting, hard work, chastity and love for all. As a sign of His
      approval, God allowed miracles to occur through His servant. Animals
      were brought to him to be healed and people too claimed cures through
      his prayers and ministrations. Whatever he did, God blessed. Everything
      prospered through his labours. All the while he continued to live in
      poverty, keeping his royal identity a secret and giving away the money
      he earned. Such was the secret of his anonymity that even his parents,
      only a few miles away at Bawburgh, never came to suspect that the
      good-hearted labourer at Taverham, of whom they must have heard, could
      be their son.

      So it was that Nalga and his wife, having no children of their own, grew
      to love Walstan and made him many gifts, wanting to make him their heir.
      True to his self-denial in accordance with the Gospel, he refused all
      this, continuing to labour on the land for thirty years of unbroken
      service. Finally, he did accept from Nalga the gift of two white calves
      and a small wagon. However this was not for covetousness sake but to
      fulfil God's Will, an angel having commanded him to do so.

      In May 1016, at the start of hay making, Walstan was mowing with another
      labourer when an angel appeared to him, saying: 'Brother Walstan, on the
      third day after this thou shalt depart this life in peace and enter
      Paradise'. At once Walstan put down his scythe and went in search of the
      village priest. The next day, being a Saturday, Walstan stopped work at
      midday in accordance with the laws of the Church, for this was the eve
      of the Sabbath Day. Then there could be heard the ringing of heavenly
      bells and an indescribable unearthly music: the heavens opened and
      angels appeared ringing to the glory and praise of the Undivided
      Trinity.

      Now, that Saturday afternoon Nalga went to the market in Norwich, which
      was then under the government of the Danish King Canute. To his
      amazement he heard there a proclamation that anyone knowing the
      whereabouts of Walstan, son of Benedict and Blide and kinsman of the
      English King Edmund of the House of Wessex, should inform the
      authorities. Nalga learned that the Danes under Canute were about to
      take over the whole of England. The proclamation warned that whoever was
      sheltering Walstan must deliver him up forthwith or else forsake both
      his wealth and his life. Alarmed, Nalga hastened back to Taverham. 'What
      shall I say', he asked, 'when I tell the Danes that all the while I have
      kept thee, heir to the Kingdom of England, here'. Walstan answered that
      he must tell the truth and that he was his servant. He then disclosed
      the angelic revelation and asked Nalga to tell the priest to come to him
      on Monday when Walstan would be at work so that he could confess and
      take communion.

      Thus it was that on Monday 30 May 1016 the village priest came to
      Walstan as he was mowing in the fields. He had worked with his scythe
      until the morning ended and then his hour came. As the priest prepared
      to give Walstan communion, he realised that he had no water to wash
      their hands. Walstan prayed and at once a spring gushed up before him as
      he knelt in prayer. Having then taken communion, he told those gathered
      there that after his repose, they were to place his body on the wagon
      and yoke it to the two white calves. No one should lead them, but the
      calves should go where God pleased. He then besought God that every sick
      labourer and beast should obtain healing of their infirmity, provided
      that they asked with reverent devotion. At that a voice was heard from
      heaven, saying: 'O Holy Walstan, that which thou hast asked is granted.
      Come from thy labours and rest'

      With that Walstan gave up the ghost and a white dove was seen flying
      upwards.

      As directed, Nalga and the people of Taverham laid Walstan's body on the
      wagon and attached the calves to it. The calves then proceeded along the
      banks of the River Wensum and through a wood. At the deepest point of
      the river they crossed, passing over the water dry shod and those who
      followed passed along dry wheel tracks and hoof prints. The white calves
      came to Costessey Wood nearby and stopped to rest. Here a second spring
      gushed forth and flowed with clear water.

      The procession, gaining in numbers, then continued, crossing marsh and
      mire, until they came to Walstan's birthplace, Bawburgh, near where the
      land rises away from the banks of the River Yare. Here they paused again
      and a third spring gushed up. The calves then mounted the steep hill to
      the Church and entered through an opening in the wall, made by angels,
      which then closed up behind them. They remained there until the third
      afternoon when Bishop Жlfgar of Elmham came with monks for the funeral
      service.

      The Bishop, knowing from his predecessor Theodred something of Walstan's
      childhood, listened attentively to Nalga and the local people. They told
      him of the many wonders of Walstan and the Bishop made diligent
      enquiries as to the truth(4). Then, being satisfied, he allowed the
      relics to be venerated as those of a Saint and sent notice to that
      effect to all the neighbouring churches (5).

      The body was enshrined in a chapel in the north transept of Bawburgh
      church. With the Bishop's blessing and by popular consent (6), the site
      became a place of pilgrimage. Through Walstan's intercessions, the Lord
      bestowed miracles of healing on man and beast alike and all those who
      sought healing at the three springs were rewarded with cure. In
      particular the possessed were exorcised, the deaf and dumb were healed
      and those with troubled eyesight had it restored by bathing their eyes
      in the water from the spring at Bawburgh. And in 1047 the enhanced
      church and shrine chapel were rededicated by Bishop Жthelmar of Elmham
      to Mary the Mother of God and St Walstan.

      The veneration of St Walstan survived 'the first reformation of the
      English Church'(7); the 'Old Faith' continued for a while yet. St
      Walstan was portrayed in a number of mediжval churches with other
      'Eastern Saints'. Thus at Great Ryburgh in Norfolk, he may be seen with
      St Felix, St Audrey and St Withburgh. At Fritton on the Norfolk-Suffolk
      border, he is portrayed together with St Felix, St Fursey, St Audrey and
      St Withburgh. At Foxearth on the Essex-Suffolk border he is shown on a
      screen together with St Alban, St Felix and St Edmund. His portraits
      depict him with a scythe and a crown or sceptre, at times with the two
      white calves in the background. St Walstan was particularly beloved of
      East Anglian farmers and farm workers. Indeed his shrine continued as a
      site of pilgrimage until the second reformation of the English Church.
      Sadly at that 'reformation', the holy relics were burned and the shrine
      chapel destroyed in 1538.

      However, local veneration has continued right up to the present time and
      people have continued to bathe their eyes in the springs, place moss
      from the springs on their eyes, especially that from Bawburgh, and also
      give the waters to sick animals. At Taverham one may still find
      'Walstanham Plantation', the reputed site of Nalga's farm and the
      Saint's repose. In the nineteenth century, if not more recently, local
      Catholics baptised their sons 'Walstan'. Annual pilgrimages were revived
      at the beginning of the twentieth century; that of 1912 united five
      hundred people. They have continued regularly ever since. Healings have
      taken place within living memory. There is still a Saint Walstan's Well
      at Costessey, a pilgrimage site for those
      seeking his intercession for the cure of fevers, palsy, lameness, and
      blindness. As recently as 1989 St Walstan was declared 'Patron-Saint
      of British Food and Farming'. And in 1998 there took place the first
      Orthodox pilgrimage to Bawburgh, which is to be continued in the future
      (8).

      Holy Righteous Walstan, pray to God for us!

      (1) The Life of St Walstan provides a good example of a local saint. His
      veneration never spread outside the Eastern Counties. Details of his
      Life were no doubt compiled by the East Anglian bishops of the first
      half of the eleventh century, but all was later lost. The Life as it now
      appears was probably written down only in the fourteenth century and the
      versions that we have are later still. We have therefore removed from
      its retelling here mediжval anachronisms such as Walstan's first
      communion at age seven. (Right up until the end of the twelfth century,
      confirmation and therefore communion followed baptism very closely,
      usually within weeks or months in accordance with ancient Christian
      tradition).

      (2) According to the Life of St Walstan, his mother Blide was related to
      Elgiva, the first wife of King Ethelred 'the Unready'. Ethelred's
      fateful rule had begun from the martyrdom of his half-brother Edward the
      Martyr on 18 March 978 and lasted until 23 April 1015 when he died.
      Ethelred would never have been King if it had not been for Edward's
      martyrdom. Everything this hapless man undertook went awry and he not
      only managed to lose most of his Kingdom to the Danish Canute at the
      beginning of the eleventh century but also married a second time into
      the Norman ruling family, thus ensuring the Norman Invasion in 1066. He
      was succeeded by his valiant son Edmund 'Ironside', who nearly defeated
      the Danish Cnut or Canute. Edmund fathered two children between 1016 and
      1017 but he himself died on 30 November 1016. Blide or 'Blythe', whose
      name means 'Joy', reposed in old age. She was revered as a saint at
      Martham, some fifteen miles to the north west of Norwich where she was
      buried. Here a chapel was dedicated to her and there was a local cult in
      Norfolk. We do not know the date of her feast.

      (3) It is interesting to note the resemblance between the Life of the
      Righteous St Walstan and that of St Alexis of Rome, 'the Man of God',
      commemorated on 17 March.

      (4) The Bishops of Norfolk referred to in the Life are all historic
      figures. Their See was then at North Elmham in central Norfolk. This was
      transferred to Thetford and then Norwich only later by the Normans.
      Theodred II was bishop from 980 to 995, Жlfgar from 1001 to 1021 and
      Жthelmar from 1047 to 1070.

      (5) This would have been the starting-point of the first written Life of
      St Walstan - since lost.

