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22 June

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  • emrys@globe.net.nz
    Celtic and Old English Saints 22 June =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-= * St. Alban, First Martyr of Britain * St. Heraclius the Soldier * St.
    Message 1 of 14 , Jun 21, 2004
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      Celtic and Old English Saints 22 June

      =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=
      * St. Alban, First Martyr of Britain
      * St. Heraclius the Soldier
      * St. Aaron of Brittany
      =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=


      St. Alban, Proto-Martyr of Great Britain
      ------------------------------------------------
      3rd or 4th century. There were probably already Christians in the
      British Isles in the first century. In fact, by the end of the second
      century a great many of the inhabitants of southern England were
      Christians. However, Alban is the first recorded Christian martyr of the
      island. The traditional date of his death is 304, during the persecution
      under the Emperor Diocletian; but many scholars now date it as early as
      209, during the persecution under the Emperor Septimus Severus. This
      date was derived from a study of the Turin manuscript of a "Passio
      Albani."

      The first known reference to him, outside the Turin manuscript, is in
      the 5th century life of Saint Germanus of Auxerre. Gildas, writing
      c.540, gives the core of the tradition. Saint Bede gives an amplified
      account, which includes a lively description of the beheading and more
      details of signs from heaven.

      Alban was a pagan, a Roman soldier, who, during the persecution of
      Diocletian, took pity on a fleeing Christian priest and sheltered him in
      his own home. When he saw that the priest spent day and night in prayer,
      he was moved by the grace of God. They spent several days talking
      together and Alban was so impressed by the priest's sanctity and
      devotion that he became a Christian and wanted to imitate the piety and
      faith of his guest. Encouraged and instructed by the priest, Alban
      renounced his idol worship and embraced Christ with his whole heart.

      He was a leading citizen in the old Roman city of Verulamium (Verulam),
      Hertfordshire, England, now called Saint Albans. The town was originally
      a collection of huts of wattle and daub that stretched along Watling
      Street, and later destroyed by the army of Boadicea, the warrior queen.

      The history continues that the Roman governor of the city, hearing a
      rumour that a priest was hiding in the house of Alban, sent a search
      party of soldiers to find him. Seeing them approach, Alban took the
      priest's cloak and put it over his own head and shoulders, and helped
      him to escape. Thus disguised, Alban opened the door to the soldiers and
      was arrested in mistake for the priest. He was bound in fetters and
      brought before the governor, who was attending a sacrifice to the pagan
      gods. When the cloak was removed and his true identity was discovered,
      the governor was furious. He then declared himself to be a Christian,
      whereupon the governor angrily ordered him to be taken before the altar.
      He was threatened with all the tortures that
      had been prepared for the priest if he did not recant.

      Alban faced his anger calmly and, ignoring his threats, declared that he
      could not sacrifice to the gods. Upon Alban's refusal to deny his faith,
      the governor enquired of what family and race he was. "How can it
      concern you to know of what stock I am?" answered Alban. "If you want to
      know my religion, I will tell you--I am a Christian, and am bound by
      Christian obligations." When asked his name, he replied: "I am called
      Alban by my parents, and I worship and adore the true and living God,
      who created all things." He was then commanded to sacrifice to the Roman
      gods, but he refused and was cruelly scourged. Alban bore the punishment
      with resignation, even joy. When it was seen that he could not be
      prevailed upon to retract, he was
      sentenced to decapitation.

      On the way to his execution on Holmhurst Hill, the crowds that gathered
      to honour his heroism were so great that his passage was delayed because
      they could not reach the bridge over the river. Alban, who seemed to
      fear that any delay might deprive him of the martyr's crown, decided to
      cross at another point, and going down to the water's edge he prayed to
      God and stepped into the river which he then forded without difficulty.
      Both Gildas and Bede have accepted the tradition that this was a miracle
      and that the waters dried up completely in answer to the saint's prayer.

      They add that a thousand other people crossed over with him, while the
      waters piled up on either side, and that this miracle converted the
      appointed executioner. Still accompanied by a huge throng of people,
      Alban climbed the hill to the place of execution. But, on his arrival
      there, the executioner threw down his sword and refused to perform his
      office. He said that if he were not allowed to take Alban's place then
      he would share his martyrdom. Confessing himself to be a Christian, the
      soldier was replaced by another. Then he took his stand beside Alban,
      and they faced death together. Alban was beheaded first, then the
      soldier, Saint Heraclius, was baptized in his own blood to share the
      glory of martyrdom. The third martyr was the priest, who when he learned
      that Alban had been arrested in his place, hurried to the court in the
      hope of saving Alban by turning himself in.

      According to Bede, the governor was so impressed by the miracles that
      followed Alban's martyrdom that he immediately ended the persecutions,
      and Bede states that these miracles were still occurring in his lifetime
      at the intercession of England's protomartyr.

      On the hill where these martyrdoms took place a church was later
      erected, and, 400 years later, Offa, the king of Mercia, founded on the
      same site the Benedictine Abbey of Saint Albans. According to
      Constantius of Lyons, Saint Germanus of Auxerre, at the end of a mission
      to England to combat the Pelagian heresy, chose the Church of Saint
      Alban as the place in which to thank God for the success of his mission.
      He brought back from England a handful of earth from the place where
      Alban, the soldier, and the priest were martyred (Attwater,
      Benedictines, Delaney, Encyclopaedia, Gill, Morris).

      The Proto-Martyr of England is portrayed in art as a warrior with a
      cross and shield. He may be depicted (1) crowned with laurel; (2) with a
      peer's coronet, holding a crossing; (3) with his head cut off; (4) with
      his head in a holly bush; (5) spreading his cloak under the sun; or (6)
      as his executioner's eye drops out (Roeder). Alban is especially
      venerated in Saint Albans and Angers (Roeder).

      The Story of Saint Alban
      as recounted in the
      Ecclesiastical History of the English People
      by the Venerable Bede [672 - 735]
      http://www.stalbansva.org/alb.htm


      Troparion or St Alban tone 4
      Thy holy martyr Alban in his struggle/ has gained the crown of life, O
      Christ our God;/ for strengthened by Thee and with a pure heart/ he
      spoke boldly before worldly judges,/ giving up his sacred head to Thee,
      the Judge of all.

      Homily for the Feast of St. Alban from Aelfic's Lives of the Saints:
      http://www.nireland.com/orthodox/Alban.htm

      Service of Commemoration of the Holy Alban of Verulamium,
      Protomartyr of Britain
      http://www.orthodoxengland.btinternet.co.uk/servalb.htm

      Icon of St. Alban:
      http://www.cybercom.net/~htm/images/a-247.jpg
      ( Homesite:. http://www.cybercom.net/~htm/ )

      Shrine of Saint Alban:
      http://www.cushnieent.force9.co.uk/alban.html


      St. Heraclius the Soldier
      ------------------------
      Martyred at Verulamium in Hertfordshire, together with Saint Alban and
      the holy priest-martyr who taught St. Alban, Amphibalus (commemorated
      25 June.)


      St. Aaron of Brittany, Abbot
      -------------------------------------
      Died after 552. The Briton Saint Aaron crossed into Armorica (Brittany)
      and lived as a hermit on the island of Cesambre, called Saint Aaron
      until 1150 and now Saint Malo. The island was separated from Aleth by an
      arm of the sea, which the tide at low water left dry twice daily.
      Eventually Aaron was joined by a group of disciples and became their
      abbot. Among the disciples was Saint Malo, who arrived from Wales about
      the middle of the 6th century and was warmly welcomed. A parish church
      in the diocese of Saint Brieuc bears Aaron's name (Benedictines,
      Husenbeth).


      Sources:
      ========

      Attwater, D. (1983). The Penguin Dictionary of Saints, NY:
      Penguin Books.

      Benedictine Monks of St. Augustine Abbey, Ramsgate.
      (1947). The Book of Saints. NY: Macmillan.

      Delaney, J. J. (1983). Pocket Dictionary of Saints, NY:
      Doubleday Image.

      Encyclopaedia of Catholic Saints, June. (1966).
      Philadelphia: Chilton Books.

      Gill, F. C. (1958). The Glorious Company: Lives of Great Christians
      for Daily Devotion, vol. I. London: Epworth Press.

      Husenbeth, Rev. F. C., DD, VG (ed.). (1928). Butler's
      Lives of the Fathers, Martyrs, and Other Principal Saints.
      London: Virtue & Co.

      Morris, J. (1968). Hertfordshire Archaeology, vol. 1.

      Roeder, H. (1956). Saints and Their Attributes, Chicago: Henry
      Regnery.

      For All the Saints:
      http://www.saintpatrickdc.org/ss/ss-index.htm

      Orthodox Ireland Saints
      http://www.orthodoxireland.com/saints/

      An Alphabetical Index of the Saints of the West
      http://www.orthodoxengland.btinternet.co.uk/saintsa.htm

      These Lives are archived at:
      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/celt-saints
      *****************************************
    • emrys@globe.net.nz
      Celtic and Old English Saints 22 June =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-= * St. Alban, First Martyr of Britain * St. Heraclius the Soldier * St.
      Message 2 of 14 , Jun 20, 2005
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        Celtic and Old English Saints 22 June

        =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=
        * St. Alban, First Martyr of Britain
        * St. Heraclius the Soldier
        * St. Aaron of Brittany
        =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=


        St. Alban, Proto-Martyr of Great Britain
        ------------------------------------------------
        3rd or 4th century. There were probably already Christians in the
        British Isles in the first century. In fact, by the end of the second
        century a great many of the inhabitants of southern England were
        Christians. However, Alban is the first recorded Christian martyr of the
        island. The traditional date of his death is 304, during the persecution
        under the Emperor Diocletian; but many scholars now date it as early as
        209, during the persecution under the Emperor Septimus Severus. This
        date was derived from a study of the Turin manuscript of a "Passio
        Albani."

        The first known reference to him, outside the Turin manuscript, is in
        the 5th century life of Saint Germanus of Auxerre. Gildas, writing
        c.540, gives the core of the tradition. Saint Bede gives an amplified
        account, which includes a lively description of the beheading and more
        details of signs from heaven.

        Alban was a pagan, a Roman soldier, who, during the persecution of
        Diocletian, took pity on a fleeing Christian priest and sheltered him in
        his own home. When he saw that the priest spent day and night in prayer,
        he was moved by the grace of God. They spent several days talking
        together and Alban was so impressed by the priest's sanctity and
        devotion that he became a Christian and wanted to imitate the piety and
        faith of his guest. Encouraged and instructed by the priest, Alban
        renounced his idol worship and embraced Christ with his whole heart.

        He was a leading citizen in the old Roman city of Verulamium (Verulam),
        Hertfordshire, England, now called Saint Albans. The town was originally
        a collection of huts of wattle and daub that stretched along Watling
        Street, and later destroyed by the army of Boadicea, the warrior queen.

        The history continues that the Roman governor of the city, hearing a
        rumour that a priest was hiding in the house of Alban, sent a search
        party of soldiers to find him. Seeing them approach, Alban took the
        priest's cloak and put it over his own head and shoulders, and helped
        him to escape. Thus disguised, Alban opened the door to the soldiers and
        was arrested in mistake for the priest. He was bound in fetters and
        brought before the governor, who was attending a sacrifice to the pagan
        gods. When the cloak was removed and his true identity was discovered,
        the governor was furious. He then declared himself to be a Christian,
        whereupon the governor angrily ordered him to be taken before the altar.
        He was threatened with all the tortures that
        had been prepared for the priest if he did not recant.

        Alban faced his anger calmly and, ignoring his threats, declared that he
        could not sacrifice to the gods. Upon Alban's refusal to deny his faith,
        the governor enquired of what family and race he was. "How can it
        concern you to know of what stock I am?" answered Alban. "If you want to
        know my religion, I will tell you--I am a Christian, and am bound by
        Christian obligations." When asked his name, he replied: "I am called
        Alban by my parents, and I worship and adore the true and living God,
        who created all things." He was then commanded to sacrifice to the Roman
        gods, but he refused and was cruelly scourged. Alban bore the punishment
        with resignation, even joy. When it was seen that he could not be
        prevailed upon to retract, he was
        sentenced to decapitation.

