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  • emrys@globe.net.nz
    Celtic and Old English Saints 1 August =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-= * St. Kenneth of Wales * St. Aethelwold of Winchester * St.
    Message 1 of 14 , Jul 31, 2005
    • 0 Attachment
      Celtic and Old English Saints 1 August

      =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=
      * St. Kenneth of Wales
      * St. Aethelwold of Winchester
      * St. Peregrinus of Modena
      * St. Rioch of Innisboffin
      * St. Aled of Brecknock
      * St. Sidwell
      * St. Secundel of Brittany
      =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=


      St. Kenneth of Wales, Hermit
      (Cenydd, Kyned, Kened, Keneth, Kined)
      -----------------------------------------------------
      Died 6th century; feast of his translation is June 27. Saint Kenneth is
      believed to have been a Welsh hermit, the son of a
      chieftain. Welsh tradition, however, makes him the son of Saint Gildas
      (f.d. January 29), one of the most important Welsh monks. He married
      and had at least one son then became a monk under Saint Illtyd (f.d.
      November 6). Thereafter, Kenneth was a hermit who made his cell among
      the rocks in the peninsula of Gower and founded Llangenydd. He later
      went to Brittany, where Ploumelin is the centre of his cultus.

      An extraordinary event is connected with Kenneth's name that is recorded
      in Welsh sources. Kenneth was born a cripple in Brittany, placed in a
      cradle of osiers, and dropped into a stream, like Moses, which took him
      to the island of "Henisweryn." He survived there because of a series of
      miracles and angelic interventions. Educated as a Christian, he became
      a hermit and was joined by a servant. This man stole the lance of some
      robbers to whom Kenneth had extended hospitality. Later, Saint David of
      Wales (f.d. March 1) cured Kenneth of his deformity, but the saint was
      displeased and asked that it be restored as it was before. A
      breast-shaped bell figures prominently in this unfinished tale, which
      ends abruptly without resolution.

      Saint Kenneth, however, is no legendary figure. The calendar and
      place-names point to his existence. His feast is celebrated in Wales,
      Brittany, and England (Benedictines, Farmer).

      Troparion of St Kenneth tone 2
      Rejecting thy princely dignity and worldly position,/ thou didst retire
      to the desert, O righteous Kenneth, / and as we rejoice in thy
      God-pleasing asceticism,/ beseech Christ our God that He will save our
      souls.


      St. Aethelwold of Winchester, Bishop
      (Ethelwold)
      ------------------------------------------------
      Born in Winchester, England, c. 908-912; died at Beddington, 984; feast
      at Abingdon is August 2; feast of his translation is
      September 10; Ely used to keep a "commemoratio" on October 8 in his
      honour, while Deeping and Thorney Abbeys observed an "exceptio" on
      October 23.

      Together with Saint Dunstan (f.d. May 19) and Saint Oswald of York (f.d.
      February 28), Aehelwold was a leader in the revival of English
      monasticism in the 10th century following its near eradication by the
      Danes during their raids. He served at the court of King Athelstan
      (924-39), but left to seek priestly ordination at the hands of Saint
      Alphege the Bald (f.d. April 19) on the same day as his friend Saint
      Dunstan. When Dunstan became abbot of Glastonbury in 943 and restore
      Benedictine observance there, the priest Aethelwold joined the community
      and became one of its deans and prior.

      Not entirely satisfied with the reformation at Glastonbury, he asked to
      be allowed to go to France to study the reforms initiated at Cluny.
      Instead, in 955, King Edred made him abbot of the derelict Abingdon
      Abbey in Berkshire and entrusted to Aethelwold its restoration. He added
      to the community monks from Glastonbury and priests from elsewhere, and
      built a new church that incorporated elements of the old. He sent his
      disciple Osgar to study at Fleury in his place.

      When Dunstan was exiled by King Edwy about 956, Aethelwold became the
      most important figure in the monastic reformation. He also came near
      secular power in his role as tutor to the future king, Saint Edgar the
      Peaceful (f.d. July 8).

      In 963, he was consecrated bishop of Winchester in Wessex. The
      following year King Edgar and Aethelwold replaced secular canons with
      Benedictines from Abingdon. In this way he founded the first monastic
      cathedral, a specifically English institution that lasted until the
      Reformation. The next year, Aethelwold replaced the priests with monks
      at Newminster. From this point the monastic reform became closely
      associated with the king, whose palace was very near the cathedral. He
      also founded or restored many abbeys, including those of Newminster and
      Nunnaminster in Winchester in 965, Milton Abbas (Dorset) in 964,
      Chertsey, Peterborough (966), Thorney (972), and Ely (970).

      Aethelwold sometimes spent the entirety of Lent in seclusion at Thorney
      Abbey, where he built a church with an apse at both ends. His charter
      survives for the endowment of Peterborough with land, serfs, cattle,
      church plate, and 20 manuscripts.

      This austere, able, and dynamic priest was given the nickname, "The
      Father of Monks." The scribe of his "Benedictional" called him a
      "Boanerges" (son of thunder). When he was prior of Glastonbury, he
      would urge his brothers to greater effort in their monastic observance;
      he never slept after Matins (about 3:00 a.m.) and would eat meat only
      once in three months--and then only at Dunstan's express command.

      He was also gifted as an artist, yet was very practical. At Glastonbury
      he had been cook; at Abingdon he laboured as a builder until he broke
      his ribs in a fall from a scaffold; at Winchester he set the monks to
      working with the masons in the cathedral and built the most powerful
      organ of its time in England. This pipe organ was played by two monks.
      It had 400 pipes and 36 bellows. The bells and crown of metal for
      candles in Abingdon's sanctuary are also attributed to his
      craftsmanship.

      More importantly, Aethelwold introduced the Winchester style of
      manuscript illumination into his monasteries. The style soon
      surpassed the products of many scriptoria of the Continent. He is also
      responsible for the establishment at Winchester of the most important
      school of vernacular writing of the period, of which Aelfric is the most
      famous example. Its linguistically
      significant, accurate translations were designed to meet the needs of
      bishops and clergy who were not themselves monks. Aethelwold's
      Winchester is also distinguished for its production of the first English
      polyphonic music, recorded in the "Winchester Troper." His rebuilt
      cathedral at Winchester was the setting for a wonderfully rich and
      varied liturgy.

      The saint also looked after material well-being the laity of his flock,
      as well as the monks. He built an aqueduct for the town.

      Aethelwold's episcopacy was marked by three important events. First, the
      congress of about 970, during which the "Regularis Concordia," the
      characteristic statement about the observance of reformed monasticism,
      was promulgated as the norm of the 30 reformed abbeys in southern
      England. Based on the practices of Ghent, Fleury, and Glastonbury, it
      was probably compiled by Aethelwold himself, who was also responsible for
      an important vernacular account of the aims of the reformation and an
      Old English version of the Rule of Saint Benedict translated for the
      benefit of nun who had no Latin.

      The second event was the translation of the relics of Saint Swithun of
      Winchester (f.d. July 15) in 971. The final outstanding event of
      Aethelwold's tenure was the consecration of Winchester Cathedral in 980.
      Each occasion was marked by a large concourse of clergy and laity and
      was a sign of the success of the monastic reform movement pioneered by
      Dunstan and Ethelwold. Their monasteries provided about three-quarters
      of the bishops of England until the Norman Conquest in 1066, as well as
      many of the missionaries sent to Scandinavia. Their abbeys were the
      centres of Old English art and literature for many years to come.

      Aethelwold had tireless energy to implement reforms regardless of the
      opposition. He was merciless to the slack, full of sympathy for the
      good-willed and the unfortunate. He is also described by contemporaries
      as an outstanding counsellor of the king and as the benevolent bishop.
      These characteristics need to be recalled as well as his ability and
      intransigence, for any final assessment of his personality. In all
      events, he work had a lasting effect (Attwater, Benedictines, Delaney,
      Farmer).

      Service to Our Father among the Saints Aethelwold,
      Bishop of Winchester
      http://www.orthodoxengland.btinternet.co.uk/servethe.htm



      St. Peregrinus (Pellegrino) of Modena, Hermit
      ---------------------------------------------------------------
      Died 643. Peregrinus (meaning "pilgrim") is believed to have been a
      Celtic prince and/or monk, who made a pilgrimage to the Holy Land. On
      his return he settled in the quiet Apennines near Modena, Italy, where
      he spent the last forty years of his life as a hermit. Saint Pellegrino
      in the Italian Alps is named in his memory and was his hermitage. Now
      one can find a hospice for travellers and the needy on the site
      (Benedictines, Encyclopaedia, Husenbeth, Montague).

      In art, Saint Peregrinus is depicted as a pilgrim. He may also be shown
      (1) holding a thin cross or (2) with a sudarium tied to a staff
      (Roeder). He is the patron of Lucca and Modena, Italy, as well as of
      pilgrims (Roeder).


      St. Rioch of Innisboffin, Abbot
      ----------------------------------------
      Died c. 480. Saint Rioch is described as the nephew of Saint Patrick
      (f.d. March 17), the son of Patrick's sister Saint Darerca (f.d. March
      22), and brother of Saints Mel, Muinis, and Melchu (f.d. February 6 for
      all). Rioch was the abbot of Innisboffin in Longford, Ireland
      (Benedictines, Delaney).

      Troparion of St Rioch tone 1
      The radiance of thy life and the triumph of thine austerity/ shone forth
      from Innisboffin's Monastery, O Father Rioch,/ illuminating the Irish
      nation and leading them from the darkness of paganism/ into the light of
      true belief./ Wherefore O holy one, intercede with Christ our God/ that
      we may be turned from the errors of our day that our souls may be saved.





      St. Aled of Brecknock, Virgin Martyr
      (Adwenhelye, Almedha, Almedia, Eiluned,
      Eled, Elevetha, Euned)
      -----------------------------------------------------
      6th century. Most of what we know of Saint Aled derives from Archdeacon
      Gerald of Wales (a.k.a. Giraldus Cambrensis), who lived in the 12th
      century near the church he describes on a hilltop close to Brecon Castle
      in Wales.

      Saint Aled was a descendant of King Saint Brychan of Brecknock (f.d.
      April 6). She is said to have suffered martyrdom on a hill near
      Brecknock, Wales. It is related that she was a young nun who fled to
      Llanfillo, then Llechfaen, and finally Slwch Tump near Brecon, in order
      to escape an unwanted marriage to a prince. She built a cell at Brecon
      with the help of the local lord. Later she was found by her suitor.
      Again she ran, but he caught and beheaded her with his sword. As in the
      story of St. Winefride, a miraculous spring erupted from the ground.

      The site of her martyrdom would become a place filled with pilgrims on
      her feast. It is said that "thanks to the merits of this holy virgin,
      those who are suffering from maladies of any sort recover the health for
      which they pray." Gerald goes on to describe the dances of young people
      in the graveyard and their singing of traditional songs. They suddenly
      collapse on the ground, and then mime with hands and feet the work--of
      ploughing, spinning, weaving--they have done against the commandment to
      rest on the Sabbath. Then they would enter the church with their
      offerings: "by taking part in these festivities, they feel in their
      hearts the remission of their sins and are absolved and pardoned." The
      small church that was built over her cell was obliterated in 1698
      (Attwater2, Benedictines, Encyclopaedia, Farmer).


      St. Sidwell, Virgin Martyr
      (Sativola, Sidefulla)
      ------------------------------------------------------------
      Date unknown; feast day kept on July 31 in Roscarrock and August 2 in
      Exeter. Saint Sidwell, probably of British rather than Anglo- Saxon
      lineage, has been revered at Exeter from time immemorial. By AD 1000,
      pilgrims gathered at her shrine. William Worcestre and Leland mention
      her. The late medieval catalogue of English saints, called the
      "Catalogus sanctorum pausantium in Anglia," has this entry:

      "Born at Exeter, she was killed by her stepmother
      inciting the reapers to behead her. She was buried
      outside the city, where by her merits God heals the
      sick."

      This story of the jealous stepmother is also included in the legend of
      Saint Juthwara (f.d. July 1), who is supposed to be Sidwell's sister.
      There is reason to believe that this legend is entirely mythical;
      although Sidwell is a real saint.

      Sidwell's Church is just outside the east gate of Exeter. Near it there
      used to be a holy well, where presumably the cures took place. There is
      a dedication to her in Laneast, Cornwall, with her sister Saint
      Wulvella, where there was also a holy well (Benedictines, Farmer).

      In art, Saint Sidwell is a maiden carrying a scythe by a well. She
      might also be shown carrying her head (Roeder). The emblem of a
      "scythe" and a "well," as well as the story, may derive from her name
      (Farmer). Sidwell is venerated in Exeter, England (Roeder).



      St. Secundel, Hermit
      ----------------------------
      6th century. Secundel was the companion of Saint Friardus (f.d. today)
      on the island of Vindomitte in Brittany Benedictines).



      Sources:
      ========

      Attwater, D. (1983). The Penguin Dictionary of Saints, NY:
      Penguin Books.

      Attwater, D. (1958). A Dictionary of Saints. New York:
      P. J. Kenedy & Sons. [Attwater 2]

      Benedictine Monks of St. Augustine Abbey, Ramsgate.
      (1947). The Book of Saints. NY: Macmillan.

      Delaney, J. J. (1983). Pocket Dictionary of Saints, NY:
      Doubleday Image.

      Delaney, J. J. (ed). (1978). Saints for All Seasons.
      Garden City, NY: Doubleday.

      Encyclopaedia of Catholic Saints, August. (1966).
      Philadelphia: Chilton Books.

      Farmer, D. H. (1997). The Oxford Dictionary of Saints.
      Oxford: Oxford University Press.

      Husenbeth, Rev. F. C., DD, VG (ed.). (1928). Butler's
      Lives of the Fathers, Martyrs, and Other Principal Saints.
      London: Virtue & Co.

      Montague, H. P. (1981). The Saints and Martyrs of Ireland.
      Guildford: Billing & Sons.

      Roeder, H. (1956). Saints and Their Attributes, Chicago: Henry
      Regnery.

      For All the Saints:
      http://www.saintpatrickdc.org/ss/ss-index.htm

      An Alphabetical Index of the Saints of the West
      http://www.orthodoxengland.btinternet.co.uk/saintsa.htm

      These Lives are archived at:
      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/celt-saints
      *****************************************
    • emrys@globe.net.nz
      Celtic and Old English Saints 1 August =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-= * St. Kenneth of Wales * St. Aethelwold of Winchester * St.
      Message 2 of 14 , Jul 31, 2006
      • 0 Attachment
        Celtic and Old English Saints 1 August

        =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=
        * St. Kenneth of Wales
        * St. Aethelwold of Winchester
        * St. Peregrinus of Modena
        * St. Rioch of Innisboffin
        * St. Aled of Brecknock
        * St. Sidwell
        * St. Secundel of Brittany
        =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=


        St. Kenneth of Wales, Hermit
        (Cenydd, Kyned, Kened, Keneth, Kined)
        -----------------------------------------------------
        Died 6th century; feast of his translation is June 27. Saint Kenneth is
        believed to have been a Welsh hermit, the son of a
        chieftain. Welsh tradition, however, makes him the son of Saint Gildas
        (f.d. January 29), one of the most important Welsh monks. He married
        and had at least one son then became a monk under Saint Illtyd (f.d.
        November 6). Thereafter, Kenneth was a hermit who made his cell among
        the rocks in the peninsula of Gower and founded Llangenydd. He later
        went to Brittany, where Ploumelin is the centre of his cultus.

        An extraordinary event is connected with Kenneth's name that is recorded
        in Welsh sources. Kenneth was born a cripple in Brittany, placed in a
        cradle of osiers, and dropped into a stream, like Moses, which took him
        to the island of "Henisweryn." He survived there because of a series of
        miracles and angelic interventions. Educated as a Christian, he became
        a hermit and was joined by a servant. This man stole the lance of some
        robbers to whom Kenneth had extended hospitality. Later, Saint David of
        Wales (f.d. March 1) cured Kenneth of his deformity, but the saint was
        displeased and asked that it be restored as it was before. A
        breast-shaped bell figures prominently in this unfinished tale, which
        ends abruptly without resolution.

        Saint Kenneth, however, is no legendary figure. The calendar and
        place-names point to his existence. His feast is celebrated in Wales,
        Brittany, and England (Benedictines, Farmer).