      (6) In Orthodox theology these few words are the very definition of the
      difference between 'glorification' (popular consent and veneration) and
      'canonisation' (official investigation and episcopal blessing and
      confirmation). Some do not realise this and incorrectly deny the
      existence of the canonisation process in the Orthodox Church. Of course
      that process is very different from that in the Roman Catholic Church.
      The latter only developed its present canonisation process in the Middle
      Ages.

      (7) See Carol Twinch, In Search of St Walstan, Norwich 1995, P. 36.

      (8) For a description of the 1998 Orthodox Pilgrimage, see Orthodox
      England, Vol 2, No 3.

      http://members.netscapeonline.co.uk/dvjdvs/v04i4.htm

      In art, Saint Walstan is depicted as a crowned farm labourer holding a
      scythe. At times the picture may include (1) the word "Opifer" by him;
      (2) scythe and sceptre; (3) scythe, crown, and two calves; or scythe and
      ermine cape (Roeder). He is the patron of mowers and husbandmen in the
      area (Husenbeth).

      Canon to the Holy Righteous Walstan of Taverham
      http://members.netscapeonline.co.uk/dvjdvs/canstwal.htm

      Icon of St Walstan
      http://www.allmercifulsavior.com/icons/Icons-Walstan.htm



      St. Madelgisilus (Maguil, Mauguille), Hermit
      ------------------------------------------------------------
      Born in Ireland; died c. 655. Saint Mauguille, as he is known among the
      French, was an Irish monk, disciple, and confidant of Saint Fursey
      (f.d. January 16). After living some years at Saint-Riquier Abbey,
      Mauguille and Saint Vulgan (Pulcan?) became hermits near Monstrelet in
      Picardy, where Mauguille died (Benedictines).


      Sources:
      ========

      Attwater, D. (1983). The Penguin Dictionary of Saints, NY:
      Penguin Books.

      Attwater, D. (1958). A Dictionary of Saints. New York:
      P. J. Kenedy & Sons. [Attwater 2]

      Benedictine Monks of Saint Augustine Abbey, Ramsgate.
      (1947). The Book of saints. NY: Macmillan.

      Coulson, J. (ed.). (1960). The Saints: A Concise Biographical
      Dictionary. New York: Hawthorn Books.
      Green & Co.

      Husenbeth, Rev. F. C., DD, VG (ed.). (1928). Butler's
      Lives of the Fathers, Martyrs, and Other Principal Saints.
      London: Virtue & Co.

      Roeder, H. (1956). Saints and Their Attributes, Chicago: Henry
      Regnery.

      For All the Saints:
      http://www.saintpatrickdc.org/ss/ss-index.htm

      An Alphabetical Index of the Saints of the West
      http://www.orthodoxengland.btinternet.co.uk/saintsa.htm

      These Lives are archived at:
      1. http://groups.yahoo.com/group/celt-saints

      2. The website of Kathleen Hanrahan - in monthly calendar format
      http://celticsaints.org/

      3. Mail Archive
      http://www.mail-archive.com/celt-saints@yahoogroups.com/
    • emrys@globe.net.nz
      Celtic and Old English Saints 30 May =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-= * St. Walstan the Generous * Saint Mauguille of Picardy
      Message 2 of 14 , May 29, 2010
      • 0 Attachment
        Celtic and Old English Saints 30 May

        =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=
        * St. Walstan the Generous
        * Saint Mauguille of Picardy
        =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=


        St. Walstan the Generous, of Bawburgh (of Taverham)
        -----------------------------------------------------------

        In the year 975 a child was born in the village of Bawburgh, a few miles
        to the west of Norwich in Norfolk(1). His parents were called Benedict
        and Blide and were nobles related to the English Royal Family of the
        House of Wessex. His mother indeed was a kinswoman of King Ethelred and
        his son Edmund Ironside(2). This child was baptized Walstan.

        From the example of his parents, who possessed books, the child Walstan
        studied the Scriptures. In particular he was troubled by the meaning and
        implications of a verse in the Gospel of St Luke (14, 33): 'Whosoever he
        be of you that forsaketh not all that he hath, he cannot be my
        disciple'. At the age of seven Walstan received instruction in the Faith
        from Bishop Theodred of Elmham with the assistance of Fr Жlred, the
        parish priest of Bawburgh. At this early date the child Walstan pledged
        to renounce all for love of God, asking not for an earthly crown as he
        of noble blood might perhaps expect, but for a crown of thorns and an
        eternal reward. He vowed to devote himself to God in humility and
        anonymity, forsaking the material security of his home and his ties of
        nobility.

        Shortly before his thirteenth birthday, Walstan told his parents that he
        must now leave their home. Although forewarned of their son's
        renunciation in a dream, Benedict and Blide were reluctant to let their
        son depart. Eventually, however, they realised that this was God's Will
        for him and they consented to his wish(3).

        Thus Walstan left his parents' home and took to the road. Almost at once
        he met two beggars to whom he gave his rich garments. He then walked on
        northwards, clad in the poorest of clothes, with no outward sign of his
        parents' wealth. Within an hour or so the path had taken him to the
        village of Taverham, only a few miles north of Bawburgh, where he
        rested. A landed peasant called Nalga saw him and, in need of a
        labourer, offered Walstan work. The latter agreed.

        Walstan soon gained a reputation for hard work and piety and also
        developed an affinity with the poor and was charitable in the extreme,
        giving both his food and clothing to those less fortunate than himself.
        Often he would carry out his work barefoot, having given away even his
        shoes. Nalga's wife, seeing him thus, once gave him new shoes and extra
        food. Within a short time Walstan had given all away to two passing
        beggars, one of them barefoot. When Nalga and his wife heard this, they
        were angry with him, but Walstan answered that the men had been sent
        providentially by God to find out whether he, Walstan, loved God more
        than himself: 'I shod Christ in the poor man', he said. The wife sneered
        at this and ordered Walstan to take a cart to the forest to fetch a load
        of briars, treading the thorns well down with his unshod feet.
        Miraculously, Walstan appeared to be treading on rose leaves and the
        thorns, as soft as petals ever were, gave out a sweet fragrance. Seeing
        this, Nalga and his wife fell at Walstan's feet and begged forgiveness.
        Thus did Walstan 'forsake all' to be the Lord's disciple and win 'a
        crown of thorns'.

        Over the years Walstan became known and loved for his prayer and
        fasting, hard work, chastity and love for all. As a sign of His
        approval, God allowed miracles to occur through His servant. Animals
        were brought to him to be healed and people too claimed cures through
        his prayers and ministrations. Whatever he did, God blessed. Everything
        prospered through his labours. All the while he continued to live in
        poverty, keeping his royal identity a secret and giving away the money
        he earned. Such was the secret of his anonymity that even his parents,
        only a few miles away at Bawburgh, never came to suspect that the
        good-hearted labourer at Taverham, of whom they must have heard, could
        be their son.

        So it was that Nalga and his wife, having no children of their own, grew
        to love Walstan and made him many gifts, wanting to make him their heir.
        True to his self-denial in accordance with the Gospel, he refused all
        this, continuing to labour on the land for thirty years of unbroken
        service. Finally, he did accept from Nalga the gift of two white calves
        and a small wagon. However this was not for covetousness sake but to
        fulfil God's Will, an angel having commanded him to do so.

        In May 1016, at the start of hay making, Walstan was mowing with another
        labourer when an angel appeared to him, saying: 'Brother Walstan, on the
        third day after this thou shalt depart this life in peace and enter
        Paradise'. At once Walstan put down his scythe and went in search of the
        village priest. The next day, being a Saturday, Walstan stopped work at
        midday in accordance with the laws of the Church, for this was the eve
        of the Sabbath Day. Then there could be heard the ringing of heavenly
        bells and an indescribable unearthly music: the heavens opened and
        angels appeared ringing to the glory and praise of the Undivided
        Trinity.

        Now, that Saturday afternoon Nalga went to the market in Norwich, which
        was then under the government of the Danish King Canute. To his
        amazement he heard there a proclamation that anyone knowing the
        whereabouts of Walstan, son of Benedict and Blide and kinsman of the
        English King Edmund of the House of Wessex, should inform the
        authorities. Nalga learned that the Danes under Canute were about to
        take over the whole of England. The proclamation warned that whoever was
        sheltering Walstan must deliver him up forthwith or else forsake both
        his wealth and his life. Alarmed, Nalga hastened back to Taverham. 'What
        shall I say', he asked, 'when I tell the Danes that all the while I have
        kept thee, heir to the Kingdom of England, here'. Walstan answered that
        he must tell the truth and that he was his servant. He then disclosed
        the angelic revelation and asked Nalga to tell the priest to come to him
        on Monday when Walstan would be at work so that he could confess and
        take communion.

        Thus it was that on Monday 30 May 1016 the village priest came to
        Walstan as he was mowing in the fields. He had worked with his scythe
        until the morning ended and then his hour came. As the priest prepared
        to give Walstan communion, he realised that he had no water to wash
        their hands. Walstan prayed and at once a spring gushed up before him as
        he knelt in prayer. Having then taken communion, he told those gathered
        there that after his repose, they were to place his body on the wagon
        and yoke it to the two white calves. No one should lead them, but the
        calves should go where God pleased. He then besought God that every sick
        labourer and beast should obtain healing of their infirmity, provided
        that they asked with reverent devotion. At that a voice was heard from
        heaven, saying: 'O Holy Walstan, that which thou hast asked is granted.
        Come from thy labours and rest'

        With that Walstan gave up the ghost and a white dove was seen flying
        upwards.

