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3 November

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  • emrys@globe.net.nz
    Celtic and Old English Saints 3 November =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-= * St. Winifred of Holywell * St. Vulganius of Arras * St. Rumwald
    Message 1 of 14 , Nov 2, 2008
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      Celtic and Old English Saints 3 November

      =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=
      * St. Winifred of Holywell
      * St. Vulganius of Arras
      * St. Rumwald of Brackley
      * St. Cristiolus of Wales
      * St. Elerius of Wales
      * St. Tanglen of Scotland
      * St. Guenhael of Landevenec
      * St. Gwyddfarch of Moel yr Ancr
      =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=


      St. Gwenvrewi of Holywell, Abbess of Denbighshire, Wales
      (Winefride, Winifred, Winefride, Wenefrida,
      Gwenfrewi, Guinevra)
      ---------------------------------------------------------------
      Died c. 680. Winifred is evidently an historical personage, but it is
      equally true that her true story can no longer be reconstructed because
      the written information is too late to be reliable.

      Winefred was the daughter of Trevith, one of the chief advisers of the
      king of North Wales. Through her mother she is related to the Welsh
      saint Beuno, a holy priest. Her parents put her under instruction with
      this holy man, from whom she learned the heavenly doctrine with great
      eagerness.

      She grew daily in virtue and desired to shun all earthly things so that
      she might devote herself entirely to God. With the consent of her
      parents, she consecrated herself entirely to God by a vow of virginity,
      choosing Jesus Christ as her Spouse.

      Tradition says that a prince of that country named Caradoc (Caradog of
      Hawarden or Penarlag or Tegeingl in Flintshire) fell violently in love
      with her. One day finding her alone in the house where she was
      preparing things for use at the altar, her parents having already gone
      to the church service, he tried to seduce her. Winefred told him she
      was already espoused to another, but he would not leave her alone.

      Sensing his evil designs she excused herself on the plea that she must
      first adorn herself more becomingly. When she was free of him she
      escaped through her own chamber at the rear of the house and fled toward
      the church with all speed. The prince, tired of waiting and suspecting
      some kind of deceit, looking out of the house saw a figure hurrying
      along the valley.

      Violently angry at being deceived, he mounted his horse but was not able
      to overtake Winefred until she reached the door of the church. He was so
      angry that he raised his sword and struck her before she could enter.
      Hearing the tumult outside, Saint Beuno and her parents came out
      immediately, to find their dying child lying slain before them at their
      feet.

      The saint cursed the slayer, some writers saying that the ground opened
      and swallowed him up. The saint then praying to God, restored Winefred
      to life again. It was on this spot where her blood had flowed that a
      fountain gushed forth from the ground. On account of this
      blood-shedding she was always regarded as a martyr, though she lived for
      many years thereafter.

      The spot became known as Holywell, a place of pilgrimage for many
      succeeding ages, even to the present. After the death of Saint Beuno,
      having taken the veil, Saint Winefred went to live at the convent she
      established at Guthurin (Gwytherin in Denbigshire); there, with other
      holy virgins, she gave her life to God. (Another version says she
      succeeded Abbess Tenoi at the convent of a double monastery already on
      the site.)

      She died on June 24. In the 12th century (1138), her relics were taken
      from Guthurin to Shrewsbury and deposited with great honour in the
      Benedictine Abbey, founded there some 50 years earlier. Her cultus
      spread to England as well. Miracles were attested at Guthurin,
      Shrewsbury, as well as at Holywell (a.k.a. Treffynnon, Welltown).

      Her story was recorded by a monk named Elerius as early as 660. It can
      be safely said, however, from the names of her contemporaries, that she
      lived and died in the first half of the 7th century, about the same time
      as Saint Eanswith of Kent (Murray).

      At Holywell such vast quantities of water spring without interruption
      that it is estimated 24 tons are raised every minute, or 240 tons in
      less than 10 minutes. The water is always clear as crystal.

      No place was more famous for pilgrimages in the age of faith, where the
      divine mercy was implored through the intercession of Saint Winefred,
      who at that spot had glorified God and sanctified her own soul.

      Many extraordinary physical cures of leprosy, skin diseases, and other
      ailments are recorded up to the time of the wicked Reformation. Many
      authentic records of cures during the 17th century are also extant, so
      that the people still made pilgrimages there.

      Part of the beautiful Gothic building erected by Henry VII and his
      mother, the Countess of Derby, still remains. The people never forgot
      this holy place or the saint whom they invoked. During the last century
      the pilgrimages were revived.

      Pilgrimages to Saint Winefred's Well persisted after the Reformation,
      and they do to this day. Two poems of Gerard Manley
      Hopkins are devoted to this saint.

      There is evidence that the abbot Saint Beuno (f.d. April 21) was a man
      of importance, but is story, too, as written in 1346, is
      legendary. His name is particularly associated with Clynnog in
      Caernarvonshire, where sick people were still brought to his
      supposed burying-place towards the end of the 18th century. He may well
      have had a small monastery there (Attwater).

      In art Winefred is depicted as a Celtic maiden with a sword, fountain at
      her feet, and red ring around her neck where her head has been severed
      and restored. Sometimes she is shown with her head being restored by
      Saint Beuno, at others as an abbess with a ring around her neck,
      standing near the fountain (Roeder).

      She is venerated at Holywell, Wales. Reputed as abbess of Gwytherin,
      Denbighshire. Saint Beuno, Abbot, is chiefly venerated at Clynnog,
      Carnarvonshire (d. 630). (Attwater, Benedictines, Delaney,
      Encyclopaedia, Metcalf, Murray).

      Troparion of St Winefred tone 8
      Caradog's anger struck off thy head, O pious Winefred,/ but by the
      prayers of the Wonderworker Beuno thy mutilated form was miraculously
      made whole and restored to life./ As thou didst dedicate thy life to
      God's service in thanksgiving for His abundant mercy,/ pray that we,
      never forgetting His mercy towards us, may live only for Him that our
      souls may be saved.


      Icon of Saint Winefred:
      http://www.allmercifulsavior.com/icons/Icons-Winifred.htm##1

      Holywell - Clwyd
      by Roy Fry & Tristan Gray Hulse
      http://www.bath.ac.uk/lispring/sourcearchive/ns1/ns1tgh2.htm

      Winifred's Well:
      http://easyweb.easynet.co.uk/~dylanwad/StWinefride/Pamphlet.htm
      http://britannia.com/celtic/wales/sacred/winifred.html
      http://www.britannia.com/travel/barbaraballard/winifred.html

      http://castlewales.com/abbeys.html
      is a nice site of religious sites in Wales with some good pictures. Have
      a look especially at the link to St Winefride's well, the little chantry
      chapel above the well is where the annual Orthodox pilgrimage is held in
      October.

      "The Lives and Miracles of St. Winifred of Holywell and Shrewsbury."
      Translated by Hugh Feiss, OSB. Toronto: Peregrina Publishing Co, 1999.



      St. Vulganius (Wulganus, Vulmar) of Arras, Hermit
      ---------------------------------------------------
      Died c. 704. Saint Vulganius was an Irishman, Welshman, or Englishman
      (according to a manuscript at Lens he was born at
      Canterbury) who crossed over to France and evangelized the Atrebati.
      Finally he lived as a hermit at Arras, under the
      obedience of the abbot of Saint Vedast. Some refer to him as a bishop.
      A portion of his relics are kept at the abbey of Liesse, others at Lens
      (near Douai) of which he is patron. A claim was made that his body
      rested at Christ Church in Canterbury "in a chest on the beam beyond the
      altar of Saint Stephen." (Benedictines, Farmer, Husenbeth).


      St. Rumwold, Infant Prince of Northumbria
      (Rumwald, Rumbald)
      ---------------------------------------------------
      Born at Sutton (King's Sutton, Northants); date unknown; feast day at
      Brackley was August 28 (probably the date of the translation of his
      relics). Saint Rumwald, whose shrine existed at Buckingham before the
      Norman Conquest, was said to be the maternal grandson of King Penda of
      Mercia and the son of a pagan prince of Northumbria. His 11th-century
      Life relates that, in 650, the 3-day-old prince pronounced the creed
      aloud immediately after his baptism, preached a sermon on the Holy
      Trinity and the need for virtuous living, and then died.

      The year following his death, his relics were moved by Bishop Widerin
      (who had baptized him) to Brackley in Northamptonshire. Two years
      later, his bones were again translated to Buckingham. Rumwald was
      honoured with a cultus, chiefly in Northantshire and Buckingham. He was
      also revered at monasteries in Mercia, Wessex, and Sweden; however, his
      name is omitted from monastic calendars after 1100. Churches were
      dedicated to his memory in Kent, Essex, Northantshire, Lincolnshire,
      Dorset, and North Yorkshire (where there is also a Romaldkirk). The
      well of Saint Rumwald survives at Alstrop, Northantshire (Benedictines,
      Farmer, Husenbeth).

      In art he is shown in the midst of this miraculous act (Roeder). A
      statue of Rumwald at Boxley in Kent was destroyed during the
      Reformation. He is invoked by the fishermen of Folkestone as their
      patron (Farmer).

      St. Cristiolus of Wales
      ---------------------------------------------------
      7th century. Brother of Saint Sulian (f.d. September 1) and founder of
      churches in Pembrokeshire and Anglesey (Benedictines).


      St. Elerius, Prior in North Wales
      ---------------------------------------------------
      6th century. A Welsh saint, mentioned in the legends concerning Saint
      Winefred (f.d. today). He is supposed to have presided over a monastery
      in northern Wales (Benedictines).


      St. Englat, Abbot of Tarves, Scotland
      (Englatiis, Tanglen)
      ---------------------------------------------------
      Died 966. The Scottish Saint Englatius, said by some to have been a
      bishop, lived at Tarves in Aberdeenshire (Benedictines).


      St. Guenhael of Landevenec, Abbot
      ---------------------------------------------------
      Died c. 550. Guenhael, meaning "white angel," was born in Brittany and
      educated at Landevenec under Saint Winwaloe (Guenole, f.d. March 3). In
      due course he became abbot there (Benedictines).


      St. Gwyddfarch, Hermit of Moel yr Ancr, Wales
      ---------------------------------------------------
      A number of ascetics chose the tops of hills. One such was the hermit
      and monastic founder St Gwyddfarch. We know little about his early life
      beyond the fact that he was part of the community founded by his
      spiritual father, St Llywelyn at Trallwng (Tre = town, Llwng = Llywelyn,
      i.e. Llywelyn's Town), now know in English as Welshpool. This was at
      some point during the sixth century. It was part of the "Eastern
      Mission" i.e. the influx of Christian Britons into Wales from what is
      now Shropshire and probably in particular from the town of Wroxeter
      (Uriconium).

      From Trallwng Gwyddfarch set out into rather wilder country to the North
      East and settled in the Vyrnwy Valley near to the present-day village of
      Meifod. Above this valley is a solitary, steep-sided hill and it was
      close to the summit of this that Gwyddfarch built his cell, lived and
      finally died. It was here that he was buried and he is still there to
      this day. The hill is now known as Moel yr Ancr (the bald hill of the
      anchorite). Looking at the setting today it is astonishingly beautiful
      and pastoral and shows little signs of being a desert. In winter,
      however, when there is a cold East wind one can better appreciate that
      living on the top of that hill surrounded by wolf-infested woods was
      hard, cold and uncomfortable - not so far off the deserts of North
      Africa! St Gwyddfarch is commemorated on November 3rd.

      The above is from " The Deserts of Britain"
      by Fr Stephen Maxfield
      http://www.nireland.com/orthodox/deserts.htm

      Additional information from "History of the Church of the Holy Fathers"
      by Fr Stephen Maxfield
      http://www.shorthodox.freeserve.co.uk/History.htm

      ...With the withdrawal of the legions at the beginning of the fifth
      century a period of considerable political instability followed.
      However Viroconium continued to flourish for some time. For instance St
      Germanus of Auxerre came to Britain to counter
      the teachings of the heresiarch Pelagius in 429 and again in 447. He
      certainly visited Viroconium, indeed it seems to have been the base for
      his mission into what is now mid and north Wales: The last British
      Archbishop of London, Theonas (Teon) fled to Viroconium in 586 when
      London fell to the pagan Saxons. The range of hills known now as the
      Stiperstones are called, in Welsh, Carneddi Teon in memory of him. Some
      of Teon's disciples, including his grandson St Llywelyn, started a
      monastery at Welshpool, and their mission helped convert mid Wales
      particularly through the work of their disciples Sts Gwyddfarch and
      Tysilio.