        On the way to his execution on Holmhurst Hill, the crowds that gathered
        to honour his heroism were so great that his passage was delayed because
        they could not reach the bridge over the river. Alban, who seemed to
        fear that any delay might deprive him of the martyr's crown, decided to
        cross at another point, and going down to the water's edge he prayed to
        God and stepped into the river which he then forded without difficulty.
        Both Gildas and Bede have accepted the tradition that this was a miracle
        and that the waters dried up completely in answer to the saint's prayer.

        They add that a thousand other people crossed over with him, while the
        waters piled up on either side, and that this miracle converted the
        appointed executioner. Still accompanied by a huge throng of people,
        Alban climbed the hill to the place of execution. But, on his arrival
        there, the executioner threw down his sword and refused to perform his
        office. He said that if he were not allowed to take Alban's place then
        he would share his martyrdom. Confessing himself to be a Christian, the
        soldier was replaced by another. Then he took his stand beside Alban,
        and they faced death together. Alban was beheaded first, then the
        soldier, Saint Heraclius, was baptized in his own blood to share the
        glory of martyrdom. The third martyr was the priest, who when he learned
        that Alban had been arrested in his place, hurried to the court in the
        hope of saving Alban by turning himself in.

        According to Bede, the governor was so impressed by the miracles that
        followed Alban's martyrdom that he immediately ended the persecutions,
        and Bede states that these miracles were still occurring in his lifetime
        at the intercession of England's protomartyr.

        On the hill where these martyrdoms took place a church was later
        erected, and, 400 years later, Offa, the king of Mercia, founded on the
        same site the Benedictine Abbey of Saint Albans. According to
        Constantius of Lyons, Saint Germanus of Auxerre, at the end of a mission
        to England to combat the Pelagian heresy, chose the Church of Saint
        Alban as the place in which to thank God for the success of his mission.
        He brought back from England a handful of earth from the place where
        Alban, the soldier, and the priest were martyred (Attwater,
        Benedictines, Delaney, Encyclopaedia, Gill, Morris).

        The Proto-Martyr of England is portrayed in art as a warrior with a
        cross and shield. He may be depicted (1) crowned with laurel; (2) with a
        peer's coronet, holding a crossing; (3) with his head cut off; (4) with
        his head in a holly bush; (5) spreading his cloak under the sun; or (6)
        as his executioner's eye drops out (Roeder). Alban is especially
        venerated in Saint Albans and Angers (Roeder).

        The Story of Saint Alban
        as recounted in the
        Ecclesiastical History of the English People
        by the Venerable Bede [672 - 735]
        http://www.stalbansva.org/alb.htm


        Troparion or St Alban tone 4
        Thy holy martyr Alban in his struggle/ has gained the crown of life, O
        Christ our God;/ for strengthened by Thee and with a pure heart/ he
        spoke boldly before worldly judges,/ giving up his sacred head to Thee,
        the Judge of all.

        Homily for the Feast of St. Alban from Aelfic's Lives of the Saints:
        http://web.archive.org/web/20010219025644/www.nireland.com/orthodox/alban.ht
        m
        http://tinyurl.com/aezwa

        Service of Commemoration of the Holy Alban of Verulamium,
        Protomartyr of Britain
        http://www.orthodoxengland.btinternet.co.uk/servalb.htm

        Icons of St. Alban:
        http://ocafs.oca.org/FeastSaintsViewer.asp?FSID=101785
        http://www.cybercom.net/~htm/images/a-247.jpg
        ( Homesite:. http://www.cybercom.net/~htm/ )

        Shrine of Saint Alban:
        http://www.cushnieent.force9.co.uk/alban.html


        St. Heraclius the Soldier
        ------------------------
        Martyred at Verulamium in Hertfordshire, together with Saint Alban and
        the holy priest-martyr who taught St. Alban, Amphibalus (commemorated
        25 June.)


        St. Aaron of Brittany, Abbot
        -------------------------------------
        Died after 552. The Briton Saint Aaron crossed into Armorica (Brittany)
        and lived as a hermit on the island of Cesambre, called Saint Aaron
        until 1150 and now Saint Malo. The island was separated from Aleth by an
        arm of the sea, which the tide at low water left dry twice daily.
        Eventually Aaron was joined by a group of disciples and became their
        abbot. Among the disciples was Saint Malo, who arrived from Wales about
        the middle of the 6th century and was warmly welcomed. A parish church
        in the diocese of Saint Brieuc bears Aaron's name (Benedictines,
        Husenbeth).


        Sources:
        ========

        Attwater, D. (1983). The Penguin Dictionary of Saints, NY:
        Penguin Books.

        Benedictine Monks of St. Augustine Abbey, Ramsgate.
        (1947). The Book of Saints. NY: Macmillan.

        Delaney, J. J. (1983). Pocket Dictionary of Saints, NY:
        Doubleday Image.

        Encyclopaedia of Catholic Saints, June. (1966).
        Philadelphia: Chilton Books.

        Gill, F. C. (1958). The Glorious Company: Lives of Great Christians
        for Daily Devotion, vol. I. London: Epworth Press.

        Husenbeth, Rev. F. C., DD, VG (ed.). (1928). Butler's
        Lives of the Fathers, Martyrs, and Other Principal Saints.
        London: Virtue & Co.

        Morris, J. (1968). Hertfordshire Archaeology, vol. 1.

        Roeder, H. (1956). Saints and Their Attributes, Chicago: Henry
        Regnery.

        For All the Saints:
        http://www.saintpatrickdc.org/ss/ss-index.htm

        An Alphabetical Index of the Saints of the West
        http://www.orthodoxengland.btinternet.co.uk/saintsa.htm

        These Lives are archived at:
        http://groups.yahoo.com/group/celt-saints
        *****************************************
      • emrys@globe.net.nz
        Celtic and Old English Saints 22 June =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-= * St. Alban, First Martyr of Britain * St. Heraclius the Soldier * St.
        Message 3 of 14 , Jun 21, 2006
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          Celtic and Old English Saints 22 June

          =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=
          * St. Alban, First Martyr of Britain
          * St. Heraclius the Soldier
          * St. Aaron of Brittany
          =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=


          St. Alban, Proto-Martyr of Great Britain
          ------------------------------------------------
          3rd or 4th century. There were probably already Christians in the
          British Isles in the first century. In fact, by the end of the second
          century a great many of the inhabitants of southern England were
          Christians. However, Alban is the first recorded Christian martyr of the
          island. The traditional date of his death is 304, during the persecution
          under the Emperor Diocletian; but many scholars now date it as early as
          209, during the persecution under the Emperor Septimus Severus. This
          date was derived from a study of the Turin manuscript of a "Passio
          Albani."

          The first known reference to him, outside the Turin manuscript, is in
          the 5th century life of Saint Germanus of Auxerre. Gildas, writing
          c.540, gives the core of the tradition. Saint Bede gives an amplified
          account, which includes a lively description of the beheading and more
          details of signs from heaven.

          Alban was a pagan, a Roman soldier, who, during the persecution of
          Diocletian, took pity on a fleeing Christian priest and sheltered him in
          his own home. When he saw that the priest spent day and night in prayer,
          he was moved by the grace of God. They spent several days talking
          together and Alban was so impressed by the priest's sanctity and
          devotion that he became a Christian and wanted to imitate the piety and
          faith of his guest. Encouraged and instructed by the priest, Alban
          renounced his idol worship and embraced Christ with his whole heart.

          He was a leading citizen in the old Roman city of Verulamium (Verulam),
          Hertfordshire, England, now called Saint Albans. The town was originally
          a collection of huts of wattle and daub that stretched along Watling
          Street, and later destroyed by the army of Boadicea, the warrior queen.

          The history continues that the Roman governor of the city, hearing a
          rumour that a priest was hiding in the house of Alban, sent a search
          party of soldiers to find him. Seeing them approach, Alban took the
          priest's cloak and put it over his own head and shoulders, and helped
          him to escape. Thus disguised, Alban opened the door to the soldiers and
          was arrested in mistake for the priest. He was bound in fetters and
          brought before the governor, who was attending a sacrifice to the pagan
          gods. When the cloak was removed and his true identity was discovered,
          the governor was furious. He then declared himself to be a Christian,
          whereupon the governor angrily ordered him to be taken before the altar.
          He was threatened with all the tortures that
          had been prepared for the priest if he did not recant.

          Alban faced his anger calmly and, ignoring his threats, declared that he
          could not sacrifice to the gods. Upon Alban's refusal to deny his faith,
          the governor enquired of what family and race he was. "How can it
          concern you to know of what stock I am?" answered Alban. "If you want to
          know my religion, I will tell you--I am a Christian, and am bound by
          Christian obligations." When asked his name, he replied: "I am called
          Alban by my parents, and I worship and adore the true and living God,
          who created all things." He was then commanded to sacrifice to the Roman
          gods, but he refused and was cruelly scourged. Alban bore the punishment
          with resignation, even joy. When it was seen that he could not be
          prevailed upon to retract, he was
          sentenced to decapitation.

          On the way to his execution on Holmhurst Hill, the crowds that gathered
          to honour his heroism were so great that his passage was delayed because
          they could not reach the bridge over the river. Alban, who seemed to
          fear that any delay might deprive him of the martyr's crown, decided to
          cross at another point, and going down to the water's edge he prayed to
          God and stepped into the river which he then forded without difficulty.
          Both Gildas and Bede have accepted the tradition that this was a miracle
          and that the waters dried up completely in answer to the saint's prayer.

          They add that a thousand other people crossed over with him, while the
          waters piled up on either side, and that this miracle converted the
          appointed executioner. Still accompanied by a huge throng of people,
          Alban climbed the hill to the place of execution. But, on his arrival
          there, the executioner threw down his sword and refused to perform his
          office. He said that if he were not allowed to take Alban's place then
          he would share his martyrdom. Confessing himself to be a Christian, the
          soldier was replaced by another. Then he took his stand beside Alban,
          and they faced death together. Alban was beheaded first, then the
          soldier, Saint Heraclius, was baptized in his own blood to share the
          glory of martyrdom. The third martyr was the priest, who when he learned
          that Alban had been arrested in his place, hurried to the court in the
          hope of saving Alban by turning himself in.

          According to Bede, the governor was so impressed by the miracles that
          followed Alban's martyrdom that he immediately ended the persecutions,
          and Bede states that these miracles were still occurring in his lifetime
          at the intercession of England's protomartyr.

          On the hill where these martyrdoms took place a church was later
          erected, and, 400 years later, Offa, the king of Mercia, founded on the
          same site the Benedictine Abbey of Saint Albans. According to
          Constantius of Lyons, Saint Germanus of Auxerre, at the end of a mission
          to England to combat the Pelagian heresy, chose the Church of Saint
          Alban as the place in which to thank God for the success of his mission.
          He brought back from England a handful of earth from the place where
          Alban, the soldier, and the priest were martyred (Attwater,
          Benedictines, Delaney, Encyclopaedia, Gill, Morris).

          The Proto-Martyr of England is portrayed in art as a warrior with a
          cross and shield. He may be depicted (1) crowned with laurel; (2) with a
          peer's coronet, holding a crossing; (3) with his head cut off; (4) with
          his head in a holly bush; (5) spreading his cloak under the sun; or (6)
          as his executioner's eye drops out (Roeder). Alban is especially
          venerated in Saint Albans and Angers (Roeder).

          The Story of Saint Alban
          as recounted in the
          Ecclesiastical History of the English People
          by the Venerable Bede [672 - 735]
          http://www.stalbansva.org/alb.htm


          Troparion or St Alban tone 4
          Thy holy martyr Alban in his struggle/ has gained the crown of life, O
          Christ our God;/ for strengthened by Thee and with a pure heart/ he
          spoke boldly before worldly judges,/ giving up his sacred head to Thee,
          the Judge of all.