        Icon of St Kenneth
        http://htmadmin.phpwebhosting.com/images/a-327.jpg

        Troparion of St Kenneth tone 2
        Rejecting thy princely dignity and worldly position,/ thou didst retire
        to the desert, O righteous Kenneth, / and as we rejoice in thy
        God-pleasing asceticism,/ beseech Christ our God that He will save our
        souls.


        St. Aethelwold of Winchester, Bishop
        (Ethelwold)
        ------------------------------------------------
        Born in Winchester, England, c. 908-912; died at Beddington, 984; feast
        at Abingdon is August 2; feast of his translation is
        September 10; Ely used to keep a "commemoratio" on October 8 in his
        honour, while Deeping and Thorney Abbeys observed an "exceptio" on
        October 23.

        Together with Saint Dunstan (f.d. May 19) and Saint Oswald of York (f.d.
        February 28), Aehelwold was a leader in the revival of English
        monasticism in the 10th century following its near eradication by the
        Danes during their raids. He served at the court of King Athelstan
        (924-39), but left to seek priestly ordination at the hands of Saint
        Alphege the Bald (f.d. April 19) on the same day as his friend Saint
        Dunstan. When Dunstan became abbot of Glastonbury in 943 and restore
        Benedictine observance there, the priest Aethelwold joined the community
        and became one of its deans and prior.

        Not entirely satisfied with the reformation at Glastonbury, he asked to
        be allowed to go to France to study the reforms initiated at Cluny.
        Instead, in 955, King Edred made him abbot of the derelict Abingdon
        Abbey in Berkshire and entrusted to Aethelwold its restoration. He added
        to the community monks from Glastonbury and priests from elsewhere, and
        built a new church that incorporated elements of the old. He sent his
        disciple Osgar to study at Fleury in his place.

        When Dunstan was exiled by King Edwy about 956, Aethelwold became the
        most important figure in the monastic reformation. He also came near
        secular power in his role as tutor to the future king, Saint Edgar the
        Peaceful (f.d. July 8).

        In 963, he was consecrated bishop of Winchester in Wessex. The
        following year King Edgar and Aethelwold replaced secular canons with
        Benedictines from Abingdon. In this way he founded the first monastic
        cathedral, a specifically English institution that lasted until the
        Reformation. The next year, Aethelwold replaced the priests with monks
        at Newminster. From this point the monastic reform became closely
        associated with the king, whose palace was very near the cathedral. He
        also founded or restored many abbeys, including those of Newminster and
        Nunnaminster in Winchester in 965, Milton Abbas (Dorset) in 964,
        Chertsey, Peterborough (966), Thorney (972), and Ely (970).

        Aethelwold sometimes spent the entirety of Lent in seclusion at Thorney
        Abbey, where he built a church with an apse at both ends. His charter
        survives for the endowment of Peterborough with land, serfs, cattle,
        church plate, and 20 manuscripts.

        This austere, able, and dynamic priest was given the nickname, "The
        Father of Monks." The scribe of his "Benedictional" called him a
        "Boanerges" (son of thunder). When he was prior of Glastonbury, he
        would urge his brothers to greater effort in their monastic observance;
        he never slept after Matins (about 3:00 a.m.) and would eat meat only
        once in three months--and then only at Dunstan's express command.

        He was also gifted as an artist, yet was very practical. At Glastonbury
        he had been cook; at Abingdon he laboured as a builder until he broke
        his ribs in a fall from a scaffold; at Winchester he set the monks to
        working with the masons in the cathedral and built the most powerful
        organ of its time in England. This pipe organ was played by two monks.
        It had 400 pipes and 36 bellows. The bells and crown of metal for
        candles in Abingdon's sanctuary are also attributed to his
        craftsmanship.

        More importantly, Aethelwold introduced the Winchester style of
        manuscript illumination into his monasteries. The style soon
        surpassed the products of many scriptoria of the Continent. He is also
        responsible for the establishment at Winchester of the most important
        school of vernacular writing of the period, of which Aelfric is the most
        famous example. Its linguistically
        significant, accurate translations were designed to meet the needs of
        bishops and clergy who were not themselves monks. Aethelwold's
        Winchester is also distinguished for its production of the first English
        polyphonic music, recorded in the "Winchester Troper." His rebuilt
        cathedral at Winchester was the setting for a wonderfully rich and
        varied liturgy.

        The saint also looked after material well-being the laity of his flock,
        as well as the monks. He built an aqueduct for the town.

        Aethelwold's episcopacy was marked by three important events. First, the
        congress of about 970, during which the "Regularis Concordia," the
        characteristic statement about the observance of reformed monasticism,
        was promulgated as the norm of the 30 reformed abbeys in southern
        England. Based on the practices of Ghent, Fleury, and Glastonbury, it
        was probably compiled by Aethelwold himself, who was also responsible for
        an important vernacular account of the aims of the reformation and an
        Old English version of the Rule of Saint Benedict translated for the
        benefit of nun who had no Latin.

        The second event was the translation of the relics of Saint Swithun of
        Winchester (f.d. July 15) in 971. The final outstanding event of
        Aethelwold's tenure was the consecration of Winchester Cathedral in 980.
        Each occasion was marked by a large concourse of clergy and laity and
        was a sign of the success of the monastic reform movement pioneered by
        Dunstan and Ethelwold. Their monasteries provided about three-quarters
        of the bishops of England until the Norman Conquest in 1066, as well as
        many of the missionaries sent to Scandinavia. Their abbeys were the
        centres of Old English art and literature for many years to come.

        Aethelwold had tireless energy to implement reforms regardless of the
        opposition. He was merciless to the slack, full of sympathy for the
        good-willed and the unfortunate. He is also described by contemporaries
        as an outstanding counsellor of the king and as the benevolent bishop.
        These characteristics need to be recalled as well as his ability and
        intransigence, for any final assessment of his personality. In all
        events, he work had a lasting effect (Attwater, Benedictines, Delaney,
        Farmer).

        Service to Our Father among the Saints Aethelwold,
        Bishop of Winchester
        http://www.orthodoxengland.btinternet.co.uk/servethe.htm



        St. Peregrinus (Pellegrino) of Modena, Hermit
        ---------------------------------------------------------------
        Died 643. Peregrinus (meaning "pilgrim") is believed to have been a
        Celtic prince and/or monk, who made a pilgrimage to the Holy Land. On
        his return he settled in the quiet Apennines near Modena, Italy, where
        he spent the last forty years of his life as a hermit. Saint Pellegrino
        in the Italian Alps is named in his memory and was his hermitage. Now
        one can find a hospice for travellers and the needy on the site
        (Benedictines, Encyclopaedia, Husenbeth, Montague).

        In art, Saint Peregrinus is depicted as a pilgrim. He may also be shown
        (1) holding a thin cross or (2) with a sudarium tied to a staff
        (Roeder). He is the patron of Lucca and Modena, Italy, as well as of
        pilgrims (Roeder).


        St. Rioch of Innisboffin, Abbot
        ----------------------------------------
        Died c. 480. Saint Rioch is described as the nephew of Saint Patrick
        (f.d. March 17), the son of Patrick's sister Saint Darerca (f.d. March
        22), and brother of Saints Mel, Muinis, and Melchu (f.d. February 6 for
        all). Rioch was the abbot of Innisboffin in Longford, Ireland
        (Benedictines, Delaney).

        Troparion of St Rioch tone 1
        The radiance of thy life and the triumph of thine austerity/ shone forth
        from Innisboffin's Monastery, O Father Rioch,/ illuminating the Irish
        nation and leading them from the darkness of paganism/ into the light of
        true belief./ Wherefore O holy one, intercede with Christ our God/ that
        we may be turned from the errors of our day that our souls may be saved.





        St. Aled of Brecknock, Virgin Martyr
        (Adwenhelye, Almedha, Almedia, Eiluned,
        Eled, Elevetha, Euned)
        -----------------------------------------------------
        6th century. Most of what we know of Saint Aled derives from Archdeacon
        Gerald of Wales (a.k.a. Giraldus Cambrensis), who lived in the 12th
        century near the church he describes on a hilltop close to Brecon Castle
        in Wales.

        Saint Aled was a descendant of King Saint Brychan of Brecknock (f.d.
        April 6). She is said to have suffered martyrdom on a hill near
        Brecknock, Wales. It is related that she was a young nun who fled to
        Llanfillo, then Llechfaen, and finally Slwch Tump near Brecon, in order
        to escape an unwanted marriage to a prince. She built a cell at Brecon
        with the help of the local lord. Later she was found by her suitor.
        Again she ran, but he caught and beheaded her with his sword. As in the
        story of St. Winefride, a miraculous spring erupted from the ground.

        The site of her martyrdom would become a place filled with pilgrims on
        her feast. It is said that "thanks to the merits of this holy virgin,
        those who are suffering from maladies of any sort recover the health for
        which they pray." Gerald goes on to describe the dances of young people
        in the graveyard and their singing of traditional songs. They suddenly
        collapse on the ground, and then mime with hands and feet the work--of
        ploughing, spinning, weaving--they have done against the commandment to
        rest on the Sabbath. Then they would enter the church with their
        offerings: "by taking part in these festivities, they feel in their
        hearts the remission of their sins and are absolved and pardoned." The
        small church that was built over her cell was obliterated in 1698
        (Attwater2, Benedictines, Encyclopaedia, Farmer).


        St. Sidwell, Virgin Martyr
        (Sativola, Sidefulla)
        ------------------------------------------------------------
        Date unknown; feast day kept on July 31 in Roscarrock and August 2 in
        Exeter. Saint Sidwell, probably of British rather than Anglo- Saxon
        lineage, has been revered at Exeter from time immemorial. By AD 1000,
        pilgrims gathered at her shrine. William Worcestre and Leland mention
        her. The late medieval catalogue of English saints, called the
        "Catalogus sanctorum pausantium in Anglia," has this entry:

        "Born at Exeter, she was killed by her stepmother
        inciting the reapers to behead her. She was buried
        outside the city, where by her merits God heals the
        sick."

        This story of the jealous stepmother is also included in the legend of
        Saint Juthwara (f.d. July 1), who is supposed to be Sidwell's sister.
        There is reason to believe that this legend is entirely mythical;
        although Sidwell is a real saint.

        Sidwell's Church is just outside the east gate of Exeter. Near it there
        used to be a holy well, where presumably the cures took place. There is
        a dedication to her in Laneast, Cornwall, with her sister Saint
        Wulvella, where there was also a holy well (Benedictines, Farmer).

        In art, Saint Sidwell is a maiden carrying a scythe by a well. She
        might also be shown carrying her head (Roeder). The emblem of a
        "scythe" and a "well," as well as the story, may derive from her name
        (Farmer). Sidwell is venerated in Exeter, England (Roeder).



        St. Secundel, Hermit
        ----------------------------
        6th century. Secundel was the companion of Saint Friardus (f.d. today)
        on the island of Vindomitte in Brittany Benedictines).



        Sources:
        ========

        Attwater, D. (1983). The Penguin Dictionary of Saints, NY:
        Penguin Books.

        Attwater, D. (1958). A Dictionary of Saints. New York:
        P. J. Kenedy & Sons. [Attwater 2]

        Benedictine Monks of St. Augustine Abbey, Ramsgate.
        (1947). The Book of Saints. NY: Macmillan.

        Delaney, J. J. (1983). Pocket Dictionary of Saints, NY:
        Doubleday Image.

        Delaney, J. J. (ed). (1978). Saints for All Seasons.
        Garden City, NY: Doubleday.

        Encyclopaedia of Catholic Saints, August. (1966).
        Philadelphia: Chilton Books.

        Farmer, D. H. (1997). The Oxford Dictionary of Saints.
        Oxford: Oxford University Press.

        Husenbeth, Rev. F. C., DD, VG (ed.). (1928). Butler's
        Lives of the Fathers, Martyrs, and Other Principal Saints.
        London: Virtue & Co.

        Montague, H. P. (1981). The Saints and Martyrs of Ireland.
        Guildford: Billing & Sons.

        Roeder, H. (1956). Saints and Their Attributes, Chicago: Henry
        Regnery.

        For All the Saints:
        http://www.saintpatrickdc.org/ss/ss-index.htm

        An Alphabetical Index of the Saints of the West
        http://www.orthodoxengland.btinternet.co.uk/saintsa.htm

        These Lives are archived at:
        http://groups.yahoo.com/group/celt-saints
        *****************************************
      • emrys@globe.net.nz
        Celtic and Old English Saints 1 August =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-= * St. Kenneth of Wales * St. Aethelwold of Winchester * St.
        Message 3 of 14 , Jul 31, 2007
        • 0 Attachment
          Celtic and Old English Saints 1 August

          =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=
          * St. Kenneth of Wales
          * St. Aethelwold of Winchester
          * St. Peregrinus of Modena
          * St. Rioch of Innisboffin
          * St. Aled of Brecknock
          * St. Sidwell
          * St. Secundel of Brittany
          =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=


          St. Kenneth of Wales, Hermit
          (Cenydd, Kyned, Kened, Keneth, Kined)
          -----------------------------------------------------
          Died 6th century; feast of his translation is June 27. Saint Kenneth is
          believed to have been a Welsh hermit, the son of a
          chieftain. Welsh tradition, however, makes him the son of Saint Gildas
          (f.d. January 29), one of the most important Welsh monks. He married
          and had at least one son then became a monk under Saint Illtyd (f.d.
          November 6). Thereafter, Kenneth was a hermit who made his cell among
          the rocks in the peninsula of Gower and founded Llangenydd. He later
          went to Brittany, where Ploumelin is the centre of his cultus.

          An extraordinary event is connected with Kenneth's name that is recorded
          in Welsh sources. Kenneth was born a cripple in Brittany, placed in a
          cradle of osiers, and dropped into a stream, like Moses, which took him
          to the island of "Henisweryn." He survived there because of a series of
          miracles and angelic interventions. Educated as a Christian, he became
          a hermit and was joined by a servant. This man stole the lance of some
          robbers to whom Kenneth had extended hospitality. Later, Saint David of
          Wales (f.d. March 1) cured Kenneth of his deformity, but the saint was
          displeased and asked that it be restored as it was before. A
          breast-shaped bell figures prominently in this unfinished tale, which
          ends abruptly without resolution.

          Saint Kenneth, however, is no legendary figure. The calendar and
          place-names point to his existence. His feast is celebrated in Wales,
          Brittany, and England (Benedictines, Farmer).

          Icon of St Kenneth
          http://htmadmin.phpwebhosting.com/images/a-327.jpg

          Troparion of St Kenneth tone 2
          Rejecting thy princely dignity and worldly position,/ thou didst retire
          to the desert, O righteous Kenneth, / and as we rejoice in thy
          God-pleasing asceticism,/ beseech Christ our God that He will save our
          souls.


          St. Aethelwold of Winchester, Bishop
          (Ethelwold)
          ------------------------------------------------
          Born in Winchester, England, c. 908-912; died at Beddington, 984; feast
          at Abingdon is August 2; feast of his translation is
          September 10; Ely used to keep a "commemoratio" on October 8 in his
          honour, while Deeping and Thorney Abbeys observed an "exceptio" on
          October 23.

          Together with Saint Dunstan (f.d. May 19) and Saint Oswald of York (f.d.
          February 28), Aehelwold was a leader in the revival of English
          monasticism in the 10th century following its near eradication by the
          Danes during their raids. He served at the court of King Athelstan
          (924-39), but left to seek priestly ordination at the hands of Saint
          Alphege the Bald (f.d. April 19) on the same day as his friend Saint
          Dunstan. When Dunstan became abbot of Glastonbury in 943 and restore
          Benedictine observance there, the priest Aethelwold joined the community
          and became one of its deans and prior.

          Not entirely satisfied with the reformation at Glastonbury, he asked to
          be allowed to go to France to study the reforms initiated at Cluny.
          Instead, in 955, King Edred made him abbot of the derelict Abingdon
          Abbey in Berkshire and entrusted to Aethelwold its restoration. He added
          to the community monks from Glastonbury and priests from elsewhere, and
          built a new church that incorporated elements of the old. He sent his
          disciple Osgar to study at Fleury in his place.

          When Dunstan was exiled by King Edwy about 956, Aethelwold became the
          most important figure in the monastic reformation. He also came near
          secular power in his role as tutor to the future king, Saint Edgar the
          Peaceful (f.d. July 8).