      St. Tysilio (born c.548-640) (Latin-Disilius, English-Tysilio) was
      Prince Tyslio (or Sulio) was the second son of Brochfael Ysgythrog (of
      the Tusks). He fled his father's court at an early age to throw himself
      on the mercy of Abbot Gwyddfarch of Caer-Meguaidd (Meifod) and beg to
      become a monk.

      Caer-Meguaidd may be Meifod, the court of the Kings of Powys at the
      Manor of Mathrafal from around 750 or before. The place was also a major
      ecclesiastical centre. St.Gwyddfarch built the original church which was
      replaced by St.Tyslio in about 625. <Nennius, 28 British Cities>


      Lives kindly supplied by:
      For All the Saints:
      http://www.saintpatrickdc.org/ss/ss-index.htm

      These Lives are archived at:
      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/celt-saints
      ¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤
    • emrys@globe.net.nz
      Celtic and Old English Saints 3 November =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-= * St. Winifred of Holywell * St. Vulganius of Arras * St. Rumwald
      Message 2 of 14 , Nov 3, 2009
      • 0 Attachment
        Celtic and Old English Saints 3 November

        =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=
        * St. Winifred of Holywell
        * St. Vulganius of Arras
        * St. Rumwald of Brackley
        * St. Cristiolus of Wales
        * St. Elerius of Wales
        * St. Tanglen of Scotland
        * St. Guenhael of Landevenec
        * St. Gwyddfarch of Moel yr Ancr
        =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=


        St. Gwenvrewi of Holywell, Abbess of Denbighshire, Wales
        (Winefride, Winifred, Winefride, Wenefrida,
        Gwenfrewi, Guinevra)
        ---------------------------------------------------------------
        Died c. 680. Winifred is evidently an historical personage, but it is
        equally true that her true story can no longer be reconstructed because
        the written information is too late to be reliable.

        Winefred was the daughter of Trevith, one of the chief advisers of the
        king of North Wales. Through her mother she is related to the Welsh
        saint Beuno, a holy priest. Her parents put her under instruction with
        this holy man, from whom she learned the heavenly doctrine with great
        eagerness.

        She grew daily in virtue and desired to shun all earthly things so that
        she might devote herself entirely to God. With the consent of her
        parents, she consecrated herself entirely to God by a vow of virginity,
        choosing Jesus Christ as her Spouse.

        Tradition says that a prince of that country named Caradoc (Caradog of
        Hawarden or Penarlag or Tegeingl in Flintshire) fell violently in love
        with her. One day finding her alone in the house where she was
        preparing things for use at the altar, her parents having already gone
        to the church service, he tried to seduce her. Winefred told him she
        was already espoused to another, but he would not leave her alone.

        Sensing his evil designs she excused herself on the plea that she must
        first adorn herself more becomingly. When she was free of him she
        escaped through her own chamber at the rear of the house and fled toward
        the church with all speed. The prince, tired of waiting and suspecting
        some kind of deceit, looking out of the house saw a figure hurrying
        along the valley.

        Violently angry at being deceived, he mounted his horse but was not able
        to overtake Winefred until she reached the door of the church. He was so
        angry that he raised his sword and struck her before she could enter.
        Hearing the tumult outside, Saint Beuno and her parents came out
        immediately, to find their dying child lying slain before them at their
        feet.

        The saint cursed the slayer, some writers saying that the ground opened
        and swallowed him up. The saint then praying to God, restored Winefred
        to life again. It was on this spot where her blood had flowed that a
        fountain gushed forth from the ground. On account of this
        blood-shedding she was always regarded as a martyr, though she lived for
        many years thereafter.

        The spot became known as Holywell, a place of pilgrimage for many
        succeeding ages, even to the present. After the death of Saint Beuno,
        having taken the veil, Saint Winefred went to live at the convent she
        established at Guthurin (Gwytherin in Denbigshire); there, with other
        holy virgins, she gave her life to God. (Another version says she
        succeeded Abbess Tenoi at the convent of a double monastery already on
        the site.)

        She died on June 24. In the 12th century (1138), her relics were taken
        from Guthurin to Shrewsbury and deposited with great honour in the
        Benedictine Abbey, founded there some 50 years earlier. Her cultus
        spread to England as well. Miracles were attested at Guthurin,
        Shrewsbury, as well as at Holywell (a.k.a. Treffynnon, Welltown).

        Her story was recorded by a monk named Elerius as early as 660. It can
        be safely said, however, from the names of her contemporaries, that she
        lived and died in the first half of the 7th century, about the same time
        as Saint Eanswith of Kent (Murray).

        At Holywell such vast quantities of water spring without interruption
        that it is estimated 24 tons are raised every minute, or 240 tons in
        less than 10 minutes. The water is always clear as crystal.

        No place was more famous for pilgrimages in the age of faith, where the
        divine mercy was implored through the intercession of Saint Winefred,
        who at that spot had glorified God and sanctified her own soul.

        Many extraordinary physical cures of leprosy, skin diseases, and other
        ailments are recorded up to the time of the wicked Reformation. Many
        authentic records of cures during the 17th century are also extant, so
        that the people still made pilgrimages there.

        Part of the beautiful Gothic building erected by Henry VII and his
        mother, the Countess of Derby, still remains. The people never forgot
        this holy place or the saint whom they invoked. During the last century
        the pilgrimages were revived.

        Pilgrimages to Saint Winefred's Well persisted after the Reformation,
        and they do to this day. Two poems of Gerard Manley
        Hopkins are devoted to this saint.

        There is evidence that the abbot Saint Beuno (f.d. April 21) was a man
        of importance, but is story, too, as written in 1346, is
        legendary. His name is particularly associated with Clynnog in
        Caernarvonshire, where sick people were still brought to his
        supposed burying-place towards the end of the 18th century. He may well
        have had a small monastery there (Attwater).

        In art Winefred is depicted as a Celtic maiden with a sword, fountain at
        her feet, and red ring around her neck where her head has been severed
        and restored. Sometimes she is shown with her head being restored by
        Saint Beuno, at others as an abbess with a ring around her neck,
        standing near the fountain (Roeder).

        She is venerated at Holywell, Wales. Reputed as abbess of Gwytherin,
        Denbighshire. Saint Beuno, Abbot, is chiefly venerated at Clynnog,
        Carnarvonshire (d. 630). (Attwater, Benedictines, Delaney,
        Encyclopaedia, Metcalf, Murray).

        Troparion of St Winefred tone 8
        Caradog's anger struck off thy head, O pious Winefred,/ but by the
        prayers of the Wonderworker Beuno thy mutilated form was miraculously
        made whole and restored to life./ As thou didst dedicate thy life to
        God's service in thanksgiving for His abundant mercy,/ pray that we,
        never forgetting His mercy towards us, may live only for Him that our
        souls may be saved.


        Icon of Saint Winefred:
        http://www.allmercifulsavior.com/icons/Icons-Winifred.htm##1

        Holywell - Clwyd
        by Roy Fry & Tristan Gray Hulse
        http://www.bath.ac.uk/lispring/sourcearchive/ns1/ns1tgh2.htm

        Winifred's Well:
        http://easyweb.easynet.co.uk/~dylanwad/StWinefride/Pamphlet.htm
        http://britannia.com/celtic/wales/sacred/winifred.html
        http://www.britannia.com/travel/barbaraballard/winifred.html

        http://castlewales.com/abbeys.html
        is a nice site of religious sites in Wales with some good pictures. Have
        a look especially at the link to St Winefride's well, the little chantry
        chapel above the well is where the annual Orthodox pilgrimage is held in
        October.

        "The Lives and Miracles of St. Winifred of Holywell and Shrewsbury."
        Translated by Hugh Feiss, OSB. Toronto: Peregrina Publishing Co, 1999.



        St. Vulganius (Wulganus, Vulmar) of Arras, Hermit
        ---------------------------------------------------
        Died c. 704. Saint Vulganius was an Irishman, Welshman, or Englishman
        (according to a manuscript at Lens he was born at
        Canterbury) who crossed over to France and evangelized the Atrebati.
        Finally he lived as a hermit at Arras, under the
        obedience of the abbot of Saint Vedast. Some refer to him as a bishop.
        A portion of his relics are kept at the abbey of Liesse, others at Lens
        (near Douai) of which he is patron. A claim was made that his body
        rested at Christ Church in Canterbury "in a chest on the beam beyond the
        altar of Saint Stephen." (Benedictines, Farmer, Husenbeth).


        St. Rumwold, Infant Prince of Northumbria
        (Rumwald, Rumbald)
        ---------------------------------------------------
        Born at Sutton (King's Sutton, Northants); date unknown; feast day at
        Brackley was August 28 (probably the date of the translation of his
        relics). Saint Rumwald, whose shrine existed at Buckingham before the
        Norman Conquest, was said to be the maternal grandson of King Penda of
        Mercia and the son of a pagan prince of Northumbria. His 11th-century
        Life relates that, in 650, the 3-day-old prince pronounced the creed
        aloud immediately after his baptism, preached a sermon on the Holy
        Trinity and the need for virtuous living, and then died.

        The year following his death, his relics were moved by Bishop Widerin
        (who had baptized him) to Brackley in Northamptonshire. Two years
        later, his bones were again translated to Buckingham. Rumwald was
        honoured with a cultus, chiefly in Northantshire and Buckingham. He was
        also revered at monasteries in Mercia, Wessex, and Sweden; however, his
        name is omitted from monastic calendars after 1100. Churches were
        dedicated to his memory in Kent, Essex, Northantshire, Lincolnshire,
        Dorset, and North Yorkshire (where there is also a Romaldkirk). The
        well of Saint Rumwald survives at Alstrop, Northantshire (Benedictines,
        Farmer, Husenbeth).

        In art he is shown in the midst of this miraculous act (Roeder). A
        statue of Rumwald at Boxley in Kent was destroyed during the
        Reformation. He is invoked by the fishermen of Folkestone as their
        patron (Farmer).

        St. Cristiolus of Wales
        ---------------------------------------------------
        7th century. Brother of Saint Sulian (f.d. September 1) and founder of
        churches in Pembrokeshire and Anglesey (Benedictines).


        St. Elerius, Prior in North Wales
        ---------------------------------------------------
        6th century. A Welsh saint, mentioned in the legends concerning Saint
        Winefred (f.d. today). He is supposed to have presided over a monastery
        in northern Wales (Benedictines).


        St. Englat, Abbot of Tarves, Scotland
        (Englatiis, Tanglen)
        ---------------------------------------------------
        Died 966. The Scottish Saint Englatius, said by some to have been a
        bishop, lived at Tarves in Aberdeenshire (Benedictines).


        St. Guenhael of Landevenec, Abbot
        ---------------------------------------------------
        Died c. 550. Guenhael, meaning "white angel," was born in Brittany and
        educated at Landevenec under Saint Winwaloe (Guenole, f.d. March 3). In
        due course he became abbot there (Benedictines).


        St. Gwyddfarch, Hermit of Moel yr Ancr, Wales
        ---------------------------------------------------
        A number of ascetics chose the tops of hills. One such was the hermit
        and monastic founder St Gwyddfarch. We know little about his early life
        beyond the fact that he was part of the community founded by his
        spiritual father, St Llywelyn at Trallwng (Tre = town, Llwng = Llywelyn,
        i.e. Llywelyn's Town), now know in English as Welshpool. This was at
        some point during the sixth century. It was part of the "Eastern
        Mission" i.e. the influx of Christian Britons into Wales from what is
        now Shropshire and probably in particular from the town of Wroxeter
        (Uriconium).

        From Trallwng Gwyddfarch set out into rather wilder country to the North
        East and settled in the Vyrnwy Valley near to the present-day village of
        Meifod. Above this valley is a solitary, steep-sided hill and it was
        close to the summit of this that Gwyddfarch built his cell, lived and
        finally died. It was here that he was buried and he is still there to
        this day. The hill is now known as Moel yr Ancr (the bald hill of the
        anchorite). Looking at the setting today it is astonishingly beautiful
        and pastoral and shows little signs of being a desert. In winter,
        however, when there is a cold East wind one can better appreciate that
        living on the top of that hill surrounded by wolf-infested woods was
        hard, cold and uncomfortable - not so far off the deserts of North
        Africa! St Gwyddfarch is commemorated on November 3rd.