        As directed, Nalga and the people of Taverham laid Walstan's body on the
        wagon and attached the calves to it. The calves then proceeded along the
        banks of the River Wensum and through a wood. At the deepest point of
        the river they crossed, passing over the water dry shod and those who
        followed passed along dry wheel tracks and hoof prints. The white calves
        came to Costessey Wood nearby and stopped to rest. Here a second spring
        gushed forth and flowed with clear water.

        The procession, gaining in numbers, then continued, crossing marsh and
        mire, until they came to Walstan's birthplace, Bawburgh, near where the
        land rises away from the banks of the River Yare. Here they paused again
        and a third spring gushed up. The calves then mounted the steep hill to
        the Church and entered through an opening in the wall, made by angels,
        which then closed up behind them. They remained there until the third
        afternoon when Bishop Жlfgar of Elmham came with monks for the funeral
        service.

        The Bishop, knowing from his predecessor Theodred something of Walstan's
        childhood, listened attentively to Nalga and the local people. They told
        him of the many wonders of Walstan and the Bishop made diligent
        enquiries as to the truth(4). Then, being satisfied, he allowed the
        relics to be venerated as those of a Saint and sent notice to that
        effect to all the neighbouring churches (5).

        The body was enshrined in a chapel in the north transept of Bawburgh
        church. With the Bishop's blessing and by popular consent (6), the site
        became a place of pilgrimage. Through Walstan's intercessions, the Lord
        bestowed miracles of healing on man and beast alike and all those who
        sought healing at the three springs were rewarded with cure. In
        particular the possessed were exorcised, the deaf and dumb were healed
        and those with troubled eyesight had it restored by bathing their eyes
        in the water from the spring at Bawburgh. And in 1047 the enhanced
        church and shrine chapel were rededicated by Bishop Жthelmar of Elmham
        to Mary the Mother of God and St Walstan.

        The veneration of St Walstan survived 'the first reformation of the
        English Church'(7); the 'Old Faith' continued for a while yet. St
        Walstan was portrayed in a number of mediжval churches with other
        'Eastern Saints'. Thus at Great Ryburgh in Norfolk, he may be seen with
        St Felix, St Audrey and St Withburgh. At Fritton on the Norfolk-Suffolk
        border, he is portrayed together with St Felix, St Fursey, St Audrey and
        St Withburgh. At Foxearth on the Essex-Suffolk border he is shown on a
        screen together with St Alban, St Felix and St Edmund. His portraits
        depict him with a scythe and a crown or sceptre, at times with the two
        white calves in the background. St Walstan was particularly beloved of
        East Anglian farmers and farm workers. Indeed his shrine continued as a
        site of pilgrimage until the second reformation of the English Church.
        Sadly at that 'reformation', the holy relics were burned and the shrine
        chapel destroyed in 1538.

        However, local veneration has continued right up to the present time and
        people have continued to bathe their eyes in the springs, place moss
        from the springs on their eyes, especially that from Bawburgh, and also
        give the waters to sick animals. At Taverham one may still find
        'Walstanham Plantation', the reputed site of Nalga's farm and the
        Saint's repose. In the nineteenth century, if not more recently, local
        Catholics baptised their sons 'Walstan'. Annual pilgrimages were revived
        at the beginning of the twentieth century; that of 1912 united five
        hundred people. They have continued regularly ever since. Healings have
        taken place within living memory. There is still a Saint Walstan's Well
        at Costessey, a pilgrimage site for those
        seeking his intercession for the cure of fevers, palsy, lameness, and
        blindness. As recently as 1989 St Walstan was declared 'Patron-Saint
        of British Food and Farming'. And in 1998 there took place the first
        Orthodox pilgrimage to Bawburgh, which is to be continued in the future
        (8).

        Holy Righteous Walstan, pray to God for us!

        (1) The Life of St Walstan provides a good example of a local saint. His
        veneration never spread outside the Eastern Counties. Details of his
        Life were no doubt compiled by the East Anglian bishops of the first
        half of the eleventh century, but all was later lost. The Life as it now
        appears was probably written down only in the fourteenth century and the
        versions that we have are later still. We have therefore removed from
        its retelling here mediжval anachronisms such as Walstan's first
        communion at age seven. (Right up until the end of the twelfth century,
        confirmation and therefore communion followed baptism very closely,
        usually within weeks or months in accordance with ancient Christian
        tradition).

        (2) According to the Life of St Walstan, his mother Blide was related to
        Elgiva, the first wife of King Ethelred 'the Unready'. Ethelred's
        fateful rule had begun from the martyrdom of his half-brother Edward the
        Martyr on 18 March 978 and lasted until 23 April 1015 when he died.
        Ethelred would never have been King if it had not been for Edward's
        martyrdom. Everything this hapless man undertook went awry and he not
        only managed to lose most of his Kingdom to the Danish Canute at the
        beginning of the eleventh century but also married a second time into
        the Norman ruling family, thus ensuring the Norman Invasion in 1066. He
        was succeeded by his valiant son Edmund 'Ironside', who nearly defeated
        the Danish Cnut or Canute. Edmund fathered two children between 1016 and
        1017 but he himself died on 30 November 1016. Blide or 'Blythe', whose
        name means 'Joy', reposed in old age. She was revered as a saint at
        Martham, some fifteen miles to the north west of Norwich where she was
        buried. Here a chapel was dedicated to her and there was a local cult in
        Norfolk. We do not know the date of her feast.

        (3) It is interesting to note the resemblance between the Life of the
        Righteous St Walstan and that of St Alexis of Rome, 'the Man of God',
        commemorated on 17 March.

        (4) The Bishops of Norfolk referred to in the Life are all historic
        figures. Their See was then at North Elmham in central Norfolk. This was
        transferred to Thetford and then Norwich only later by the Normans.
        Theodred II was bishop from 980 to 995, Жlfgar from 1001 to 1021 and
        Жthelmar from 1047 to 1070.

        (5) This would have been the starting-point of the first written Life of
        St Walstan - since lost.

        (6) In Orthodox theology these few words are the very definition of the
        difference between 'glorification' (popular consent and veneration) and
        'canonisation' (official investigation and episcopal blessing and
        confirmation). Some do not realise this and incorrectly deny the
        existence of the canonisation process in the Orthodox Church. Of course
        that process is very different from that in the Roman Catholic Church.
        The latter only developed its present canonisation process in the Middle
        Ages.

        (7) See Carol Twinch, In Search of St Walstan, Norwich 1995, P. 36.

        (8) For a description of the 1998 Orthodox Pilgrimage, see Orthodox
        England, Vol 2, No 3.

        http://members.netscapeonline.co.uk/dvjdvs/v04i4.htm

        In art, Saint Walstan is depicted as a crowned farm labourer holding a
        scythe. At times the picture may include (1) the word "Opifer" by him;
        (2) scythe and sceptre; (3) scythe, crown, and two calves; or scythe and
        ermine cape (Roeder). He is the patron of mowers and husbandmen in the
        area (Husenbeth).

        Canon to the Holy Righteous Walstan of Taverham
        http://members.netscapeonline.co.uk/dvjdvs/canstwal.htm

        Icon of St Walstan
        http://www.allmercifulsavior.com/icons/Icons-Walstan.htm



        St. Madelgisilus (Maguil, Mauguille), Hermit
        ------------------------------------------------------------
        Born in Ireland; died c. 655. Saint Mauguille, as he is known among the
        French, was an Irish monk, disciple, and confidant of Saint Fursey
        (f.d. January 16). After living some years at Saint-Riquier Abbey,
        Mauguille and Saint Vulgan (Pulcan?) became hermits near Monstrelet in
        Picardy, where Mauguille died (Benedictines).


        Sources:
        ========

        Attwater, D. (1983). The Penguin Dictionary of Saints, NY:
        Penguin Books.

        Attwater, D. (1958). A Dictionary of Saints. New York:
        P. J. Kenedy & Sons. [Attwater 2]

        Benedictine Monks of Saint Augustine Abbey, Ramsgate.
        (1947). The Book of saints. NY: Macmillan.

        Coulson, J. (ed.). (1960). The Saints: A Concise Biographical
        Dictionary. New York: Hawthorn Books.
        Green & Co.

        Husenbeth, Rev. F. C., DD, VG (ed.). (1928). Butler's
        Lives of the Fathers, Martyrs, and Other Principal Saints.
        London: Virtue & Co.

        Roeder, H. (1956). Saints and Their Attributes, Chicago: Henry
        Regnery.