          In 963, he was consecrated bishop of Winchester in Wessex. The
          following year King Edgar and Aethelwold replaced secular canons with
          Benedictines from Abingdon. In this way he founded the first monastic
          cathedral, a specifically English institution that lasted until the
          Reformation. The next year, Aethelwold replaced the priests with monks
          at Newminster. From this point the monastic reform became closely
          associated with the king, whose palace was very near the cathedral. He
          also founded or restored many abbeys, including those of Newminster and
          Nunnaminster in Winchester in 965, Milton Abbas (Dorset) in 964,
          Chertsey, Peterborough (966), Thorney (972), and Ely (970).

          Aethelwold sometimes spent the entirety of Lent in seclusion at Thorney
          Abbey, where he built a church with an apse at both ends. His charter
          survives for the endowment of Peterborough with land, serfs, cattle,
          church plate, and 20 manuscripts.

          This austere, able, and dynamic priest was given the nickname, "The
          Father of Monks." The scribe of his "Benedictional" called him a
          "Boanerges" (son of thunder). When he was prior of Glastonbury, he
          would urge his brothers to greater effort in their monastic observance;
          he never slept after Matins (about 3:00 a.m.) and would eat meat only
          once in three months--and then only at Dunstan's express command.

          He was also gifted as an artist, yet was very practical. At Glastonbury
          he had been cook; at Abingdon he laboured as a builder until he broke
          his ribs in a fall from a scaffold; at Winchester he set the monks to
          working with the masons in the cathedral and built the most powerful
          organ of its time in England. This pipe organ was played by two monks.
          It had 400 pipes and 36 bellows. The bells and crown of metal for
          candles in Abingdon's sanctuary are also attributed to his
          craftsmanship.

          More importantly, Aethelwold introduced the Winchester style of
          manuscript illumination into his monasteries. The style soon
          surpassed the products of many scriptoria of the Continent. He is also
          responsible for the establishment at Winchester of the most important
          school of vernacular writing of the period, of which Aelfric is the most
          famous example. Its linguistically
          significant, accurate translations were designed to meet the needs of
          bishops and clergy who were not themselves monks. Aethelwold's
          Winchester is also distinguished for its production of the first English
          polyphonic music, recorded in the "Winchester Troper." His rebuilt
          cathedral at Winchester was the setting for a wonderfully rich and
          varied liturgy.

          The saint also looked after material well-being the laity of his flock,
          as well as the monks. He built an aqueduct for the town.

          Aethelwold's episcopacy was marked by three important events. First, the
          congress of about 970, during which the "Regularis Concordia," the
          characteristic statement about the observance of reformed monasticism,
          was promulgated as the norm of the 30 reformed abbeys in southern
          England. Based on the practices of Ghent, Fleury, and Glastonbury, it
          was probably compiled by Aethelwold himself, who was also responsible for
          an important vernacular account of the aims of the reformation and an
          Old English version of the Rule of Saint Benedict translated for the
          benefit of nun who had no Latin.

          The second event was the translation of the relics of Saint Swithun of
          Winchester (f.d. July 15) in 971. The final outstanding event of
          Aethelwold's tenure was the consecration of Winchester Cathedral in 980.
          Each occasion was marked by a large concourse of clergy and laity and
          was a sign of the success of the monastic reform movement pioneered by
          Dunstan and Ethelwold. Their monasteries provided about three-quarters
          of the bishops of England until the Norman Conquest in 1066, as well as
          many of the missionaries sent to Scandinavia. Their abbeys were the
          centres of Old English art and literature for many years to come.

          Aethelwold had tireless energy to implement reforms regardless of the
          opposition. He was merciless to the slack, full of sympathy for the
          good-willed and the unfortunate. He is also described by contemporaries
          as an outstanding counsellor of the king and as the benevolent bishop.
          These characteristics need to be recalled as well as his ability and
          intransigence, for any final assessment of his personality. In all
          events, he work had a lasting effect (Attwater, Benedictines, Delaney,
          Farmer).

          Service to Our Father among the Saints Aethelwold,
          Bishop of Winchester
          http://www.orthodoxengland.btinternet.co.uk/servethe.htm



          St. Peregrinus (Pellegrino) of Modena, Hermit
          ---------------------------------------------------------------
          Died 643. Peregrinus (meaning "pilgrim") is believed to have been a
          Celtic prince and/or monk, who made a pilgrimage to the Holy Land. On
          his return he settled in the quiet Apennines near Modena, Italy, where
          he spent the last forty years of his life as a hermit. Saint Pellegrino
          in the Italian Alps is named in his memory and was his hermitage. Now
          one can find a hospice for travellers and the needy on the site
          (Benedictines, Encyclopaedia, Husenbeth, Montague).

          In art, Saint Peregrinus is depicted as a pilgrim. He may also be shown
          (1) holding a thin cross or (2) with a sudarium tied to a staff
          (Roeder). He is the patron of Lucca and Modena, Italy, as well as of
          pilgrims (Roeder).


          St. Rioch of Innisboffin, Abbot
          ----------------------------------------
          Died c. 480. Saint Rioch is described as the nephew of Saint Patrick
          (f.d. March 17), the son of Patrick's sister Saint Darerca (f.d. March
          22), and brother of Saints Mel, Muinis, and Melchu (f.d. February 6 for
          all). Rioch was the abbot of Innisboffin in Longford, Ireland
          (Benedictines, Delaney).

          Troparion of St Rioch tone 1
          The radiance of thy life and the triumph of thine austerity/ shone forth
          from Innisboffin's Monastery, O Father Rioch,/ illuminating the Irish
          nation and leading them from the darkness of paganism/ into the light of
          true belief./ Wherefore O holy one, intercede with Christ our God/ that
          we may be turned from the errors of our day that our souls may be saved.





          St. Aled of Brecknock, Virgin Martyr
          (Adwenhelye, Almedha, Almedia, Eiluned,
          Eled, Elevetha, Euned)
          -----------------------------------------------------
          6th century. Most of what we know of Saint Aled derives from Archdeacon
          Gerald of Wales (a.k.a. Giraldus Cambrensis), who lived in the 12th
          century near the church he describes on a hilltop close to Brecon Castle
          in Wales.

          Saint Aled was a descendant of King Saint Brychan of Brecknock (f.d.
          April 6). She is said to have suffered martyrdom on a hill near
          Brecknock, Wales. It is related that she was a young nun who fled to
          Llanfillo, then Llechfaen, and finally Slwch Tump near Brecon, in order
          to escape an unwanted marriage to a prince. She built a cell at Brecon
          with the help of the local lord. Later she was found by her suitor.
          Again she ran, but he caught and beheaded her with his sword. As in the
          story of St. Winefride, a miraculous spring erupted from the ground.

          The site of her martyrdom would become a place filled with pilgrims on
          her feast. It is said that "thanks to the merits of this holy virgin,
          those who are suffering from maladies of any sort recover the health for
          which they pray." Gerald goes on to describe the dances of young people
          in the graveyard and their singing of traditional songs. They suddenly
          collapse on the ground, and then mime with hands and feet the work--of
          ploughing, spinning, weaving--they have done against the commandment to
          rest on the Sabbath. Then they would enter the church with their
          offerings: "by taking part in these festivities, they feel in their
          hearts the remission of their sins and are absolved and pardoned." The
          small church that was built over her cell was obliterated in 1698
          (Attwater2, Benedictines, Encyclopaedia, Farmer).


          St. Sidwell, Virgin Martyr
          (Sativola, Sidefulla)
          ------------------------------------------------------------
          Date unknown; feast day kept on July 31 in Roscarrock and August 2 in
          Exeter. Saint Sidwell, probably of British rather than Anglo- Saxon
          lineage, has been revered at Exeter from time immemorial. By AD 1000,
          pilgrims gathered at her shrine. William Worcestre and Leland mention
          her. The late medieval catalogue of English saints, called the
          "Catalogus sanctorum pausantium in Anglia," has this entry:

          "Born at Exeter, she was killed by her stepmother
          inciting the reapers to behead her. She was buried
          outside the city, where by her merits God heals the
          sick."

          This story of the jealous stepmother is also included in the legend of
          Saint Juthwara (f.d. July 1), who is supposed to be Sidwell's sister.
          There is reason to believe that this legend is entirely mythical;
          although Sidwell is a real saint.

          Sidwell's Church is just outside the east gate of Exeter. Near it there
          used to be a holy well, where presumably the cures took place. There is
          a dedication to her in Laneast, Cornwall, with her sister Saint
          Wulvella, where there was also a holy well (Benedictines, Farmer).

          In art, Saint Sidwell is a maiden carrying a scythe by a well. She
          might also be shown carrying her head (Roeder). The emblem of a
          "scythe" and a "well," as well as the story, may derive from her name
          (Farmer). Sidwell is venerated in Exeter, England (Roeder).



          St. Secundel, Hermit
          ----------------------------
          6th century. Secundel was the companion of Saint Friardus (f.d. today)
          on the island of Vindomitte in Brittany Benedictines).



          Sources:
          ========

          Attwater, D. (1983). The Penguin Dictionary of Saints, NY:
          Penguin Books.

          Attwater, D. (1958). A Dictionary of Saints. New York:
          P. J. Kenedy & Sons. [Attwater 2]

          Benedictine Monks of St. Augustine Abbey, Ramsgate.
          (1947). The Book of Saints. NY: Macmillan.

          Delaney, J. J. (1983). Pocket Dictionary of Saints, NY:
          Doubleday Image.

          Delaney, J. J. (ed). (1978). Saints for All Seasons.
          Garden City, NY: Doubleday.

          Encyclopaedia of Catholic Saints, August. (1966).
          Philadelphia: Chilton Books.

          Farmer, D. H. (1997). The Oxford Dictionary of Saints.
          Oxford: Oxford University Press.

          Husenbeth, Rev. F. C., DD, VG (ed.). (1928). Butler's
          Lives of the Fathers, Martyrs, and Other Principal Saints.
          London: Virtue & Co.

          Montague, H. P. (1981). The Saints and Martyrs of Ireland.
          Guildford: Billing & Sons.

          Roeder, H. (1956). Saints and Their Attributes, Chicago: Henry
          Regnery.

          For All the Saints:
          http://www.saintpatrickdc.org/ss/ss-index.htm

          An Alphabetical Index of the Saints of the West
          http://www.orthodoxengland.btinternet.co.uk/saintsa.htm

          These Lives are archived at:
          http://groups.yahoo.com/group/celt-saints
          *****************************************
        • emrys@globe.net.nz
          Celtic and Old English Saints 1 August =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-= * St. Kenneth of Wales * St. Aethelwold of Winchester * St.
          Message 4 of 14 , Jul 30, 2008
          • 0 Attachment
            Celtic and Old English Saints 1 August

            =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=
            * St. Kenneth of Wales
            * St. Aethelwold of Winchester
            * St. Peregrinus of Modena
            * St. Rioch of Innisboffin
            * St. Aled of Brecknock
            * St. Sidwell
            * St. Secundel of Brittany
            =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=


            St. Kenneth of Wales, Hermit
            (Cenydd, Kyned, Kened, Keneth, Kined)
            -----------------------------------------------------
            Died 6th century; feast of his translation is June 27. Saint Kenneth is
            believed to have been a Welsh hermit, the son of a
            chieftain. Welsh tradition, however, makes him the son of Saint Gildas
            (f.d. January 29), one of the most important Welsh monks. He married
            and had at least one son then became a monk under Saint Illtyd (f.d.
            November 6). Thereafter, Kenneth was a hermit who made his cell among
            the rocks in the peninsula of Gower and founded Llangenydd. He later
            went to Brittany, where Ploumelin is the centre of his cultus.

            An extraordinary event is connected with Kenneth's name that is recorded
            in Welsh sources. Kenneth was born a cripple in Brittany, placed in a
            cradle of osiers, and dropped into a stream, like Moses, which took him
            to the island of "Henisweryn." He survived there because of a series of
            miracles and angelic interventions. Educated as a Christian, he became
            a hermit and was joined by a servant. This man stole the lance of some
            robbers to whom Kenneth had extended hospitality. Later, Saint David of
            Wales (f.d. March 1) cured Kenneth of his deformity, but the saint was
            displeased and asked that it be restored as it was before. A
            breast-shaped bell figures prominently in this unfinished tale, which
            ends abruptly without resolution.

            Saint Kenneth, however, is no legendary figure. The calendar and
            place-names point to his existence. His feast is celebrated in Wales,
            Brittany, and England (Benedictines, Farmer).

            Icon of St Kenneth
            http://www.thehtm.org/catalog/product_info.php?cPath=27_50_87&products_id=311&osCsid=51ab970b75244b5095adcbe8ed16a1cb

            Troparion of St Kenneth tone 2
            Rejecting thy princely dignity and worldly position,/ thou didst retire
            to the desert, O righteous Kenneth, / and as we rejoice in thy
            God-pleasing asceticism,/ beseech Christ our God that He will save our
            souls.


            St. Aethelwold of Winchester, Bishop
            (Ethelwold)
            ------------------------------------------------
            Born in Winchester, England, c. 908-912; died at Beddington, 984; feast
            at Abingdon is August 2; feast of his translation is
            September 10; Ely used to keep a "commemoratio" on October 8 in his
            honour, while Deeping and Thorney Abbeys observed an "exceptio" on
            October 23.

            Together with Saint Dunstan (f.d. May 19) and Saint Oswald of York (f.d.
            February 28), Aehelwold was a leader in the revival of English
            monasticism in the 10th century following its near eradication by the
            Danes during their raids. He served at the court of King Athelstan
            (924-39), but left to seek priestly ordination at the hands of Saint
            Alphege the Bald (f.d. April 19) on the same day as his friend Saint
            Dunstan. When Dunstan became abbot of Glastonbury in 943 and restore
            Benedictine observance there, the priest Aethelwold joined the community
            and became one of its deans and prior.

            Not entirely satisfied with the reformation at Glastonbury, he asked to
            be allowed to go to France to study the reforms initiated at Cluny.
            Instead, in 955, King Edred made him abbot of the derelict Abingdon
            Abbey in Berkshire and entrusted to Aethelwold its restoration. He added
            to the community monks from Glastonbury and priests from elsewhere, and
            built a new church that incorporated elements of the old. He sent his
            disciple Osgar to study at Fleury in his place.

            When Dunstan was exiled by King Edwy about 956, Aethelwold became the
            most important figure in the monastic reformation. He also came near
            secular power in his role as tutor to the future king, Saint Edgar the
            Peaceful (f.d. July 8).

            In 963, he was consecrated bishop of Winchester in Wessex. The
            following year King Edgar and Aethelwold replaced secular canons with
            Benedictines from Abingdon. In this way he founded the first monastic
            cathedral, a specifically English institution that lasted until the
            Reformation. The next year, Aethelwold replaced the priests with monks
            at Newminster. From this point the monastic reform became closely
            associated with the king, whose palace was very near the cathedral. He
            also founded or restored many abbeys, including those of Newminster and
            Nunnaminster in Winchester in 965, Milton Abbas (Dorset) in 964,
            Chertsey, Peterborough (966), Thorney (972), and Ely (970).

            Aethelwold sometimes spent the entirety of Lent in seclusion at Thorney
            Abbey, where he built a church with an apse at both ends. His charter
            survives for the endowment of Peterborough with land, serfs, cattle,
            church plate, and 20 manuscripts.

            This austere, able, and dynamic priest was given the nickname, "The
            Father of Monks." The scribe of his "Benedictional" called him a
            "Boanerges" (son of thunder). When he was prior of Glastonbury, he
            would urge his brothers to greater effort in their monastic observance;
            he never slept after Matins (about 3:00 a.m.) and would eat meat only
            once in three months--and then only at Dunstan's express command.

            He was also gifted as an artist, yet was very practical. At Glastonbury
            he had been cook; at Abingdon he laboured as a builder until he broke
            his ribs in a fall from a scaffold; at Winchester he set the monks to
            working with the masons in the cathedral and built the most powerful
            organ of its time in England. This pipe organ was played by two monks.
            It had 400 pipes and 36 bellows. The bells and crown of metal for
            candles in Abingdon's sanctuary are also attributed to his
            craftsmanship.

            More importantly, Aethelwold introduced the Winchester style of
            manuscript illumination into his monasteries. The style soon
            surpassed the products of many scriptoria of the Continent. He is also
            responsible for the establishment at Winchester of the most important
            school of vernacular writing of the period, of which Aelfric is the most
            famous example. Its linguistically
            significant, accurate translations were designed to meet the needs of
            bishops and clergy who were not themselves monks. Aethelwold's
            Winchester is also distinguished for its production of the first English
            polyphonic music, recorded in the "Winchester Troper." His rebuilt
            cathedral at Winchester was the setting for a wonderfully rich and
            varied liturgy.