        The above is from " The Deserts of Britain"
        by Fr Stephen Maxfield
        http://www.nireland.com/orthodox/deserts.htm

        Additional information from "History of the Church of the Holy Fathers"
        by Fr Stephen Maxfield
        http://www.shorthodox.freeserve.co.uk/History.htm

        ...With the withdrawal of the legions at the beginning of the fifth
        century a period of considerable political instability followed.
        However Viroconium continued to flourish for some time. For instance St
        Germanus of Auxerre came to Britain to counter
        the teachings of the heresiarch Pelagius in 429 and again in 447. He
        certainly visited Viroconium, indeed it seems to have been the base for
        his mission into what is now mid and north Wales: The last British
        Archbishop of London, Theonas (Teon) fled to Viroconium in 586 when
        London fell to the pagan Saxons. The range of hills known now as the
        Stiperstones are called, in Welsh, Carneddi Teon in memory of him. Some
        of Teon's disciples, including his grandson St Llywelyn, started a
        monastery at Welshpool, and their mission helped convert mid Wales
        particularly through the work of their disciples Sts Gwyddfarch and
        Tysilio.

        St. Tysilio (born c.548-640) (Latin-Disilius, English-Tysilio) was
        Prince Tyslio (or Sulio) was the second son of Brochfael Ysgythrog (of
        the Tusks). He fled his father's court at an early age to throw himself
        on the mercy of Abbot Gwyddfarch of Caer-Meguaidd (Meifod) and beg to
        become a monk.

        Caer-Meguaidd may be Meifod, the court of the Kings of Powys at the
        Manor of Mathrafal from around 750 or before. The place was also a major
        ecclesiastical centre. St.Gwyddfarch built the original church which was
        replaced by St.Tyslio in about 625. <Nennius, 28 British Cities>


        Lives kindly supplied by:
        For All the Saints:
        http://www.saintpatrickdc.org/ss/ss-index.htm

        These Lives are archived at:
        http://groups.yahoo.com/group/celt-saints
        ¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤
      • ambrois@xtra.co.nz
        Celtic and Old English Saints 3 November =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-= * St. Winifred of Holywell * St. Vulganius of Arras * St. Rumwald
        Message 3 of 14 , Nov 1, 2010
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          Celtic and Old English Saints 3 November

          =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=
          * St. Winifred of Holywell
          * St. Vulganius of Arras
          * St. Rumwald of Brackley
          * St. Cristiolus of Wales
          * St. Elerius of Wales
          * St. Tanglen of Scotland
          * St. Guenhael of Landevenec
          * St. Pirminius of Reichenau
          * St. Coemhan of Anatrim
          * St. Gwyddfarch of Moel yr Ancr
          =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=


          St. Gwenvrewi of Holywell, Abbess of Denbighshire, Wales
          (Winefride, Winifred, Winefride, Wenefrida,
          Gwenfrewi, Guinevra)
          ---------------------------------------------------------------
          Died c. 680. Winifred is evidently an historical personage, but it is
          equally true that her true story can no longer be reconstructed because
          the written information is too late to be reliable.

          Winefred was the daughter of Trevith, one of the chief advisers of the
          king of North Wales. Through her mother she is related to the Welsh
          saint Beuno, a holy priest. Her parents put her under instruction with
          this holy man, from whom she learned the heavenly doctrine with great
          eagerness.

          She grew daily in virtue and desired to shun all earthly things so that
          she might devote herself entirely to God. With the consent of her
          parents, she consecrated herself entirely to God by a vow of virginity,
          choosing Jesus Christ as her Spouse.

          Tradition says that a prince of that country named Caradoc (Caradog of
          Hawarden or Penarlag or Tegeingl in Flintshire) fell violently in love
          with her. One day finding her alone in the house where she was
          preparing things for use at the altar, her parents having already gone
          to the church service, he tried to seduce her. Winefred told him she
          was already espoused to another, but he would not leave her alone.

          Sensing his evil designs she excused herself on the plea that she must
          first adorn herself more becomingly. When she was free of him she
          escaped through her own chamber at the rear of the house and fled toward
          the church with all speed. The prince, tired of waiting and suspecting
          some kind of deceit, looking out of the house saw a figure hurrying
          along the valley.

          Violently angry at being deceived, he mounted his horse but was not able
          to overtake Winefred until she reached the door of the church. He was so
          angry that he raised his sword and struck her before she could enter.
          Hearing the tumult outside, Saint Beuno and her parents came out
          immediately, to find their dying child lying slain before them at their
          feet.

          The saint cursed the slayer, some writers saying that the ground opened
          and swallowed him up. The saint then praying to God, restored Winefred
          to life again. It was on this spot where her blood had flowed that a
          fountain gushed forth from the ground. On account of this
          blood-shedding she was always regarded as a martyr, though she lived for
          many years thereafter.

          The spot became known as Holywell, a place of pilgrimage for many
          succeeding ages, even to the present. After the death of Saint Beuno,
          having taken the veil, Saint Winefred went to live at the convent she
          established at Guthurin (Gwytherin in Denbigshire); there, with other
          holy virgins, she gave her life to God. (Another version says she
          succeeded Abbess Tenoi at the convent of a double monastery already on
          the site.)

          She died on June 24. In the 12th century (1138), her relics were taken
          from Guthurin to Shrewsbury and deposited with great honour in the
          Benedictine Abbey, founded there some 50 years earlier. Her cultus
          spread to England as well. Miracles were attested at Guthurin,
          Shrewsbury, as well as at Holywell (a.k.a. Treffynnon, Welltown).

          Her story was recorded by a monk named Elerius as early as 660. It can
          be safely said, however, from the names of her contemporaries, that she
          lived and died in the first half of the 7th century, about the same time
          as Saint Eanswith of Kent (Murray).

          At Holywell such vast quantities of water spring without interruption
          that it is estimated 24 tons are raised every minute, or 240 tons in
          less than 10 minutes. The water is always clear as crystal.

          No place was more famous for pilgrimages in the age of faith, where the
          divine mercy was implored through the intercession of Saint Winefred,
          who at that spot had glorified God and sanctified her own soul.

          Many extraordinary physical cures of leprosy, skin diseases, and other
          ailments are recorded up to the time of the wicked Reformation. Many
          authentic records of cures during the 17th century are also extant, so
          that the people still made pilgrimages there.

          Part of the beautiful Gothic building erected by Henry VII and his
          mother, the Countess of Derby, still remains. The people never forgot
          this holy place or the saint whom they invoked. During the last century
          the pilgrimages were revived.

          Pilgrimages to Saint Winefred's Well persisted after the Reformation,
          and they do to this day. Two poems of Gerard Manley
          Hopkins are devoted to this saint.

          There is evidence that the abbot Saint Beuno (f.d. April 21) was a man
          of importance, but is story, too, as written in 1346, is
          legendary. His name is particularly associated with Clynnog in
          Caernarvonshire, where sick people were still brought to his
          supposed burying-place towards the end of the 18th century. He may well
          have had a small monastery there (Attwater).

          In art Winefred is depicted as a Celtic maiden with a sword, fountain at
          her feet, and red ring around her neck where her head has been severed
          and restored. Sometimes she is shown with her head being restored by
          Saint Beuno, at others as an abbess with a ring around her neck,
          standing near the fountain (Roeder).

          She is venerated at Holywell, Wales. Reputed as abbess of Gwytherin,
          Denbighshire. Saint Beuno, Abbot, is chiefly venerated at Clynnog,
          Carnarvonshire (d. 630). (Attwater, Benedictines, Delaney,
          Encyclopaedia, Metcalf, Murray).

          Troparion of St Winefred tone 8
          Caradog's anger struck off thy head, O pious Winefred,/ but by the
          prayers of the Wonderworker Beuno thy mutilated form was miraculously
          made whole and restored to life./ As thou didst dedicate thy life to
          God's service in thanksgiving for His abundant mercy,/ pray that we,
          never forgetting His mercy towards us, may live only for Him that our
          souls may be saved.

          A couple of books on St Winifred available at the Internet Archive:

          1. Philip Leigh, The Life and Miracles of St Wenefride (1874)
          This is a reprint of a 1712 translation of the Life of St Wenefride written
          by Robert of Shrewsbury. The language has (thankfully) been modernized. The
          book includes a number of prayers and a hymn to the saint, plus a Litany as
          used by Catholic pilgrims to the shrine.
          http://www.archive.org/details/lifeandmiracles01winegoog

          2. Thomas Swift, S.J. (ed), The Life of St Winefride, Virgin and Martyr,
          based on the Acts of the Bollandist Fathers (1888)
          http://www.archive.org/details/lifeofsaintwinef00swifuoft


          Icon of Saint Winefred:
          http://www.allmercifulsavior.com/icons/Icons-Winifred.htm##1

          Holywell - Clwyd
          by Roy Fry & Tristan Gray Hulse
          http://www.bath.ac.uk/lispring/sourcearchive/ns1/ns1tgh2.htm

          Winifred's Well:
          http://easyweb.easynet.co.uk/~dylanwad/StWinefride/Pamphlet.htm
          http://britannia.com/celtic/wales/sacred/winifred.html
          http://www.britannia.com/travel/barbaraballard/winifred.html

          http://castlewales.com/abbeys.html
          is a nice site of religious sites in Wales with some good pictures. Have
          a look especially at the link to St Winefride's well, the little chantry
          chapel above the well is where the annual Orthodox pilgrimage is held in
          October.

          "The Lives and Miracles of St. Winifred of Holywell and Shrewsbury."
          Translated by Hugh Feiss, OSB. Toronto: Peregrina Publishing Co, 1999.



          St. Vulganius (Wulganus, Vulmar) of Arras, Hermit
          ---------------------------------------------------
          Died c. 704. Saint Vulganius was an Irishman, Welshman, or Englishman
          (according to a manuscript at Lens he was born at
          Canterbury) who crossed over to France and evangelized the Atrebati.
          Finally he lived as a hermit at Arras, under the
          obedience of the abbot of Saint Vedast. Some refer to him as a bishop.
          A portion of his relics are kept at the abbey of Liesse, others at Lens
          (near Douai) of which he is patron. A claim was made that his body
          rested at Christ Church in Canterbury "in a chest on the beam beyond the
          altar of Saint Stephen." (Benedictines, Farmer, Husenbeth).


          St. Rumwold, Infant Prince of Northumbria
          (Rumwald, Rumbald)
          ---------------------------------------------------
          Born at Sutton (King's Sutton, Northants); date unknown; feast day at
          Brackley was August 28 (probably the date of the translation of his
          relics). Saint Rumwald, whose shrine existed at Buckingham before the
          Norman Conquest, was said to be the maternal grandson of King Penda of
          Mercia and the son of a pagan prince of Northumbria. His 11th-century
          Life relates that, in 650, the 3-day-old prince pronounced the creed
          aloud immediately after his baptism, preached a sermon on the Holy
          Trinity and the need for virtuous living, and then died.

          The year following his death, his relics were moved by Bishop Widerin
          (who had baptized him) to Brackley in Northamptonshire. Two years
          later, his bones were again translated to Buckingham. Rumwald was
          honoured with a cultus, chiefly in Northantshire and Buckingham. He was
          also revered at monasteries in Mercia, Wessex, and Sweden; however, his
          name is omitted from monastic calendars after 1100. Churches were
          dedicated to his memory in Kent, Essex, Northantshire, Lincolnshire,
          Dorset, and North Yorkshire (where there is also a Romaldkirk). The
          well of Saint Rumwald survives at Alstrop, Northantshire (Benedictines,
          Farmer, Husenbeth).

          In art he is shown in the midst of this miraculous act (Roeder). A
          statue of Rumwald at Boxley in Kent was destroyed during the
          Reformation. He is invoked by the fishermen of Folkestone as their
          patron (Farmer).

          St. Cristiolus of Wales
          ---------------------------------------------------
          7th century. Brother of Saint Sulian (f.d. September 1) and founder of
          churches in Pembrokeshire and Anglesey (Benedictines).


          St. Elerius, Prior in North Wales
          ---------------------------------------------------
          6th century. A Welsh saint, mentioned in the legends concerning Saint
          Winefred (f.d. today). He is supposed to have presided over a monastery
          in northern Wales (Benedictines).


          St. Englat, Abbot of Tarves, Scotland
          (Englatiis, Tanglen)
          ---------------------------------------------------
          Died 966. The Scottish Saint Englatius, said by some to have been a
          bishop, lived at Tarves in Aberdeenshire (Benedictines).


          St. Guenhael of Landevenec, Abbot
          ---------------------------------------------------
          Died c. 550. Guenhael, meaning "white angel," was born in Brittany and
          educated at Landevenec under Saint Winwaloe (Guenole, f.d. March 3). In
          due course he became abbot there (Benedictines).