        For All the Saints:
        http://www.saintpatrickdc.org/ss/ss-index.htm

        An Alphabetical Index of the Saints of the West
        http://www.orthodoxengland.btinternet.co.uk/saintsa.htm

        These Lives are archived at:
        http://groups.yahoo.com/group/celt-saints
      • ambrois@xtra.co.nz
        Celtic and Old English Saints 30 May =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-= * St. Walstan the Generous * Saint Mauguille of Picardy
        Message 3 of 14 , May 29, 2011
        • 0 Attachment
          Celtic and Old English Saints 30 May

          =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=
          * St. Walstan the Generous
          * Saint Mauguille of Picardy
          =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=


          St. Walstan the Generous, of Bawburgh (of Taverham)
          -----------------------------------------------------------

          In the year 975 a child was born in the village of Bawburgh, a few miles
          to the west of Norwich in Norfolk(1). His parents were called Benedict
          and Blide and were nobles related to the English Royal Family of the
          House of Wessex. His mother indeed was a kinswoman of King Ethelred and
          his son Edmund Ironside(2). This child was baptized Walstan.

          From the example of his parents, who possessed books, the child Walstan
          studied the Scriptures. In particular he was troubled by the meaning and
          implications of a verse in the Gospel of St Luke (14, 33): 'Whosoever he
          be of you that forsaketh not all that he hath, he cannot be my
          disciple'. At the age of seven Walstan received instruction in the Faith
          from Bishop Theodred of Elmham with the assistance of Fr Р–lred, the
          parish priest of Bawburgh. At this early date the child Walstan pledged
          to renounce all for love of God, asking not for an earthly crown as he
          of noble blood might perhaps expect, but for a crown of thorns and an
          eternal reward. He vowed to devote himself to God in humility and
          anonymity, forsaking the material security of his home and his ties of
          nobility.

          Shortly before his thirteenth birthday, Walstan told his parents that he
          must now leave their home. Although forewarned of their son's
          renunciation in a dream, Benedict and Blide were reluctant to let their
          son depart. Eventually, however, they realised that this was God's Will
          for him and they consented to his wish(3).

          Thus Walstan left his parents' home and took to the road. Almost at once
          he met two beggars to whom he gave his rich garments. He then walked on
          northwards, clad in the poorest of clothes, with no outward sign of his
          parents' wealth. Within an hour or so the path had taken him to the
          village of Taverham, only a few miles north of Bawburgh, where he
          rested. A landed peasant called Nalga saw him and, in need of a
          labourer, offered Walstan work. The latter agreed.

          Walstan soon gained a reputation for hard work and piety and also
          developed an affinity with the poor and was charitable in the extreme,
          giving both his food and clothing to those less fortunate than himself.
          Often he would carry out his work barefoot, having given away even his
          shoes. Nalga's wife, seeing him thus, once gave him new shoes and extra
          food. Within a short time Walstan had given all away to two passing
          beggars, one of them barefoot. When Nalga and his wife heard this, they
          were angry with him, but Walstan answered that the men had been sent
          providentially by God to find out whether he, Walstan, loved God more
          than himself: 'I shod Christ in the poor man', he said. The wife sneered
          at this and ordered Walstan to take a cart to the forest to fetch a load
          of briars, treading the thorns well down with his unshod feet.
          Miraculously, Walstan appeared to be treading on rose leaves and the
          thorns, as soft as petals ever were, gave out a sweet fragrance. Seeing
          this, Nalga and his wife fell at Walstan's feet and begged forgiveness.
          Thus did Walstan 'forsake all' to be the Lord's disciple and win 'a
          crown of thorns'.

          Over the years Walstan became known and loved for his prayer and
          fasting, hard work, chastity and love for all. As a sign of His
          approval, God allowed miracles to occur through His servant. Animals
          were brought to him to be healed and people too claimed cures through
          his prayers and ministrations. Whatever he did, God blessed. Everything
          prospered through his labours. All the while he continued to live in
          poverty, keeping his royal identity a secret and giving away the money
          he earned. Such was the secret of his anonymity that even his parents,
          only a few miles away at Bawburgh, never came to suspect that the
          good-hearted labourer at Taverham, of whom they must have heard, could
          be their son.

          So it was that Nalga and his wife, having no children of their own, grew
          to love Walstan and made him many gifts, wanting to make him their heir.
          True to his self-denial in accordance with the Gospel, he refused all
          this, continuing to labour on the land for thirty years of unbroken
          service. Finally, he did accept from Nalga the gift of two white calves
          and a small wagon. However this was not for covetousness sake but to
          fulfil God's Will, an angel having commanded him to do so.

          In May 1016, at the start of hay making, Walstan was mowing with another
          labourer when an angel appeared to him, saying: 'Brother Walstan, on the
          third day after this thou shalt depart this life in peace and enter
          Paradise'. At once Walstan put down his scythe and went in search of the
          village priest. The next day, being a Saturday, Walstan stopped work at
          midday in accordance with the laws of the Church, for this was the eve
          of the Sabbath Day. Then there could be heard the ringing of heavenly
          bells and an indescribable unearthly music: the heavens opened and
          angels appeared ringing to the glory and praise of the Undivided
          Trinity.

          Now, that Saturday afternoon Nalga went to the market in Norwich, which
          was then under the government of the Danish King Canute. To his
          amazement he heard there a proclamation that anyone knowing the
          whereabouts of Walstan, son of Benedict and Blide and kinsman of the
          English King Edmund of the House of Wessex, should inform the
          authorities. Nalga learned that the Danes under Canute were about to
          take over the whole of England. The proclamation warned that whoever was
          sheltering Walstan must deliver him up forthwith or else forsake both
          his wealth and his life. Alarmed, Nalga hastened back to Taverham. 'What
          shall I say', he asked, 'when I tell the Danes that all the while I have
          kept thee, heir to the Kingdom of England, here'. Walstan answered that
          he must tell the truth and that he was his servant. He then disclosed
          the angelic revelation and asked Nalga to tell the priest to come to him
          on Monday when Walstan would be at work so that he could confess and
          take communion.

          Thus it was that on Monday 30 May 1016 the village priest came to
          Walstan as he was mowing in the fields. He had worked with his scythe
          until the morning ended and then his hour came. As the priest prepared
          to give Walstan communion, he realised that he had no water to wash
          their hands. Walstan prayed and at once a spring gushed up before him as
          he knelt in prayer. Having then taken communion, he told those gathered
          there that after his repose, they were to place his body on the wagon
          and yoke it to the two white calves. No one should lead them, but the
          calves should go where God pleased. He then besought God that every sick
          labourer and beast should obtain healing of their infirmity, provided
          that they asked with reverent devotion. At that a voice was heard from
          heaven, saying: 'O Holy Walstan, that which thou hast asked is granted.
          Come from thy labours and rest'

          With that Walstan gave up the ghost and a white dove was seen flying
          upwards.

          As directed, Nalga and the people of Taverham laid Walstan's body on the
          wagon and attached the calves to it. The calves then proceeded along the
          banks of the River Wensum and through a wood. At the deepest point of
          the river they crossed, passing over the water dry shod and those who
          followed passed along dry wheel tracks and hoof prints. The white calves
          came to Costessey Wood nearby and stopped to rest. Here a second spring
          gushed forth and flowed with clear water.

          The procession, gaining in numbers, then continued, crossing marsh and
          mire, until they came to Walstan's birthplace, Bawburgh, near where the
          land rises away from the banks of the River Yare. Here they paused again
          and a third spring gushed up. The calves then mounted the steep hill to
          the Church and entered through an opening in the wall, made by angels,
          which then closed up behind them. They remained there until the third
          afternoon when Bishop Р–lfgar of Elmham came with monks for the funeral
          service.

          The Bishop, knowing from his predecessor Theodred something of Walstan's
          childhood, listened attentively to Nalga and the local people. They told
          him of the many wonders of Walstan and the Bishop made diligent
          enquiries as to the truth(4). Then, being satisfied, he allowed the
          relics to be venerated as those of a Saint and sent notice to that
          effect to all the neighbouring churches (5).

          The body was enshrined in a chapel in the north transept of Bawburgh
          church. With the Bishop's blessing and by popular consent (6), the site
          became a place of pilgrimage. Through Walstan's intercessions, the Lord
          bestowed miracles of healing on man and beast alike and all those who
          sought healing at the three springs were rewarded with cure. In
          particular the possessed were exorcised, the deaf and dumb were healed
          and those with troubled eyesight had it restored by bathing their eyes
          in the water from the spring at Bawburgh. And in 1047 the enhanced
          church and shrine chapel were rededicated by Bishop Р–thelmar of Elmham
          to Mary the Mother of God and St Walstan.

          The veneration of St Walstan survived 'the first reformation of the
          English Church'(7); the 'Old Faith' continued for a while yet. St
          Walstan was portrayed in a number of mediжval churches with other
          'Eastern Saints'. Thus at Great Ryburgh in Norfolk, he may be seen with
          St Felix, St Audrey and St Withburgh. At Fritton on the Norfolk-Suffolk
          border, he is portrayed together with St Felix, St Fursey, St Audrey and
          St Withburgh. At Foxearth on the Essex-Suffolk border he is shown on a
          screen together with St Alban, St Felix and St Edmund. His portraits
          depict him with a scythe and a crown or sceptre, at times with the two
          white calves in the background. St Walstan was particularly beloved of
          East Anglian farmers and farm workers. Indeed his shrine continued as a
          site of pilgrimage until the second reformation of the English Church.
          Sadly at that 'reformation', the holy relics were burned and the shrine
          chapel destroyed in 1538.