            The saint also looked after material well-being the laity of his flock,
            as well as the monks. He built an aqueduct for the town.

            Aethelwold's episcopacy was marked by three important events. First, the
            congress of about 970, during which the "Regularis Concordia," the
            characteristic statement about the observance of reformed monasticism,
            was promulgated as the norm of the 30 reformed abbeys in southern
            England. Based on the practices of Ghent, Fleury, and Glastonbury, it
            was probably compiled by Aethelwold himself, who was also responsible for
            an important vernacular account of the aims of the reformation and an
            Old English version of the Rule of Saint Benedict translated for the
            benefit of nun who had no Latin.

            The second event was the translation of the relics of Saint Swithun of
            Winchester (f.d. July 15) in 971. The final outstanding event of
            Aethelwold's tenure was the consecration of Winchester Cathedral in 980.
            Each occasion was marked by a large concourse of clergy and laity and
            was a sign of the success of the monastic reform movement pioneered by
            Dunstan and Ethelwold. Their monasteries provided about three-quarters
            of the bishops of England until the Norman Conquest in 1066, as well as
            many of the missionaries sent to Scandinavia. Their abbeys were the
            centres of Old English art and literature for many years to come.

            Aethelwold had tireless energy to implement reforms regardless of the
            opposition. He was merciless to the slack, full of sympathy for the
            good-willed and the unfortunate. He is also described by contemporaries
            as an outstanding counsellor of the king and as the benevolent bishop.
            These characteristics need to be recalled as well as his ability and
            intransigence, for any final assessment of his personality. In all
            events, he work had a lasting effect (Attwater, Benedictines, Delaney,
            Farmer).

            Service to Our Father among the Saints Aethelwold,
            Bishop of Winchester
            http://www.orthodoxengland.btinternet.co.uk/servethe.htm



            St. Peregrinus (Pellegrino) of Modena, Hermit
            ---------------------------------------------------------------
            Died 643. Peregrinus (meaning "pilgrim") is believed to have been a
            Celtic prince and/or monk, who made a pilgrimage to the Holy Land. On
            his return he settled in the quiet Apennines near Modena, Italy, where
            he spent the last forty years of his life as a hermit. Saint Pellegrino
            in the Italian Alps is named in his memory and was his hermitage. Now
            one can find a hospice for travellers and the needy on the site
            (Benedictines, Encyclopaedia, Husenbeth, Montague).

            In art, Saint Peregrinus is depicted as a pilgrim. He may also be shown
            (1) holding a thin cross or (2) with a sudarium tied to a staff
            (Roeder). He is the patron of Lucca and Modena, Italy, as well as of
            pilgrims (Roeder).


            St. Rioch of Innisboffin, Abbot
            ----------------------------------------
            Died c. 480. Saint Rioch is described as the nephew of Saint Patrick
            (f.d. March 17), the son of Patrick's sister Saint Darerca (f.d. March
            22), and brother of Saints Mel, Muinis, and Melchu (f.d. February 6 for
            all). Rioch was the abbot of Innisboffin in Longford, Ireland
            (Benedictines, Delaney).

            Troparion of St Rioch tone 1
            The radiance of thy life and the triumph of thine austerity/ shone forth
            from Innisboffin's Monastery, O Father Rioch,/ illuminating the Irish
            nation and leading them from the darkness of paganism/ into the light of
            true belief./ Wherefore O holy one, intercede with Christ our God/ that
            we may be turned from the errors of our day that our souls may be saved.





            St. Aled of Brecknock, Virgin Martyr
            (Adwenhelye, Almedha, Almedia, Eiluned,
            Eled, Elevetha, Euned)
            -----------------------------------------------------
            6th century. Most of what we know of Saint Aled derives from Archdeacon
            Gerald of Wales (a.k.a. Giraldus Cambrensis), who lived in the 12th
            century near the church he describes on a hilltop close to Brecon Castle
            in Wales.

            Saint Aled was a descendant of King Saint Brychan of Brecknock (f.d.
            April 6). She is said to have suffered martyrdom on a hill near
            Brecknock, Wales. It is related that she was a young nun who fled to
            Llanfillo, then Llechfaen, and finally Slwch Tump near Brecon, in order
            to escape an unwanted marriage to a prince. She built a cell at Brecon
            with the help of the local lord. Later she was found by her suitor.
            Again she ran, but he caught and beheaded her with his sword. As in the
            story of St. Winefride, a miraculous spring erupted from the ground.

            The site of her martyrdom would become a place filled with pilgrims on
            her feast. It is said that "thanks to the merits of this holy virgin,
            those who are suffering from maladies of any sort recover the health for
            which they pray." Gerald goes on to describe the dances of young people
            in the graveyard and their singing of traditional songs. They suddenly
            collapse on the ground, and then mime with hands and feet the work--of
            ploughing, spinning, weaving--they have done against the commandment to
            rest on the Sabbath. Then they would enter the church with their
            offerings: "by taking part in these festivities, they feel in their
            hearts the remission of their sins and are absolved and pardoned." The
            small church that was built over her cell was obliterated in 1698
            (Attwater2, Benedictines, Encyclopaedia, Farmer).


            St. Sidwell, Virgin Martyr
            (Sativola, Sidefulla)
            ------------------------------------------------------------
            Date unknown; feast day kept on July 31 in Roscarrock and August 2 in
            Exeter. Saint Sidwell, probably of British rather than Anglo- Saxon
            lineage, has been revered at Exeter from time immemorial. By AD 1000,
            pilgrims gathered at her shrine. William Worcestre and Leland mention
            her. The late medieval catalogue of English saints, called the
            "Catalogus sanctorum pausantium in Anglia," has this entry:

            "Born at Exeter, she was killed by her stepmother
            inciting the reapers to behead her. She was buried
            outside the city, where by her merits God heals the
            sick."

            This story of the jealous stepmother is also included in the legend of
            Saint Juthwara (f.d. July 1), who is supposed to be Sidwell's sister.
            There is reason to believe that this legend is entirely mythical;
            although Sidwell is a real saint.

            Sidwell's Church is just outside the east gate of Exeter. Near it there
            used to be a holy well, where presumably the cures took place. There is
            a dedication to her in Laneast, Cornwall, with her sister Saint
            Wulvella, where there was also a holy well (Benedictines, Farmer).

            In art, Saint Sidwell is a maiden carrying a scythe by a well. She
            might also be shown carrying her head (Roeder). The emblem of a
            "scythe" and a "well," as well as the story, may derive from her name
            (Farmer). Sidwell is venerated in Exeter, England (Roeder).



            St. Secundel, Hermit
            ----------------------------
            6th century. Secundel was the companion of Saint Friardus (f.d. today)
            on the island of Vindomitte in Brittany Benedictines).



            Sources:
            ========

            Attwater, D. (1983). The Penguin Dictionary of Saints, NY:
            Penguin Books.

            Attwater, D. (1958). A Dictionary of Saints. New York:
            P. J. Kenedy & Sons. [Attwater 2]

            Benedictine Monks of St. Augustine Abbey, Ramsgate.
            (1947). The Book of Saints. NY: Macmillan.

            Delaney, J. J. (1983). Pocket Dictionary of Saints, NY:
            Doubleday Image.

            Delaney, J. J. (ed). (1978). Saints for All Seasons.
            Garden City, NY: Doubleday.

            Encyclopaedia of Catholic Saints, August. (1966).
            Philadelphia: Chilton Books.

            Farmer, D. H. (1997). The Oxford Dictionary of Saints.
            Oxford: Oxford University Press.

            Husenbeth, Rev. F. C., DD, VG (ed.). (1928). Butler's
            Lives of the Fathers, Martyrs, and Other Principal Saints.
            London: Virtue & Co.

            Montague, H. P. (1981). The Saints and Martyrs of Ireland.
            Guildford: Billing & Sons.

            Roeder, H. (1956). Saints and Their Attributes, Chicago: Henry
            Regnery.

            For All the Saints:
            http://www.saintpatrickdc.org/ss/ss-index.htm

            An Alphabetical Index of the Saints of the West
            http://www.orthodoxengland.btinternet.co.uk/saintsa.htm

            These Lives are archived at:
            http://groups.yahoo.com/group/celt-saints
            *****************************************
          • emrys@globe.net.nz
            Celtic and Old English Saints 1 August =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-= * St. Kenneth of Wales * St. Aethelwold of Winchester * St.
            Message 5 of 14 , Jul 31, 2009
            • 0 Attachment
              Celtic and Old English Saints 1 August

              =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=
              * St. Kenneth of Wales
              * St. Aethelwold of Winchester
              * St. Peregrinus of Modena
              * St. Rioch of Innisboffin
              * St. Aled of Brecknock
              * St. Sidwell
              * St. Secundel of Brittany
              =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=


              St. Kenneth of Wales, Hermit
              (Cenydd, Kyned, Kened, Keneth, Kined)
              -----------------------------------------------------
              Died 6th century; feast of his translation is June 27. Saint Kenneth is
              believed to have been a Welsh hermit, the son of a
              chieftain. Welsh tradition, however, makes him the son of Saint Gildas
              (f.d. January 29), one of the most important Welsh monks. He married
              and had at least one son then became a monk under Saint Illtyd (f.d.
              November 6). Thereafter, Kenneth was a hermit who made his cell among
              the rocks in the peninsula of Gower and founded Llangenydd. He later
              went to Brittany, where Ploumelin is the centre of his cultus.

              An extraordinary event is connected with Kenneth's name that is recorded
              in Welsh sources. Kenneth was born a cripple in Brittany, placed in a
              cradle of osiers, and dropped into a stream, like Moses, which took him
              to the island of "Henisweryn." He survived there because of a series of
              miracles and angelic interventions. Educated as a Christian, he became
              a hermit and was joined by a servant. This man stole the lance of some
              robbers to whom Kenneth had extended hospitality. Later, Saint David of
              Wales (f.d. March 1) cured Kenneth of his deformity, but the saint was
              displeased and asked that it be restored as it was before. A
              breast-shaped bell figures prominently in this unfinished tale, which
              ends abruptly without resolution.

              Saint Kenneth, however, is no legendary figure. The calendar and
              place-names point to his existence. His feast is celebrated in Wales,
              Brittany, and England (Benedictines, Farmer).

              Icon of St Kenneth
              http://www.thehtm.org/catalog/product_info.php?cPath=27_50_87&products_id=311&osCsid=51ab970b75244b5095adcbe8ed16a1cb

              Troparion of St Kenneth tone 2
              Rejecting thy princely dignity and worldly position,/ thou didst retire
              to the desert, O righteous Kenneth, / and as we rejoice in thy
              God-pleasing asceticism,/ beseech Christ our God that He will save our
              souls.


              St. Aethelwold of Winchester, Bishop
              (Ethelwold)
              ------------------------------------------------
              Born in Winchester, England, c. 908-912; died at Beddington, 984; feast
              at Abingdon is August 2; feast of his translation is
              September 10; Ely used to keep a "commemoratio" on October 8 in his
              honour, while Deeping and Thorney Abbeys observed an "exceptio" on
              October 23.

              Together with Saint Dunstan (f.d. May 19) and Saint Oswald of York (f.d.
              February 28), Aehelwold was a leader in the revival of English
              monasticism in the 10th century following its near eradication by the
              Danes during their raids. He served at the court of King Athelstan
              (924-39), but left to seek priestly ordination at the hands of Saint
              Alphege the Bald (f.d. April 19) on the same day as his friend Saint
              Dunstan. When Dunstan became abbot of Glastonbury in 943 and restore
              Benedictine observance there, the priest Aethelwold joined the community
              and became one of its deans and prior.

              Not entirely satisfied with the reformation at Glastonbury, he asked to
              be allowed to go to France to study the reforms initiated at Cluny.
              Instead, in 955, King Edred made him abbot of the derelict Abingdon
              Abbey in Berkshire and entrusted to Aethelwold its restoration. He added
              to the community monks from Glastonbury and priests from elsewhere, and
              built a new church that incorporated elements of the old. He sent his
              disciple Osgar to study at Fleury in his place.

              When Dunstan was exiled by King Edwy about 956, Aethelwold became the
              most important figure in the monastic reformation. He also came near
              secular power in his role as tutor to the future king, Saint Edgar the
              Peaceful (f.d. July 8).

              In 963, he was consecrated bishop of Winchester in Wessex. The
              following year King Edgar and Aethelwold replaced secular canons with
              Benedictines from Abingdon. In this way he founded the first monastic
              cathedral, a specifically English institution that lasted until the
              Reformation. The next year, Aethelwold replaced the priests with monks
              at Newminster. From this point the monastic reform became closely
              associated with the king, whose palace was very near the cathedral. He
              also founded or restored many abbeys, including those of Newminster and
              Nunnaminster in Winchester in 965, Milton Abbas (Dorset) in 964,
              Chertsey, Peterborough (966), Thorney (972), and Ely (970).

              Aethelwold sometimes spent the entirety of Lent in seclusion at Thorney
              Abbey, where he built a church with an apse at both ends. His charter
              survives for the endowment of Peterborough with land, serfs, cattle,
              church plate, and 20 manuscripts.

              This austere, able, and dynamic priest was given the nickname, "The
              Father of Monks." The scribe of his "Benedictional" called him a
              "Boanerges" (son of thunder). When he was prior of Glastonbury, he
              would urge his brothers to greater effort in their monastic observance;
              he never slept after Matins (about 3:00 a.m.) and would eat meat only
              once in three months--and then only at Dunstan's express command.

              He was also gifted as an artist, yet was very practical. At Glastonbury
              he had been cook; at Abingdon he laboured as a builder until he broke
              his ribs in a fall from a scaffold; at Winchester he set the monks to
              working with the masons in the cathedral and built the most powerful
              organ of its time in England. This pipe organ was played by two monks.
              It had 400 pipes and 36 bellows. The bells and crown of metal for
              candles in Abingdon's sanctuary are also attributed to his
              craftsmanship.

              More importantly, Aethelwold introduced the Winchester style of
              manuscript illumination into his monasteries. The style soon
              surpassed the products of many scriptoria of the Continent. He is also
              responsible for the establishment at Winchester of the most important
              school of vernacular writing of the period, of which Aelfric is the most
              famous example. Its linguistically
              significant, accurate translations were designed to meet the needs of
              bishops and clergy who were not themselves monks. Aethelwold's
              Winchester is also distinguished for its production of the first English
              polyphonic music, recorded in the "Winchester Troper." His rebuilt
              cathedral at Winchester was the setting for a wonderfully rich and
              varied liturgy.

              The saint also looked after material well-being the laity of his flock,
              as well as the monks. He built an aqueduct for the town.

              Aethelwold's episcopacy was marked by three important events. First, the
              congress of about 970, during which the "Regularis Concordia," the
              characteristic statement about the observance of reformed monasticism,
              was promulgated as the norm of the 30 reformed abbeys in southern
              England. Based on the practices of Ghent, Fleury, and Glastonbury, it
              was probably compiled by Aethelwold himself, who was also responsible for
              an important vernacular account of the aims of the reformation and an
              Old English version of the Rule of Saint Benedict translated for the
              benefit of nun who had no Latin.

              The second event was the translation of the relics of Saint Swithun of
              Winchester (f.d. July 15) in 971. The final outstanding event of
              Aethelwold's tenure was the consecration of Winchester Cathedral in 980.
              Each occasion was marked by a large concourse of clergy and laity and
              was a sign of the success of the monastic reform movement pioneered by
              Dunstan and Ethelwold. Their monasteries provided about three-quarters
              of the bishops of England until the Norman Conquest in 1066, as well as
              many of the missionaries sent to Scandinavia. Their abbeys were the
              centres of Old English art and literature for many years to come.

              Aethelwold had tireless energy to implement reforms regardless of the
              opposition. He was merciless to the slack, full of sympathy for the
              good-willed and the unfortunate. He is also described by contemporaries
              as an outstanding counsellor of the king and as the benevolent bishop.
              These characteristics need to be recalled as well as his ability and
              intransigence, for any final assessment of his personality. In all
              events, he work had a lasting effect (Attwater, Benedictines, Delaney,
              Farmer).