          St. Pirminius of Reichenau
          -------------------------------------------------

          November 3 is also the feastday of the founder of the monastery of
          Reichenau -Pirminius - whose birthplace is still the subject of debate among
          scholars today. One tradition is that he was an Irishman, and in the article
          below, reproduced from the Irish Ecclesiastical Record of 1894, Father J.F.
          Hogan, champions this claim. Please refer to the original volume to consult
          the footnotes to this text. Whatver the truth about the national origins of
          Saint Pirminius, the article is worth reading for the information it
          contains on the monastery of Reichenau and its famous sons.

          http://brigid-undertheoak.blogspot.com/2009/11/saint-pirminius-of-reichenau-irish.html


          St. Coemhan of Anatrim
          -------------------------------------------------

          He was appointed successor to St. Mochaemhog (Latin name Pulcherius) who
          founded the monastery at Anatrim. The details of this succession are
          recorded in the Life of Pulcherius:

          "St. Pulcherius, with his monks, came to a place by name Enachtruim, which
          is in the Slieve Bloom, in the territory of the Leixians, and began to build
          a church there. But a certain wordly-given man came to him saying: 'Do not
          labour here in vain, because this place will not be yours.' St. Pulcherius
          answered him saying: 'Now I will remain here till some one taking hold of my
          hand shall seize me and expel me by force.' Then the other took hold of the
          holy man's hand with the intention of forcing him away. As he did so, St.
          Pulcherius said to him: 'By what name are you called, O man?" He answered:
          'My name is Bronach' (which, in Latin. is equivalent to tristis). The holy
          man replied: 'You have an appropriate name, for you shall be sad here and
          hereafter. Now you and your generation, by the will of God, will be expelled
          hence by the chief of this district, but I shall be in this place until a
          man of God, by name Coemhan, will come to me; to him I will leave this
          place, he shall be surnamed from it, and here shall be his resurrection.'
          The man hearing this prophecy, and conscious of his guiltiness towards his
          chief, withdrew in anger, and without contrition for the insult he had
          offered [the saint], and forthwith everything fell out with him as the holy
          man had predicted. And when St. Coemhan came thither to St. Pulcherius, the
          latter left the place to him, and he remained here in great sanctity till
          his death: but St. Pulcherius proceeded to the district of Munster."
          AA. SS. Hib. p. 586, March 13.


          St. Coemhan or "Kavan," to whom Anatrim was thus committed, was probably a
          native of the County Wicklow, and was certainly a member of what may, with
          reason, be called a family of Saints. He was brother or step-brother of (1)
          the great St. Caoimhghin or Kevin of Glendalough, who died in 618, aged, it
          is said, 120 years; (2) St. Nathchoemhi or Mo-Chuemhin, Abbot of Terryglass,
          in Lower Ormond; (3) St. Coemola or Melda, mother of St. Abban the younger,
          which latter was born about 520; and of (4) St. Coeltighearna, mother of (a)
          St. Dagan of Ennereilly, Co. Wicklow; (b) St. Molibba, Abbot and Bishop of
          Glendalough; (c) St. Menocus or Enanus of Glenealy, Co. Wicklow, and (d) St.
          Mobhai. In early life, St. Coemhan, with his brother, St. Nathchoemhi, and
          St. Fintan of Clonenagh, received his religious training in St. Columba's
          Monastery of Terryglass. The date of his death must be somewhere about the
          year 600. The Martyrology of Donegal thus commemorates him on his feast day,
          Nov. 3rd:
          "Caemhan of Eanach-truim, in Laoighis, in the west of Leinster. He was of
          the race of Labhraidh Lorc, monarch of Erin, and brother of Caoimhghin of
          Gleann-da-locha.

          The Calendar of Aengus, on the same day, has:

          "The day of Coemhan of Eanach."

          On which passage the scholiast of Aengus comments

          "That is, Coemhan of Eanach truim in Laighis in Leinster, the brother of
          Coemgin of Glendalough Coemlog was their father's name and Coemgel their
          mother's, and Natcaim of Tir-da-glass [was] their brother as is aforesaid."

          The annals of Anatrim monastery, from the time of St. Coemhan, are a perfect
          blank. The monks probably held on here till the 12th century, when they
          either became extinct or were set aside, and their chapel was handed over to
          the secular clergy.

          Source: Carrigan "The History and Antiquities of the Diocese of Ossory" Vol.
          2 (1905)

          http://www.irishmidlandsancestry.com/content/laois/community/parishhistories/camross_parish.htm




          St. Gwyddfarch, Hermit of Moel yr Ancr, Wales
          ---------------------------------------------------
          A number of ascetics chose the tops of hills. One such was the hermit
          and monastic founder St Gwyddfarch. We know little about his early life
          beyond the fact that he was part of the community founded by his
          spiritual father, St Llywelyn at Trallwng (Tre = town, Llwng = Llywelyn,
          i.e. Llywelyn's Town), now know in English as Welshpool. This was at
          some point during the sixth century. It was part of the "Eastern
          Mission" i.e. the influx of Christian Britons into Wales from what is
          now Shropshire and probably in particular from the town of Wroxeter
          (Uriconium).

          From Trallwng Gwyddfarch set out into rather wilder country to the North
          East and settled in the Vyrnwy Valley near to the present-day village of
          Meifod. Above this valley is a solitary, steep-sided hill and it was
          close to the summit of this that Gwyddfarch built his cell, lived and
          finally died. It was here that he was buried and he is still there to
          this day. The hill is now known as Moel yr Ancr (the bald hill of the
          anchorite). Looking at the setting today it is astonishingly beautiful
          and pastoral and shows little signs of being a desert. In winter,
          however, when there is a cold East wind one can better appreciate that
          living on the top of that hill surrounded by wolf-infested woods was
          hard, cold and uncomfortable - not so far off the deserts of North
          Africa! St Gwyddfarch is commemorated on November 3rd.

          The above is from " The Deserts of Britain"
          by Fr Stephen Maxfield
          http://www.nireland.com/orthodox/deserts.htm

          Additional information from "History of the Church of the Holy Fathers"
          by Fr Stephen Maxfield
          http://www.shorthodox.freeserve.co.uk/History.htm

          ....With the withdrawal of the legions at the beginning of the fifth
          century a period of considerable political instability followed.
          However Viroconium continued to flourish for some time. For instance St
          Germanus of Auxerre came to Britain to counter
          the teachings of the heresiarch Pelagius in 429 and again in 447. He
          certainly visited Viroconium, indeed it seems to have been the base for
          his mission into what is now mid and north Wales: The last British
          Archbishop of London, Theonas (Teon) fled to Viroconium in 586 when
          London fell to the pagan Saxons. The range of hills known now as the
          Stiperstones are called, in Welsh, Carneddi Teon in memory of him. Some
          of Teon's disciples, including his grandson St Llywelyn, started a
          monastery at Welshpool, and their mission helped convert mid Wales
          particularly through the work of their disciples Sts Gwyddfarch and
          Tysilio.

          St. Tysilio (born c.548-640) (Latin-Disilius, English-Tysilio) was
          Prince Tyslio (or Sulio) was the second son of Brochfael Ysgythrog (of
          the Tusks). He fled his father's court at an early age to throw himself
          on the mercy of Abbot Gwyddfarch of Caer-Meguaidd (Meifod) and beg to
          become a monk.

          Caer-Meguaidd may be Meifod, the court of the Kings of Powys at the
          Manor of Mathrafal from around 750 or before. The place was also a major
          ecclesiastical centre. St.Gwyddfarch built the original church which was
          replaced by St.Tyslio in about 625. <Nennius, 28 British Cities>


          Lives kindly supplied by:
          For All the Saints:
          http://www.saintpatrickdc.org/ss/ss-index.htm

          These Lives are archived at:
          http://groups.yahoo.com/group/celt-saints
          ¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤
        • ambrois@xtra.co.nz
          Celtic and Old English Saints 3 November =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-= * St. Winifred of Holywell * St. Vulganius of Arras * St. Rumwald
          Message 4 of 14 , Nov 1, 2011
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            Celtic and Old English Saints 3 November

            =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=
            * St. Winifred of Holywell
            * St. Vulganius of Arras
            * St. Rumwald of Brackley
            * St. Cristiolus of Wales
            * St. Elerius of Wales
            * St. Tanglen of Scotland
            * St. Guenhael of Landevenec
            * St. Pirminius of Reichenau
            * St. Coemhan of Anatrim
            * St. Gwyddfarch of Moel yr Ancr
            =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=


            St. Gwenvrewi of Holywell, Abbess of Denbighshire, Wales
            (Winefride, Winifred, Winefride, Wenefrida,
            Gwenfrewi, Guinevra)
            ---------------------------------------------------------------
            Died c. 680. Winifred is evidently an historical personage, but it is
            equally true that her true story can no longer be reconstructed because
            the written information is too late to be reliable.

            Winefred was the daughter of Trevith, one of the chief advisers of the
            king of North Wales. Through her mother she is related to the Welsh
            saint Beuno, a holy priest. Her parents put her under instruction with
            this holy man, from whom she learned the heavenly doctrine with great
            eagerness.

            She grew daily in virtue and desired to shun all earthly things so that
            she might devote herself entirely to God. With the consent of her
            parents, she consecrated herself entirely to God by a vow of virginity,
            choosing Jesus Christ as her Spouse.

            Tradition says that a prince of that country named Caradoc (Caradog of
            Hawarden or Penarlag or Tegeingl in Flintshire) fell violently in love
            with her. One day finding her alone in the house where she was
            preparing things for use at the altar, her parents having already gone
            to the church service, he tried to seduce her. Winefred told him she
            was already espoused to another, but he would not leave her alone.

            Sensing his evil designs she excused herself on the plea that she must
            first adorn herself more becomingly. When she was free of him she
            escaped through her own chamber at the rear of the house and fled toward
            the church with all speed. The prince, tired of waiting and suspecting
            some kind of deceit, looking out of the house saw a figure hurrying
            along the valley.

            Violently angry at being deceived, he mounted his horse but was not able
            to overtake Winefred until she reached the door of the church. He was so
            angry that he raised his sword and struck her before she could enter.
            Hearing the tumult outside, Saint Beuno and her parents came out
            immediately, to find their dying child lying slain before them at their
            feet.

            The saint cursed the slayer, some writers saying that the ground opened
            and swallowed him up. The saint then praying to God, restored Winefred
            to life again. It was on this spot where her blood had flowed that a
            fountain gushed forth from the ground. On account of this
            blood-shedding she was always regarded as a martyr, though she lived for
            many years thereafter.

            The spot became known as Holywell, a place of pilgrimage for many
            succeeding ages, even to the present. After the death of Saint Beuno,
            having taken the veil, Saint Winefred went to live at the convent she
            established at Guthurin (Gwytherin in Denbigshire); there, with other
            holy virgins, she gave her life to God. (Another version says she
            succeeded Abbess Tenoi at the convent of a double monastery already on
            the site.)

            She died on June 24. In the 12th century (1138), her relics were taken
            from Guthurin to Shrewsbury and deposited with great honour in the
            Benedictine Abbey, founded there some 50 years earlier. Her cultus
            spread to England as well. Miracles were attested at Guthurin,
            Shrewsbury, as well as at Holywell (a.k.a. Treffynnon, Welltown).

            Her story was recorded by a monk named Elerius as early as 660. It can
            be safely said, however, from the names of her contemporaries, that she
            lived and died in the first half of the 7th century, about the same time
            as Saint Eanswith of Kent (Murray).

            At Holywell such vast quantities of water spring without interruption
            that it is estimated 24 tons are raised every minute, or 240 tons in
            less than 10 minutes. The water is always clear as crystal.

            No place was more famous for pilgrimages in the age of faith, where the
            divine mercy was implored through the intercession of Saint Winefred,
            who at that spot had glorified God and sanctified her own soul.

            Many extraordinary physical cures of leprosy, skin diseases, and other
            ailments are recorded up to the time of the wicked Reformation. Many
            authentic records of cures during the 17th century are also extant, so
            that the people still made pilgrimages there.

            Part of the beautiful Gothic building erected by Henry VII and his
            mother, the Countess of Derby, still remains. The people never forgot
            this holy place or the saint whom they invoked. During the last century
            the pilgrimages were revived.

            Pilgrimages to Saint Winefred's Well persisted after the Reformation,
            and they do to this day. Two poems of Gerard Manley
            Hopkins are devoted to this saint.

            There is evidence that the abbot Saint Beuno (f.d. April 21) was a man
            of importance, but is story, too, as written in 1346, is
            legendary. His name is particularly associated with Clynnog in
            Caernarvonshire, where sick people were still brought to his
            supposed burying-place towards the end of the 18th century. He may well
            have had a small monastery there (Attwater).

            In art Winefred is depicted as a Celtic maiden with a sword, fountain at
            her feet, and red ring around her neck where her head has been severed
            and restored. Sometimes she is shown with her head being restored by
            Saint Beuno, at others as an abbess with a ring around her neck,
            standing near the fountain (Roeder).