          However, local veneration has continued right up to the present time and
          people have continued to bathe their eyes in the springs, place moss
          from the springs on their eyes, especially that from Bawburgh, and also
          give the waters to sick animals. At Taverham one may still find
          'Walstanham Plantation', the reputed site of Nalga's farm and the
          Saint's repose. In the nineteenth century, if not more recently, local
          Catholics baptised their sons 'Walstan'. Annual pilgrimages were revived
          at the beginning of the twentieth century; that of 1912 united five
          hundred people. They have continued regularly ever since. Healings have
          taken place within living memory. There is still a Saint Walstan's Well
          at Costessey, a pilgrimage site for those
          seeking his intercession for the cure of fevers, palsy, lameness, and
          blindness. As recently as 1989 St Walstan was declared 'Patron-Saint
          of British Food and Farming'. And in 1998 there took place the first
          Orthodox pilgrimage to Bawburgh, which is to be continued in the future
          (8).

          Holy Righteous Walstan, pray to God for us!

          (1) The Life of St Walstan provides a good example of a local saint. His
          veneration never spread outside the Eastern Counties. Details of his
          Life were no doubt compiled by the East Anglian bishops of the first
          half of the eleventh century, but all was later lost. The Life as it now
          appears was probably written down only in the fourteenth century and the
          versions that we have are later still. We have therefore removed from
          its retelling here mediжval anachronisms such as Walstan's first
          communion at age seven. (Right up until the end of the twelfth century,
          confirmation and therefore communion followed baptism very closely,
          usually within weeks or months in accordance with ancient Christian
          tradition).

          (2) According to the Life of St Walstan, his mother Blide was related to
          Elgiva, the first wife of King Ethelred 'the Unready'. Ethelred's
          fateful rule had begun from the martyrdom of his half-brother Edward the
          Martyr on 18 March 978 and lasted until 23 April 1015 when he died.
          Ethelred would never have been King if it had not been for Edward's
          martyrdom. Everything this hapless man undertook went awry and he not
          only managed to lose most of his Kingdom to the Danish Canute at the
          beginning of the eleventh century but also married a second time into
          the Norman ruling family, thus ensuring the Norman Invasion in 1066. He
          was succeeded by his valiant son Edmund 'Ironside', who nearly defeated
          the Danish Cnut or Canute. Edmund fathered two children between 1016 and
          1017 but he himself died on 30 November 1016. Blide or 'Blythe', whose
          name means 'Joy', reposed in old age. She was revered as a saint at
          Martham, some fifteen miles to the north west of Norwich where she was
          buried. Here a chapel was dedicated to her and there was a local cult in
          Norfolk. We do not know the date of her feast.

          (3) It is interesting to note the resemblance between the Life of the
          Righteous St Walstan and that of St Alexis of Rome, 'the Man of God',
          commemorated on 17 March.

          (4) The Bishops of Norfolk referred to in the Life are all historic
          figures. Their See was then at North Elmham in central Norfolk. This was
          transferred to Thetford and then Norwich only later by the Normans.
          Theodred II was bishop from 980 to 995, Р–lfgar from 1001 to 1021 and
          Р–thelmar from 1047 to 1070.

          (5) This would have been the starting-point of the first written Life of
          St Walstan - since lost.

          (6) In Orthodox theology these few words are the very definition of the
          difference between 'glorification' (popular consent and veneration) and
          'canonisation' (official investigation and episcopal blessing and
          confirmation). Some do not realise this and incorrectly deny the
          existence of the canonisation process in the Orthodox Church. Of course
          that process is very different from that in the Roman Catholic Church.
          The latter only developed its present canonisation process in the Middle
          Ages.

          (7) See Carol Twinch, In Search of St Walstan, Norwich 1995, P. 36.

          (8) For a description of the 1998 Orthodox Pilgrimage, see Orthodox
          England, Vol 2, No 3.

          http://members.netscapeonline.co.uk/dvjdvs/v04i4.htm

          In art, Saint Walstan is depicted as a crowned farm labourer holding a
          scythe. At times the picture may include (1) the word "Opifer" by him;
          (2) scythe and sceptre; (3) scythe, crown, and two calves; or scythe and
          ermine cape (Roeder). He is the patron of mowers and husbandmen in the
          area (Husenbeth).

          Canon to the Holy Righteous Walstan of Taverham
          http://members.netscapeonline.co.uk/dvjdvs/canstwal.htm

          Icon of St Walstan
          http://www.allmercifulsavior.com/icons/Icons-Walstan.htm



          St. Madelgisilus (Maguil, Mauguille), Hermit
          ------------------------------------------------------------
          Born in Ireland; died c. 655. Saint Mauguille, as he is known among the
          French, was an Irish monk, disciple, and confidant of Saint Fursey
          (f.d. January 16). After living some years at Saint-Riquier Abbey,
          Mauguille and Saint Vulgan (Pulcan?) became hermits near Monstrelet in
          Picardy, where Mauguille died (Benedictines).


          Sources:
          ========

          Attwater, D. (1983). The Penguin Dictionary of Saints, NY:
          Penguin Books.

          Attwater, D. (1958). A Dictionary of Saints. New York:
          P. J. Kenedy & Sons. [Attwater 2]

          Benedictine Monks of Saint Augustine Abbey, Ramsgate.
          (1947). The Book of saints. NY: Macmillan.

          Coulson, J. (ed.). (1960). The Saints: A Concise Biographical
          Dictionary. New York: Hawthorn Books.
          Green & Co.

          Husenbeth, Rev. F. C., DD, VG (ed.). (1928). Butler's
          Lives of the Fathers, Martyrs, and Other Principal Saints.
          London: Virtue & Co.

          Roeder, H. (1956). Saints and Their Attributes, Chicago: Henry
          Regnery.

          For All the Saints:
          http://www.saintpatrickdc.org/ss/ss-index.htm

          An Alphabetical Index of the Saints of the West
          http://www.orthodoxengland.btinternet.co.uk/saintsa.htm

          These Lives are archived at:
          http://groups.yahoo.com/group/celt-saints
        • ambrois@xtra.co.nz
          Celtic and Old English Saints 30 May =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-= * St. Walstan the Generous * Saint Mauguille of Picardy
          Message 4 of 14 , May 30, 2012
          • 0 Attachment
            Celtic and Old English Saints 30 May

            =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=
            * St. Walstan the Generous
            * Saint Mauguille of Picardy
            =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=


            St. Walstan the Generous, of Bawburgh (of Taverham)
            -----------------------------------------------------------

            In the year 975 a child was born in the village of Bawburgh, a few miles
            to the west of Norwich in Norfolk(1). His parents were called Benedict
            and Blide and were nobles related to the English Royal Family of the
            House of Wessex. His mother indeed was a kinswoman of King Ethelred and
            his son Edmund Ironside(2). This child was baptized Walstan.

            From the example of his parents, who possessed books, the child Walstan
            studied the Scriptures. In particular he was troubled by the meaning and
            implications of a verse in the Gospel of St Luke (14, 33): 'Whosoever he
            be of you that forsaketh not all that he hath, he cannot be my
            disciple'. At the age of seven Walstan received instruction in the Faith
            from Bishop Theodred of Elmham with the assistance of Fr Р–lred, the
            parish priest of Bawburgh. At this early date the child Walstan pledged
            to renounce all for love of God, asking not for an earthly crown as he
            of noble blood might perhaps expect, but for a crown of thorns and an
            eternal reward. He vowed to devote himself to God in humility and
            anonymity, forsaking the material security of his home and his ties of
            nobility.

            Shortly before his thirteenth birthday, Walstan told his parents that he
            must now leave their home. Although forewarned of their son's
            renunciation in a dream, Benedict and Blide were reluctant to let their
            son depart. Eventually, however, they realised that this was God's Will
            for him and they consented to his wish(3).

            Thus Walstan left his parents' home and took to the road. Almost at once
            he met two beggars to whom he gave his rich garments. He then walked on
            northwards, clad in the poorest of clothes, with no outward sign of his
            parents' wealth. Within an hour or so the path had taken him to the
            village of Taverham, only a few miles north of Bawburgh, where he
            rested. A landed peasant called Nalga saw him and, in need of a
            labourer, offered Walstan work. The latter agreed.

            Walstan soon gained a reputation for hard work and piety and also
            developed an affinity with the poor and was charitable in the extreme,
            giving both his food and clothing to those less fortunate than himself.
            Often he would carry out his work barefoot, having given away even his
            shoes. Nalga's wife, seeing him thus, once gave him new shoes and extra
            food. Within a short time Walstan had given all away to two passing
            beggars, one of them barefoot. When Nalga and his wife heard this, they
            were angry with him, but Walstan answered that the men had been sent
            providentially by God to find out whether he, Walstan, loved God more
            than himself: 'I shod Christ in the poor man', he said. The wife sneered
            at this and ordered Walstan to take a cart to the forest to fetch a load
            of briars, treading the thorns well down with his unshod feet.
            Miraculously, Walstan appeared to be treading on rose leaves and the
            thorns, as soft as petals ever were, gave out a sweet fragrance. Seeing
            this, Nalga and his wife fell at Walstan's feet and begged forgiveness.
            Thus did Walstan 'forsake all' to be the Lord's disciple and win 'a
            crown of thorns'.