              Service to Our Father among the Saints Aethelwold,
              Bishop of Winchester
              http://www.orthodoxengland.btinternet.co.uk/servethe.htm



              St. Peregrinus (Pellegrino) of Modena, Hermit
              ---------------------------------------------------------------
              Died 643. Peregrinus (meaning "pilgrim") is believed to have been a
              Celtic prince and/or monk, who made a pilgrimage to the Holy Land. On
              his return he settled in the quiet Apennines near Modena, Italy, where
              he spent the last forty years of his life as a hermit. Saint Pellegrino
              in the Italian Alps is named in his memory and was his hermitage. Now
              one can find a hospice for travellers and the needy on the site
              (Benedictines, Encyclopaedia, Husenbeth, Montague).

              In art, Saint Peregrinus is depicted as a pilgrim. He may also be shown
              (1) holding a thin cross or (2) with a sudarium tied to a staff
              (Roeder). He is the patron of Lucca and Modena, Italy, as well as of
              pilgrims (Roeder).


              St. Rioch of Innisboffin, Abbot
              ----------------------------------------
              Died c. 480. Saint Rioch is described as the nephew of Saint Patrick
              (f.d. March 17), the son of Patrick's sister Saint Darerca (f.d. March
              22), and brother of Saints Mel, Muinis, and Melchu (f.d. February 6 for
              all). Rioch was the abbot of Innisboffin in Longford, Ireland
              (Benedictines, Delaney).

              Troparion of St Rioch tone 1
              The radiance of thy life and the triumph of thine austerity/ shone forth
              from Innisboffin's Monastery, O Father Rioch,/ illuminating the Irish
              nation and leading them from the darkness of paganism/ into the light of
              true belief./ Wherefore O holy one, intercede with Christ our God/ that
              we may be turned from the errors of our day that our souls may be saved.





              St. Aled of Brecknock, Virgin Martyr
              (Adwenhelye, Almedha, Almedia, Eiluned,
              Eled, Elevetha, Euned)
              -----------------------------------------------------
              6th century. Most of what we know of Saint Aled derives from Archdeacon
              Gerald of Wales (a.k.a. Giraldus Cambrensis), who lived in the 12th
              century near the church he describes on a hilltop close to Brecon Castle
              in Wales.

              Saint Aled was a descendant of King Saint Brychan of Brecknock (f.d.
              April 6). She is said to have suffered martyrdom on a hill near
              Brecknock, Wales. It is related that she was a young nun who fled to
              Llanfillo, then Llechfaen, and finally Slwch Tump near Brecon, in order
              to escape an unwanted marriage to a prince. She built a cell at Brecon
              with the help of the local lord. Later she was found by her suitor.
              Again she ran, but he caught and beheaded her with his sword. As in the
              story of St. Winefride, a miraculous spring erupted from the ground.

              The site of her martyrdom would become a place filled with pilgrims on
              her feast. It is said that "thanks to the merits of this holy virgin,
              those who are suffering from maladies of any sort recover the health for
              which they pray." Gerald goes on to describe the dances of young people
              in the graveyard and their singing of traditional songs. They suddenly
              collapse on the ground, and then mime with hands and feet the work--of
              ploughing, spinning, weaving--they have done against the commandment to
              rest on the Sabbath. Then they would enter the church with their
              offerings: "by taking part in these festivities, they feel in their
              hearts the remission of their sins and are absolved and pardoned." The
              small church that was built over her cell was obliterated in 1698
              (Attwater2, Benedictines, Encyclopaedia, Farmer).


              St. Sidwell, Virgin Martyr
              (Sativola, Sidefulla)
              ------------------------------------------------------------
              Date unknown; feast day kept on July 31 in Roscarrock and August 2 in
              Exeter. Saint Sidwell, probably of British rather than Anglo- Saxon
              lineage, has been revered at Exeter from time immemorial. By AD 1000,
              pilgrims gathered at her shrine. William Worcestre and Leland mention
              her. The late medieval catalogue of English saints, called the
              "Catalogus sanctorum pausantium in Anglia," has this entry:

              "Born at Exeter, she was killed by her stepmother
              inciting the reapers to behead her. She was buried
              outside the city, where by her merits God heals the
              sick."

              This story of the jealous stepmother is also included in the legend of
              Saint Juthwara (f.d. July 1), who is supposed to be Sidwell's sister.
              There is reason to believe that this legend is entirely mythical;
              although Sidwell is a real saint.

              Sidwell's Church is just outside the east gate of Exeter. Near it there
              used to be a holy well, where presumably the cures took place. There is
              a dedication to her in Laneast, Cornwall, with her sister Saint
              Wulvella, where there was also a holy well (Benedictines, Farmer).

              In art, Saint Sidwell is a maiden carrying a scythe by a well. She
              might also be shown carrying her head (Roeder). The emblem of a
              "scythe" and a "well," as well as the story, may derive from her name
              (Farmer). Sidwell is venerated in Exeter, England (Roeder).



              St. Secundel, Hermit
              ----------------------------
              6th century. Secundel was the companion of Saint Friardus (f.d. today)
              on the island of Vindomitte in Brittany Benedictines).



              Sources:
              ========

              Attwater, D. (1983). The Penguin Dictionary of Saints, NY:
              Penguin Books.

              Attwater, D. (1958). A Dictionary of Saints. New York:
              P. J. Kenedy & Sons. [Attwater 2]

              Benedictine Monks of St. Augustine Abbey, Ramsgate.
              (1947). The Book of Saints. NY: Macmillan.

              Delaney, J. J. (1983). Pocket Dictionary of Saints, NY:
              Doubleday Image.

              Delaney, J. J. (ed). (1978). Saints for All Seasons.
              Garden City, NY: Doubleday.

              Encyclopaedia of Catholic Saints, August. (1966).
              Philadelphia: Chilton Books.

              Farmer, D. H. (1997). The Oxford Dictionary of Saints.
              Oxford: Oxford University Press.

              Husenbeth, Rev. F. C., DD, VG (ed.). (1928). Butler's
              Lives of the Fathers, Martyrs, and Other Principal Saints.
              London: Virtue & Co.

              Montague, H. P. (1981). The Saints and Martyrs of Ireland.
              Guildford: Billing & Sons.

              Roeder, H. (1956). Saints and Their Attributes, Chicago: Henry
              Regnery.

              For All the Saints:
              http://www.saintpatrickdc.org/ss/ss-index.htm

              An Alphabetical Index of the Saints of the West
              http://www.orthodoxengland.btinternet.co.uk/saintsa.htm

              These Lives are archived at:
              http://groups.yahoo.com/group/celt-saints
              *****************************************
            • emrys@globe.net.nz
              Celtic and Old English Saints 1 August =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-= * St. Kenneth of Wales * St. Aethelwold of Winchester * St.
              Message 6 of 14 , Jul 30, 2010
              • 0 Attachment
                Celtic and Old English Saints 1 August

                =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=
                * St. Kenneth of Wales
                * St. Aethelwold of Winchester
                * St. Peregrinus of Modena
                * St. Rioch of Innisboffin
                * St. Aled of Brecknock
                * St. Sidwell
                * St. Secundel of Brittany
                =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=


                St. Kenneth of Wales, Hermit
                (Cenydd, Kyned, Kened, Keneth, Kined)
                -----------------------------------------------------
                Died 6th century; feast of his translation is June 27. Saint Kenneth is
                believed to have been a Welsh hermit, the son of a
                chieftain. Welsh tradition, however, makes him the son of Saint Gildas
                (f.d. January 29), one of the most important Welsh monks. He married
                and had at least one son then became a monk under Saint Illtyd (f.d.
                November 6). Thereafter, Kenneth was a hermit who made his cell among
                the rocks in the peninsula of Gower and founded Llangenydd. He later
                went to Brittany, where Ploumelin is the centre of his cultus.

                An extraordinary event is connected with Kenneth's name that is recorded
                in Welsh sources. Kenneth was born a cripple in Brittany, placed in a
                cradle of osiers, and dropped into a stream, like Moses, which took him
                to the island of "Henisweryn." He survived there because of a series of
                miracles and angelic interventions. Educated as a Christian, he became
                a hermit and was joined by a servant. This man stole the lance of some
                robbers to whom Kenneth had extended hospitality. Later, Saint David of
                Wales (f.d. March 1) cured Kenneth of his deformity, but the saint was
                displeased and asked that it be restored as it was before. A
                breast-shaped bell figures prominently in this unfinished tale, which
                ends abruptly without resolution.

                Saint Kenneth, however, is no legendary figure. The calendar and
                place-names point to his existence. His feast is celebrated in Wales,
                Brittany, and England (Benedictines, Farmer).

                Icon of St Kenneth
                http://www.thehtm.org/catalog/product_info.php?cPath=27_50_87&products_id=311&osCsid=51ab970b75244b5095adcbe8ed16a1cb

                Troparion of St Kenneth tone 2
                Rejecting thy princely dignity and worldly position,/ thou didst retire
                to the desert, O righteous Kenneth, / and as we rejoice in thy
                God-pleasing asceticism,/ beseech Christ our God that He will save our
                souls.


                St. Aethelwold of Winchester, Bishop
                (Ethelwold)
                ------------------------------------------------
                Born in Winchester, England, c. 908-912; died at Beddington, 984; feast
                at Abingdon is August 2; feast of his translation is
                September 10; Ely used to keep a "commemoratio" on October 8 in his
                honour, while Deeping and Thorney Abbeys observed an "exceptio" on
                October 23.

                Together with Saint Dunstan (f.d. May 19) and Saint Oswald of York (f.d.
                February 28), Aehelwold was a leader in the revival of English
                monasticism in the 10th century following its near eradication by the
                Danes during their raids. He served at the court of King Athelstan
                (924-39), but left to seek priestly ordination at the hands of Saint
                Alphege the Bald (f.d. April 19) on the same day as his friend Saint
                Dunstan. When Dunstan became abbot of Glastonbury in 943 and restore
                Benedictine observance there, the priest Aethelwold joined the community
                and became one of its deans and prior.

                Not entirely satisfied with the reformation at Glastonbury, he asked to
                be allowed to go to France to study the reforms initiated at Cluny.
                Instead, in 955, King Edred made him abbot of the derelict Abingdon
                Abbey in Berkshire and entrusted to Aethelwold its restoration. He added
                to the community monks from Glastonbury and priests from elsewhere, and
                built a new church that incorporated elements of the old. He sent his
                disciple Osgar to study at Fleury in his place.

                When Dunstan was exiled by King Edwy about 956, Aethelwold became the
                most important figure in the monastic reformation. He also came near
                secular power in his role as tutor to the future king, Saint Edgar the
                Peaceful (f.d. July 8).

                In 963, he was consecrated bishop of Winchester in Wessex. The
                following year King Edgar and Aethelwold replaced secular canons with
                Benedictines from Abingdon. In this way he founded the first monastic
                cathedral, a specifically English institution that lasted until the
                Reformation. The next year, Aethelwold replaced the priests with monks
                at Newminster. From this point the monastic reform became closely
                associated with the king, whose palace was very near the cathedral. He
                also founded or restored many abbeys, including those of Newminster and
                Nunnaminster in Winchester in 965, Milton Abbas (Dorset) in 964,
                Chertsey, Peterborough (966), Thorney (972), and Ely (970).

                Aethelwold sometimes spent the entirety of Lent in seclusion at Thorney
                Abbey, where he built a church with an apse at both ends. His charter
                survives for the endowment of Peterborough with land, serfs, cattle,
                church plate, and 20 manuscripts.

                This austere, able, and dynamic priest was given the nickname, "The
                Father of Monks." The scribe of his "Benedictional" called him a
                "Boanerges" (son of thunder). When he was prior of Glastonbury, he
                would urge his brothers to greater effort in their monastic observance;
                he never slept after Matins (about 3:00 a.m.) and would eat meat only
                once in three months--and then only at Dunstan's express command.

                He was also gifted as an artist, yet was very practical. At Glastonbury
                he had been cook; at Abingdon he laboured as a builder until he broke
                his ribs in a fall from a scaffold; at Winchester he set the monks to
                working with the masons in the cathedral and built the most powerful
                organ of its time in England. This pipe organ was played by two monks.
                It had 400 pipes and 36 bellows. The bells and crown of metal for
                candles in Abingdon's sanctuary are also attributed to his
                craftsmanship.

                More importantly, Aethelwold introduced the Winchester style of
                manuscript illumination into his monasteries. The style soon
                surpassed the products of many scriptoria of the Continent. He is also
                responsible for the establishment at Winchester of the most important
                school of vernacular writing of the period, of which Aelfric is the most
                famous example. Its linguistically
                significant, accurate translations were designed to meet the needs of
                bishops and clergy who were not themselves monks. Aethelwold's
                Winchester is also distinguished for its production of the first English
                polyphonic music, recorded in the "Winchester Troper." His rebuilt
                cathedral at Winchester was the setting for a wonderfully rich and
                varied liturgy.

                The saint also looked after material well-being the laity of his flock,
                as well as the monks. He built an aqueduct for the town.

                Aethelwold's episcopacy was marked by three important events. First, the
                congress of about 970, during which the "Regularis Concordia," the
                characteristic statement about the observance of reformed monasticism,
                was promulgated as the norm of the 30 reformed abbeys in southern
                England. Based on the practices of Ghent, Fleury, and Glastonbury, it
                was probably compiled by Aethelwold himself, who was also responsible for
                an important vernacular account of the aims of the reformation and an
                Old English version of the Rule of Saint Benedict translated for the
                benefit of nun who had no Latin.

                The second event was the translation of the relics of Saint Swithun of
                Winchester (f.d. July 15) in 971. The final outstanding event of
                Aethelwold's tenure was the consecration of Winchester Cathedral in 980.
                Each occasion was marked by a large concourse of clergy and laity and
                was a sign of the success of the monastic reform movement pioneered by
                Dunstan and Ethelwold. Their monasteries provided about three-quarters
                of the bishops of England until the Norman Conquest in 1066, as well as
                many of the missionaries sent to Scandinavia. Their abbeys were the
                centres of Old English art and literature for many years to come.

                Aethelwold had tireless energy to implement reforms regardless of the
                opposition. He was merciless to the slack, full of sympathy for the
                good-willed and the unfortunate. He is also described by contemporaries
                as an outstanding counsellor of the king and as the benevolent bishop.
                These characteristics need to be recalled as well as his ability and
                intransigence, for any final assessment of his personality. In all
                events, he work had a lasting effect (Attwater, Benedictines, Delaney,
                Farmer).

                Service to Our Father among the Saints Aethelwold,
                Bishop of Winchester
                http://www.orthodoxengland.btinternet.co.uk/servethe.htm



                St. Peregrinus (Pellegrino) of Modena, Hermit
                ---------------------------------------------------------------
                Died 643. Peregrinus (meaning "pilgrim") is believed to have been a
                Celtic prince and/or monk, who made a pilgrimage to the Holy Land. On
                his return he settled in the quiet Apennines near Modena, Italy, where
                he spent the last forty years of his life as a hermit. Saint Pellegrino
                in the Italian Alps is named in his memory and was his hermitage. Now
                one can find a hospice for travellers and the needy on the site
                (Benedictines, Encyclopaedia, Husenbeth, Montague).

                In art, Saint Peregrinus is depicted as a pilgrim. He may also be shown
                (1) holding a thin cross or (2) with a sudarium tied to a staff
                (Roeder). He is the patron of Lucca and Modena, Italy, as well as of
                pilgrims (Roeder).


                St. Rioch of Innisboffin, Abbot
                ----------------------------------------
                Died c. 480. Saint Rioch is described as the nephew of Saint Patrick
                (f.d. March 17), the son of Patrick's sister Saint Darerca (f.d. March
                22), and brother of Saints Mel, Muinis, and Melchu (f.d. February 6 for
                all). Rioch was the abbot of Innisboffin in Longford, Ireland
                (Benedictines, Delaney).

                Troparion of St Rioch tone 1
                The radiance of thy life and the triumph of thine austerity/ shone forth
                from Innisboffin's Monastery, O Father Rioch,/ illuminating the Irish
                nation and leading them from the darkness of paganism/ into the light of
                true belief./ Wherefore O holy one, intercede with Christ our God/ that
                we may be turned from the errors of our day that our souls may be saved.