          Homily for the Feast of St. Alban from Aelfic's Lives of the Saints:
          http://web.archive.org/web/20010219025644/www.nireland.com/orthodox/alban.ht
          m
          http://tinyurl.com/aezwa

          Service of Commemoration of the Holy Alban of Verulamium,
          Protomartyr of Britain
          http://www.orthodoxengland.btinternet.co.uk/servalb.htm

          Icons of St. Alban:
          http://www.allmercifulsavior.com/icons/Icons-Alban.htm##1
          http://ocafs.oca.org/FeastSaintsViewer.asp?FSID=101785
          http://www.cybercom.net/~htm/images/a-247.jpg
          ( Homesite:. http://www.cybercom.net/~htm/ )

          Shrine of Saint Alban:
          http://www.cushnieent.force9.co.uk/alban.html


          St. Heraclius the Soldier
          ------------------------
          Martyred at Verulamium in Hertfordshire, together with Saint Alban and
          the holy priest-martyr who taught St. Alban, Amphibalus (commemorated
          25 June.)


          St. Aaron of Brittany, Abbot
          -------------------------------------
          Died after 552. The Briton Saint Aaron crossed into Armorica (Brittany)
          and lived as a hermit on the island of Cesambre, called Saint Aaron
          until 1150 and now Saint Malo. The island was separated from Aleth by an
          arm of the sea, which the tide at low water left dry twice daily.
          Eventually Aaron was joined by a group of disciples and became their
          abbot. Among the disciples was Saint Malo, who arrived from Wales about
          the middle of the 6th century and was warmly welcomed. A parish church
          in the diocese of Saint Brieuc bears Aaron's name (Benedictines,
          Husenbeth).


          Sources:
          ========

          Attwater, D. (1983). The Penguin Dictionary of Saints, NY:
          Penguin Books.

          Benedictine Monks of St. Augustine Abbey, Ramsgate.
          (1947). The Book of Saints. NY: Macmillan.

          Delaney, J. J. (1983). Pocket Dictionary of Saints, NY:
          Doubleday Image.

          Encyclopaedia of Catholic Saints, June. (1966).
          Philadelphia: Chilton Books.

          Gill, F. C. (1958). The Glorious Company: Lives of Great Christians
          for Daily Devotion, vol. I. London: Epworth Press.

          Husenbeth, Rev. F. C., DD, VG (ed.). (1928). Butler's
          Lives of the Fathers, Martyrs, and Other Principal Saints.
          London: Virtue & Co.

          Morris, J. (1968). Hertfordshire Archaeology, vol. 1.

          Roeder, H. (1956). Saints and Their Attributes, Chicago: Henry
          Regnery.

          For All the Saints:
          http://www.saintpatrickdc.org/ss/ss-index.htm

          An Alphabetical Index of the Saints of the West
          http://www.orthodoxengland.btinternet.co.uk/saintsa.htm

          These Lives are archived at:
          http://groups.yahoo.com/group/celt-saints
          *****************************************
        • emrys@globe.net.nz
          Celtic and Old English Saints 22 June =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-= * St. Alban, First Martyr of Britain * St. Heraclius the Soldier * St.
          Message 4 of 14 , Jun 21, 2007
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            Celtic and Old English Saints 22 June

            =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=
            * St. Alban, First Martyr of Britain
            * St. Heraclius the Soldier
            * St. Aaron of Brittany
            =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=


            St. Alban, Proto-Martyr of Great Britain
            ------------------------------------------------
            3rd or 4th century. There were probably already Christians in the
            British Isles in the first century. In fact, by the end of the second
            century a great many of the inhabitants of southern England were
            Christians. However, Alban is the first recorded Christian martyr of the
            island. The traditional date of his death is 304, during the persecution
            under the Emperor Diocletian; but many scholars now date it as early as
            209, during the persecution under the Emperor Septimus Severus. This
            date was derived from a study of the Turin manuscript of a "Passio
            Albani."

            The first known reference to him, outside the Turin manuscript, is in
            the 5th century life of Saint Germanus of Auxerre. Gildas, writing
            c.540, gives the core of the tradition. Saint Bede gives an amplified
            account, which includes a lively description of the beheading and more
            details of signs from heaven.

            Alban was a pagan, a Roman soldier, who, during the persecution of
            Diocletian, took pity on a fleeing Christian priest and sheltered him in
            his own home. When he saw that the priest spent day and night in prayer,
            he was moved by the grace of God. They spent several days talking
            together and Alban was so impressed by the priest's sanctity and
            devotion that he became a Christian and wanted to imitate the piety and
            faith of his guest. Encouraged and instructed by the priest, Alban
            renounced his idol worship and embraced Christ with his whole heart.

            He was a leading citizen in the old Roman city of Verulamium (Verulam),
            Hertfordshire, England, now called Saint Albans. The town was originally
            a collection of huts of wattle and daub that stretched along Watling
            Street, and later destroyed by the army of Boadicea, the warrior queen.

            The history continues that the Roman governor of the city, hearing a
            rumour that a priest was hiding in the house of Alban, sent a search
            party of soldiers to find him. Seeing them approach, Alban took the
            priest's cloak and put it over his own head and shoulders, and helped
            him to escape. Thus disguised, Alban opened the door to the soldiers and
            was arrested in mistake for the priest. He was bound in fetters and
            brought before the governor, who was attending a sacrifice to the pagan
            gods. When the cloak was removed and his true identity was discovered,
            the governor was furious. He then declared himself to be a Christian,
            whereupon the governor angrily ordered him to be taken before the altar.
            He was threatened with all the tortures that
            had been prepared for the priest if he did not recant.

            Alban faced his anger calmly and, ignoring his threats, declared that he
            could not sacrifice to the gods. Upon Alban's refusal to deny his faith,
            the governor enquired of what family and race he was. "How can it
            concern you to know of what stock I am?" answered Alban. "If you want to
            know my religion, I will tell you--I am a Christian, and am bound by
            Christian obligations." When asked his name, he replied: "I am called
            Alban by my parents, and I worship and adore the true and living God,
            who created all things." He was then commanded to sacrifice to the Roman
            gods, but he refused and was cruelly scourged. Alban bore the punishment
            with resignation, even joy. When it was seen that he could not be
            prevailed upon to retract, he was
            sentenced to decapitation.

            On the way to his execution on Holmhurst Hill, the crowds that gathered
            to honour his heroism were so great that his passage was delayed because
            they could not reach the bridge over the river. Alban, who seemed to
            fear that any delay might deprive him of the martyr's crown, decided to
            cross at another point, and going down to the water's edge he prayed to
            God and stepped into the river which he then forded without difficulty.
            Both Gildas and Bede have accepted the tradition that this was a miracle
            and that the waters dried up completely in answer to the saint's prayer.

            They add that a thousand other people crossed over with him, while the
            waters piled up on either side, and that this miracle converted the
            appointed executioner. Still accompanied by a huge throng of people,
            Alban climbed the hill to the place of execution. But, on his arrival
            there, the executioner threw down his sword and refused to perform his
            office. He said that if he were not allowed to take Alban's place then
            he would share his martyrdom. Confessing himself to be a Christian, the
            soldier was replaced by another. Then he took his stand beside Alban,
            and they faced death together. Alban was beheaded first, then the
            soldier, Saint Heraclius, was baptized in his own blood to share the
            glory of martyrdom. The third martyr was the priest, who when he learned
            that Alban had been arrested in his place, hurried to the court in the
            hope of saving Alban by turning himself in.

            According to Bede, the governor was so impressed by the miracles that
            followed Alban's martyrdom that he immediately ended the persecutions,
            and Bede states that these miracles were still occurring in his lifetime
            at the intercession of England's protomartyr.

            On the hill where these martyrdoms took place a church was later
            erected, and, 400 years later, Offa, the king of Mercia, founded on the
            same site the Benedictine Abbey of Saint Albans. According to
            Constantius of Lyons, Saint Germanus of Auxerre, at the end of a mission
            to England to combat the Pelagian heresy, chose the Church of Saint
            Alban as the place in which to thank God for the success of his mission.
            He brought back from England a handful of earth from the place where
            Alban, the soldier, and the priest were martyred (Attwater,
            Benedictines, Delaney, Encyclopaedia, Gill, Morris).

            The Proto-Martyr of England is portrayed in art as a warrior with a
            cross and shield. He may be depicted (1) crowned with laurel; (2) with a
            peer's coronet, holding a crossing; (3) with his head cut off; (4) with
            his head in a holly bush; (5) spreading his cloak under the sun; or (6)
            as his executioner's eye drops out (Roeder). Alban is especially
            venerated in Saint Albans and Angers (Roeder).

            The Story of Saint Alban
            as recounted in the
            Ecclesiastical History of the English People
            by the Venerable Bede [672 - 735]
            http://www.stalbansva.org/alb.htm


            Troparion or St Alban tone 4
            Thy holy martyr Alban in his struggle/ has gained the crown of life, O
            Christ our God;/ for strengthened by Thee and with a pure heart/ he
            spoke boldly before worldly judges,/ giving up his sacred head to Thee,
            the Judge of all.

            Homily for the Feast of St. Alban from Aelfic's Lives of the Saints:
            http://web.archive.org/web/20010219025644/www.nireland.com/orthodox/alban.ht
            m
            http://tinyurl.com/aezwa

            Service of Commemoration of the Holy Alban of Verulamium,
            Protomartyr of Britain
            http://www.orthodoxengland.btinternet.co.uk/servalb.htm

            Icons of St. Alban:
            http://www.allmercifulsavior.com/icons/Icons-Alban.htm##1
            http://ocafs.oca.org/FeastSaintsViewer.asp?FSID=101785
            http://www.cybercom.net/~htm/images/a-247.jpg
            ( Homesite:. http://www.cybercom.net/~htm/ )

            Shrine of Saint Alban:
            http://www.cushnieent.force9.co.uk/alban.html


            Sr Alban's relics were enshrined at his abbey at St Albans from the late
            eighth century until its suppression in the sixteenth. In the later tenth
            century relics said to be his were deposited in Köln's church of St.
            Pantaleon, which has them still (less a bone transferred to St Albans in
            2002) in the late twelfth-century reliquary shown here:
            http://www.pantaleon-koeln.de/Galerie/Kirche/alban.JPG
            http://www.pantaleon-koeln.de/Galerie/Kirche/alban1.JPG
            http://www.pantaleon-koeln.de/Galerie/Kirche/alban2.JPG
            http://www.pantaleon-koeln.de/Galerie/Kirche/alban3.JPG
            http://www.pantaleon-koeln.de/Galerie/Kirche/alban4.JPG

            A few views of St Albans Abbey:
            http://www.pbase.com/ohsharonho2/image/24304225
            http://www.newgreens.demon.co.uk/sta2.jpg
            http://www.flickr.com/photos/ishida/154612997/
            http://tinyurl.com/3bn7ka
            The Abbey's "Virtual Visit":
            http://www.thegrid.org.uk/learning/re/virtual/cathedral/
            One of a fifteenth-century pair of doors made for the Abbey:
            http://tinyurl.com/ysvpsp


            St. Heraclius the Soldier
            ------------------------
            Martyred at Verulamium in Hertfordshire, together with Saint Alban and
            the holy priest-martyr who taught St. Alban, Amphibalus (commemorated
            25 June.)


            St. Aaron of Brittany, Abbot
            -------------------------------------
            Died after 552. The Briton Saint Aaron crossed into Armorica (Brittany)
            and lived as a hermit on the island of Cesambre, called Saint Aaron
            until 1150 and now Saint Malo. The island was separated from Aleth by an
            arm of the sea, which the tide at low water left dry twice daily.
            Eventually Aaron was joined by a group of disciples and became their
            abbot. Among the disciples was Saint Malo, who arrived from Wales about
            the middle of the 6th century and was warmly welcomed. A parish church
            in the diocese of Saint Brieuc bears Aaron's name (Benedictines,
            Husenbeth).


            Sources:
            ========

            Attwater, D. (1983). The Penguin Dictionary of Saints, NY:
            Penguin Books.

            Benedictine Monks of St. Augustine Abbey, Ramsgate.
            (1947). The Book of Saints. NY: Macmillan.