            She is venerated at Holywell, Wales. Reputed as abbess of Gwytherin,
            Denbighshire. Saint Beuno, Abbot, is chiefly venerated at Clynnog,
            Carnarvonshire (d. 630). (Attwater, Benedictines, Delaney,
            Encyclopaedia, Metcalf, Murray).

            Troparion of St Winefred tone 8
            Caradog's anger struck off thy head, O pious Winefred,/ but by the
            prayers of the Wonderworker Beuno thy mutilated form was miraculously
            made whole and restored to life./ As thou didst dedicate thy life to
            God's service in thanksgiving for His abundant mercy,/ pray that we,
            never forgetting His mercy towards us, may live only for Him that our
            souls may be saved.

            A couple of books on St Winifred available at the Internet Archive:

            1. Philip Leigh, The Life and Miracles of St Wenefride (1874)
            This is a reprint of a 1712 translation of the Life of St Wenefride written
            by Robert of Shrewsbury. The language has (thankfully) been modernized. The
            book includes a number of prayers and a hymn to the saint, plus a Litany as
            used by Catholic pilgrims to the shrine.
            http://www.archive.org/details/lifeandmiracles01winegoog

            2. Thomas Swift, S.J. (ed), The Life of St Winefride, Virgin and Martyr,
            based on the Acts of the Bollandist Fathers (1888)
            http://www.archive.org/details/lifeofsaintwinef00swifuoft


            Icon of Saint Winefred:
            http://www.allmercifulsavior.com/icons/Icons-Winifred.htm##1

            Holywell - Clwyd
            by Roy Fry & Tristan Gray Hulse
            http://www.bath.ac.uk/lispring/sourcearchive/ns1/ns1tgh2.htm

            Winifred's Well:
            http://easyweb.easynet.co.uk/~dylanwad/StWinefride/Pamphlet.htm
            http://britannia.com/celtic/wales/sacred/winifred.html
            http://www.britannia.com/travel/barbaraballard/winifred.html

            http://castlewales.com/abbeys.html
            is a nice site of religious sites in Wales with some good pictures. Have
            a look especially at the link to St Winefride's well, the little chantry
            chapel above the well is where the annual Orthodox pilgrimage is held in
            October.

            "The Lives and Miracles of St. Winifred of Holywell and Shrewsbury."
            Translated by Hugh Feiss, OSB. Toronto: Peregrina Publishing Co, 1999.



            St. Vulganius (Wulganus, Vulmar) of Arras, Hermit
            ---------------------------------------------------
            Died c. 704. Saint Vulganius was an Irishman, Welshman, or Englishman
            (according to a manuscript at Lens he was born at
            Canterbury) who crossed over to France and evangelized the Atrebati.
            Finally he lived as a hermit at Arras, under the
            obedience of the abbot of Saint Vedast. Some refer to him as a bishop.
            A portion of his relics are kept at the abbey of Liesse, others at Lens
            (near Douai) of which he is patron. A claim was made that his body
            rested at Christ Church in Canterbury "in a chest on the beam beyond the
            altar of Saint Stephen." (Benedictines, Farmer, Husenbeth).


            St. Rumwold, Infant Prince of Northumbria
            (Rumwald, Rumbald)
            ---------------------------------------------------
            Born at Sutton (King's Sutton, Northants); date unknown; feast day at
            Brackley was August 28 (probably the date of the translation of his
            relics). Saint Rumwald, whose shrine existed at Buckingham before the
            Norman Conquest, was said to be the maternal grandson of King Penda of
            Mercia and the son of a pagan prince of Northumbria. His 11th-century
            Life relates that, in 650, the 3-day-old prince pronounced the creed
            aloud immediately after his baptism, preached a sermon on the Holy
            Trinity and the need for virtuous living, and then died.

            The year following his death, his relics were moved by Bishop Widerin
            (who had baptized him) to Brackley in Northamptonshire. Two years
            later, his bones were again translated to Buckingham. Rumwald was
            honoured with a cultus, chiefly in Northantshire and Buckingham. He was
            also revered at monasteries in Mercia, Wessex, and Sweden; however, his
            name is omitted from monastic calendars after 1100. Churches were
            dedicated to his memory in Kent, Essex, Northantshire, Lincolnshire,
            Dorset, and North Yorkshire (where there is also a Romaldkirk). The
            well of Saint Rumwald survives at Alstrop, Northantshire (Benedictines,
            Farmer, Husenbeth).

            In art he is shown in the midst of this miraculous act (Roeder). A
            statue of Rumwald at Boxley in Kent was destroyed during the
            Reformation. He is invoked by the fishermen of Folkestone as their
            patron (Farmer).

            St. Cristiolus of Wales
            ---------------------------------------------------
            7th century. Brother of Saint Sulian (f.d. September 1) and founder of
            churches in Pembrokeshire and Anglesey (Benedictines).


            St. Elerius, Prior in North Wales
            ---------------------------------------------------
            6th century. A Welsh saint, mentioned in the legends concerning Saint
            Winefred (f.d. today). He is supposed to have presided over a monastery
            in northern Wales (Benedictines).


            St. Englat, Abbot of Tarves, Scotland
            (Englatiis, Tanglen)
            ---------------------------------------------------
            Died 966. The Scottish Saint Englatius, said by some to have been a
            bishop, lived at Tarves in Aberdeenshire (Benedictines).


            St. Guenhael of Landevenec, Abbot
            ---------------------------------------------------
            Died c. 550. Guenhael, meaning "white angel," was born in Brittany and
            educated at Landevenec under Saint Winwaloe (Guenole, f.d. March 3). In
            due course he became abbot there (Benedictines).


            St. Pirminius of Reichenau
            -------------------------------------------------

            November 3 is also the feastday of the founder of the monastery of
            Reichenau -Pirminius - whose birthplace is still the subject of debate among
            scholars today. One tradition is that he was an Irishman, and in the article
            below, reproduced from the Irish Ecclesiastical Record of 1894, Father J.F.
            Hogan, champions this claim. Please refer to the original volume to consult
            the footnotes to this text. Whatver the truth about the national origins of
            Saint Pirminius, the article is worth reading for the information it
            contains on the monastery of Reichenau and its famous sons.

            http://brigid-undertheoak.blogspot.com/2009/11/saint-pirminius-of-reichenau-iris\
            h.html


            St. Coemhan of Anatrim
            -------------------------------------------------

            He was appointed successor to St. Mochaemhog (Latin name Pulcherius) who
            founded the monastery at Anatrim. The details of this succession are
            recorded in the Life of Pulcherius:

            "St. Pulcherius, with his monks, came to a place by name Enachtruim, which
            is in the Slieve Bloom, in the territory of the Leixians, and began to build
            a church there. But a certain wordly-given man came to him saying: 'Do not
            labour here in vain, because this place will not be yours.' St. Pulcherius
            answered him saying: 'Now I will remain here till some one taking hold of my
            hand shall seize me and expel me by force.' Then the other took hold of the
            holy man's hand with the intention of forcing him away. As he did so, St.
            Pulcherius said to him: 'By what name are you called, O man?" He answered:
            'My name is Bronach' (which, in Latin. is equivalent to tristis). The holy
            man replied: 'You have an appropriate name, for you shall be sad here and
            hereafter. Now you and your generation, by the will of God, will be expelled
            hence by the chief of this district, but I shall be in this place until a
            man of God, by name Coemhan, will come to me; to him I will leave this
            place, he shall be surnamed from it, and here shall be his resurrection.'
            The man hearing this prophecy, and conscious of his guiltiness towards his
            chief, withdrew in anger, and without contrition for the insult he had
            offered [the saint], and forthwith everything fell out with him as the holy
            man had predicted. And when St. Coemhan came thither to St. Pulcherius, the
            latter left the place to him, and he remained here in great sanctity till
            his death: but St. Pulcherius proceeded to the district of Munster."
            AA. SS. Hib. p. 586, March 13.


            St. Coemhan or "Kavan," to whom Anatrim was thus committed, was probably a
            native of the County Wicklow, and was certainly a member of what may, with
            reason, be called a family of Saints. He was brother or step-brother of (1)
            the great St. Caoimhghin or Kevin of Glendalough, who died in 618, aged, it
            is said, 120 years; (2) St. Nathchoemhi or Mo-Chuemhin, Abbot of Terryglass,
            in Lower Ormond; (3) St. Coemola or Melda, mother of St. Abban the younger,
            which latter was born about 520; and of (4) St. Coeltighearna, mother of (a)
            St. Dagan of Ennereilly, Co. Wicklow; (b) St. Molibba, Abbot and Bishop of
            Glendalough; (c) St. Menocus or Enanus of Glenealy, Co. Wicklow, and (d) St.
            Mobhai. In early life, St. Coemhan, with his brother, St. Nathchoemhi, and
            St. Fintan of Clonenagh, received his religious training in St. Columba's
            Monastery of Terryglass. The date of his death must be somewhere about the
            year 600. The Martyrology of Donegal thus commemorates him on his feast day,
            Nov. 3rd:
            "Caemhan of Eanach-truim, in Laoighis, in the west of Leinster. He was of
            the race of Labhraidh Lorc, monarch of Erin, and brother of Caoimhghin of
            Gleann-da-locha.

            The Calendar of Aengus, on the same day, has:

            "The day of Coemhan of Eanach."

            On which passage the scholiast of Aengus comments

            "That is, Coemhan of Eanach truim in Laighis in Leinster, the brother of
            Coemgin of Glendalough Coemlog was their father's name and Coemgel their
            mother's, and Natcaim of Tir-da-glass [was] their brother as is aforesaid."

            The annals of Anatrim monastery, from the time of St. Coemhan, are a perfect
            blank. The monks probably held on here till the 12th century, when they
            either became extinct or were set aside, and their chapel was handed over to
            the secular clergy.

            Source: Carrigan "The History and Antiquities of the Diocese of Ossory" Vol.
            2 (1905)

            http://www.irishmidlandsancestry.com/content/laois/community/parishhistories/cam\
            ross_parish.htm




            St. Gwyddfarch, Hermit of Moel yr Ancr, Wales
            ---------------------------------------------------
            A number of ascetics chose the tops of hills. One such was the hermit
            and monastic founder St Gwyddfarch. We know little about his early life
            beyond the fact that he was part of the community founded by his
            spiritual father, St Llywelyn at Trallwng (Tre = town, Llwng = Llywelyn,
            i.e. Llywelyn's Town), now know in English as Welshpool. This was at
            some point during the sixth century. It was part of the "Eastern
            Mission" i.e. the influx of Christian Britons into Wales from what is
            now Shropshire and probably in particular from the town of Wroxeter
            (Uriconium).

            From Trallwng Gwyddfarch set out into rather wilder country to the North
            East and settled in the Vyrnwy Valley near to the present-day village of
            Meifod. Above this valley is a solitary, steep-sided hill and it was
            close to the summit of this that Gwyddfarch built his cell, lived and
            finally died. It was here that he was buried and he is still there to
            this day. The hill is now known as Moel yr Ancr (the bald hill of the
            anchorite). Looking at the setting today it is astonishingly beautiful
            and pastoral and shows little signs of being a desert. In winter,
            however, when there is a cold East wind one can better appreciate that
            living on the top of that hill surrounded by wolf-infested woods was
            hard, cold and uncomfortable - not so far off the deserts of North
            Africa! St Gwyddfarch is commemorated on November 3rd.

            The above is from " The Deserts of Britain"
            by Fr Stephen Maxfield
            http://www.nireland.com/orthodox/deserts.htm

            Additional information from "History of the Church of the Holy Fathers"
            by Fr Stephen Maxfield
            http://www.shorthodox.freeserve.co.uk/History.htm

            ....With the withdrawal of the legions at the beginning of the fifth
            century a period of considerable political instability followed.
            However Viroconium continued to flourish for some time. For instance St
            Germanus of Auxerre came to Britain to counter
            the teachings of the heresiarch Pelagius in 429 and again in 447. He
            certainly visited Viroconium, indeed it seems to have been the base for
            his mission into what is now mid and north Wales: The last British
            Archbishop of London, Theonas (Teon) fled to Viroconium in 586 when
            London fell to the pagan Saxons. The range of hills known now as the
            Stiperstones are called, in Welsh, Carneddi Teon in memory of him. Some
            of Teon's disciples, including his grandson St Llywelyn, started a
            monastery at Welshpool, and their mission helped convert mid Wales
            particularly through the work of their disciples Sts Gwyddfarch and
            Tysilio.