                St. Aled of Brecknock, Virgin Martyr
                (Adwenhelye, Almedha, Almedia, Eiluned,
                Eled, Elevetha, Euned)
                -----------------------------------------------------
                6th century. Most of what we know of Saint Aled derives from Archdeacon
                Gerald of Wales (a.k.a. Giraldus Cambrensis), who lived in the 12th
                century near the church he describes on a hilltop close to Brecon Castle
                in Wales.

                Saint Aled was a descendant of King Saint Brychan of Brecknock (f.d.
                April 6). She is said to have suffered martyrdom on a hill near
                Brecknock, Wales. It is related that she was a young nun who fled to
                Llanfillo, then Llechfaen, and finally Slwch Tump near Brecon, in order
                to escape an unwanted marriage to a prince. She built a cell at Brecon
                with the help of the local lord. Later she was found by her suitor.
                Again she ran, but he caught and beheaded her with his sword. As in the
                story of St. Winefride, a miraculous spring erupted from the ground.

                The site of her martyrdom would become a place filled with pilgrims on
                her feast. It is said that "thanks to the merits of this holy virgin,
                those who are suffering from maladies of any sort recover the health for
                which they pray." Gerald goes on to describe the dances of young people
                in the graveyard and their singing of traditional songs. They suddenly
                collapse on the ground, and then mime with hands and feet the work--of
                ploughing, spinning, weaving--they have done against the commandment to
                rest on the Sabbath. Then they would enter the church with their
                offerings: "by taking part in these festivities, they feel in their
                hearts the remission of their sins and are absolved and pardoned." The
                small church that was built over her cell was obliterated in 1698
                (Attwater2, Benedictines, Encyclopaedia, Farmer).


                St. Sidwell, Virgin Martyr
                (Sativola, Sidefulla)
                ------------------------------------------------------------
                Date unknown; feast day kept on July 31 in Roscarrock and August 2 in
                Exeter. Saint Sidwell, probably of British rather than Anglo- Saxon
                lineage, has been revered at Exeter from time immemorial. By AD 1000,
                pilgrims gathered at her shrine. William Worcestre and Leland mention
                her. The late medieval catalogue of English saints, called the
                "Catalogus sanctorum pausantium in Anglia," has this entry:

                "Born at Exeter, she was killed by her stepmother
                inciting the reapers to behead her. She was buried
                outside the city, where by her merits God heals the
                sick."

                This story of the jealous stepmother is also included in the legend of
                Saint Juthwara (f.d. July 1), who is supposed to be Sidwell's sister.
                There is reason to believe that this legend is entirely mythical;
                although Sidwell is a real saint.

                Sidwell's Church is just outside the east gate of Exeter. Near it there
                used to be a holy well, where presumably the cures took place. There is
                a dedication to her in Laneast, Cornwall, with her sister Saint
                Wulvella, where there was also a holy well (Benedictines, Farmer).

                In art, Saint Sidwell is a maiden carrying a scythe by a well. She
                might also be shown carrying her head (Roeder). The emblem of a
                "scythe" and a "well," as well as the story, may derive from her name
                (Farmer). Sidwell is venerated in Exeter, England (Roeder).



                St. Secundel, Hermit
                ----------------------------
                6th century. Secundel was the companion of Saint Friardus (f.d. today)
                on the island of Vindomitte in Brittany Benedictines).



                Sources:
                ========

                Attwater, D. (1983). The Penguin Dictionary of Saints, NY:
                Penguin Books.

                Attwater, D. (1958). A Dictionary of Saints. New York:
                P. J. Kenedy & Sons. [Attwater 2]

                Benedictine Monks of St. Augustine Abbey, Ramsgate.
                (1947). The Book of Saints. NY: Macmillan.

                Delaney, J. J. (1983). Pocket Dictionary of Saints, NY:
                Doubleday Image.

                Delaney, J. J. (ed). (1978). Saints for All Seasons.
                Garden City, NY: Doubleday.

                Encyclopaedia of Catholic Saints, August. (1966).
                Philadelphia: Chilton Books.

                Farmer, D. H. (1997). The Oxford Dictionary of Saints.
                Oxford: Oxford University Press.

                Husenbeth, Rev. F. C., DD, VG (ed.). (1928). Butler's
                Lives of the Fathers, Martyrs, and Other Principal Saints.
                London: Virtue & Co.

                Montague, H. P. (1981). The Saints and Martyrs of Ireland.
                Guildford: Billing & Sons.

                Roeder, H. (1956). Saints and Their Attributes, Chicago: Henry
                Regnery.

                For All the Saints:
                http://www.saintpatrickdc.org/ss/ss-index.htm

                An Alphabetical Index of the Saints of the West
                http://www.orthodoxengland.btinternet.co.uk/saintsa.htm

                These Lives are archived at:
                http://groups.yahoo.com/group/celt-saints
                *****************************************
              • ambrois@xtra.co.nz
                Celtic and Old English Saints 1 August =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-= * St. Kenneth of Wales * St. Aethelwold of Winchester * St.
                Message 7 of 14 , Jul 31, 2011
                • 0 Attachment
                  Celtic and Old English Saints 1 August

                  =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=
                  * St. Kenneth of Wales
                  * St. Aethelwold of Winchester
                  * St. Peregrinus of Modena
                  * St. Rioch of Innisboffin
                  * St. Aled of Brecknock
                  * St. Sidwell
                  * St. Secundel of Brittany
                  =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=


                  St. Kenneth of Wales, Hermit
                  (Cenydd, Kyned, Kened, Keneth, Kined)
                  -----------------------------------------------------
                  Died 6th century; feast of his translation is June 27. Saint Kenneth is
                  believed to have been a Welsh hermit, the son of a
                  chieftain. Welsh tradition, however, makes him the son of Saint Gildas
                  (f.d. January 29), one of the most important Welsh monks. He married
                  and had at least one son then became a monk under Saint Illtyd (f.d.
                  November 6). Thereafter, Kenneth was a hermit who made his cell among
                  the rocks in the peninsula of Gower and founded Llangenydd. He later
                  went to Brittany, where Ploumelin is the centre of his cultus.

                  An extraordinary event is connected with Kenneth's name that is recorded
                  in Welsh sources. Kenneth was born a cripple in Brittany, placed in a
                  cradle of osiers, and dropped into a stream, like Moses, which took him
                  to the island of "Henisweryn." He survived there because of a series of
                  miracles and angelic interventions. Educated as a Christian, he became
                  a hermit and was joined by a servant. This man stole the lance of some
                  robbers to whom Kenneth had extended hospitality. Later, Saint David of
                  Wales (f.d. March 1) cured Kenneth of his deformity, but the saint was
                  displeased and asked that it be restored as it was before. A
                  breast-shaped bell figures prominently in this unfinished tale, which
                  ends abruptly without resolution.

                  Saint Kenneth, however, is no legendary figure. The calendar and
                  place-names point to his existence. His feast is celebrated in Wales,
                  Brittany, and England (Benedictines, Farmer).

                  Troparion of St Kenneth tone 2
                  Rejecting thy princely dignity and worldly position,/ thou didst retire
                  to the desert, O righteous Kenneth, / and as we rejoice in thy
                  God-pleasing asceticism,/ beseech Christ our God that He will save our
                  souls.


                  St. Aethelwold of Winchester, Bishop
                  (Ethelwold)
                  ------------------------------------------------
                  Born in Winchester, England, c. 908-912; died at Beddington, 984; feast
                  at Abingdon is August 2; feast of his translation is
                  September 10; Ely used to keep a "commemoratio" on October 8 in his
                  honour, while Deeping and Thorney Abbeys observed an "exceptio" on
                  October 23.

                  Together with Saint Dunstan (f.d. May 19) and Saint Oswald of York (f.d.
                  February 28), Aehelwold was a leader in the revival of English
                  monasticism in the 10th century following its near eradication by the
                  Danes during their raids. He served at the court of King Athelstan
                  (924-39), but left to seek priestly ordination at the hands of Saint
                  Alphege the Bald (f.d. April 19) on the same day as his friend Saint
                  Dunstan. When Dunstan became abbot of Glastonbury in 943 and restore
                  Benedictine observance there, the priest Aethelwold joined the community
                  and became one of its deans and prior.

                  Not entirely satisfied with the reformation at Glastonbury, he asked to
                  be allowed to go to France to study the reforms initiated at Cluny.
                  Instead, in 955, King Edred made him abbot of the derelict Abingdon
                  Abbey in Berkshire and entrusted to Aethelwold its restoration. He added
                  to the community monks from Glastonbury and priests from elsewhere, and
                  built a new church that incorporated elements of the old. He sent his
                  disciple Osgar to study at Fleury in his place.

                  When Dunstan was exiled by King Edwy about 956, Aethelwold became the
                  most important figure in the monastic reformation. He also came near
                  secular power in his role as tutor to the future king, Saint Edgar the
                  Peaceful (f.d. July 8).

                  In 963, he was consecrated bishop of Winchester in Wessex. The
                  following year King Edgar and Aethelwold replaced secular canons with
                  Benedictines from Abingdon. In this way he founded the first monastic
                  cathedral, a specifically English institution that lasted until the
                  Reformation. The next year, Aethelwold replaced the priests with monks
                  at Newminster. From this point the monastic reform became closely
                  associated with the king, whose palace was very near the cathedral. He
                  also founded or restored many abbeys, including those of Newminster and
                  Nunnaminster in Winchester in 965, Milton Abbas (Dorset) in 964,
                  Chertsey, Peterborough (966), Thorney (972), and Ely (970).

                  Aethelwold sometimes spent the entirety of Lent in seclusion at Thorney
                  Abbey, where he built a church with an apse at both ends. His charter
                  survives for the endowment of Peterborough with land, serfs, cattle,
                  church plate, and 20 manuscripts.

                  This austere, able, and dynamic priest was given the nickname, "The
                  Father of Monks." The scribe of his "Benedictional" called him a
                  "Boanerges" (son of thunder). When he was prior of Glastonbury, he
                  would urge his brothers to greater effort in their monastic observance;
                  he never slept after Matins (about 3:00 a.m.) and would eat meat only
                  once in three months--and then only at Dunstan's express command.

                  He was also gifted as an artist, yet was very practical. At Glastonbury
                  he had been cook; at Abingdon he laboured as a builder until he broke
                  his ribs in a fall from a scaffold; at Winchester he set the monks to
                  working with the masons in the cathedral and built the most powerful
                  organ of its time in England. This pipe organ was played by two monks.
                  It had 400 pipes and 36 bellows. The bells and crown of metal for
                  candles in Abingdon's sanctuary are also attributed to his
                  craftsmanship.

                  More importantly, Aethelwold introduced the Winchester style of
                  manuscript illumination into his monasteries. The style soon
                  surpassed the products of many scriptoria of the Continent. He is also
                  responsible for the establishment at Winchester of the most important
                  school of vernacular writing of the period, of which Aelfric is the most
                  famous example. Its linguistically
                  significant, accurate translations were designed to meet the needs of
                  bishops and clergy who were not themselves monks. Aethelwold's
                  Winchester is also distinguished for its production of the first English
                  polyphonic music, recorded in the "Winchester Troper." His rebuilt
                  cathedral at Winchester was the setting for a wonderfully rich and
                  varied liturgy.

                  The saint also looked after material well-being the laity of his flock,
                  as well as the monks. He built an aqueduct for the town.

                  Aethelwold's episcopacy was marked by three important events. First, the
                  congress of about 970, during which the "Regularis Concordia," the
                  characteristic statement about the observance of reformed monasticism,
                  was promulgated as the norm of the 30 reformed abbeys in southern
                  England. Based on the practices of Ghent, Fleury, and Glastonbury, it
                  was probably compiled by Aethelwold himself, who was also responsible for
                  an important vernacular account of the aims of the reformation and an
                  Old English version of the Rule of Saint Benedict translated for the
                  benefit of nun who had no Latin.

                  The second event was the translation of the relics of Saint Swithun of
                  Winchester (f.d. July 15) in 971. The final outstanding event of
                  Aethelwold's tenure was the consecration of Winchester Cathedral in 980.
                  Each occasion was marked by a large concourse of clergy and laity and
                  was a sign of the success of the monastic reform movement pioneered by
                  Dunstan and Ethelwold. Their monasteries provided about three-quarters
                  of the bishops of England until the Norman Conquest in 1066, as well as
                  many of the missionaries sent to Scandinavia. Their abbeys were the
                  centres of Old English art and literature for many years to come.

                  Aethelwold had tireless energy to implement reforms regardless of the
                  opposition. He was merciless to the slack, full of sympathy for the
                  good-willed and the unfortunate. He is also described by contemporaries
                  as an outstanding counsellor of the king and as the benevolent bishop.
                  These characteristics need to be recalled as well as his ability and
                  intransigence, for any final assessment of his personality. In all
                  events, he work had a lasting effect (Attwater, Benedictines, Delaney,
                  Farmer).

                  Service to Our Father among the Saints Aethelwold,
                  Bishop of Winchester
                  http://www.orthodoxengland.btinternet.co.uk/servethe.htm



                  St. Peregrinus (Pellegrino) of Modena, Hermit
                  ---------------------------------------------------------------
                  Died 643. Peregrinus (meaning "pilgrim") is believed to have been a
                  Celtic prince and/or monk, who made a pilgrimage to the Holy Land. On
                  his return he settled in the quiet Apennines near Modena, Italy, where
                  he spent the last forty years of his life as a hermit. Saint Pellegrino
                  in the Italian Alps is named in his memory and was his hermitage. Now
                  one can find a hospice for travellers and the needy on the site
                  (Benedictines, Encyclopaedia, Husenbeth, Montague).

                  In art, Saint Peregrinus is depicted as a pilgrim. He may also be shown
                  (1) holding a thin cross or (2) with a sudarium tied to a staff
                  (Roeder). He is the patron of Lucca and Modena, Italy, as well as of
                  pilgrims (Roeder).


                  St. Rioch of Innisboffin, Abbot
                  ----------------------------------------
                  Died c. 480. Saint Rioch is described as the nephew of Saint Patrick
                  (f.d. March 17), the son of Patrick's sister Saint Darerca (f.d. March
                  22), and brother of Saints Mel, Muinis, and Melchu (f.d. February 6 for
                  all). Rioch was the abbot of Innisboffin in Longford, Ireland
                  (Benedictines, Delaney).

                  Troparion of St Rioch tone 1
                  The radiance of thy life and the triumph of thine austerity/ shone forth
                  from Innisboffin's Monastery, O Father Rioch,/ illuminating the Irish
                  nation and leading them from the darkness of paganism/ into the light of
                  true belief./ Wherefore O holy one, intercede with Christ our God/ that
                  we may be turned from the errors of our day that our souls may be saved.





                  St. Aled of Brecknock, Virgin Martyr
                  (Adwenhelye, Almedha, Almedia, Eiluned,
                  Eled, Elevetha, Euned)
                  -----------------------------------------------------
                  6th century. Most of what we know of Saint Aled derives from Archdeacon
                  Gerald of Wales (a.k.a. Giraldus Cambrensis), who lived in the 12th
                  century near the church he describes on a hilltop close to Brecon Castle
                  in Wales.

                  Saint Aled was a descendant of King Saint Brychan of Brecknock (f.d.
                  April 6). She is said to have suffered martyrdom on a hill near
                  Brecknock, Wales. It is related that she was a young nun who fled to
                  Llanfillo, then Llechfaen, and finally Slwch Tump near Brecon, in order
                  to escape an unwanted marriage to a prince. She built a cell at Brecon
                  with the help of the local lord. Later she was found by her suitor.
                  Again she ran, but he caught and beheaded her with his sword. As in the
                  story of St. Winefride, a miraculous spring erupted from the ground.

                  The site of her martyrdom would become a place filled with pilgrims on
                  her feast. It is said that "thanks to the merits of this holy virgin,
                  those who are suffering from maladies of any sort recover the health for
                  which they pray." Gerald goes on to describe the dances of young people
                  in the graveyard and their singing of traditional songs. They suddenly
                  collapse on the ground, and then mime with hands and feet the work--of
                  ploughing, spinning, weaving--they have done against the commandment to
                  rest on the Sabbath. Then they would enter the church with their
                  offerings: "by taking part in these festivities, they feel in their
                  hearts the remission of their sins and are absolved and pardoned." The
                  small church that was built over her cell was obliterated in 1698
                  (Attwater2, Benedictines, Encyclopaedia, Farmer).