            Over the years Walstan became known and loved for his prayer and
            fasting, hard work, chastity and love for all. As a sign of His
            approval, God allowed miracles to occur through His servant. Animals
            were brought to him to be healed and people too claimed cures through
            his prayers and ministrations. Whatever he did, God blessed. Everything
            prospered through his labours. All the while he continued to live in
            poverty, keeping his royal identity a secret and giving away the money
            he earned. Such was the secret of his anonymity that even his parents,
            only a few miles away at Bawburgh, never came to suspect that the
            good-hearted labourer at Taverham, of whom they must have heard, could
            be their son.

            So it was that Nalga and his wife, having no children of their own, grew
            to love Walstan and made him many gifts, wanting to make him their heir.
            True to his self-denial in accordance with the Gospel, he refused all
            this, continuing to labour on the land for thirty years of unbroken
            service. Finally, he did accept from Nalga the gift of two white calves
            and a small wagon. However this was not for covetousness sake but to
            fulfil God's Will, an angel having commanded him to do so.

            In May 1016, at the start of hay making, Walstan was mowing with another
            labourer when an angel appeared to him, saying: 'Brother Walstan, on the
            third day after this thou shalt depart this life in peace and enter
            Paradise'. At once Walstan put down his scythe and went in search of the
            village priest. The next day, being a Saturday, Walstan stopped work at
            midday in accordance with the laws of the Church, for this was the eve
            of the Sabbath Day. Then there could be heard the ringing of heavenly
            bells and an indescribable unearthly music: the heavens opened and
            angels appeared ringing to the glory and praise of the Undivided
            Trinity.

            Now, that Saturday afternoon Nalga went to the market in Norwich, which
            was then under the government of the Danish King Canute. To his
            amazement he heard there a proclamation that anyone knowing the
            whereabouts of Walstan, son of Benedict and Blide and kinsman of the
            English King Edmund of the House of Wessex, should inform the
            authorities. Nalga learned that the Danes under Canute were about to
            take over the whole of England. The proclamation warned that whoever was
            sheltering Walstan must deliver him up forthwith or else forsake both
            his wealth and his life. Alarmed, Nalga hastened back to Taverham. 'What
            shall I say', he asked, 'when I tell the Danes that all the while I have
            kept thee, heir to the Kingdom of England, here'. Walstan answered that
            he must tell the truth and that he was his servant. He then disclosed
            the angelic revelation and asked Nalga to tell the priest to come to him
            on Monday when Walstan would be at work so that he could confess and
            take communion.

            Thus it was that on Monday 30 May 1016 the village priest came to
            Walstan as he was mowing in the fields. He had worked with his scythe
            until the morning ended and then his hour came. As the priest prepared
            to give Walstan communion, he realised that he had no water to wash
            their hands. Walstan prayed and at once a spring gushed up before him as
            he knelt in prayer. Having then taken communion, he told those gathered
            there that after his repose, they were to place his body on the wagon
            and yoke it to the two white calves. No one should lead them, but the
            calves should go where God pleased. He then besought God that every sick
            labourer and beast should obtain healing of their infirmity, provided
            that they asked with reverent devotion. At that a voice was heard from
            heaven, saying: 'O Holy Walstan, that which thou hast asked is granted.
            Come from thy labours and rest'

            With that Walstan gave up the ghost and a white dove was seen flying
            upwards.

            As directed, Nalga and the people of Taverham laid Walstan's body on the
            wagon and attached the calves to it. The calves then proceeded along the
            banks of the River Wensum and through a wood. At the deepest point of
            the river they crossed, passing over the water dry shod and those who
            followed passed along dry wheel tracks and hoof prints. The white calves
            came to Costessey Wood nearby and stopped to rest. Here a second spring
            gushed forth and flowed with clear water.

            The procession, gaining in numbers, then continued, crossing marsh and
            mire, until they came to Walstan's birthplace, Bawburgh, near where the
            land rises away from the banks of the River Yare. Here they paused again
            and a third spring gushed up. The calves then mounted the steep hill to
            the Church and entered through an opening in the wall, made by angels,
            which then closed up behind them. They remained there until the third
            afternoon when Bishop Р–lfgar of Elmham came with monks for the funeral
            service.

            The Bishop, knowing from his predecessor Theodred something of Walstan's
            childhood, listened attentively to Nalga and the local people. They told
            him of the many wonders of Walstan and the Bishop made diligent
            enquiries as to the truth(4). Then, being satisfied, he allowed the
            relics to be venerated as those of a Saint and sent notice to that
            effect to all the neighbouring churches (5).

            The body was enshrined in a chapel in the north transept of Bawburgh
            church. With the Bishop's blessing and by popular consent (6), the site
            became a place of pilgrimage. Through Walstan's intercessions, the Lord
            bestowed miracles of healing on man and beast alike and all those who
            sought healing at the three springs were rewarded with cure. In
            particular the possessed were exorcised, the deaf and dumb were healed
            and those with troubled eyesight had it restored by bathing their eyes
            in the water from the spring at Bawburgh. And in 1047 the enhanced
            church and shrine chapel were rededicated by Bishop Р–thelmar of Elmham
            to Mary the Mother of God and St Walstan.

            The veneration of St Walstan survived 'the first reformation of the
            English Church'(7); the 'Old Faith' continued for a while yet. St
            Walstan was portrayed in a number of mediжval churches with other
            'Eastern Saints'. Thus at Great Ryburgh in Norfolk, he may be seen with
            St Felix, St Audrey and St Withburgh. At Fritton on the Norfolk-Suffolk
            border, he is portrayed together with St Felix, St Fursey, St Audrey and
            St Withburgh. At Foxearth on the Essex-Suffolk border he is shown on a
            screen together with St Alban, St Felix and St Edmund. His portraits
            depict him with a scythe and a crown or sceptre, at times with the two
            white calves in the background. St Walstan was particularly beloved of
            East Anglian farmers and farm workers. Indeed his shrine continued as a
            site of pilgrimage until the second reformation of the English Church.
            Sadly at that 'reformation', the holy relics were burned and the shrine
            chapel destroyed in 1538.

            However, local veneration has continued right up to the present time and
            people have continued to bathe their eyes in the springs, place moss
            from the springs on their eyes, especially that from Bawburgh, and also
            give the waters to sick animals. At Taverham one may still find
            'Walstanham Plantation', the reputed site of Nalga's farm and the
            Saint's repose. In the nineteenth century, if not more recently, local
            Catholics baptised their sons 'Walstan'. Annual pilgrimages were revived
            at the beginning of the twentieth century; that of 1912 united five
            hundred people. They have continued regularly ever since. Healings have
            taken place within living memory. There is still a Saint Walstan's Well
            at Costessey, a pilgrimage site for those
            seeking his intercession for the cure of fevers, palsy, lameness, and
            blindness. As recently as 1989 St Walstan was declared 'Patron-Saint
            of British Food and Farming'. And in 1998 there took place the first
            Orthodox pilgrimage to Bawburgh, which is to be continued in the future
            (8).

            Holy Righteous Walstan, pray to God for us!

            (1) The Life of St Walstan provides a good example of a local saint. His
            veneration never spread outside the Eastern Counties. Details of his
            Life were no doubt compiled by the East Anglian bishops of the first
            half of the eleventh century, but all was later lost. The Life as it now
            appears was probably written down only in the fourteenth century and the
            versions that we have are later still. We have therefore removed from
            its retelling here mediжval anachronisms such as Walstan's first
            communion at age seven. (Right up until the end of the twelfth century,
            confirmation and therefore communion followed baptism very closely,
            usually within weeks or months in accordance with ancient Christian
            tradition).

            (2) According to the Life of St Walstan, his mother Blide was related to
            Elgiva, the first wife of King Ethelred 'the Unready'. Ethelred's
            fateful rule had begun from the martyrdom of his half-brother Edward the
            Martyr on 18 March 978 and lasted until 23 April 1015 when he died.
            Ethelred would never have been King if it had not been for Edward's
            martyrdom. Everything this hapless man undertook went awry and he not
            only managed to lose most of his Kingdom to the Danish Canute at the
            beginning of the eleventh century but also married a second time into
            the Norman ruling family, thus ensuring the Norman Invasion in 1066. He
            was succeeded by his valiant son Edmund 'Ironside', who nearly defeated
            the Danish Cnut or Canute. Edmund fathered two children between 1016 and
            1017 but he himself died on 30 November 1016. Blide or 'Blythe', whose
            name means 'Joy', reposed in old age. She was revered as a saint at
            Martham, some fifteen miles to the north west of Norwich where she was
            buried. Here a chapel was dedicated to her and there was a local cult in
            Norfolk. We do not know the date of her feast.

            (3) It is interesting to note the resemblance between the Life of the
            Righteous St Walstan and that of St Alexis of Rome, 'the Man of God',
            commemorated on 17 March.

            (4) The Bishops of Norfolk referred to in the Life are all historic
            figures. Their See was then at North Elmham in central Norfolk. This was
            transferred to Thetford and then Norwich only later by the Normans.
            Theodred II was bishop from 980 to 995, Р–lfgar from 1001 to 1021 and
            Р–thelmar from 1047 to 1070.