            Delaney, J. J. (1983). Pocket Dictionary of Saints, NY:
            Doubleday Image.

            Encyclopaedia of Catholic Saints, June. (1966).
            Philadelphia: Chilton Books.

            Gill, F. C. (1958). The Glorious Company: Lives of Great Christians
            for Daily Devotion, vol. I. London: Epworth Press.

            Husenbeth, Rev. F. C., DD, VG (ed.). (1928). Butler's
            Lives of the Fathers, Martyrs, and Other Principal Saints.
            London: Virtue & Co.

            Morris, J. (1968). Hertfordshire Archaeology, vol. 1.

            Roeder, H. (1956). Saints and Their Attributes, Chicago: Henry
            Regnery.

            For All the Saints:
            http://www.saintpatrickdc.org/ss/ss-index.htm

            An Alphabetical Index of the Saints of the West
            http://www.orthodoxengland.btinternet.co.uk/saintsa.htm

            These Lives are archived at:
            http://groups.yahoo.com/group/celt-saints
            *****************************************
          • emrys@globe.net.nz
            Celtic and Old English Saints 22 June =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-= * St. Alban, First Martyr of Britain * St. Heraclius the Soldier * St.
            Message 5 of 14 , Jun 20, 2008
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              Celtic and Old English Saints 22 June

              =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=
              * St. Alban, First Martyr of Britain
              * St. Heraclius the Soldier
              * St. Aaron of Brittany
              =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=


              St. Alban, Proto-Martyr of Great Britain
              ------------------------------------------------
              3rd or 4th century. There were probably already Christians in the
              British Isles in the first century. In fact, by the end of the second
              century a great many of the inhabitants of southern England were
              Christians. However, Alban is the first recorded Christian martyr of the
              island. The traditional date of his death is 304, during the persecution
              under the Emperor Diocletian; but many scholars now date it as early as
              209, during the persecution under the Emperor Septimus Severus. This
              date was derived from a study of the Turin manuscript of a "Passio
              Albani."

              The first known reference to him, outside the Turin manuscript, is in
              the 5th century life of Saint Germanus of Auxerre. Gildas, writing
              c.540, gives the core of the tradition. Saint Bede gives an amplified
              account, which includes a lively description of the beheading and more
              details of signs from heaven.

              Alban was a pagan, a Roman soldier, who, during the persecution of
              Diocletian, took pity on a fleeing Christian priest and sheltered him in
              his own home. When he saw that the priest spent day and night in prayer,
              he was moved by the grace of God. They spent several days talking
              together and Alban was so impressed by the priest's sanctity and
              devotion that he became a Christian and wanted to imitate the piety and
              faith of his guest. Encouraged and instructed by the priest, Alban
              renounced his idol worship and embraced Christ with his whole heart.

              He was a leading citizen in the old Roman city of Verulamium (Verulam),
              Hertfordshire, England, now called Saint Albans. The town was originally
              a collection of huts of wattle and daub that stretched along Watling
              Street, and later destroyed by the army of Boadicea, the warrior queen.

              The history continues that the Roman governor of the city, hearing a
              rumour that a priest was hiding in the house of Alban, sent a search
              party of soldiers to find him. Seeing them approach, Alban took the
              priest's cloak and put it over his own head and shoulders, and helped
              him to escape. Thus disguised, Alban opened the door to the soldiers and
              was arrested in mistake for the priest. He was bound in fetters and
              brought before the governor, who was attending a sacrifice to the pagan
              gods. When the cloak was removed and his true identity was discovered,
              the governor was furious. He then declared himself to be a Christian,
              whereupon the governor angrily ordered him to be taken before the altar.
              He was threatened with all the tortures that
              had been prepared for the priest if he did not recant.

              Alban faced his anger calmly and, ignoring his threats, declared that he
              could not sacrifice to the gods. Upon Alban's refusal to deny his faith,
              the governor enquired of what family and race he was. "How can it
              concern you to know of what stock I am?" answered Alban. "If you want to
              know my religion, I will tell you--I am a Christian, and am bound by
              Christian obligations." When asked his name, he replied: "I am called
              Alban by my parents, and I worship and adore the true and living God,
              who created all things." He was then commanded to sacrifice to the Roman
              gods, but he refused and was cruelly scourged. Alban bore the punishment
              with resignation, even joy. When it was seen that he could not be
              prevailed upon to retract, he was
              sentenced to decapitation.

              On the way to his execution on Holmhurst Hill, the crowds that gathered
              to honour his heroism were so great that his passage was delayed because
              they could not reach the bridge over the river. Alban, who seemed to
              fear that any delay might deprive him of the martyr's crown, decided to
              cross at another point, and going down to the water's edge he prayed to
              God and stepped into the river which he then forded without difficulty.
              Both Gildas and Bede have accepted the tradition that this was a miracle
              and that the waters dried up completely in answer to the saint's prayer.

              They add that a thousand other people crossed over with him, while the
              waters piled up on either side, and that this miracle converted the
              appointed executioner. Still accompanied by a huge throng of people,
              Alban climbed the hill to the place of execution. But, on his arrival
              there, the executioner threw down his sword and refused to perform his
              office. He said that if he were not allowed to take Alban's place then
              he would share his martyrdom. Confessing himself to be a Christian, the
              soldier was replaced by another. Then he took his stand beside Alban,
              and they faced death together. Alban was beheaded first, then the
              soldier, Saint Heraclius, was baptized in his own blood to share the
              glory of martyrdom. The third martyr was the priest, who when he learned
              that Alban had been arrested in his place, hurried to the court in the
              hope of saving Alban by turning himself in.

              According to Bede, the governor was so impressed by the miracles that
              followed Alban's martyrdom that he immediately ended the persecutions,
              and Bede states that these miracles were still occurring in his lifetime
              at the intercession of England's protomartyr.

              On the hill where these martyrdoms took place a church was later
              erected, and, 400 years later, Offa, the king of Mercia, founded on the
              same site the Benedictine Abbey of Saint Albans. According to
              Constantius of Lyons, Saint Germanus of Auxerre, at the end of a mission
              to England to combat the Pelagian heresy, chose the Church of Saint
              Alban as the place in which to thank God for the success of his mission.
              He brought back from England a handful of earth from the place where
              Alban, the soldier, and the priest were martyred (Attwater,
              Benedictines, Delaney, Encyclopaedia, Gill, Morris).

              The Proto-Martyr of England is portrayed in art as a warrior with a
              cross and shield. He may be depicted (1) crowned with laurel; (2) with a
              peer's coronet, holding a crossing; (3) with his head cut off; (4) with
              his head in a holly bush; (5) spreading his cloak under the sun; or (6)
              as his executioner's eye drops out (Roeder). Alban is especially
              venerated in Saint Albans and Angers (Roeder).

              The Story of Saint Alban
              as recounted in the
              Ecclesiastical History of the English People
              by the Venerable Bede [672 - 735]
              http://www.stalbansva.org/alb.htm


              Troparion or St Alban tone 4
              Thy holy martyr Alban in his struggle/ has gained the crown of life, O
              Christ our God;/ for strengthened by Thee and with a pure heart/ he
              spoke boldly before worldly judges,/ giving up his sacred head to Thee,
              the Judge of all.

              Homily for the Feast of St. Alban from Aelfic's Lives of the Saints:
              http://web.archive.org/web/20010219025644/www.nireland.com/orthodox/alban.ht
              m
              http://tinyurl.com/aezwa

              Service of Commemoration of the Holy Alban of Verulamium,
              Protomartyr of Britain
              http://www.orthodoxengland.btinternet.co.uk/servalb.htm

              Icons of St. Alban:
              http://www.allmercifulsavior.com/icons/Icons-Alban.htm##1
              http://ocafs.oca.org/FeastSaintsViewer.asp?FSID=101785
              http://www.cybercom.net/~htm/images/a-247.jpg
              ( Homesite:. http://www.cybercom.net/~htm/ )

              Shrine of Saint Alban:
              http://www.cushnieent.force9.co.uk/alban.html


              Sr Alban's relics were enshrined at his abbey at St Albans from the late
              eighth century until its suppression in the sixteenth. In the later tenth
              century relics said to be his were deposited in Köln's church of St.
              Pantaleon, which has them still (less a bone transferred to St Albans in
              2002) in the late twelfth-century reliquary shown here:
              http://www.pantaleon-koeln.de/Galerie/Kirche/alban.JPG
              http://www.pantaleon-koeln.de/Galerie/Kirche/alban1.JPG
              http://www.pantaleon-koeln.de/Galerie/Kirche/alban2.JPG
              http://www.pantaleon-koeln.de/Galerie/Kirche/alban3.JPG
              http://www.pantaleon-koeln.de/Galerie/Kirche/alban4.JPG

              A few views of St Albans Abbey:
              http://www.pbase.com/ohsharonho2/image/24304225
              http://www.newgreens.demon.co.uk/sta2.jpg
              http://www.flickr.com/photos/ishida/154612997/
              http://tinyurl.com/3bn7ka
              The Abbey's "Virtual Visit":
              http://www.thegrid.org.uk/learning/re/virtual/cathedral/
              One of a fifteenth-century pair of doors made for the Abbey:
              http://tinyurl.com/ysvpsp


              St. Heraclius the Soldier
              ------------------------
              Martyred at Verulamium in Hertfordshire, together with Saint Alban and
              the holy priest-martyr who taught St. Alban, Amphibalus (commemorated
              25 June.)


              St. Aaron of Brittany, Abbot
              -------------------------------------
              Died after 552. The Briton Saint Aaron crossed into Armorica (Brittany)
              and lived as a hermit on the island of Cesambre, called Saint Aaron
              until 1150 and now Saint Malo. The island was separated from Aleth by an
              arm of the sea, which the tide at low water left dry twice daily.
              Eventually Aaron was joined by a group of disciples and became their
              abbot. Among the disciples was Saint Malo, who arrived from Wales about
              the middle of the 6th century and was warmly welcomed. A parish church
              in the diocese of Saint Brieuc bears Aaron's name (Benedictines,
              Husenbeth).


              Sources:
              ========

              Attwater, D. (1983). The Penguin Dictionary of Saints, NY:
              Penguin Books.

              Benedictine Monks of St. Augustine Abbey, Ramsgate.
              (1947). The Book of Saints. NY: Macmillan.

              Delaney, J. J. (1983). Pocket Dictionary of Saints, NY:
              Doubleday Image.

              Encyclopaedia of Catholic Saints, June. (1966).
              Philadelphia: Chilton Books.

              Gill, F. C. (1958). The Glorious Company: Lives of Great Christians
              for Daily Devotion, vol. I. London: Epworth Press.

              Husenbeth, Rev. F. C., DD, VG (ed.). (1928). Butler's
              Lives of the Fathers, Martyrs, and Other Principal Saints.
              London: Virtue & Co.

              Morris, J. (1968). Hertfordshire Archaeology, vol. 1.

              Roeder, H. (1956). Saints and Their Attributes, Chicago: Henry
              Regnery.

              For All the Saints:
              http://www.saintpatrickdc.org/ss/ss-index.htm

              An Alphabetical Index of the Saints of the West
              http://www.orthodoxengland.btinternet.co.uk/saintsa.htm

              These Lives are archived at:
              http://groups.yahoo.com/group/celt-saints
              *****************************************
            • emrys@globe.net.nz
              Celtic and Old English Saints 22 June =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-= * St. Alban, First Martyr of Britain * St. Heraclius the Soldier * St.
              Message 6 of 14 , Jun 21, 2009
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                Celtic and Old English Saints 22 June

                =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=
                * St. Alban, First Martyr of Britain
                * St. Heraclius the Soldier
                * St. Aaron of Brittany
                =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=


                St. Alban, Proto-Martyr of Great Britain
                ------------------------------------------------
                3rd or 4th century. There were probably already Christians in the
                British Isles in the first century. In fact, by the end of the second
                century a great many of the inhabitants of southern England were
                Christians. However, Alban is the first recorded Christian martyr of the
                island. The traditional date of his death is 304, during the persecution
                under the Emperor Diocletian; but many scholars now date it as early as
                209, during the persecution under the Emperor Septimus Severus. This
                date was derived from a study of the Turin manuscript of a "Passio
                Albani."