                  St. Sidwell, Virgin Martyr
                  (Sativola, Sidefulla)
                  ------------------------------------------------------------
                  Date unknown; feast day kept on July 31 in Roscarrock and August 2 in
                  Exeter. Saint Sidwell, probably of British rather than Anglo- Saxon
                  lineage, has been revered at Exeter from time immemorial. By AD 1000,
                  pilgrims gathered at her shrine. William Worcestre and Leland mention
                  her. The late medieval catalogue of English saints, called the
                  "Catalogus sanctorum pausantium in Anglia," has this entry:

                  "Born at Exeter, she was killed by her stepmother
                  inciting the reapers to behead her. She was buried
                  outside the city, where by her merits God heals the
                  sick."

                  This story of the jealous stepmother is also included in the legend of
                  Saint Juthwara (f.d. July 1), who is supposed to be Sidwell's sister.
                  There is reason to believe that this legend is entirely mythical;
                  although Sidwell is a real saint.

                  Sidwell's Church is just outside the east gate of Exeter. Near it there
                  used to be a holy well, where presumably the cures took place. There is
                  a dedication to her in Laneast, Cornwall, with her sister Saint
                  Wulvella, where there was also a holy well (Benedictines, Farmer).

                  In art, Saint Sidwell is a maiden carrying a scythe by a well. She
                  might also be shown carrying her head (Roeder). The emblem of a
                  "scythe" and a "well," as well as the story, may derive from her name
                  (Farmer). Sidwell is venerated in Exeter, England (Roeder).



                  St. Secundel, Hermit
                  ----------------------------
                  6th century. Secundel was the companion of Saint Friardus (f.d. today)
                  on the island of Vindomitte in Brittany Benedictines).



                  Sources:
                  ========

                  Attwater, D. (1983). The Penguin Dictionary of Saints, NY:
                  Penguin Books.

                  Attwater, D. (1958). A Dictionary of Saints. New York:
                  P. J. Kenedy & Sons. [Attwater 2]

                  Benedictine Monks of St. Augustine Abbey, Ramsgate.
                  (1947). The Book of Saints. NY: Macmillan.

                  Delaney, J. J. (1983). Pocket Dictionary of Saints, NY:
                  Doubleday Image.

                  Delaney, J. J. (ed). (1978). Saints for All Seasons.
                  Garden City, NY: Doubleday.

                  Encyclopaedia of Catholic Saints, August. (1966).
                  Philadelphia: Chilton Books.

                  Farmer, D. H. (1997). The Oxford Dictionary of Saints.
                  Oxford: Oxford University Press.

                  Husenbeth, Rev. F. C., DD, VG (ed.). (1928). Butler's
                  Lives of the Fathers, Martyrs, and Other Principal Saints.
                  London: Virtue & Co.

                  Montague, H. P. (1981). The Saints and Martyrs of Ireland.
                  Guildford: Billing & Sons.

                  Roeder, H. (1956). Saints and Their Attributes, Chicago: Henry
                  Regnery.

                  For All the Saints:
                  http://www.saintpatrickdc.org/ss/ss-index.htm

                  An Alphabetical Index of the Saints of the West
                  http://www.orthodoxengland.btinternet.co.uk/saintsa.htm

                  These Lives are archived at:
                  http://groups.yahoo.com/group/celt-saints
                  *****************************************
                • ambrois@xtra.co.nz
                  Celtic and Old English Saints 1 August =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-= * St. Kenneth of Wales * St. Aethelwold of Winchester * St.
                  Message 8 of 14 , Jul 31, 2012
                  • 0 Attachment
                    Celtic and Old English Saints 1 August

                    =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=
                    * St. Kenneth of Wales
                    * St. Aethelwold of Winchester
                    * St. Peregrinus of Modena
                    * St. Rioch of Innisboffin
                    * St. Aled of Brecknock
                    * St. Sidwell
                    * St. Secundel of Brittany
                    =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=


                    St. Kenneth of Wales, Hermit
                    (Cenydd, Kyned, Kened, Keneth, Kined)
                    -----------------------------------------------------
                    Died 6th century; feast of his translation is June 27. Saint Kenneth is
                    believed to have been a Welsh hermit, the son of a
                    chieftain. Welsh tradition, however, makes him the son of Saint Gildas
                    (f.d. January 29), one of the most important Welsh monks. He married
                    and had at least one son then became a monk under Saint Illtyd (f.d.
                    November 6). Thereafter, Kenneth was a hermit who made his cell among
                    the rocks in the peninsula of Gower and founded Llangenydd. He later
                    went to Brittany, where Ploumelin is the centre of his cultus.

                    An extraordinary event is connected with Kenneth's name that is recorded
                    in Welsh sources. Kenneth was born a cripple in Brittany, placed in a
                    cradle of osiers, and dropped into a stream, like Moses, which took him
                    to the island of "Henisweryn." He survived there because of a series of
                    miracles and angelic interventions. Educated as a Christian, he became
                    a hermit and was joined by a servant. This man stole the lance of some
                    robbers to whom Kenneth had extended hospitality. Later, Saint David of
                    Wales (f.d. March 1) cured Kenneth of his deformity, but the saint was
                    displeased and asked that it be restored as it was before. A
                    breast-shaped bell figures prominently in this unfinished tale, which
                    ends abruptly without resolution.

                    Saint Kenneth, however, is no legendary figure. The calendar and
                    place-names point to his existence. His feast is celebrated in Wales,
                    Brittany, and England (Benedictines, Farmer).

                    Troparion of St Kenneth tone 2
                    Rejecting thy princely dignity and worldly position,/ thou didst retire
                    to the desert, O righteous Kenneth, / and as we rejoice in thy
                    God-pleasing asceticism,/ beseech Christ our God that He will save our
                    souls.


                    St. Aethelwold of Winchester, Bishop
                    (Ethelwold)
                    ------------------------------------------------
                    Born in Winchester, England, c. 908-912; died at Beddington, 984; feast
                    at Abingdon is August 2; feast of his translation is
                    September 10; Ely used to keep a "commemoratio" on October 8 in his
                    honour, while Deeping and Thorney Abbeys observed an "exceptio" on
                    October 23.

                    Together with Saint Dunstan (f.d. May 19) and Saint Oswald of York (f.d.
                    February 28), Aehelwold was a leader in the revival of English
                    monasticism in the 10th century following its near eradication by the
                    Danes during their raids. He served at the court of King Athelstan
                    (924-39), but left to seek priestly ordination at the hands of Saint
                    Alphege the Bald (f.d. April 19) on the same day as his friend Saint
                    Dunstan. When Dunstan became abbot of Glastonbury in 943 and restore
                    Benedictine observance there, the priest Aethelwold joined the community
                    and became one of its deans and prior.

                    Not entirely satisfied with the reformation at Glastonbury, he asked to
                    be allowed to go to France to study the reforms initiated at Cluny.
                    Instead, in 955, King Edred made him abbot of the derelict Abingdon
                    Abbey in Berkshire and entrusted to Aethelwold its restoration. He added
                    to the community monks from Glastonbury and priests from elsewhere, and
                    built a new church that incorporated elements of the old. He sent his
                    disciple Osgar to study at Fleury in his place.

                    When Dunstan was exiled by King Edwy about 956, Aethelwold became the
                    most important figure in the monastic reformation. He also came near
                    secular power in his role as tutor to the future king, Saint Edgar the
                    Peaceful (f.d. July 8).

                    In 963, he was consecrated bishop of Winchester in Wessex. The
                    following year King Edgar and Aethelwold replaced secular canons with
                    Benedictines from Abingdon. In this way he founded the first monastic
                    cathedral, a specifically English institution that lasted until the
                    Reformation. The next year, Aethelwold replaced the priests with monks
                    at Newminster. From this point the monastic reform became closely
                    associated with the king, whose palace was very near the cathedral. He
                    also founded or restored many abbeys, including those of Newminster and
                    Nunnaminster in Winchester in 965, Milton Abbas (Dorset) in 964,
                    Chertsey, Peterborough (966), Thorney (972), and Ely (970).

                    Aethelwold sometimes spent the entirety of Lent in seclusion at Thorney
                    Abbey, where he built a church with an apse at both ends. His charter
                    survives for the endowment of Peterborough with land, serfs, cattle,
                    church plate, and 20 manuscripts.

                    This austere, able, and dynamic priest was given the nickname, "The
                    Father of Monks." The scribe of his "Benedictional" called him a
                    "Boanerges" (son of thunder). When he was prior of Glastonbury, he
                    would urge his brothers to greater effort in their monastic observance;
                    he never slept after Matins (about 3:00 a.m.) and would eat meat only
                    once in three months--and then only at Dunstan's express command.

                    He was also gifted as an artist, yet was very practical. At Glastonbury
                    he had been cook; at Abingdon he laboured as a builder until he broke
                    his ribs in a fall from a scaffold; at Winchester he set the monks to
                    working with the masons in the cathedral and built the most powerful
                    organ of its time in England. This pipe organ was played by two monks.
                    It had 400 pipes and 36 bellows. The bells and crown of metal for
                    candles in Abingdon's sanctuary are also attributed to his
                    craftsmanship.

                    More importantly, Aethelwold introduced the Winchester style of
                    manuscript illumination into his monasteries. The style soon
                    surpassed the products of many scriptoria of the Continent. He is also
                    responsible for the establishment at Winchester of the most important
                    school of vernacular writing of the period, of which Aelfric is the most
                    famous example. Its linguistically
                    significant, accurate translations were designed to meet the needs of
                    bishops and clergy who were not themselves monks. Aethelwold's
                    Winchester is also distinguished for its production of the first English
                    polyphonic music, recorded in the "Winchester Troper." His rebuilt
                    cathedral at Winchester was the setting for a wonderfully rich and
                    varied liturgy.

                    The saint also looked after material well-being the laity of his flock,
                    as well as the monks. He built an aqueduct for the town.

                    Aethelwold's episcopacy was marked by three important events. First, the
                    congress of about 970, during which the "Regularis Concordia," the
                    characteristic statement about the observance of reformed monasticism,
                    was promulgated as the norm of the 30 reformed abbeys in southern
                    England. Based on the practices of Ghent, Fleury, and Glastonbury, it
                    was probably compiled by Aethelwold himself, who was also responsible for
                    an important vernacular account of the aims of the reformation and an
                    Old English version of the Rule of Saint Benedict translated for the
                    benefit of nun who had no Latin.

                    The second event was the translation of the relics of Saint Swithun of
                    Winchester (f.d. July 15) in 971. The final outstanding event of
                    Aethelwold's tenure was the consecration of Winchester Cathedral in 980.
                    Each occasion was marked by a large concourse of clergy and laity and
                    was a sign of the success of the monastic reform movement pioneered by
                    Dunstan and Ethelwold. Their monasteries provided about three-quarters
                    of the bishops of England until the Norman Conquest in 1066, as well as
                    many of the missionaries sent to Scandinavia. Their abbeys were the
                    centres of Old English art and literature for many years to come.

                    Aethelwold had tireless energy to implement reforms regardless of the
                    opposition. He was merciless to the slack, full of sympathy for the
                    good-willed and the unfortunate. He is also described by contemporaries
                    as an outstanding counsellor of the king and as the benevolent bishop.
                    These characteristics need to be recalled as well as his ability and
                    intransigence, for any final assessment of his personality. In all
                    events, he work had a lasting effect (Attwater, Benedictines, Delaney,
                    Farmer).

                    Service to Our Father among the Saints Aethelwold,
                    Bishop of Winchester
                    http://www.orthodoxengland.btinternet.co.uk/servethe.htm



                    St. Peregrinus (Pellegrino) of Modena, Hermit
                    ---------------------------------------------------------------
                    Died 643. Peregrinus (meaning "pilgrim") is believed to have been a
                    Celtic prince and/or monk, who made a pilgrimage to the Holy Land. On
                    his return he settled in the quiet Apennines near Modena, Italy, where
                    he spent the last forty years of his life as a hermit. Saint Pellegrino
                    in the Italian Alps is named in his memory and was his hermitage. Now
                    one can find a hospice for travellers and the needy on the site
                    (Benedictines, Encyclopaedia, Husenbeth, Montague).

                    In art, Saint Peregrinus is depicted as a pilgrim. He may also be shown
                    (1) holding a thin cross or (2) with a sudarium tied to a staff
                    (Roeder). He is the patron of Lucca and Modena, Italy, as well as of
                    pilgrims (Roeder).


                    St. Rioch of Innisboffin, Abbot
                    ----------------------------------------
                    Died c. 480. Saint Rioch is described as the nephew of Saint Patrick
                    (f.d. March 17), the son of Patrick's sister Saint Darerca (f.d. March
                    22), and brother of Saints Mel, Muinis, and Melchu (f.d. February 6 for
                    all). Rioch was the abbot of Innisboffin in Longford, Ireland
                    (Benedictines, Delaney).

                    Troparion of St Rioch tone 1
                    The radiance of thy life and the triumph of thine austerity/ shone forth
                    from Innisboffin's Monastery, O Father Rioch,/ illuminating the Irish
                    nation and leading them from the darkness of paganism/ into the light of
                    true belief./ Wherefore O holy one, intercede with Christ our God/ that
                    we may be turned from the errors of our day that our souls may be saved.





                    St. Aled of Brecknock, Virgin Martyr
                    (Adwenhelye, Almedha, Almedia, Eiluned,
                    Eled, Elevetha, Euned)
                    -----------------------------------------------------
                    6th century. Most of what we know of Saint Aled derives from Archdeacon
                    Gerald of Wales (a.k.a. Giraldus Cambrensis), who lived in the 12th
                    century near the church he describes on a hilltop close to Brecon Castle
                    in Wales.

                    Saint Aled was a descendant of King Saint Brychan of Brecknock (f.d.
                    April 6). She is said to have suffered martyrdom on a hill near
                    Brecknock, Wales. It is related that she was a young nun who fled to
                    Llanfillo, then Llechfaen, and finally Slwch Tump near Brecon, in order
                    to escape an unwanted marriage to a prince. She built a cell at Brecon
                    with the help of the local lord. Later she was found by her suitor.
                    Again she ran, but he caught and beheaded her with his sword. As in the
                    story of St. Winefride, a miraculous spring erupted from the ground.

                    The site of her martyrdom would become a place filled with pilgrims on
                    her feast. It is said that "thanks to the merits of this holy virgin,
                    those who are suffering from maladies of any sort recover the health for
                    which they pray." Gerald goes on to describe the dances of young people
                    in the graveyard and their singing of traditional songs. They suddenly
                    collapse on the ground, and then mime with hands and feet the work--of
                    ploughing, spinning, weaving--they have done against the commandment to
                    rest on the Sabbath. Then they would enter the church with their
                    offerings: "by taking part in these festivities, they feel in their
                    hearts the remission of their sins and are absolved and pardoned." The
                    small church that was built over her cell was obliterated in 1698
                    (Attwater2, Benedictines, Encyclopaedia, Farmer).


                    St. Sidwell, Virgin Martyr
                    (Sativola, Sidefulla)
                    ------------------------------------------------------------
                    Date unknown; feast day kept on July 31 in Roscarrock and August 2 in
                    Exeter. Saint Sidwell, probably of British rather than Anglo- Saxon
                    lineage, has been revered at Exeter from time immemorial. By AD 1000,
                    pilgrims gathered at her shrine. William Worcestre and Leland mention
                    her. The late medieval catalogue of English saints, called the
                    "Catalogus sanctorum pausantium in Anglia," has this entry:

                    "Born at Exeter, she was killed by her stepmother
                    inciting the reapers to behead her. She was buried
                    outside the city, where by her merits God heals the
                    sick."

                    This story of the jealous stepmother is also included in the legend of
                    Saint Juthwara (f.d. July 1), who is supposed to be Sidwell's sister.
                    There is reason to believe that this legend is entirely mythical;
                    although Sidwell is a real saint.

                    Sidwell's Church is just outside the east gate of Exeter. Near it there
                    used to be a holy well, where presumably the cures took place. There is
                    a dedication to her in Laneast, Cornwall, with her sister Saint
                    Wulvella, where there was also a holy well (Benedictines, Farmer).

                    In art, Saint Sidwell is a maiden carrying a scythe by a well. She
                    might also be shown carrying her head (Roeder). The emblem of a
                    "scythe" and a "well," as well as the story, may derive from her name
                    (Farmer). Sidwell is venerated in Exeter, England (Roeder).