            (5) This would have been the starting-point of the first written Life of
            St Walstan - since lost.

            (6) In Orthodox theology these few words are the very definition of the
            difference between 'glorification' (popular consent and veneration) and
            'canonisation' (official investigation and episcopal blessing and
            confirmation). Some do not realise this and incorrectly deny the
            existence of the canonisation process in the Orthodox Church. Of course
            that process is very different from that in the Roman Catholic Church.
            The latter only developed its present canonisation process in the Middle
            Ages.

            (7) See Carol Twinch, In Search of St Walstan, Norwich 1995, P. 36.

            (8) For a description of the 1998 Orthodox Pilgrimage, see Orthodox
            England, Vol 2, No 3.

            http://members.netscapeonline.co.uk/dvjdvs/v04i4.htm

            In art, Saint Walstan is depicted as a crowned farm labourer holding a
            scythe. At times the picture may include (1) the word "Opifer" by him;
            (2) scythe and sceptre; (3) scythe, crown, and two calves; or scythe and
            ermine cape (Roeder). He is the patron of mowers and husbandmen in the
            area (Husenbeth).

            Canon to the Holy Righteous Walstan of Taverham
            http://members.netscapeonline.co.uk/dvjdvs/canstwal.htm

            Icon of St Walstan
            http://www.allmercifulsavior.com/icons/Icons-Walstan.htm



            St. Madelgisilus (Maguil, Mauguille), Hermit
            ------------------------------------------------------------
            Born in Ireland; died c. 655. Saint Mauguille, as he is known among the
            French, was an Irish monk, disciple, and confidant of Saint Fursey
            (f.d. January 16). After living some years at Saint-Riquier Abbey,
            Mauguille and Saint Vulgan (Pulcan?) became hermits near Monstrelet in
            Picardy, where Mauguille died (Benedictines).


            Sources:
            ========

            Attwater, D. (1983). The Penguin Dictionary of Saints, NY:
            Penguin Books.

            Attwater, D. (1958). A Dictionary of Saints. New York:
            P. J. Kenedy & Sons. [Attwater 2]

            Benedictine Monks of Saint Augustine Abbey, Ramsgate.
            (1947). The Book of saints. NY: Macmillan.

            Coulson, J. (ed.). (1960). The Saints: A Concise Biographical
            Dictionary. New York: Hawthorn Books.
            Green & Co.

            Husenbeth, Rev. F. C., DD, VG (ed.). (1928). Butler's
            Lives of the Fathers, Martyrs, and Other Principal Saints.
            London: Virtue & Co.

            Roeder, H. (1956). Saints and Their Attributes, Chicago: Henry
            Regnery.

            For All the Saints:
            http://www.saintpatrickdc.org/ss/ss-index.htm

            An Alphabetical Index of the Saints of the West
            http://www.orthodoxengland.btinternet.co.uk/saintsa.htm

            These Lives are archived at:
            http://groups.yahoo.com/group/celt-saints
          • ambrois@xtra.co.nz
            Celtic and Old English Saints 30 May =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-= * St. Walstan the Generous * Saint Mauguille of Picardy
            Message 5 of 14 , May 29, 2013
            • 0 Attachment
              Celtic and Old English Saints 30 May

              =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=
              * St. Walstan the Generous
              * Saint Mauguille of Picardy
              =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=


              St. Walstan the Generous, of Bawburgh (of Taverham)
              -----------------------------------------------------------

              In the year 975 a child was born in the village of Bawburgh, a few miles
              to the west of Norwich in Norfolk(1). His parents were called Benedict
              and Blide and were nobles related to the English Royal Family of the
              House of Wessex. His mother indeed was a kinswoman of King Ethelred and
              his son Edmund Ironside(2). This child was baptized Walstan.

              From the example of his parents, who possessed books, the child Walstan
              studied the Scriptures. In particular he was troubled by the meaning and
              implications of a verse in the Gospel of St Luke (14, 33): 'Whosoever he
              be of you that forsaketh not all that he hath, he cannot be my
              disciple'. At the age of seven Walstan received instruction in the Faith
              from Bishop Theodred of Elmham with the assistance of Fr Р–lred, the
              parish priest of Bawburgh. At this early date the child Walstan pledged
              to renounce all for love of God, asking not for an earthly crown as he
              of noble blood might perhaps expect, but for a crown of thorns and an
              eternal reward. He vowed to devote himself to God in humility and
              anonymity, forsaking the material security of his home and his ties of
              nobility.

              Shortly before his thirteenth birthday, Walstan told his parents that he
              must now leave their home. Although forewarned of their son's
              renunciation in a dream, Benedict and Blide were reluctant to let their
              son depart. Eventually, however, they realised that this was God's Will
              for him and they consented to his wish(3).

              Thus Walstan left his parents' home and took to the road. Almost at once
              he met two beggars to whom he gave his rich garments. He then walked on
              northwards, clad in the poorest of clothes, with no outward sign of his
              parents' wealth. Within an hour or so the path had taken him to the
              village of Taverham, only a few miles north of Bawburgh, where he
              rested. A landed peasant called Nalga saw him and, in need of a
              labourer, offered Walstan work. The latter agreed.

              Walstan soon gained a reputation for hard work and piety and also
              developed an affinity with the poor and was charitable in the extreme,
              giving both his food and clothing to those less fortunate than himself.
              Often he would carry out his work barefoot, having given away even his
              shoes. Nalga's wife, seeing him thus, once gave him new shoes and extra
              food. Within a short time Walstan had given all away to two passing
              beggars, one of them barefoot. When Nalga and his wife heard this, they
              were angry with him, but Walstan answered that the men had been sent
              providentially by God to find out whether he, Walstan, loved God more
              than himself: 'I shod Christ in the poor man', he said. The wife sneered
              at this and ordered Walstan to take a cart to the forest to fetch a load
              of briars, treading the thorns well down with his unshod feet.
              Miraculously, Walstan appeared to be treading on rose leaves and the
              thorns, as soft as petals ever were, gave out a sweet fragrance. Seeing
              this, Nalga and his wife fell at Walstan's feet and begged forgiveness.
              Thus did Walstan 'forsake all' to be the Lord's disciple and win 'a
              crown of thorns'.

              Over the years Walstan became known and loved for his prayer and
              fasting, hard work, chastity and love for all. As a sign of His
              approval, God allowed miracles to occur through His servant. Animals
              were brought to him to be healed and people too claimed cures through
              his prayers and ministrations. Whatever he did, God blessed. Everything
              prospered through his labours. All the while he continued to live in
              poverty, keeping his royal identity a secret and giving away the money
              he earned. Such was the secret of his anonymity that even his parents,
              only a few miles away at Bawburgh, never came to suspect that the
              good-hearted labourer at Taverham, of whom they must have heard, could
              be their son.

              So it was that Nalga and his wife, having no children of their own, grew
              to love Walstan and made him many gifts, wanting to make him their heir.
              True to his self-denial in accordance with the Gospel, he refused all
              this, continuing to labour on the land for thirty years of unbroken
              service. Finally, he did accept from Nalga the gift of two white calves
              and a small wagon. However this was not for covetousness sake but to
              fulfil God's Will, an angel having commanded him to do so.

              In May 1016, at the start of hay making, Walstan was mowing with another
              labourer when an angel appeared to him, saying: 'Brother Walstan, on the
              third day after this thou shalt depart this life in peace and enter
              Paradise'. At once Walstan put down his scythe and went in search of the
              village priest. The next day, being a Saturday, Walstan stopped work at
              midday in accordance with the laws of the Church, for this was the eve
              of the Sabbath Day. Then there could be heard the ringing of heavenly
              bells and an indescribable unearthly music: the heavens opened and
              angels appeared ringing to the glory and praise of the Undivided
              Trinity.

              Now, that Saturday afternoon Nalga went to the market in Norwich, which
              was then under the government of the Danish King Canute. To his
              amazement he heard there a proclamation that anyone knowing the
              whereabouts of Walstan, son of Benedict and Blide and kinsman of the
              English King Edmund of the House of Wessex, should inform the
              authorities. Nalga learned that the Danes under Canute were about to
              take over the whole of England. The proclamation warned that whoever was
              sheltering Walstan must deliver him up forthwith or else forsake both
              his wealth and his life. Alarmed, Nalga hastened back to Taverham. 'What
              shall I say', he asked, 'when I tell the Danes that all the while I have
              kept thee, heir to the Kingdom of England, here'. Walstan answered that
              he must tell the truth and that he was his servant. He then disclosed
              the angelic revelation and asked Nalga to tell the priest to come to him
              on Monday when Walstan would be at work so that he could confess and
              take communion.

              Thus it was that on Monday 30 May 1016 the village priest came to
              Walstan as he was mowing in the fields. He had worked with his scythe
              until the morning ended and then his hour came. As the priest prepared
              to give Walstan communion, he realised that he had no water to wash
              their hands. Walstan prayed and at once a spring gushed up before him as
              he knelt in prayer. Having then taken communion, he told those gathered
              there that after his repose, they were to place his body on the wagon
              and yoke it to the two white calves. No one should lead them, but the
              calves should go where God pleased. He then besought God that every sick
              labourer and beast should obtain healing of their infirmity, provided
              that they asked with reverent devotion. At that a voice was heard from
              heaven, saying: 'O Holy Walstan, that which thou hast asked is granted.
              Come from thy labours and rest'

              With that Walstan gave up the ghost and a white dove was seen flying
              upwards.