                The first known reference to him, outside the Turin manuscript, is in
                the 5th century life of Saint Germanus of Auxerre. Gildas, writing
                c.540, gives the core of the tradition. Saint Bede gives an amplified
                account, which includes a lively description of the beheading and more
                details of signs from heaven.

                Alban was a pagan, a Roman soldier, who, during the persecution of
                Diocletian, took pity on a fleeing Christian priest and sheltered him in
                his own home. When he saw that the priest spent day and night in prayer,
                he was moved by the grace of God. They spent several days talking
                together and Alban was so impressed by the priest's sanctity and
                devotion that he became a Christian and wanted to imitate the piety and
                faith of his guest. Encouraged and instructed by the priest, Alban
                renounced his idol worship and embraced Christ with his whole heart.

                He was a leading citizen in the old Roman city of Verulamium (Verulam),
                Hertfordshire, England, now called Saint Albans. The town was originally
                a collection of huts of wattle and daub that stretched along Watling
                Street, and later destroyed by the army of Boadicea, the warrior queen.

                The history continues that the Roman governor of the city, hearing a
                rumour that a priest was hiding in the house of Alban, sent a search
                party of soldiers to find him. Seeing them approach, Alban took the
                priest's cloak and put it over his own head and shoulders, and helped
                him to escape. Thus disguised, Alban opened the door to the soldiers and
                was arrested in mistake for the priest. He was bound in fetters and
                brought before the governor, who was attending a sacrifice to the pagan
                gods. When the cloak was removed and his true identity was discovered,
                the governor was furious. He then declared himself to be a Christian,
                whereupon the governor angrily ordered him to be taken before the altar.
                He was threatened with all the tortures that
                had been prepared for the priest if he did not recant.

                Alban faced his anger calmly and, ignoring his threats, declared that he
                could not sacrifice to the gods. Upon Alban's refusal to deny his faith,
                the governor enquired of what family and race he was. "How can it
                concern you to know of what stock I am?" answered Alban. "If you want to
                know my religion, I will tell you--I am a Christian, and am bound by
                Christian obligations." When asked his name, he replied: "I am called
                Alban by my parents, and I worship and adore the true and living God,
                who created all things." He was then commanded to sacrifice to the Roman
                gods, but he refused and was cruelly scourged. Alban bore the punishment
                with resignation, even joy. When it was seen that he could not be
                prevailed upon to retract, he was
                sentenced to decapitation.

                On the way to his execution on Holmhurst Hill, the crowds that gathered
                to honour his heroism were so great that his passage was delayed because
                they could not reach the bridge over the river. Alban, who seemed to
                fear that any delay might deprive him of the martyr's crown, decided to
                cross at another point, and going down to the water's edge he prayed to
                God and stepped into the river which he then forded without difficulty.
                Both Gildas and Bede have accepted the tradition that this was a miracle
                and that the waters dried up completely in answer to the saint's prayer.

                They add that a thousand other people crossed over with him, while the
                waters piled up on either side, and that this miracle converted the
                appointed executioner. Still accompanied by a huge throng of people,
                Alban climbed the hill to the place of execution. But, on his arrival
                there, the executioner threw down his sword and refused to perform his
                office. He said that if he were not allowed to take Alban's place then
                he would share his martyrdom. Confessing himself to be a Christian, the
                soldier was replaced by another. Then he took his stand beside Alban,
                and they faced death together. Alban was beheaded first, then the
                soldier, Saint Heraclius, was baptized in his own blood to share the
                glory of martyrdom. The third martyr was the priest, who when he learned
                that Alban had been arrested in his place, hurried to the court in the
                hope of saving Alban by turning himself in.

                According to Bede, the governor was so impressed by the miracles that
                followed Alban's martyrdom that he immediately ended the persecutions,
                and Bede states that these miracles were still occurring in his lifetime
                at the intercession of England's protomartyr.

                On the hill where these martyrdoms took place a church was later
                erected, and, 400 years later, Offa, the king of Mercia, founded on the
                same site the Benedictine Abbey of Saint Albans. According to
                Constantius of Lyons, Saint Germanus of Auxerre, at the end of a mission
                to England to combat the Pelagian heresy, chose the Church of Saint
                Alban as the place in which to thank God for the success of his mission.
                He brought back from England a handful of earth from the place where
                Alban, the soldier, and the priest were martyred (Attwater,
                Benedictines, Delaney, Encyclopaedia, Gill, Morris).

                The Proto-Martyr of England is portrayed in art as a warrior with a
                cross and shield. He may be depicted (1) crowned with laurel; (2) with a
                peer's coronet, holding a crossing; (3) with his head cut off; (4) with
                his head in a holly bush; (5) spreading his cloak under the sun; or (6)
                as his executioner's eye drops out (Roeder). Alban is especially
                venerated in Saint Albans and Angers (Roeder).

                The Story of Saint Alban
                as recounted in the
                Ecclesiastical History of the English People
                by the Venerable Bede [672 - 735]
                http://www.stalbansva.org/alb.htm


                Troparion or St Alban tone 4
                Thy holy martyr Alban in his struggle/ has gained the crown of life, O
                Christ our God;/ for strengthened by Thee and with a pure heart/ he
                spoke boldly before worldly judges,/ giving up his sacred head to Thee,
                the Judge of all.

                Homily for the Feast of St. Alban from Aelfic's Lives of the Saints:
                http://web.archive.org/web/20010219025644/www.nireland.com/orthodox/alban.ht
                m
                http://tinyurl.com/aezwa

                Service of Commemoration of the Holy Alban of Verulamium,
                Protomartyr of Britain
                http://www.orthodoxengland.btinternet.co.uk/servalb.htm

                Icons of St. Alban:
                http://www.allmercifulsavior.com/icons/Icons-Alban.htm##1
                http://ocafs.oca.org/FeastSaintsViewer.asp?FSID=101785
                http://www.cybercom.net/~htm/images/a-247.jpg
                ( Homesite:. http://www.cybercom.net/~htm/ )

                Shrine of Saint Alban:
                http://www.cushnieent.force9.co.uk/alban.html


                Sr Alban's relics were enshrined at his abbey at St Albans from the late
                eighth century until its suppression in the sixteenth. In the later tenth
                century relics said to be his were deposited in Kцln's church of St.
                Pantaleon, which has them still (less a bone transferred to St Albans in
                2002) in the late twelfth-century reliquary shown here:
                http://www.pantaleon-koeln.de/Galerie/Kirche/alban.JPG
                http://www.pantaleon-koeln.de/Galerie/Kirche/alban1.JPG
                http://www.pantaleon-koeln.de/Galerie/Kirche/alban2.JPG
                http://www.pantaleon-koeln.de/Galerie/Kirche/alban3.JPG
                http://www.pantaleon-koeln.de/Galerie/Kirche/alban4.JPG

                A few views of St Albans Abbey:
                http://www.pbase.com/ohsharonho2/image/24304225
                http://www.newgreens.demon.co.uk/sta2.jpg
                http://www.flickr.com/photos/ishida/154612997/
                http://tinyurl.com/3bn7ka
                The Abbey's "Virtual Visit":
                http://www.thegrid.org.uk/learning/re/virtual/cathedral/
                One of a fifteenth-century pair of doors made for the Abbey:
                http://tinyurl.com/ysvpsp


                St. Heraclius the Soldier
                ------------------------
                Martyred at Verulamium in Hertfordshire, together with Saint Alban and
                the holy priest-martyr who taught St. Alban, Amphibalus (commemorated
                25 June.)


                St. Aaron of Brittany, Abbot
                -------------------------------------
                Died after 552. The Briton Saint Aaron crossed into Armorica (Brittany)
                and lived as a hermit on the island of Cesambre, called Saint Aaron
                until 1150 and now Saint Malo. The island was separated from Aleth by an
                arm of the sea, which the tide at low water left dry twice daily.
                Eventually Aaron was joined by a group of disciples and became their
                abbot. Among the disciples was Saint Malo, who arrived from Wales about
                the middle of the 6th century and was warmly welcomed. A parish church
                in the diocese of Saint Brieuc bears Aaron's name (Benedictines,
                Husenbeth).


                Sources:
                ========

                Attwater, D. (1983). The Penguin Dictionary of Saints, NY:
                Penguin Books.

                Benedictine Monks of St. Augustine Abbey, Ramsgate.
                (1947). The Book of Saints. NY: Macmillan.

                Delaney, J. J. (1983). Pocket Dictionary of Saints, NY:
                Doubleday Image.

                Encyclopaedia of Catholic Saints, June. (1966).
                Philadelphia: Chilton Books.

                Gill, F. C. (1958). The Glorious Company: Lives of Great Christians
                for Daily Devotion, vol. I. London: Epworth Press.

                Husenbeth, Rev. F. C., DD, VG (ed.). (1928). Butler's
                Lives of the Fathers, Martyrs, and Other Principal Saints.
                London: Virtue & Co.

                Morris, J. (1968). Hertfordshire Archaeology, vol. 1.

                Roeder, H. (1956). Saints and Their Attributes, Chicago: Henry
                Regnery.

                For All the Saints:
                http://www.saintpatrickdc.org/ss/ss-index.htm

                An Alphabetical Index of the Saints of the West
                http://www.orthodoxengland.btinternet.co.uk/saintsa.htm

                These Lives are archived at:
                http://groups.yahoo.com/group/celt-saints
                *****************************************
              • emrys@globe.net.nz
                Celtic and Old English Saints 22 June =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-= * St. Alban, First Martyr of Britain * St. Heraclius the Soldier * St.
                Message 7 of 14 , Jun 21, 2010
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                  Celtic and Old English Saints 22 June

                  =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=
                  * St. Alban, First Martyr of Britain
                  * St. Heraclius the Soldier
                  * St. Aaron of Brittany
                  =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=


                  St. Alban, Proto-Martyr of Great Britain
                  ------------------------------------------------
                  3rd or 4th century. There were probably already Christians in the
                  British Isles in the first century. In fact, by the end of the second
                  century a great many of the inhabitants of southern England were
                  Christians. However, Alban is the first recorded Christian martyr of the
                  island. The traditional date of his death is 304, during the persecution
                  under the Emperor Diocletian; but many scholars now date it as early as
                  209, during the persecution under the Emperor Septimus Severus. This
                  date was derived from a study of the Turin manuscript of a "Passio
                  Albani."

                  The first known reference to him, outside the Turin manuscript, is in
                  the 5th century life of Saint Germanus of Auxerre. Gildas, writing
                  c.540, gives the core of the tradition. Saint Bede gives an amplified
                  account, which includes a lively description of the beheading and more
                  details of signs from heaven.

                  Alban was a pagan, a Roman soldier, who, during the persecution of
                  Diocletian, took pity on a fleeing Christian priest and sheltered him in
                  his own home. When he saw that the priest spent day and night in prayer,
                  he was moved by the grace of God. They spent several days talking
                  together and Alban was so impressed by the priest's sanctity and
                  devotion that he became a Christian and wanted to imitate the piety and
                  faith of his guest. Encouraged and instructed by the priest, Alban
                  renounced his idol worship and embraced Christ with his whole heart.

                  He was a leading citizen in the old Roman city of Verulamium (Verulam),
                  Hertfordshire, England, now called Saint Albans. The town was originally
                  a collection of huts of wattle and daub that stretched along Watling
                  Street, and later destroyed by the army of Boadicea, the warrior queen.

                  The history continues that the Roman governor of the city, hearing a
                  rumour that a priest was hiding in the house of Alban, sent a search
                  party of soldiers to find him. Seeing them approach, Alban took the
                  priest's cloak and put it over his own head and shoulders, and helped
                  him to escape. Thus disguised, Alban opened the door to the soldiers and
                  was arrested in mistake for the priest. He was bound in fetters and
                  brought before the governor, who was attending a sacrifice to the pagan
                  gods. When the cloak was removed and his true identity was discovered,
                  the governor was furious. He then declared himself to be a Christian,
                  whereupon the governor angrily ordered him to be taken before the altar.
                  He was threatened with all the tortures that
                  had been prepared for the priest if he did not recant.