                    St. Secundel, Hermit
                    ----------------------------
                    6th century. Secundel was the companion of Saint Friardus (f.d. today)
                    on the island of Vindomitte in Brittany Benedictines).



                    Sources:
                    ========

                    Attwater, D. (1983). The Penguin Dictionary of Saints, NY:
                    Penguin Books.

                    Attwater, D. (1958). A Dictionary of Saints. New York:
                    P. J. Kenedy & Sons. [Attwater 2]

                    Benedictine Monks of St. Augustine Abbey, Ramsgate.
                    (1947). The Book of Saints. NY: Macmillan.

                    Delaney, J. J. (1983). Pocket Dictionary of Saints, NY:
                    Doubleday Image.

                    Delaney, J. J. (ed). (1978). Saints for All Seasons.
                    Garden City, NY: Doubleday.

                    Encyclopaedia of Catholic Saints, August. (1966).
                    Philadelphia: Chilton Books.

                    Farmer, D. H. (1997). The Oxford Dictionary of Saints.
                    Oxford: Oxford University Press.

                    Husenbeth, Rev. F. C., DD, VG (ed.). (1928). Butler's
                    Lives of the Fathers, Martyrs, and Other Principal Saints.
                    London: Virtue & Co.

                    Montague, H. P. (1981). The Saints and Martyrs of Ireland.
                    Guildford: Billing & Sons.

                    Roeder, H. (1956). Saints and Their Attributes, Chicago: Henry
                    Regnery.

                    For All the Saints:
                    http://www.saintpatrickdc.org/ss/ss-index.htm

                    An Alphabetical Index of the Saints of the West
                    http://www.orthodoxengland.btinternet.co.uk/saintsa.htm

                    These Lives are archived at:
                    http://groups.yahoo.com/group/celt-saints
                    *****************************************
                  • ambrois@xtra.co.nz
                    Celtic and Old English Saints 1 August =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-= * St. Kenneth of Wales * St. Aethelwold of Winchester * St.
                    Message 9 of 14 , Aug 2 3:16 AM
                    • 0 Attachment
                      Celtic and Old English Saints 1 August

                      =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=
                      * St. Kenneth of Wales
                      * St. Aethelwold of Winchester
                      * St. Peregrinus of Modena
                      * St. Rioch of Innisboffin
                      * St. Aled of Brecknock
                      * St. Sidwell
                      * St. Secundel of Brittany
                      =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=


                      St. Kenneth of Wales, Hermit
                      (Cenydd, Kyned, Kened, Keneth, Kined)
                      -----------------------------------------------------
                      Died 6th century; feast of his translation is June 27. Saint Kenneth is
                      believed to have been a Welsh hermit, the son of a
                      chieftain. Welsh tradition, however, makes him the son of Saint Gildas
                      (f.d. January 29), one of the most important Welsh monks. He married
                      and had at least one son then became a monk under Saint Illtyd (f.d.
                      November 6). Thereafter, Kenneth was a hermit who made his cell among
                      the rocks in the peninsula of Gower and founded Llangenydd. He later
                      went to Brittany, where Ploumelin is the centre of his cultus.

                      An extraordinary event is connected with Kenneth's name that is recorded
                      in Welsh sources. Kenneth was born a cripple in Brittany, placed in a
                      cradle of osiers, and dropped into a stream, like Moses, which took him
                      to the island of "Henisweryn." He survived there because of a series of
                      miracles and angelic interventions. Educated as a Christian, he became
                      a hermit and was joined by a servant. This man stole the lance of some
                      robbers to whom Kenneth had extended hospitality. Later, Saint David of
                      Wales (f.d. March 1) cured Kenneth of his deformity, but the saint was
                      displeased and asked that it be restored as it was before. A
                      breast-shaped bell figures prominently in this unfinished tale, which
                      ends abruptly without resolution.

                      Saint Kenneth, however, is no legendary figure. The calendar and
                      place-names point to his existence. His feast is celebrated in Wales,
                      Brittany, and England (Benedictines, Farmer).

                      Troparion of St Kenneth tone 2
                      Rejecting thy princely dignity and worldly position,/ thou didst retire
                      to the desert, O righteous Kenneth, / and as we rejoice in thy
                      God-pleasing asceticism,/ beseech Christ our God that He will save our
                      souls.


                      St. Aethelwold of Winchester, Bishop
                      (Ethelwold)
                      ------------------------------------------------
                      Born in Winchester, England, c. 908-912; died at Beddington, 984; feast
                      at Abingdon is August 2; feast of his translation is
                      September 10; Ely used to keep a "commemoratio" on October 8 in his
                      honour, while Deeping and Thorney Abbeys observed an "exceptio" on
                      October 23.

                      Together with Saint Dunstan (f.d. May 19) and Saint Oswald of York (f.d.
                      February 28), Aehelwold was a leader in the revival of English
                      monasticism in the 10th century following its near eradication by the
                      Danes during their raids. He served at the court of King Athelstan
                      (924-39), but left to seek priestly ordination at the hands of Saint
                      Alphege the Bald (f.d. April 19) on the same day as his friend Saint
                      Dunstan. When Dunstan became abbot of Glastonbury in 943 and restore
                      Benedictine observance there, the priest Aethelwold joined the community
                      and became one of its deans and prior.

                      Not entirely satisfied with the reformation at Glastonbury, he asked to
                      be allowed to go to France to study the reforms initiated at Cluny.
                      Instead, in 955, King Edred made him abbot of the derelict Abingdon
                      Abbey in Berkshire and entrusted to Aethelwold its restoration. He added
                      to the community monks from Glastonbury and priests from elsewhere, and
                      built a new church that incorporated elements of the old. He sent his
                      disciple Osgar to study at Fleury in his place.

                      When Dunstan was exiled by King Edwy about 956, Aethelwold became the
                      most important figure in the monastic reformation. He also came near
                      secular power in his role as tutor to the future king, Saint Edgar the
                      Peaceful (f.d. July 8).

                      In 963, he was consecrated bishop of Winchester in Wessex. The
                      following year King Edgar and Aethelwold replaced secular canons with
                      Benedictines from Abingdon. In this way he founded the first monastic
                      cathedral, a specifically English institution that lasted until the
                      Reformation. The next year, Aethelwold replaced the priests with monks
                      at Newminster. From this point the monastic reform became closely
                      associated with the king, whose palace was very near the cathedral. He
                      also founded or restored many abbeys, including those of Newminster and
                      Nunnaminster in Winchester in 965, Milton Abbas (Dorset) in 964,
                      Chertsey, Peterborough (966), Thorney (972), and Ely (970).

                      Aethelwold sometimes spent the entirety of Lent in seclusion at Thorney
                      Abbey, where he built a church with an apse at both ends. His charter
                      survives for the endowment of Peterborough with land, serfs, cattle,
                      church plate, and 20 manuscripts.

                      This austere, able, and dynamic priest was given the nickname, "The
                      Father of Monks." The scribe of his "Benedictional" called him a
                      "Boanerges" (son of thunder). When he was prior of Glastonbury, he
                      would urge his brothers to greater effort in their monastic observance;
                      he never slept after Matins (about 3:00 a.m.) and would eat meat only
                      once in three months--and then only at Dunstan's express command.

                      He was also gifted as an artist, yet was very practical. At Glastonbury
                      he had been cook; at Abingdon he laboured as a builder until he broke
                      his ribs in a fall from a scaffold; at Winchester he set the monks to
                      working with the masons in the cathedral and built the most powerful
                      organ of its time in England. This pipe organ was played by two monks.
                      It had 400 pipes and 36 bellows. The bells and crown of metal for
                      candles in Abingdon's sanctuary are also attributed to his
                      craftsmanship.

                      More importantly, Aethelwold introduced the Winchester style of
                      manuscript illumination into his monasteries. The style soon
                      surpassed the products of many scriptoria of the Continent. He is also
                      responsible for the establishment at Winchester of the most important
                      school of vernacular writing of the period, of which Aelfric is the most
                      famous example. Its linguistically
                      significant, accurate translations were designed to meet the needs of
                      bishops and clergy who were not themselves monks. Aethelwold's
                      Winchester is also distinguished for its production of the first English
                      polyphonic music, recorded in the "Winchester Troper." His rebuilt
                      cathedral at Winchester was the setting for a wonderfully rich and
                      varied liturgy.

                      The saint also looked after material well-being the laity of his flock,
                      as well as the monks. He built an aqueduct for the town.

                      Aethelwold's episcopacy was marked by three important events. First, the
                      congress of about 970, during which the "Regularis Concordia," the
                      characteristic statement about the observance of reformed monasticism,
                      was promulgated as the norm of the 30 reformed abbeys in southern
                      England. Based on the practices of Ghent, Fleury, and Glastonbury, it
                      was probably compiled by Aethelwold himself, who was also responsible for
                      an important vernacular account of the aims of the reformation and an
                      Old English version of the Rule of Saint Benedict translated for the
                      benefit of nun who had no Latin.

                      The second event was the translation of the relics of Saint Swithun of
                      Winchester (f.d. July 15) in 971. The final outstanding event of
                      Aethelwold's tenure was the consecration of Winchester Cathedral in 980.
                      Each occasion was marked by a large concourse of clergy and laity and
                      was a sign of the success of the monastic reform movement pioneered by
                      Dunstan and Ethelwold. Their monasteries provided about three-quarters
                      of the bishops of England until the Norman Conquest in 1066, as well as
                      many of the missionaries sent to Scandinavia. Their abbeys were the
                      centres of Old English art and literature for many years to come.

                      Aethelwold had tireless energy to implement reforms regardless of the
                      opposition. He was merciless to the slack, full of sympathy for the
                      good-willed and the unfortunate. He is also described by contemporaries
                      as an outstanding counsellor of the king and as the benevolent bishop.
                      These characteristics need to be recalled as well as his ability and
                      intransigence, for any final assessment of his personality. In all
                      events, he work had a lasting effect (Attwater, Benedictines, Delaney,
                      Farmer).

                      Service to Our Father among the Saints Aethelwold,
                      Bishop of Winchester
                      http://www.orthodoxengland.btinternet.co.uk/servethe.htm



                      St. Peregrinus (Pellegrino) of Modena, Hermit
                      ---------------------------------------------------------------
                      Died 643. Peregrinus (meaning "pilgrim") is believed to have been a
                      Celtic prince and/or monk, who made a pilgrimage to the Holy Land. On
                      his return he settled in the quiet Apennines near Modena, Italy, where
                      he spent the last forty years of his life as a hermit. Saint Pellegrino
                      in the Italian Alps is named in his memory and was his hermitage. Now
                      one can find a hospice for travellers and the needy on the site
                      (Benedictines, Encyclopaedia, Husenbeth, Montague).

                      In art, Saint Peregrinus is depicted as a pilgrim. He may also be shown
                      (1) holding a thin cross or (2) with a sudarium tied to a staff
                      (Roeder). He is the patron of Lucca and Modena, Italy, as well as of
                      pilgrims (Roeder).


                      St. Rioch of Innisboffin, Abbot
                      ----------------------------------------
                      Died c. 480. Saint Rioch is described as the nephew of Saint Patrick
                      (f.d. March 17), the son of Patrick's sister Saint Darerca (f.d. March
                      22), and brother of Saints Mel, Muinis, and Melchu (f.d. February 6 for
                      all). Rioch was the abbot of Innisboffin in Longford, Ireland
                      (Benedictines, Delaney).

                      Troparion of St Rioch tone 1
                      The radiance of thy life and the triumph of thine austerity/ shone forth
                      from Innisboffin's Monastery, O Father Rioch,/ illuminating the Irish
                      nation and leading them from the darkness of paganism/ into the light of
                      true belief./ Wherefore O holy one, intercede with Christ our God/ that
                      we may be turned from the errors of our day that our souls may be saved.





                      St. Aled of Brecknock, Virgin Martyr
                      (Adwenhelye, Almedha, Almedia, Eiluned,
                      Eled, Elevetha, Euned)
                      -----------------------------------------------------
                      6th century. Most of what we know of Saint Aled derives from Archdeacon
                      Gerald of Wales (a.k.a. Giraldus Cambrensis), who lived in the 12th
                      century near the church he describes on a hilltop close to Brecon Castle
                      in Wales.

                      Saint Aled was a descendant of King Saint Brychan of Brecknock (f.d.
                      April 6). She is said to have suffered martyrdom on a hill near
                      Brecknock, Wales. It is related that she was a young nun who fled to
                      Llanfillo, then Llechfaen, and finally Slwch Tump near Brecon, in order
                      to escape an unwanted marriage to a prince. She built a cell at Brecon
                      with the help of the local lord. Later she was found by her suitor.
                      Again she ran, but he caught and beheaded her with his sword. As in the
                      story of St. Winefride, a miraculous spring erupted from the ground.

                      The site of her martyrdom would become a place filled with pilgrims on
                      her feast. It is said that "thanks to the merits of this holy virgin,
                      those who are suffering from maladies of any sort recover the health for
                      which they pray." Gerald goes on to describe the dances of young people
                      in the graveyard and their singing of traditional songs. They suddenly
                      collapse on the ground, and then mime with hands and feet the work--of
                      ploughing, spinning, weaving--they have done against the commandment to
                      rest on the Sabbath. Then they would enter the church with their
                      offerings: "by taking part in these festivities, they feel in their
                      hearts the remission of their sins and are absolved and pardoned." The
                      small church that was built over her cell was obliterated in 1698
                      (Attwater2, Benedictines, Encyclopaedia, Farmer).


                      St. Sidwell, Virgin Martyr
                      (Sativola, Sidefulla)
                      ------------------------------------------------------------
                      Date unknown; feast day kept on July 31 in Roscarrock and August 2 in
                      Exeter. Saint Sidwell, probably of British rather than Anglo- Saxon
                      lineage, has been revered at Exeter from time immemorial. By AD 1000,
                      pilgrims gathered at her shrine. William Worcestre and Leland mention
                      her. The late medieval catalogue of English saints, called the
                      "Catalogus sanctorum pausantium in Anglia," has this entry:

                      "Born at Exeter, she was killed by her stepmother
                      inciting the reapers to behead her. She was buried
                      outside the city, where by her merits God heals the
                      sick."

                      This story of the jealous stepmother is also included in the legend of
                      Saint Juthwara (f.d. July 1), who is supposed to be Sidwell's sister.
                      There is reason to believe that this legend is entirely mythical;
                      although Sidwell is a real saint.

                      Sidwell's Church is just outside the east gate of Exeter. Near it there
                      used to be a holy well, where presumably the cures took place. There is
                      a dedication to her in Laneast, Cornwall, with her sister Saint
                      Wulvella, where there was also a holy well (Benedictines, Farmer).

                      In art, Saint Sidwell is a maiden carrying a scythe by a well. She
                      might also be shown carrying her head (Roeder). The emblem of a
                      "scythe" and a "well," as well as the story, may derive from her name
                      (Farmer). Sidwell is venerated in Exeter, England (Roeder).



                      St. Secundel, Hermit
                      ----------------------------
                      6th century. Secundel was the companion of Saint Friardus (f.d. today)
                      on the island of Vindomitte in Brittany Benedictines).



                      Sources:
                      ========

                      Attwater, D. (1983). The Penguin Dictionary of Saints, NY:
                      Penguin Books.

                      Attwater, D. (1958). A Dictionary of Saints. New York:
                      P. J. Kenedy & Sons. [Attwater 2]

                      Benedictine Monks of St. Augustine Abbey, Ramsgate.
                      (1947). The Book of Saints. NY: Macmillan.

                      Delaney, J. J. (1983). Pocket Dictionary of Saints, NY:
                      Doubleday Image.

                      Delaney, J. J. (ed). (1978). Saints for All Seasons.
                      Garden City, NY: Doubleday.

                      Encyclopaedia of Catholic Saints, August. (1966).
                      Philadelphia: Chilton Books.

                      Farmer, D. H. (1997). The Oxford Dictionary of Saints.
                      Oxford: Oxford University Press.

                      Husenbeth, Rev. F. C., DD, VG (ed.). (1928). Butler's
                      Lives of the Fathers, Martyrs, and Other Principal Saints.
                      London: Virtue & Co.

                      Montague, H. P. (1981). The Saints and Martyrs of Ireland.
                      Guildford: Billing & Sons.

                      Roeder, H. (1956). Saints and Their Attributes, Chicago: Henry
                      Regnery.

                      These Lives are archived at:
                      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/celt-saints
                      *****************************************
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