              As directed, Nalga and the people of Taverham laid Walstan's body on the
              wagon and attached the calves to it. The calves then proceeded along the
              banks of the River Wensum and through a wood. At the deepest point of
              the river they crossed, passing over the water dry shod and those who
              followed passed along dry wheel tracks and hoof prints. The white calves
              came to Costessey Wood nearby and stopped to rest. Here a second spring
              gushed forth and flowed with clear water.

              The procession, gaining in numbers, then continued, crossing marsh and
              mire, until they came to Walstan's birthplace, Bawburgh, near where the
              land rises away from the banks of the River Yare. Here they paused again
              and a third spring gushed up. The calves then mounted the steep hill to
              the Church and entered through an opening in the wall, made by angels,
              which then closed up behind them. They remained there until the third
              afternoon when Bishop Р–lfgar of Elmham came with monks for the funeral
              service.

              The Bishop, knowing from his predecessor Theodred something of Walstan's
              childhood, listened attentively to Nalga and the local people. They told
              him of the many wonders of Walstan and the Bishop made diligent
              enquiries as to the truth(4). Then, being satisfied, he allowed the
              relics to be venerated as those of a Saint and sent notice to that
              effect to all the neighbouring churches (5).

              The body was enshrined in a chapel in the north transept of Bawburgh
              church. With the Bishop's blessing and by popular consent (6), the site
              became a place of pilgrimage. Through Walstan's intercessions, the Lord
              bestowed miracles of healing on man and beast alike and all those who
              sought healing at the three springs were rewarded with cure. In
              particular the possessed were exorcised, the deaf and dumb were healed
              and those with troubled eyesight had it restored by bathing their eyes
              in the water from the spring at Bawburgh. And in 1047 the enhanced
              church and shrine chapel were rededicated by Bishop Р–thelmar of Elmham
              to Mary the Mother of God and St Walstan.

              The veneration of St Walstan survived 'the first reformation of the
              English Church'(7); the 'Old Faith' continued for a while yet. St
              Walstan was portrayed in a number of mediжval churches with other
              'Eastern Saints'. Thus at Great Ryburgh in Norfolk, he may be seen with
              St Felix, St Audrey and St Withburgh. At Fritton on the Norfolk-Suffolk
              border, he is portrayed together with St Felix, St Fursey, St Audrey and
              St Withburgh. At Foxearth on the Essex-Suffolk border he is shown on a
              screen together with St Alban, St Felix and St Edmund. His portraits
              depict him with a scythe and a crown or sceptre, at times with the two
              white calves in the background. St Walstan was particularly beloved of
              East Anglian farmers and farm workers. Indeed his shrine continued as a
              site of pilgrimage until the second reformation of the English Church.
              Sadly at that 'reformation', the holy relics were burned and the shrine
              chapel destroyed in 1538.

              However, local veneration has continued right up to the present time and
              people have continued to bathe their eyes in the springs, place moss
              from the springs on their eyes, especially that from Bawburgh, and also
              give the waters to sick animals. At Taverham one may still find
              'Walstanham Plantation', the reputed site of Nalga's farm and the
              Saint's repose. In the nineteenth century, if not more recently, local
              Catholics baptised their sons 'Walstan'. Annual pilgrimages were revived
              at the beginning of the twentieth century; that of 1912 united five
              hundred people. They have continued regularly ever since. Healings have
              taken place within living memory. There is still a Saint Walstan's Well
              at Costessey, a pilgrimage site for those
              seeking his intercession for the cure of fevers, palsy, lameness, and
              blindness. As recently as 1989 St Walstan was declared 'Patron-Saint
              of British Food and Farming'. And in 1998 there took place the first
              Orthodox pilgrimage to Bawburgh, which is to be continued in the future
              (8).

              Holy Righteous Walstan, pray to God for us!

              (1) The Life of St Walstan provides a good example of a local saint. His
              veneration never spread outside the Eastern Counties. Details of his
              Life were no doubt compiled by the East Anglian bishops of the first
              half of the eleventh century, but all was later lost. The Life as it now
              appears was probably written down only in the fourteenth century and the
              versions that we have are later still. We have therefore removed from
              its retelling here mediжval anachronisms such as Walstan's first
              communion at age seven. (Right up until the end of the twelfth century,
              confirmation and therefore communion followed baptism very closely,
              usually within weeks or months in accordance with ancient Christian
              tradition).

              (2) According to the Life of St Walstan, his mother Blide was related to
              Elgiva, the first wife of King Ethelred 'the Unready'. Ethelred's
              fateful rule had begun from the martyrdom of his half-brother Edward the
              Martyr on 18 March 978 and lasted until 23 April 1015 when he died.
              Ethelred would never have been King if it had not been for Edward's
              martyrdom. Everything this hapless man undertook went awry and he not
              only managed to lose most of his Kingdom to the Danish Canute at the
              beginning of the eleventh century but also married a second time into
              the Norman ruling family, thus ensuring the Norman Invasion in 1066. He
              was succeeded by his valiant son Edmund 'Ironside', who nearly defeated
              the Danish Cnut or Canute. Edmund fathered two children between 1016 and
              1017 but he himself died on 30 November 1016. Blide or 'Blythe', whose
              name means 'Joy', reposed in old age. She was revered as a saint at
              Martham, some fifteen miles to the north west of Norwich where she was
              buried. Here a chapel was dedicated to her and there was a local cult in
              Norfolk. We do not know the date of her feast.

              (3) It is interesting to note the resemblance between the Life of the
              Righteous St Walstan and that of St Alexis of Rome, 'the Man of God',
              commemorated on 17 March.

              (4) The Bishops of Norfolk referred to in the Life are all historic
              figures. Their See was then at North Elmham in central Norfolk. This was
              transferred to Thetford and then Norwich only later by the Normans.
              Theodred II was bishop from 980 to 995, Р–lfgar from 1001 to 1021 and
              Р–thelmar from 1047 to 1070.

              (5) This would have been the starting-point of the first written Life of
              St Walstan - since lost.

              (6) In Orthodox theology these few words are the very definition of the
              difference between 'glorification' (popular consent and veneration) and
              'canonisation' (official investigation and episcopal blessing and
              confirmation). Some do not realise this and incorrectly deny the
              existence of the canonisation process in the Orthodox Church. Of course
              that process is very different from that in the Roman Catholic Church.
              The latter only developed its present canonisation process in the Middle
              Ages.

              (7) See Carol Twinch, In Search of St Walstan, Norwich 1995, P. 36.

              (8) For a description of the 1998 Orthodox Pilgrimage, see Orthodox
              England, Vol 2, No 3.

              http://members.netscapeonline.co.uk/dvjdvs/v04i4.htm

              In art, Saint Walstan is depicted as a crowned farm labourer holding a
              scythe. At times the picture may include (1) the word "Opifer" by him;
              (2) scythe and sceptre; (3) scythe, crown, and two calves; or scythe and
              ermine cape (Roeder). He is the patron of mowers and husbandmen in the
              area (Husenbeth).

              Canon to the Holy Righteous Walstan of Taverham
              http://members.netscapeonline.co.uk/dvjdvs/canstwal.htm

              Icon of St Walstan
              http://www.allmercifulsavior.com/icons/Icons-Walstan.htm



              St. Madelgisilus (Maguil, Mauguille), Hermit
              ------------------------------------------------------------
              Born in Ireland; died c. 655. Saint Mauguille, as he is known among the
              French, was an Irish monk, disciple, and confidant of Saint Fursey
              (f.d. January 16). After living some years at Saint-Riquier Abbey,
              Mauguille and Saint Vulgan (Pulcan?) became hermits near Monstrelet in
              Picardy, where Mauguille died (Benedictines).


              Sources:
              ========

              Attwater, D. (1983). The Penguin Dictionary of Saints, NY:
              Penguin Books.

              Attwater, D. (1958). A Dictionary of Saints. New York:
              P. J. Kenedy & Sons. [Attwater 2]

              Benedictine Monks of Saint Augustine Abbey, Ramsgate.
              (1947). The Book of saints. NY: Macmillan.

              Coulson, J. (ed.). (1960). The Saints: A Concise Biographical
              Dictionary. New York: Hawthorn Books.
              Green & Co.

              Husenbeth, Rev. F. C., DD, VG (ed.). (1928). Butler's
              Lives of the Fathers, Martyrs, and Other Principal Saints.
              London: Virtue & Co.

              Roeder, H. (1956). Saints and Their Attributes, Chicago: Henry
              Regnery.

              For All the Saints: - new active link
              http://www.saintpatrickdc.org/ss/saint_a.shtml

              An Alphabetical Index of the Saints of the West - new active link
              http://orthodoxengland.org.uk/saintsa.htm

              These Lives are archived at:
              http://groups.yahoo.com/group/celt-saints
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