                  Alban faced his anger calmly and, ignoring his threats, declared that he
                  could not sacrifice to the gods. Upon Alban's refusal to deny his faith,
                  the governor enquired of what family and race he was. "How can it
                  concern you to know of what stock I am?" answered Alban. "If you want to
                  know my religion, I will tell you--I am a Christian, and am bound by
                  Christian obligations." When asked his name, he replied: "I am called
                  Alban by my parents, and I worship and adore the true and living God,
                  who created all things." He was then commanded to sacrifice to the Roman
                  gods, but he refused and was cruelly scourged. Alban bore the punishment
                  with resignation, even joy. When it was seen that he could not be
                  prevailed upon to retract, he was
                  sentenced to decapitation.

                  On the way to his execution on Holmhurst Hill, the crowds that gathered
                  to honour his heroism were so great that his passage was delayed because
                  they could not reach the bridge over the river. Alban, who seemed to
                  fear that any delay might deprive him of the martyr's crown, decided to
                  cross at another point, and going down to the water's edge he prayed to
                  God and stepped into the river which he then forded without difficulty.
                  Both Gildas and Bede have accepted the tradition that this was a miracle
                  and that the waters dried up completely in answer to the saint's prayer.

                  They add that a thousand other people crossed over with him, while the
                  waters piled up on either side, and that this miracle converted the
                  appointed executioner. Still accompanied by a huge throng of people,
                  Alban climbed the hill to the place of execution. But, on his arrival
                  there, the executioner threw down his sword and refused to perform his
                  office. He said that if he were not allowed to take Alban's place then
                  he would share his martyrdom. Confessing himself to be a Christian, the
                  soldier was replaced by another. Then he took his stand beside Alban,
                  and they faced death together. Alban was beheaded first, then the
                  soldier, Saint Heraclius, was baptized in his own blood to share the
                  glory of martyrdom. The third martyr was the priest, who when he learned
                  that Alban had been arrested in his place, hurried to the court in the
                  hope of saving Alban by turning himself in.

                  According to Bede, the governor was so impressed by the miracles that
                  followed Alban's martyrdom that he immediately ended the persecutions,
                  and Bede states that these miracles were still occurring in his lifetime
                  at the intercession of England's protomartyr.

                  On the hill where these martyrdoms took place a church was later
                  erected, and, 400 years later, Offa, the king of Mercia, founded on the
                  same site the Benedictine Abbey of Saint Albans. According to
                  Constantius of Lyons, Saint Germanus of Auxerre, at the end of a mission
                  to England to combat the Pelagian heresy, chose the Church of Saint
                  Alban as the place in which to thank God for the success of his mission.
                  He brought back from England a handful of earth from the place where
                  Alban, the soldier, and the priest were martyred (Attwater,
                  Benedictines, Delaney, Encyclopaedia, Gill, Morris).

                  The Proto-Martyr of England is portrayed in art as a warrior with a
                  cross and shield. He may be depicted (1) crowned with laurel; (2) with a
                  peer's coronet, holding a crossing; (3) with his head cut off; (4) with
                  his head in a holly bush; (5) spreading his cloak under the sun; or (6)
                  as his executioner's eye drops out (Roeder). Alban is especially
                  venerated in Saint Albans and Angers (Roeder).

                  The Story of Saint Alban
                  as recounted in the
                  Ecclesiastical History of the English People
                  by the Venerable Bede [672 - 735]
                  http://www.stalbansva.org/alb.htm


                  Troparion or St Alban tone 4
                  Thy holy martyr Alban in his struggle/ has gained the crown of life, O
                  Christ our God;/ for strengthened by Thee and with a pure heart/ he
                  spoke boldly before worldly judges,/ giving up his sacred head to Thee,
                  the Judge of all.

                  Homily for the Feast of St. Alban from Aelfic's Lives of the Saints:
                  http://web.archive.org/web/20010219025644/www.nireland.com/orthodox/alban.ht
                  m
                  http://tinyurl.com/aezwa

                  Service of Commemoration of the Holy Alban of Verulamium,
                  Protomartyr of Britain
                  http://www.orthodoxengland.btinternet.co.uk/servalb.htm

                  Icons of St. Alban:
                  http://www.allmercifulsavior.com/icons/Icons-Alban.htm##1
                  http://ocafs.oca.org/FeastSaintsViewer.asp?FSID=101785
                  http://www.cybercom.net/~htm/images/a-247.jpg
                  ( Homesite:. http://www.cybercom.net/~htm/ )

                  Shrine of Saint Alban:
                  http://www.cushnieent.force9.co.uk/alban.html


                  Sr Alban's relics were enshrined at his abbey at St Albans from the late
                  eighth century until its suppression in the sixteenth. In the later tenth
                  century relics said to be his were deposited in Kцln's church of St.
                  Pantaleon, which has them still (less a bone transferred to St Albans in
                  2002) in the late twelfth-century reliquary shown here:
                  http://www.pantaleon-koeln.de/Galerie/Kirche/alban.JPG
                  http://www.pantaleon-koeln.de/Galerie/Kirche/alban1.JPG
                  http://www.pantaleon-koeln.de/Galerie/Kirche/alban2.JPG
                  http://www.pantaleon-koeln.de/Galerie/Kirche/alban3.JPG
                  http://www.pantaleon-koeln.de/Galerie/Kirche/alban4.JPG

                  A few views of St Albans Abbey:
                  http://www.pbase.com/ohsharonho2/image/24304225
                  http://www.newgreens.demon.co.uk/sta2.jpg
                  http://www.flickr.com/photos/ishida/154612997/
                  http://tinyurl.com/3bn7ka
                  The Abbey's "Virtual Visit":
                  http://www.thegrid.org.uk/learning/re/virtual/cathedral/
                  One of a fifteenth-century pair of doors made for the Abbey:
                  http://tinyurl.com/ysvpsp


                  St. Heraclius the Soldier
                  ------------------------
                  Martyred at Verulamium in Hertfordshire, together with Saint Alban and
                  the holy priest-martyr who taught St. Alban, Amphibalus (commemorated
                  25 June.)


                  St. Aaron of Brittany, Abbot
                  -------------------------------------
                  Died after 552. The Briton Saint Aaron crossed into Armorica (Brittany)
                  and lived as a hermit on the island of Cesambre, called Saint Aaron
                  until 1150 and now Saint Malo. The island was separated from Aleth by an
                  arm of the sea, which the tide at low water left dry twice daily.
                  Eventually Aaron was joined by a group of disciples and became their
                  abbot. Among the disciples was Saint Malo, who arrived from Wales about
                  the middle of the 6th century and was warmly welcomed. A parish church
                  in the diocese of Saint Brieuc bears Aaron's name (Benedictines,
                  Husenbeth).


                  Sources:
                  ========

                  Attwater, D. (1983). The Penguin Dictionary of Saints, NY:
                  Penguin Books.

                  Benedictine Monks of St. Augustine Abbey, Ramsgate.
                  (1947). The Book of Saints. NY: Macmillan.

                  Delaney, J. J. (1983). Pocket Dictionary of Saints, NY:
                  Doubleday Image.

                  Encyclopaedia of Catholic Saints, June. (1966).
                  Philadelphia: Chilton Books.

                  Gill, F. C. (1958). The Glorious Company: Lives of Great Christians
                  for Daily Devotion, vol. I. London: Epworth Press.

                  Husenbeth, Rev. F. C., DD, VG (ed.). (1928). Butler's
                  Lives of the Fathers, Martyrs, and Other Principal Saints.
                  London: Virtue & Co.

                  Morris, J. (1968). Hertfordshire Archaeology, vol. 1.

                  Roeder, H. (1956). Saints and Their Attributes, Chicago: Henry
                  Regnery.

                  For All the Saints:
                  http://www.saintpatrickdc.org/ss/ss-index.htm

                  An Alphabetical Index of the Saints of the West
                  http://www.orthodoxengland.btinternet.co.uk/saintsa.htm

                  These Lives are archived at:
                  http://groups.yahoo.com/group/celt-saints
                  *****************************************
                • ambrois@xtra.co.nz
                  Celtic and Old English Saints 22 June =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-= * St. Alban, First Martyr of Britain * St. Heraclius the Soldier * St.
                  Message 8 of 14 , Jun 21, 2011
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                    Celtic and Old English Saints 22 June

                    =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=
                    * St. Alban, First Martyr of Britain
                    * St. Heraclius the Soldier
                    * St. Aaron of Brittany
                    =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=


                    St. Alban, Proto-Martyr of Great Britain
                    ------------------------------------------------
                    3rd or 4th century. There were probably already Christians in the
                    British Isles in the first century. In fact, by the end of the second
                    century a great many of the inhabitants of southern England were
                    Christians. However, Alban is the first recorded Christian martyr of the
                    island. The traditional date of his death is 304, during the persecution
                    under the Emperor Diocletian; but many scholars now date it as early as
                    209, during the persecution under the Emperor Septimus Severus. This
                    date was derived from a study of the Turin manuscript of a "Passio
                    Albani."

                    The first known reference to him, outside the Turin manuscript, is in
                    the 5th century life of Saint Germanus of Auxerre. Gildas, writing
                    c.540, gives the core of the tradition. Saint Bede gives an amplified
                    account, which includes a lively description of the beheading and more
                    details of signs from heaven.

                    Alban was a pagan, a Roman soldier, who, during the persecution of
                    Diocletian, took pity on a fleeing Christian priest and sheltered him in
                    his own home. When he saw that the priest spent day and night in prayer,
                    he was moved by the grace of God. They spent several days talking
                    together and Alban was so impressed by the priest's sanctity and
                    devotion that he became a Christian and wanted to imitate the piety and
                    faith of his guest. Encouraged and instructed by the priest, Alban
                    renounced his idol worship and embraced Christ with his whole heart.

                    He was a leading citizen in the old Roman city of Verulamium (Verulam),
                    Hertfordshire, England, now called Saint Albans. The town was originally
                    a collection of huts of wattle and daub that stretched along Watling
                    Street, and later destroyed by the army of Boadicea, the warrior queen.

                    The history continues that the Roman governor of the city, hearing a
                    rumour that a priest was hiding in the house of Alban, sent a search
                    party of soldiers to find him. Seeing them approach, Alban took the
                    priest's cloak and put it over his own head and shoulders, and helped
                    him to escape. Thus disguised, Alban opened the door to the soldiers and
                    was arrested in mistake for the priest. He was bound in fetters and
                    brought before the governor, who was attending a sacrifice to the pagan
                    gods. When the cloak was removed and his true identity was discovered,
                    the governor was furious. He then declared himself to be a Christian,
                    whereupon the governor angrily ordered him to be taken before the altar.
                    He was threatened with all the tortures that
                    had been prepared for the priest if he did not recant.

                    Alban faced his anger calmly and, ignoring his threats, declared that he
                    could not sacrifice to the gods. Upon Alban's refusal to deny his faith,
                    the governor enquired of what family and race he was. "How can it
                    concern you to know of what stock I am?" answered Alban. "If you want to
                    know my religion, I will tell you--I am a Christian, and am bound by
                    Christian obligations." When asked his name, he replied: "I am called
                    Alban by my parents, and I worship and adore the true and living God,
                    who created all things." He was then commanded to sacrifice to the Roman
                    gods, but he refused and was cruelly scourged. Alban bore the punishment
                    with resignation, even joy. When it was seen that he could not be
                    prevailed upon to retract, he was
                    sentenced to decapitation.

                    On the way to his execution on Holmhurst Hill, the crowds that gathered
                    to honour his heroism were so great that his passage was delayed because
                    they could not reach the bridge over the river. Alban, who seemed to
                    fear that any delay might deprive him of the martyr's crown, decided to
                    cross at another point, and going down to the water's edge he prayed to
                    God and stepped into the river which he then forded without difficulty.
                    Both Gildas and Bede have accepted the tradition that this was a miracle
                    and that the waters dried up completely in answer to the saint's prayer.