            St. Tysilio (born c.548-640) (Latin-Disilius, English-Tysilio) was
            Prince Tyslio (or Sulio) was the second son of Brochfael Ysgythrog (of
            the Tusks). He fled his father's court at an early age to throw himself
            on the mercy of Abbot Gwyddfarch of Caer-Meguaidd (Meifod) and beg to
            become a monk.

            Caer-Meguaidd may be Meifod, the court of the Kings of Powys at the
            Manor of Mathrafal from around 750 or before. The place was also a major
            ecclesiastical centre. St.Gwyddfarch built the original church which was
            replaced by St.Tyslio in about 625. <Nennius, 28 British Cities>


            Lives kindly supplied by:
            For All the Saints:
            http://www.saintpatrickdc.org/ss/ss-index.htm

            These Lives are archived at:
            http://groups.yahoo.com/group/celt-saints
            ¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤
          • ambrois@xtra.co.nz
            Celtic and Old English Saints 3 November =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-= * St. Winifred of Holywell * St. Vulganius of Arras * St. Rumwald
            Message 5 of 14 , Nov 4, 2012
            • 0 Attachment
              Celtic and Old English Saints 3 November

              =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=
              * St. Winifred of Holywell
              * St. Vulganius of Arras
              * St. Rumwald of Brackley
              * St. Cristiolus of Wales
              * St. Elerius of Wales
              * St. Tanglen of Scotland
              * St. Guenhael of Landevenec
              * St. Pirminius of Reichenau
              * St. Coemhan of Anatrim
              * St. Gwyddfarch of Moel yr Ancr
              =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=


              St. Gwenvrewi of Holywell, Abbess of Denbighshire, Wales
              (Winefride, Winifred, Winefride, Wenefrida,
              Gwenfrewi, Guinevra)
              ---------------------------------------------------------------
              Died c. 680. Winifred is evidently an historical personage, but it is
              equally true that her true story can no longer be reconstructed because
              the written information is too late to be reliable.

              Winefred was the daughter of Trevith, one of the chief advisers of the
              king of North Wales. Through her mother she is related to the Welsh
              saint Beuno, a holy priest. Her parents put her under instruction with
              this holy man, from whom she learned the heavenly doctrine with great
              eagerness.

              She grew daily in virtue and desired to shun all earthly things so that
              she might devote herself entirely to God. With the consent of her
              parents, she consecrated herself entirely to God by a vow of virginity,
              choosing Jesus Christ as her Spouse.

              Tradition says that a prince of that country named Caradoc (Caradog of
              Hawarden or Penarlag or Tegeingl in Flintshire) fell violently in love
              with her. One day finding her alone in the house where she was
              preparing things for use at the altar, her parents having already gone
              to the church service, he tried to seduce her. Winefred told him she
              was already espoused to another, but he would not leave her alone.

              Sensing his evil designs she excused herself on the plea that she must
              first adorn herself more becomingly. When she was free of him she
              escaped through her own chamber at the rear of the house and fled toward
              the church with all speed. The prince, tired of waiting and suspecting
              some kind of deceit, looking out of the house saw a figure hurrying
              along the valley.

              Violently angry at being deceived, he mounted his horse but was not able
              to overtake Winefred until she reached the door of the church. He was so
              angry that he raised his sword and struck her before she could enter.
              Hearing the tumult outside, Saint Beuno and her parents came out
              immediately, to find their dying child lying slain before them at their
              feet.

              The saint cursed the slayer, some writers saying that the ground opened
              and swallowed him up. The saint then praying to God, restored Winefred
              to life again. It was on this spot where her blood had flowed that a
              fountain gushed forth from the ground. On account of this
              blood-shedding she was always regarded as a martyr, though she lived for
              many years thereafter.

              The spot became known as Holywell, a place of pilgrimage for many
              succeeding ages, even to the present. After the death of Saint Beuno,
              having taken the veil, Saint Winefred went to live at the convent she
              established at Guthurin (Gwytherin in Denbigshire); there, with other
              holy virgins, she gave her life to God. (Another version says she
              succeeded Abbess Tenoi at the convent of a double monastery already on
              the site.)

              She died on June 24. In the 12th century (1138), her relics were taken
              from Guthurin to Shrewsbury and deposited with great honour in the
              Benedictine Abbey, founded there some 50 years earlier. Her cultus
              spread to England as well. Miracles were attested at Guthurin,
              Shrewsbury, as well as at Holywell (a.k.a. Treffynnon, Welltown).

              Her story was recorded by a monk named Elerius as early as 660. It can
              be safely said, however, from the names of her contemporaries, that she
              lived and died in the first half of the 7th century, about the same time
              as Saint Eanswith of Kent (Murray).

              At Holywell such vast quantities of water spring without interruption
              that it is estimated 24 tons are raised every minute, or 240 tons in
              less than 10 minutes. The water is always clear as crystal.

              No place was more famous for pilgrimages in the age of faith, where the
              divine mercy was implored through the intercession of Saint Winefred,
              who at that spot had glorified God and sanctified her own soul.

              Many extraordinary physical cures of leprosy, skin diseases, and other
              ailments are recorded up to the time of the wicked Reformation. Many
              authentic records of cures during the 17th century are also extant, so
              that the people still made pilgrimages there.

              Part of the beautiful Gothic building erected by Henry VII and his
              mother, the Countess of Derby, still remains. The people never forgot
              this holy place or the saint whom they invoked. During the last century
              the pilgrimages were revived.

              Pilgrimages to Saint Winefred's Well persisted after the Reformation,
              and they do to this day. Two poems of Gerard Manley
              Hopkins are devoted to this saint.

              There is evidence that the abbot Saint Beuno (f.d. April 21) was a man
              of importance, but is story, too, as written in 1346, is
              legendary. His name is particularly associated with Clynnog in
              Caernarvonshire, where sick people were still brought to his
              supposed burying-place towards the end of the 18th century. He may well
              have had a small monastery there (Attwater).

              In art Winefred is depicted as a Celtic maiden with a sword, fountain at
              her feet, and red ring around her neck where her head has been severed
              and restored. Sometimes she is shown with her head being restored by
              Saint Beuno, at others as an abbess with a ring around her neck,
              standing near the fountain (Roeder).

              She is venerated at Holywell, Wales. Reputed as abbess of Gwytherin,
              Denbighshire. Saint Beuno, Abbot, is chiefly venerated at Clynnog,
              Carnarvonshire (d. 630). (Attwater, Benedictines, Delaney,
              Encyclopaedia, Metcalf, Murray).

              Troparion of St Winefred tone 8
              Caradog's anger struck off thy head, O pious Winefred,/ but by the
              prayers of the Wonderworker Beuno thy mutilated form was miraculously
              made whole and restored to life./ As thou didst dedicate thy life to
              God's service in thanksgiving for His abundant mercy,/ pray that we,
              never forgetting His mercy towards us, may live only for Him that our
              souls may be saved.

              A couple of books on St Winifred available at the Internet Archive:

              1. Philip Leigh, The Life and Miracles of St Wenefride (1874)
              This is a reprint of a 1712 translation of the Life of St Wenefride written
              by Robert of Shrewsbury. The language has (thankfully) been modernized. The
              book includes a number of prayers and a hymn to the saint, plus a Litany as
              used by Catholic pilgrims to the shrine.
              http://www.archive.org/details/lifeandmiracles01winegoog

              2. Thomas Swift, S.J. (ed), The Life of St Winefride, Virgin and Martyr,
              based on the Acts of the Bollandist Fathers (1888)
              http://www.archive.org/details/lifeofsaintwinef00swifuoft


              Icon of Saint Winefred:
              http://www.allmercifulsavior.com/icons/Icons-Winifred.htm##1

              Holywell - Clwyd
              by Roy Fry & Tristan Gray Hulse
              http://www.bath.ac.uk/lispring/sourcearchive/ns1/ns1tgh2.htm

              Winifred's Well:
              http://easyweb.easynet.co.uk/~dylanwad/StWinefride/Pamphlet.htm
              http://britannia.com/celtic/wales/sacred/winifred.html
              http://www.britannia.com/travel/barbaraballard/winifred.html

              http://castlewales.com/abbeys.html
              is a nice site of religious sites in Wales with some good pictures. Have
              a look especially at the link to St Winefride's well, the little chantry
              chapel above the well is where the annual Orthodox pilgrimage is held in
              October.

              "The Lives and Miracles of St. Winifred of Holywell and Shrewsbury."
              Translated by Hugh Feiss, OSB. Toronto: Peregrina Publishing Co, 1999.



              St. Vulganius (Wulganus, Vulmar) of Arras, Hermit
              ---------------------------------------------------
              Died c. 704. Saint Vulganius was an Irishman, Welshman, or Englishman
              (according to a manuscript at Lens he was born at
              Canterbury) who crossed over to France and evangelized the Atrebati.
              Finally he lived as a hermit at Arras, under the
              obedience of the abbot of Saint Vedast. Some refer to him as a bishop.
              A portion of his relics are kept at the abbey of Liesse, others at Lens
              (near Douai) of which he is patron. A claim was made that his body
              rested at Christ Church in Canterbury "in a chest on the beam beyond the
              altar of Saint Stephen." (Benedictines, Farmer, Husenbeth).


              St. Rumwold, Infant Prince of Northumbria
              (Rumwald, Rumbald)
              ---------------------------------------------------
              Born at Sutton (King's Sutton, Northants); date unknown; feast day at
              Brackley was August 28 (probably the date of the translation of his
              relics). Saint Rumwald, whose shrine existed at Buckingham before the
              Norman Conquest, was said to be the maternal grandson of King Penda of
              Mercia and the son of a pagan prince of Northumbria. His 11th-century
              Life relates that, in 650, the 3-day-old prince pronounced the creed
              aloud immediately after his baptism, preached a sermon on the Holy
              Trinity and the need for virtuous living, and then died.

              The year following his death, his relics were moved by Bishop Widerin
              (who had baptized him) to Brackley in Northamptonshire. Two years
              later, his bones were again translated to Buckingham. Rumwald was
              honoured with a cultus, chiefly in Northantshire and Buckingham. He was
              also revered at monasteries in Mercia, Wessex, and Sweden; however, his
              name is omitted from monastic calendars after 1100. Churches were
              dedicated to his memory in Kent, Essex, Northantshire, Lincolnshire,
              Dorset, and North Yorkshire (where there is also a Romaldkirk). The
              well of Saint Rumwald survives at Alstrop, Northantshire (Benedictines,
              Farmer, Husenbeth).

              In art he is shown in the midst of this miraculous act (Roeder). A
              statue of Rumwald at Boxley in Kent was destroyed during the
              Reformation. He is invoked by the fishermen of Folkestone as their
              patron (Farmer).

              St. Cristiolus of Wales
              ---------------------------------------------------
              7th century. Brother of Saint Sulian (f.d. September 1) and founder of
              churches in Pembrokeshire and Anglesey (Benedictines).


              St. Elerius, Prior in North Wales
              ---------------------------------------------------
              6th century. A Welsh saint, mentioned in the legends concerning Saint
              Winefred (f.d. today). He is supposed to have presided over a monastery
              in northern Wales (Benedictines).


              St. Englat, Abbot of Tarves, Scotland
              (Englatiis, Tanglen)
              ---------------------------------------------------
              Died 966. The Scottish Saint Englatius, said by some to have been a
              bishop, lived at Tarves in Aberdeenshire (Benedictines).


              St. Guenhael of Landevenec, Abbot
              ---------------------------------------------------
              Died c. 550. Guenhael, meaning "white angel," was born in Brittany and
              educated at Landevenec under Saint Winwaloe (Guenole, f.d. March 3). In
              due course he became abbot there (Benedictines).