                    They add that a thousand other people crossed over with him, while the
                    waters piled up on either side, and that this miracle converted the
                    appointed executioner. Still accompanied by a huge throng of people,
                    Alban climbed the hill to the place of execution. But, on his arrival
                    there, the executioner threw down his sword and refused to perform his
                    office. He said that if he were not allowed to take Alban's place then
                    he would share his martyrdom. Confessing himself to be a Christian, the
                    soldier was replaced by another. Then he took his stand beside Alban,
                    and they faced death together. Alban was beheaded first, then the
                    soldier, Saint Heraclius, was baptized in his own blood to share the
                    glory of martyrdom. The third martyr was the priest, who when he learned
                    that Alban had been arrested in his place, hurried to the court in the
                    hope of saving Alban by turning himself in.

                    According to Bede, the governor was so impressed by the miracles that
                    followed Alban's martyrdom that he immediately ended the persecutions,
                    and Bede states that these miracles were still occurring in his lifetime
                    at the intercession of England's protomartyr.

                    On the hill where these martyrdoms took place a church was later
                    erected, and, 400 years later, Offa, the king of Mercia, founded on the
                    same site the Benedictine Abbey of Saint Albans. According to
                    Constantius of Lyons, Saint Germanus of Auxerre, at the end of a mission
                    to England to combat the Pelagian heresy, chose the Church of Saint
                    Alban as the place in which to thank God for the success of his mission.
                    He brought back from England a handful of earth from the place where
                    Alban, the soldier, and the priest were martyred (Attwater,
                    Benedictines, Delaney, Encyclopaedia, Gill, Morris).

                    The Proto-Martyr of England is portrayed in art as a warrior with a
                    cross and shield. He may be depicted (1) crowned with laurel; (2) with a
                    peer's coronet, holding a crossing; (3) with his head cut off; (4) with
                    his head in a holly bush; (5) spreading his cloak under the sun; or (6)
                    as his executioner's eye drops out (Roeder). Alban is especially
                    venerated in Saint Albans and Angers (Roeder).

                    The Story of Saint Alban
                    as recounted in the
                    Ecclesiastical History of the English People
                    by the Venerable Bede [672 - 735]
                    http://www.stalbansva.org/alb.htm


                    Troparion or St Alban tone 4
                    Thy holy martyr Alban in his struggle/ has gained the crown of life, O
                    Christ our God;/ for strengthened by Thee and with a pure heart/ he
                    spoke boldly before worldly judges,/ giving up his sacred head to Thee,
                    the Judge of all.

                    Homily for the Feast of St. Alban from Aelfic's Lives of the Saints:
                    http://web.archive.org/web/20010219025644/www.nireland.com/orthodox/alban.ht
                    m
                    http://tinyurl.com/aezwa

                    Service of Commemoration of the Holy Alban of Verulamium,
                    Protomartyr of Britain
                    http://www.orthodoxengland.btinternet.co.uk/servalb.htm

                    Icons of St. Alban:
                    http://www.allmercifulsavior.com/icons/Icons-Alban.htm##1
                    http://ocafs.oca.org/FeastSaintsViewer.asp?FSID=101785
                    http://www.cybercom.net/~htm/images/a-247.jpg
                    ( Homesite:. http://www.cybercom.net/~htm/ )

                    Shrine of Saint Alban:
                    http://www.cushnieent.force9.co.uk/alban.html


                    Sr Alban's relics were enshrined at his abbey at St Albans from the late
                    eighth century until its suppression in the sixteenth. In the later tenth
                    century relics said to be his were deposited in Kцln's church of St.
                    Pantaleon, which has them still (less a bone transferred to St Albans in
                    2002) in the late twelfth-century reliquary shown here:
                    http://www.pantaleon-koeln.de/Galerie/Kirche/alban.JPG
                    http://www.pantaleon-koeln.de/Galerie/Kirche/alban1.JPG
                    http://www.pantaleon-koeln.de/Galerie/Kirche/alban2.JPG
                    http://www.pantaleon-koeln.de/Galerie/Kirche/alban3.JPG
                    http://www.pantaleon-koeln.de/Galerie/Kirche/alban4.JPG

                    A few views of St Albans Abbey:
                    http://www.pbase.com/ohsharonho2/image/24304225
                    http://www.newgreens.demon.co.uk/sta2.jpg
                    http://www.flickr.com/photos/ishida/154612997/
                    http://tinyurl.com/3bn7ka
                    The Abbey's "Virtual Visit":
                    http://www.thegrid.org.uk/learning/re/virtual/cathedral/
                    One of a fifteenth-century pair of doors made for the Abbey:
                    http://tinyurl.com/ysvpsp


                    St. Heraclius the Soldier
                    ------------------------
                    Martyred at Verulamium in Hertfordshire, together with Saint Alban and
                    the holy priest-martyr who taught St. Alban, Amphibalus (commemorated
                    25 June.)


                    St. Aaron of Brittany, Abbot
                    -------------------------------------
                    Died after 552. The Briton Saint Aaron crossed into Armorica (Brittany)
                    and lived as a hermit on the island of Cesambre, called Saint Aaron
                    until 1150 and now Saint Malo. The island was separated from Aleth by an
                    arm of the sea, which the tide at low water left dry twice daily.
                    Eventually Aaron was joined by a group of disciples and became their
                    abbot. Among the disciples was Saint Malo, who arrived from Wales about
                    the middle of the 6th century and was warmly welcomed. A parish church
                    in the diocese of Saint Brieuc bears Aaron's name (Benedictines,
                    Husenbeth).


                    Sources:
                    ========

                    Attwater, D. (1983). The Penguin Dictionary of Saints, NY:
                    Penguin Books.

                    Benedictine Monks of St. Augustine Abbey, Ramsgate.
                    (1947). The Book of Saints. NY: Macmillan.

                    Delaney, J. J. (1983). Pocket Dictionary of Saints, NY:
                    Doubleday Image.

                    Encyclopaedia of Catholic Saints, June. (1966).
                    Philadelphia: Chilton Books.

                    Gill, F. C. (1958). The Glorious Company: Lives of Great Christians
                    for Daily Devotion, vol. I. London: Epworth Press.

                    Husenbeth, Rev. F. C., DD, VG (ed.). (1928). Butler's
                    Lives of the Fathers, Martyrs, and Other Principal Saints.
                    London: Virtue & Co.

                    Morris, J. (1968). Hertfordshire Archaeology, vol. 1.

                    Roeder, H. (1956). Saints and Their Attributes, Chicago: Henry
                    Regnery.

                    For All the Saints:
                    http://www.saintpatrickdc.org/ss/ss-index.htm

                    An Alphabetical Index of the Saints of the West
                    http://www.orthodoxengland.btinternet.co.uk/saintsa.htm

                    These Lives are archived at:
                    http://groups.yahoo.com/group/celt-saints
                    *****************************************
                  • ambrois@xtra.co.nz
                    Celtic and Old English Saints 22 June =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-= * St. Alban, First Martyr of Britain * St. Heraclius the Soldier * St.
                    Message 9 of 14 , Jun 22, 2012
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                      Celtic and Old English Saints 22 June

                      =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=
                      * St. Alban, First Martyr of Britain
                      * St. Heraclius the Soldier
                      * St. Aaron of Brittany
                      =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=


                      St. Alban, Proto-Martyr of Great Britain
                      ------------------------------------------------
                      3rd or 4th century. There were probably already Christians in the
                      British Isles in the first century. In fact, by the end of the second
                      century a great many of the inhabitants of southern England were
                      Christians. However, Alban is the first recorded Christian martyr of the
                      island. The traditional date of his death is 304, during the persecution
                      under the Emperor Diocletian; but many scholars now date it as early as
                      209, during the persecution under the Emperor Septimus Severus. This
                      date was derived from a study of the Turin manuscript of a "Passio
                      Albani."

                      The first known reference to him, outside the Turin manuscript, is in
                      the 5th century life of Saint Germanus of Auxerre. Gildas, writing
                      c.540, gives the core of the tradition. Saint Bede gives an amplified
                      account, which includes a lively description of the beheading and more
                      details of signs from heaven.

                      Alban was a pagan, a Roman soldier, who, during the persecution of
                      Diocletian, took pity on a fleeing Christian priest and sheltered him in
                      his own home. When he saw that the priest spent day and night in prayer,
                      he was moved by the grace of God. They spent several days talking
                      together and Alban was so impressed by the priest's sanctity and
                      devotion that he became a Christian and wanted to imitate the piety and
                      faith of his guest. Encouraged and instructed by the priest, Alban
                      renounced his idol worship and embraced Christ with his whole heart.

                      He was a leading citizen in the old Roman city of Verulamium (Verulam),
                      Hertfordshire, England, now called Saint Albans. The town was originally
                      a collection of huts of wattle and daub that stretched along Watling
                      Street, and later destroyed by the army of Boadicea, the warrior queen.

                      The history continues that the Roman governor of the city, hearing a
                      rumour that a priest was hiding in the house of Alban, sent a search
                      party of soldiers to find him. Seeing them approach, Alban took the
                      priest's cloak and put it over his own head and shoulders, and helped
                      him to escape. Thus disguised, Alban opened the door to the soldiers and
                      was arrested in mistake for the priest. He was bound in fetters and
                      brought before the governor, who was attending a sacrifice to the pagan
                      gods. When the cloak was removed and his true identity was discovered,
                      the governor was furious. He then declared himself to be a Christian,
                      whereupon the governor angrily ordered him to be taken before the altar.
                      He was threatened with all the tortures that
                      had been prepared for the priest if he did not recant.

                      Alban faced his anger calmly and, ignoring his threats, declared that he
                      could not sacrifice to the gods. Upon Alban's refusal to deny his faith,
                      the governor enquired of what family and race he was. "How can it
                      concern you to know of what stock I am?" answered Alban. "If you want to
                      know my religion, I will tell you--I am a Christian, and am bound by
                      Christian obligations." When asked his name, he replied: "I am called
                      Alban by my parents, and I worship and adore the true and living God,
                      who created all things." He was then commanded to sacrifice to the Roman
                      gods, but he refused and was cruelly scourged. Alban bore the punishment
                      with resignation, even joy. When it was seen that he could not be
                      prevailed upon to retract, he was
                      sentenced to decapitation.

                      On the way to his execution on Holmhurst Hill, the crowds that gathered
                      to honour his heroism were so great that his passage was delayed because
                      they could not reach the bridge over the river. Alban, who seemed to
                      fear that any delay might deprive him of the martyr's crown, decided to
                      cross at another point, and going down to the water's edge he prayed to
                      God and stepped into the river which he then forded without difficulty.
                      Both Gildas and Bede have accepted the tradition that this was a miracle
                      and that the waters dried up completely in answer to the saint's prayer.

                      They add that a thousand other people crossed over with him, while the
                      waters piled up on either side, and that this miracle converted the
                      appointed executioner. Still accompanied by a huge throng of people,
                      Alban climbed the hill to the place of execution. But, on his arrival
                      there, the executioner threw down his sword and refused to perform his
                      office. He said that if he were not allowed to take Alban's place then
                      he would share his martyrdom. Confessing himself to be a Christian, the
                      soldier was replaced by another. Then he took his stand beside Alban,
                      and they faced death together. Alban was beheaded first, then the
                      soldier, Saint Heraclius, was baptized in his own blood to share the
                      glory of martyrdom. The third martyr was the priest, who when he learned
                      that Alban had been arrested in his place, hurried to the court in the
                      hope of saving Alban by turning himself in.

                      According to Bede, the governor was so impressed by the miracles that
                      followed Alban's martyrdom that he immediately ended the persecutions,
                      and Bede states that these miracles were still occurring in his lifetime
                      at the intercession of England's protomartyr.