              St. Pirminius of Reichenau
              -------------------------------------------------

              November 3 is also the feastday of the founder of the monastery of
              Reichenau -Pirminius - whose birthplace is still the subject of debate among
              scholars today. One tradition is that he was an Irishman, and in the article
              below, reproduced from the Irish Ecclesiastical Record of 1894, Father J.F.
              Hogan, champions this claim. Please refer to the original volume to consult
              the footnotes to this text. Whatver the truth about the national origins of
              Saint Pirminius, the article is worth reading for the information it
              contains on the monastery of Reichenau and its famous sons.

              http://brigid-undertheoak.blogspot.com/2009/11/saint-pirminius-of-reichenau-iris\
              \
              h.html


              St. Coemhan of Anatrim
              -------------------------------------------------

              He was appointed successor to St. Mochaemhog (Latin name Pulcherius) who
              founded the monastery at Anatrim. The details of this succession are
              recorded in the Life of Pulcherius:

              "St. Pulcherius, with his monks, came to a place by name Enachtruim, which
              is in the Slieve Bloom, in the territory of the Leixians, and began to build
              a church there. But a certain wordly-given man came to him saying: 'Do not
              labour here in vain, because this place will not be yours.' St. Pulcherius
              answered him saying: 'Now I will remain here till some one taking hold of my
              hand shall seize me and expel me by force.' Then the other took hold of the
              holy man's hand with the intention of forcing him away. As he did so, St.
              Pulcherius said to him: 'By what name are you called, O man?" He answered:
              'My name is Bronach' (which, in Latin. is equivalent to tristis). The holy
              man replied: 'You have an appropriate name, for you shall be sad here and
              hereafter. Now you and your generation, by the will of God, will be expelled
              hence by the chief of this district, but I shall be in this place until a
              man of God, by name Coemhan, will come to me; to him I will leave this
              place, he shall be surnamed from it, and here shall be his resurrection.'
              The man hearing this prophecy, and conscious of his guiltiness towards his
              chief, withdrew in anger, and without contrition for the insult he had
              offered [the saint], and forthwith everything fell out with him as the holy
              man had predicted. And when St. Coemhan came thither to St. Pulcherius, the
              latter left the place to him, and he remained here in great sanctity till
              his death: but St. Pulcherius proceeded to the district of Munster."
              AA. SS. Hib. p. 586, March 13.


              St. Coemhan or "Kavan," to whom Anatrim was thus committed, was probably a
              native of the County Wicklow, and was certainly a member of what may, with
              reason, be called a family of Saints. He was brother or step-brother of (1)
              the great St. Caoimhghin or Kevin of Glendalough, who died in 618, aged, it
              is said, 120 years; (2) St. Nathchoemhi or Mo-Chuemhin, Abbot of Terryglass,
              in Lower Ormond; (3) St. Coemola or Melda, mother of St. Abban the younger,
              which latter was born about 520; and of (4) St. Coeltighearna, mother of (a)
              St. Dagan of Ennereilly, Co. Wicklow; (b) St. Molibba, Abbot and Bishop of
              Glendalough; (c) St. Menocus or Enanus of Glenealy, Co. Wicklow, and (d) St.
              Mobhai. In early life, St. Coemhan, with his brother, St. Nathchoemhi, and
              St. Fintan of Clonenagh, received his religious training in St. Columba's
              Monastery of Terryglass. The date of his death must be somewhere about the
              year 600. The Martyrology of Donegal thus commemorates him on his feast day,
              Nov. 3rd:
              "Caemhan of Eanach-truim, in Laoighis, in the west of Leinster. He was of
              the race of Labhraidh Lorc, monarch of Erin, and brother of Caoimhghin of
              Gleann-da-locha.

              The Calendar of Aengus, on the same day, has:

              "The day of Coemhan of Eanach."

              On which passage the scholiast of Aengus comments

              "That is, Coemhan of Eanach truim in Laighis in Leinster, the brother of
              Coemgin of Glendalough Coemlog was their father's name and Coemgel their
              mother's, and Natcaim of Tir-da-glass [was] their brother as is aforesaid."

              The annals of Anatrim monastery, from the time of St. Coemhan, are a perfect
              blank. The monks probably held on here till the 12th century, when they
              either became extinct or were set aside, and their chapel was handed over to
              the secular clergy.

              Source: Carrigan "The History and Antiquities of the Diocese of Ossory" Vol.
              2 (1905)

              http://www.irishmidlandsancestry.com/content/laois/community/parishhistories/cam\
              \
              ross_parish.htm




              St. Gwyddfarch, Hermit of Moel yr Ancr, Wales
              ---------------------------------------------------
              A number of ascetics chose the tops of hills. One such was the hermit
              and monastic founder St Gwyddfarch. We know little about his early life
              beyond the fact that he was part of the community founded by his
              spiritual father, St Llywelyn at Trallwng (Tre = town, Llwng = Llywelyn,
              i.e. Llywelyn's Town), now know in English as Welshpool. This was at
              some point during the sixth century. It was part of the "Eastern
              Mission" i.e. the influx of Christian Britons into Wales from what is
              now Shropshire and probably in particular from the town of Wroxeter
              (Uriconium).

              From Trallwng Gwyddfarch set out into rather wilder country to the North
              East and settled in the Vyrnwy Valley near to the present-day village of
              Meifod. Above this valley is a solitary, steep-sided hill and it was
              close to the summit of this that Gwyddfarch built his cell, lived and
              finally died. It was here that he was buried and he is still there to
              this day. The hill is now known as Moel yr Ancr (the bald hill of the
              anchorite). Looking at the setting today it is astonishingly beautiful
              and pastoral and shows little signs of being a desert. In winter,
              however, when there is a cold East wind one can better appreciate that
              living on the top of that hill surrounded by wolf-infested woods was
              hard, cold and uncomfortable - not so far off the deserts of North
              Africa! St Gwyddfarch is commemorated on November 3rd.

              The above is from " The Deserts of Britain"
              by Fr Stephen Maxfield
              http://www.nireland.com/orthodox/deserts.htm

              Additional information from "History of the Church of the Holy Fathers"
              by Fr Stephen Maxfield
              http://www.shorthodox.freeserve.co.uk/History.htm

              .....With the withdrawal of the legions at the beginning of the fifth
              century a period of considerable political instability followed.
              However Viroconium continued to flourish for some time. For instance St
              Germanus of Auxerre came to Britain to counter
              the teachings of the heresiarch Pelagius in 429 and again in 447. He
              certainly visited Viroconium, indeed it seems to have been the base for
              his mission into what is now mid and north Wales: The last British
              Archbishop of London, Theonas (Teon) fled to Viroconium in 586 when
              London fell to the pagan Saxons. The range of hills known now as the
              Stiperstones are called, in Welsh, Carneddi Teon in memory of him. Some
              of Teon's disciples, including his grandson St Llywelyn, started a
              monastery at Welshpool, and their mission helped convert mid Wales
              particularly through the work of their disciples Sts Gwyddfarch and
              Tysilio.

              St. Tysilio (born c.548-640) (Latin-Disilius, English-Tysilio) was
              Prince Tyslio (or Sulio) was the second son of Brochfael Ysgythrog (of
              the Tusks). He fled his father's court at an early age to throw himself
              on the mercy of Abbot Gwyddfarch of Caer-Meguaidd (Meifod) and beg to
              become a monk.

              Caer-Meguaidd may be Meifod, the court of the Kings of Powys at the
              Manor of Mathrafal from around 750 or before. The place was also a major
              ecclesiastical centre. St.Gwyddfarch built the original church which was
              replaced by St.Tyslio in about 625. <Nennius, 28 British Cities>


              Lives kindly supplied by:
              For All the Saints:
              http://www.saintpatrickdc.org/ss/ss-index.htm

              These Lives are archived at:
              http://groups.yahoo.com/group/celt-saints
              ¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤
            • ambrois@xtra.co.nz
              Celtic and Old English Saints 3 November =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-= * St. Winifred of Holywell * St. Vulganius of Arras * St. Rumwald
              Message 6 of 14 , Nov 2, 2013
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                Celtic and Old English Saints 3 November

                =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=
                * St. Winifred of Holywell
                * St. Vulganius of Arras
                * St. Rumwald of Brackley
                * St. Cristiolus of Wales
                * St. Elerius of Wales
                * St. Tanglen of Scotland
                * St. Guenhael of Landevenec
                * St. Pirminius of Reichenau
                * St. Coemhan of Anatrim
                * St. Gwyddfarch of Moel yr Ancr
                =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=


                St. Gwenvrewi of Holywell, Abbess of Denbighshire, Wales
                (Winefride, Winifred, Winefride, Wenefrida,
                Gwenfrewi, Guinevra)
                ---------------------------------------------------------------
                Died c. 680. Winifred is evidently an historical personage, but it is
                equally true that her true story can no longer be reconstructed because
                the written information is too late to be reliable.

                Winefred was the daughter of Trevith, one of the chief advisers of the
                king of North Wales. Through her mother she is related to the Welsh
                saint Beuno, a holy priest. Her parents put her under instruction with
                this holy man, from whom she learned the heavenly doctrine with great
                eagerness.

                She grew daily in virtue and desired to shun all earthly things so that
                she might devote herself entirely to God. With the consent of her
                parents, she consecrated herself entirely to God by a vow of virginity,
                choosing Jesus Christ as her Spouse.

                Tradition says that a prince of that country named Caradoc (Caradog of
                Hawarden or Penarlag or Tegeingl in Flintshire) fell violently in love
                with her. One day finding her alone in the house where she was
                preparing things for use at the altar, her parents having already gone
                to the church service, he tried to seduce her. Winefred told him she
                was already espoused to another, but he would not leave her alone.

                Sensing his evil designs she excused herself on the plea that she must
                first adorn herself more becomingly. When she was free of him she
                escaped through her own chamber at the rear of the house and fled toward
                the church with all speed. The prince, tired of waiting and suspecting
                some kind of deceit, looking out of the house saw a figure hurrying
                along the valley.

                Violently angry at being deceived, he mounted his horse but was not able
                to overtake Winefred until she reached the door of the church. He was so
                angry that he raised his sword and struck her before she could enter.
                Hearing the tumult outside, Saint Beuno and her parents came out
                immediately, to find their dying child lying slain before them at their
                feet.

                The saint cursed the slayer, some writers saying that the ground opened
                and swallowed him up. The saint then praying to God, restored Winefred
                to life again. It was on this spot where her blood had flowed that a
                fountain gushed forth from the ground. On account of this
                blood-shedding she was always regarded as a martyr, though she lived for
                many years thereafter.

                The spot became known as Holywell, a place of pilgrimage for many
                succeeding ages, even to the present. After the death of Saint Beuno,
                having taken the veil, Saint Winefred went to live at the convent she
                established at Guthurin (Gwytherin in Denbigshire); there, with other
                holy virgins, she gave her life to God. (Another version says she
                succeeded Abbess Tenoi at the convent of a double monastery already on
                the site.)

                She died on June 24. In the 12th century (1138), her relics were taken
                from Guthurin to Shrewsbury and deposited with great honour in the
                Benedictine Abbey, founded there some 50 years earlier. Her cultus
                spread to England as well. Miracles were attested at Guthurin,
                Shrewsbury, as well as at Holywell (a.k.a. Treffynnon, Welltown).

                Her story was recorded by a monk named Elerius as early as 660. It can
                be safely said, however, from the names of her contemporaries, that she
                lived and died in the first half of the 7th century, about the same time
                as Saint Eanswith of Kent (Murray).

                At Holywell such vast quantities of water spring without interruption
                that it is estimated 24 tons are raised every minute, or 240 tons in
                less than 10 minutes. The water is always clear as crystal.

                No place was more famous for pilgrimages in the age of faith, where the
                divine mercy was implored through the intercession of Saint Winefred,
                who at that spot had glorified God and sanctified her own soul.

                Many extraordinary physical cures of leprosy, skin diseases, and other
                ailments are recorded up to the time of the wicked Reformation. Many
                authentic records of cures during the 17th century are also extant, so
                that the people still made pilgrimages there.

                Part of the beautiful Gothic building erected by Henry VII and his
                mother, the Countess of Derby, still remains. The people never forgot
                this holy place or the saint whom they invoked. During the last century
                the pilgrimages were revived.

                Pilgrimages to Saint Winefred's Well persisted after the Reformation,
                and they do to this day. Two poems of Gerard Manley
                Hopkins are devoted to this saint.

                There is evidence that the abbot Saint Beuno (f.d. April 21) was a man
                of importance, but is story, too, as written in 1346, is
                legendary. His name is particularly associated with Clynnog in
                Caernarvonshire, where sick people were still brought to his
                supposed burying-place towards the end of the 18th century. He may well
                have had a small monastery there (Attwater).

                In art Winefred is depicted as a Celtic maiden with a sword, fountain at
                her feet, and red ring around her neck where her head has been severed
                and restored. Sometimes she is shown with her head being restored by
                Saint Beuno, at others as an abbess with a ring around her neck,
                standing near the fountain (Roeder).

                She is venerated at Holywell, Wales. Reputed as abbess of Gwytherin,
                Denbighshire. Saint Beuno, Abbot, is chiefly venerated at Clynnog,
                Carnarvonshire (d. 630). (Attwater, Benedictines, Delaney,
                Encyclopaedia, Metcalf, Murray).

                Troparion of St Winefred tone 8
                Caradog's anger struck off thy head, O pious Winefred,/ but by the
                prayers of the Wonderworker Beuno thy mutilated form was miraculously
                made whole and restored to life./ As thou didst dedicate thy life to
                God's service in thanksgiving for His abundant mercy,/ pray that we,
                never forgetting His mercy towards us, may live only for Him that our
                souls may be saved.

                A couple of books on St Winifred available at the Internet Archive:

                1. Philip Leigh, The Life and Miracles of St Wenefride (1874)
                This is a reprint of a 1712 translation of the Life of St Wenefride written
                by Robert of Shrewsbury. The language has (thankfully) been modernized. The
                book includes a number of prayers and a hymn to the saint, plus a Litany as
                used by Catholic pilgrims to the shrine.
                http://www.archive.org/details/lifeandmiracles01winegoog

                2. Thomas Swift, S.J. (ed), The Life of St Winefride, Virgin and Martyr,
                based on the Acts of the Bollandist Fathers (1888)
                http://www.archive.org/details/lifeofsaintwinef00swifuoft


                Icon of Saint Winefred:
                http://www.allmercifulsavior.com/icons/Icons-Winifred.htm##1

                Holywell - Clwyd
                by Roy Fry & Tristan Gray Hulse
                http://www.bath.ac.uk/lispring/sourcearchive/ns1/ns1tgh2.htm

                Winifred's Well:
                http://easyweb.easynet.co.uk/~dylanwad/StWinefride/Pamphlet.htm
                http://britannia.com/celtic/wales/sacred/winifred.html
                http://www.britannia.com/travel/barbaraballard/winifred.html

                http://castlewales.com/abbeys.html
                is a nice site of religious sites in Wales with some good pictures. Have
                a look especially at the link to St Winefride's well, the little chantry
                chapel above the well is where the annual Orthodox pilgrimage is held in
                October.

                "The Lives and Miracles of St. Winifred of Holywell and Shrewsbury."
                Translated by Hugh Feiss, OSB. Toronto: Peregrina Publishing Co, 1999.



                St. Vulganius (Wulganus, Vulmar) of Arras, Hermit
                ---------------------------------------------------
                Died c. 704. Saint Vulganius was an Irishman, Welshman, or Englishman
                (according to a manuscript at Lens he was born at
                Canterbury) who crossed over to France and evangelized the Atrebati.
                Finally he lived as a hermit at Arras, under the
                obedience of the abbot of Saint Vedast. Some refer to him as a bishop.
                A portion of his relics are kept at the abbey of Liesse, others at Lens
                (near Douai) of which he is patron. A claim was made that his body
                rested at Christ Church in Canterbury "in a chest on the beam beyond the
                altar of Saint Stephen." (Benedictines, Farmer, Husenbeth).


                St. Rumwold, Infant Prince of Northumbria
                (Rumwald, Rumbald)
                ---------------------------------------------------
                Born at Sutton (King's Sutton, Northants); date unknown; feast day at
                Brackley was August 28 (probably the date of the translation of his
                relics). Saint Rumwald, whose shrine existed at Buckingham before the
                Norman Conquest, was said to be the maternal grandson of King Penda of
                Mercia and the son of a pagan prince of Northumbria. His 11th-century
                Life relates that, in 650, the 3-day-old prince pronounced the creed
                aloud immediately after his baptism, preached a sermon on the Holy
                Trinity and the need for virtuous living, and then died.

                The year following his death, his relics were moved by Bishop Widerin
                (who had baptized him) to Brackley in Northamptonshire. Two years
                later, his bones were again translated to Buckingham. Rumwald was
                honoured with a cultus, chiefly in Northantshire and Buckingham. He was
                also revered at monasteries in Mercia, Wessex, and Sweden; however, his
                name is omitted from monastic calendars after 1100. Churches were
                dedicated to his memory in Kent, Essex, Northantshire, Lincolnshire,
                Dorset, and North Yorkshire (where there is also a Romaldkirk). The
                well of Saint Rumwald survives at Alstrop, Northantshire (Benedictines,
                Farmer, Husenbeth).

                In art he is shown in the midst of this miraculous act (Roeder). A
                statue of Rumwald at Boxley in Kent was destroyed during the
                Reformation. He is invoked by the fishermen of Folkestone as their
                patron (Farmer).

                St. Cristiolus of Wales
                ---------------------------------------------------
                7th century. Brother of Saint Sulian (f.d. September 1) and founder of
                churches in Pembrokeshire and Anglesey (Benedictines).


                St. Elerius, Prior in North Wales
                ---------------------------------------------------
                6th century. A Welsh saint, mentioned in the legends concerning Saint
                Winefred (f.d. today). He is supposed to have presided over a monastery
                in northern Wales (Benedictines).


                St. Englat, Abbot of Tarves, Scotland
                (Englatiis, Tanglen)
                ---------------------------------------------------
                Died 966. The Scottish Saint Englatius, said by some to have been a
                bishop, lived at Tarves in Aberdeenshire (Benedictines).


                St. Guenhael of Landevenec, Abbot
                ---------------------------------------------------
                Died c. 550. Guenhael, meaning "white angel," was born in Brittany and
                educated at Landevenec under Saint Winwaloe (Guenole, f.d. March 3). In
                due course he became abbot there (Benedictines).


                St. Pirminius of Reichenau
                -------------------------------------------------

                November 3 is also the feastday of the founder of the monastery of
                Reichenau -Pirminius - whose birthplace is still the subject of debate among
                scholars today. One tradition is that he was an Irishman, and in the article
                below, reproduced from the Irish Ecclesiastical Record of 1894, Father J.F.
                Hogan, champions this claim. Please refer to the original volume to consult
                the footnotes to this text. Whatver the truth about the national origins of
                Saint Pirminius, the article is worth reading for the information it
                contains on the monastery of Reichenau and its famous sons.

                http://brigid-undertheoak.blogspot.com/2009/11/saint-pirminius-of-reichenau-iris\
                \
                h.html


                St. Coemhan of Anatrim
                -------------------------------------------------

                He was appointed successor to St. Mochaemhog (Latin name Pulcherius) who
                founded the monastery at Anatrim. The details of this succession are
                recorded in the Life of Pulcherius:

                "St. Pulcherius, with his monks, came to a place by name Enachtruim, which
                is in the Slieve Bloom, in the territory of the Leixians, and began to build
                a church there. But a certain wordly-given man came to him saying: 'Do not
                labour here in vain, because this place will not be yours.' St. Pulcherius
                answered him saying: 'Now I will remain here till some one taking hold of my
                hand shall seize me and expel me by force.' Then the other took hold of the
                holy man's hand with the intention of forcing him away. As he did so, St.
                Pulcherius said to him: 'By what name are you called, O man?" He answered:
                'My name is Bronach' (which, in Latin. is equivalent to tristis). The holy
                man replied: 'You have an appropriate name, for you shall be sad here and
                hereafter. Now you and your generation, by the will of God, will be expelled
                hence by the chief of this district, but I shall be in this place until a
                man of God, by name Coemhan, will come to me; to him I will leave this
                place, he shall be surnamed from it, and here shall be his resurrection.'
                The man hearing this prophecy, and conscious of his guiltiness towards his
                chief, withdrew in anger, and without contrition for the insult he had
                offered [the saint], and forthwith everything fell out with him as the holy
                man had predicted. And when St. Coemhan came thither to St. Pulcherius, the
                latter left the place to him, and he remained here in great sanctity till
                his death: but St. Pulcherius proceeded to the district of Munster."
                AA. SS. Hib. p. 586, March 13.


                St. Coemhan or "Kavan," to whom Anatrim was thus committed, was probably a
                native of the County Wicklow, and was certainly a member of what may, with
                reason, be called a family of Saints. He was brother or step-brother of (1)
                the great St. Caoimhghin or Kevin of Glendalough, who died in 618, aged, it
                is said, 120 years; (2) St. Nathchoemhi or Mo-Chuemhin, Abbot of Terryglass,
                in Lower Ormond; (3) St. Coemola or Melda, mother of St. Abban the younger,
                which latter was born about 520; and of (4) St. Coeltighearna, mother of (a)
                St. Dagan of Ennereilly, Co. Wicklow; (b) St. Molibba, Abbot and Bishop of
                Glendalough; (c) St. Menocus or Enanus of Glenealy, Co. Wicklow, and (d) St.
                Mobhai. In early life, St. Coemhan, with his brother, St. Nathchoemhi, and
                St. Fintan of Clonenagh, received his religious training in St. Columba's
                Monastery of Terryglass. The date of his death must be somewhere about the
                year 600. The Martyrology of Donegal thus commemorates him on his feast day,
                Nov. 3rd:
                "Caemhan of Eanach-truim, in Laoighis, in the west of Leinster. He was of
                the race of Labhraidh Lorc, monarch of Erin, and brother of Caoimhghin of
                Gleann-da-locha.

                The Calendar of Aengus, on the same day, has:

                "The day of Coemhan of Eanach."

                On which passage the scholiast of Aengus comments

                "That is, Coemhan of Eanach truim in Laighis in Leinster, the brother of
                Coemgin of Glendalough Coemlog was their father's name and Coemgel their
                mother's, and Natcaim of Tir-da-glass [was] their brother as is aforesaid."

                The annals of Anatrim monastery, from the time of St. Coemhan, are a perfect
                blank. The monks probably held on here till the 12th century, when they
                either became extinct or were set aside, and their chapel was handed over to
                the secular clergy.

                Source: Carrigan "The History and Antiquities of the Diocese of Ossory" Vol.
                2 (1905)

                http://www.irishmidlandsancestry.com/content/laois/community/parishhistories/cam\
                \
                ross_parish.htm




                St. Gwyddfarch, Hermit of Moel yr Ancr, Wales
                ---------------------------------------------------
                A number of ascetics chose the tops of hills. One such was the hermit
                and monastic founder St Gwyddfarch. We know little about his early life
                beyond the fact that he was part of the community founded by his
                spiritual father, St Llywelyn at Trallwng (Tre = town, Llwng = Llywelyn,
                i.e. Llywelyn's Town), now know in English as Welshpool. This was at
                some point during the sixth century. It was part of the "Eastern
                Mission" i.e. the influx of Christian Britons into Wales from what is
                now Shropshire and probably in particular from the town of Wroxeter
                (Uriconium).

                From Trallwng Gwyddfarch set out into rather wilder country to the North
                East and settled in the Vyrnwy Valley near to the present-day village of
                Meifod. Above this valley is a solitary, steep-sided hill and it was
                close to the summit of this that Gwyddfarch built his cell, lived and
                finally died. It was here that he was buried and he is still there to
                this day. The hill is now known as Moel yr Ancr (the bald hill of the
                anchorite). Looking at the setting today it is astonishingly beautiful
                and pastoral and shows little signs of being a desert. In winter,
                however, when there is a cold East wind one can better appreciate that
                living on the top of that hill surrounded by wolf-infested woods was
                hard, cold and uncomfortable - not so far off the deserts of North
                Africa! St Gwyddfarch is commemorated on November 3rd.

                The above is from " The Deserts of Britain"
                by Fr Stephen Maxfield
                http://www.nireland.com/orthodox/deserts.htm

                Additional information from "History of the Church of the Holy Fathers"
                by Fr Stephen Maxfield
                http://www.shorthodox.freeserve.co.uk/History.htm

                ....With the withdrawal of the legions at the beginning of the fifth
                century a period of considerable political instability followed.
                However Viroconium continued to flourish for some time. For instance St
                Germanus of Auxerre came to Britain to counter
                the teachings of the heresiarch Pelagius in 429 and again in 447. He
                certainly visited Viroconium, indeed it seems to have been the base for
                his mission into what is now mid and north Wales: The last British
                Archbishop of London, Theonas (Teon) fled to Viroconium in 586 when
                London fell to the pagan Saxons. The range of hills known now as the
                Stiperstones are called, in Welsh, Carneddi Teon in memory of him. Some
                of Teon's disciples, including his grandson St Llywelyn, started a
                monastery at Welshpool, and their mission helped convert mid Wales
                particularly through the work of their disciples Sts Gwyddfarch and
                Tysilio.

                St. Tysilio (born c.548-640) (Latin-Disilius, English-Tysilio) was
                Prince Tyslio (or Sulio) was the second son of Brochfael Ysgythrog (of
                the Tusks). He fled his father's court at an early age to throw himself
                on the mercy of Abbot Gwyddfarch of Caer-Meguaidd (Meifod) and beg to
                become a monk.

                Caer-Meguaidd may be Meifod, the court of the Kings of Powys at the
                Manor of Mathrafal from around 750 or before. The place was also a major
                ecclesiastical centre. St.Gwyddfarch built the original church which was
                replaced by St.Tyslio in about 625. <Nennius, 28 British Cities>


                These Lives are archived at:
                http://groups.yahoo.com/group/celt-saints
                ¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤
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