                      On the hill where these martyrdoms took place a church was later
                      erected, and, 400 years later, Offa, the king of Mercia, founded on the
                      same site the Benedictine Abbey of Saint Albans. According to
                      Constantius of Lyons, Saint Germanus of Auxerre, at the end of a mission
                      to England to combat the Pelagian heresy, chose the Church of Saint
                      Alban as the place in which to thank God for the success of his mission.
                      He brought back from England a handful of earth from the place where
                      Alban, the soldier, and the priest were martyred (Attwater,
                      Benedictines, Delaney, Encyclopaedia, Gill, Morris).

                      The Proto-Martyr of England is portrayed in art as a warrior with a
                      cross and shield. He may be depicted (1) crowned with laurel; (2) with a
                      peer's coronet, holding a crossing; (3) with his head cut off; (4) with
                      his head in a holly bush; (5) spreading his cloak under the sun; or (6)
                      as his executioner's eye drops out (Roeder). Alban is especially
                      venerated in Saint Albans and Angers (Roeder).

                      The Story of Saint Alban
                      as recounted in the
                      Ecclesiastical History of the English People
                      by the Venerable Bede [672 - 735]
                      http://www.stalbansva.org/alb.htm


                      Troparion or St Alban tone 4
                      Thy holy martyr Alban in his struggle/ has gained the crown of life, O
                      Christ our God;/ for strengthened by Thee and with a pure heart/ he
                      spoke boldly before worldly judges,/ giving up his sacred head to Thee,
                      the Judge of all.

                      Homily for the Feast of St. Alban from Aelfic's Lives of the Saints:
                      http://web.archive.org/web/20010219025644/www.nireland.com/orthodox/alban.ht
                      m
                      http://tinyurl.com/aezwa

                      Service of Commemoration of the Holy Alban of Verulamium,
                      Protomartyr of Britain
                      http://www.orthodoxengland.btinternet.co.uk/servalb.htm

                      Icons of St. Alban:
                      http://www.allmercifulsavior.com/icons/Icons-Alban.htm##1
                      http://ocafs.oca.org/FeastSaintsViewer.asp?FSID=101785
                      http://www.cybercom.net/~htm/images/a-247.jpg
                      ( Homesite:. http://www.cybercom.net/~htm/ )

                      Shrine of Saint Alban:
                      http://www.cushnieent.force9.co.uk/alban.html


                      Sr Alban's relics were enshrined at his abbey at St Albans from the late
                      eighth century until its suppression in the sixteenth. In the later tenth
                      century relics said to be his were deposited in Kцln's church of St.
                      Pantaleon, which has them still (less a bone transferred to St Albans in
                      2002) in the late twelfth-century reliquary shown here:
                      http://www.pantaleon-koeln.de/Galerie/Kirche/alban.JPG
                      http://www.pantaleon-koeln.de/Galerie/Kirche/alban1.JPG
                      http://www.pantaleon-koeln.de/Galerie/Kirche/alban2.JPG
                      http://www.pantaleon-koeln.de/Galerie/Kirche/alban3.JPG
                      http://www.pantaleon-koeln.de/Galerie/Kirche/alban4.JPG

                      A few views of St Albans Abbey:
                      http://www.pbase.com/ohsharonho2/image/24304225
                      http://www.newgreens.demon.co.uk/sta2.jpg
                      http://www.flickr.com/photos/ishida/154612997/
                      http://tinyurl.com/3bn7ka
                      The Abbey's "Virtual Visit":
                      http://www.thegrid.org.uk/learning/re/virtual/cathedral/
                      One of a fifteenth-century pair of doors made for the Abbey:
                      http://tinyurl.com/ysvpsp


                      St. Heraclius the Soldier
                      ------------------------
                      Martyred at Verulamium in Hertfordshire, together with Saint Alban and
                      the holy priest-martyr who taught St. Alban, Amphibalus (commemorated
                      25 June.)


                      St. Aaron of Brittany, Abbot
                      -------------------------------------
                      Died after 552. The Briton Saint Aaron crossed into Armorica (Brittany)
                      and lived as a hermit on the island of Cesambre, called Saint Aaron
                      until 1150 and now Saint Malo. The island was separated from Aleth by an
                      arm of the sea, which the tide at low water left dry twice daily.
                      Eventually Aaron was joined by a group of disciples and became their
                      abbot. Among the disciples was Saint Malo, who arrived from Wales about
                      the middle of the 6th century and was warmly welcomed. A parish church
                      in the diocese of Saint Brieuc bears Aaron's name (Benedictines,
                      Husenbeth).


                      Sources:
                      ========

                      Attwater, D. (1983). The Penguin Dictionary of Saints, NY:
                      Penguin Books.

                      Benedictine Monks of St. Augustine Abbey, Ramsgate.
                      (1947). The Book of Saints. NY: Macmillan.

                      Delaney, J. J. (1983). Pocket Dictionary of Saints, NY:
                      Doubleday Image.

                      Encyclopaedia of Catholic Saints, June. (1966).
                      Philadelphia: Chilton Books.

                      Gill, F. C. (1958). The Glorious Company: Lives of Great Christians
                      for Daily Devotion, vol. I. London: Epworth Press.

                      Husenbeth, Rev. F. C., DD, VG (ed.). (1928). Butler's
                      Lives of the Fathers, Martyrs, and Other Principal Saints.
                      London: Virtue & Co.

                      Morris, J. (1968). Hertfordshire Archaeology, vol. 1.

                      Roeder, H. (1956). Saints and Their Attributes, Chicago: Henry
                      Regnery.

                      For All the Saints:
                      http://www.saintpatrickdc.org/ss/ss-index.htm

                      An Alphabetical Index of the Saints of the West
                      http://www.orthodoxengland.btinternet.co.uk/saintsa.htm

                      These Lives are archived at:
                      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/celt-saints
                      *****************************************
                    • ambrois@xtra.co.nz
                      Celtic and Old English Saints 22 June =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-= * St. Alban, First Martyr of Britain * St. Heraclius the Soldier * St.
                      Message 10 of 14 , Jun 23, 2013
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                        Celtic and Old English Saints 22 June

                        =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=
                        * St. Alban, First Martyr of Britain
                        * St. Heraclius the Soldier
                        * St. Aaron of Brittany
                        =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=


                        St. Alban, Proto-Martyr of Great Britain
                        ------------------------------------------------
                        3rd or 4th century. There were probably already Christians in the
                        British Isles in the first century. In fact, by the end of the second
                        century a great many of the inhabitants of southern England were
                        Christians. However, Alban is the first recorded Christian martyr of the
                        island. The traditional date of his death is 304, during the persecution
                        under the Emperor Diocletian; but many scholars now date it as early as
                        209, during the persecution under the Emperor Septimus Severus. This
                        date was derived from a study of the Turin manuscript of a "Passio
                        Albani."

                        The first known reference to him, outside the Turin manuscript, is in
                        the 5th century life of Saint Germanus of Auxerre. Gildas, writing
                        c.540, gives the core of the tradition. Saint Bede gives an amplified
                        account, which includes a lively description of the beheading and more
                        details of signs from heaven.

                        Alban was a pagan, a Roman soldier, who, during the persecution of
                        Diocletian, took pity on a fleeing Christian priest and sheltered him in
                        his own home. When he saw that the priest spent day and night in prayer,
                        he was moved by the grace of God. They spent several days talking
                        together and Alban was so impressed by the priest's sanctity and
                        devotion that he became a Christian and wanted to imitate the piety and
                        faith of his guest. Encouraged and instructed by the priest, Alban
                        renounced his idol worship and embraced Christ with his whole heart.

                        He was a leading citizen in the old Roman city of Verulamium (Verulam),
                        Hertfordshire, England, now called Saint Albans. The town was originally
                        a collection of huts of wattle and daub that stretched along Watling
                        Street, and later destroyed by the army of Boadicea, the warrior queen.

                        The history continues that the Roman governor of the city, hearing a
                        rumour that a priest was hiding in the house of Alban, sent a search
                        party of soldiers to find him. Seeing them approach, Alban took the
                        priest's cloak and put it over his own head and shoulders, and helped
                        him to escape. Thus disguised, Alban opened the door to the soldiers and
                        was arrested in mistake for the priest. He was bound in fetters and
                        brought before the governor, who was attending a sacrifice to the pagan
                        gods. When the cloak was removed and his true identity was discovered,
                        the governor was furious. He then declared himself to be a Christian,
                        whereupon the governor angrily ordered him to be taken before the altar.
                        He was threatened with all the tortures that
                        had been prepared for the priest if he did not recant.

                        Alban faced his anger calmly and, ignoring his threats, declared that he
                        could not sacrifice to the gods. Upon Alban's refusal to deny his faith,
                        the governor enquired of what family and race he was. "How can it
                        concern you to know of what stock I am?" answered Alban. "If you want to
                        know my religion, I will tell you--I am a Christian, and am bound by
                        Christian obligations." When asked his name, he replied: "I am called
                        Alban by my parents, and I worship and adore the true and living God,
                        who created all things." He was then commanded to sacrifice to the Roman
                        gods, but he refused and was cruelly scourged. Alban bore the punishment
                        with resignation, even joy. When it was seen that he could not be
                        prevailed upon to retract, he was
                        sentenced to decapitation.

                        On the way to his execution on Holmhurst Hill, the crowds that gathered
                        to honour his heroism were so great that his passage was delayed because
                        they could not reach the bridge over the river. Alban, who seemed to
                        fear that any delay might deprive him of the martyr's crown, decided to
                        cross at another point, and going down to the water's edge he prayed to
                        God and stepped into the river which he then forded without difficulty.
                        Both Gildas and Bede have accepted the tradition that this was a miracle
                        and that the waters dried up completely in answer to the saint's prayer.

                        They add that a thousand other people crossed over with him, while the
                        waters piled up on either side, and that this miracle converted the
                        appointed executioner. Still accompanied by a huge throng of people,
                        Alban climbed the hill to the place of execution. But, on his arrival
                        there, the executioner threw down his sword and refused to perform his
                        office. He said that if he were not allowed to take Alban's place then
                        he would share his martyrdom. Confessing himself to be a Christian, the
                        soldier was replaced by another. Then he took his stand beside Alban,
                        and they faced death together. Alban was beheaded first, then the
                        soldier, Saint Heraclius, was baptized in his own blood to share the
                        glory of martyrdom. The third martyr was the priest, who when he learned
                        that Alban had been arrested in his place, hurried to the court in the
                        hope of saving Alban by turning himself in.

                        According to Bede, the governor was so impressed by the miracles that
                        followed Alban's martyrdom that he immediately ended the persecutions,
                        and Bede states that these miracles were still occurring in his lifetime
                        at the intercession of England's protomartyr.

                        On the hill where these martyrdoms took place a church was later
                        erected, and, 400 years later, Offa, the king of Mercia, founded on the
                        same site the Benedictine Abbey of Saint Albans. According to
                        Constantius of Lyons, Saint Germanus of Auxerre, at the end of a mission
                        to England to combat the Pelagian heresy, chose the Church of Saint
                        Alban as the place in which to thank God for the success of his mission.
                        He brought back from England a handful of earth from the place where
                        Alban, the soldier, and the priest were martyred (Attwater,
                        Benedictines, Delaney, Encyclopaedia, Gill, Morris).

                        The Proto-Martyr of England is portrayed in art as a warrior with a
                        cross and shield. He may be depicted (1) crowned with laurel; (2) with a
                        peer's coronet, holding a crossing; (3) with his head cut off; (4) with
                        his head in a holly bush; (5) spreading his cloak under the sun; or (6)
                        as his executioner's eye drops out (Roeder). Alban is especially
                        venerated in Saint Albans and Angers (Roeder).

                        The Story of Saint Alban
                        as recounted in the
                        Ecclesiastical History of the English People
                        by the Venerable Bede [672 - 735]
                        http://www.stalbansva.org/alb.htm


                        Troparion or St Alban tone 4
                        Thy holy martyr Alban in his struggle/ has gained the crown of life, O
                        Christ our God;/ for strengthened by Thee and with a pure heart/ he
                        spoke boldly before worldly judges,/ giving up his sacred head to Thee,
                        the Judge of all.

                        Homily for the Feast of St. Alban from Aelfic's Lives of the Saints:
                        http://web.archive.org/web/20010219025644/www.nireland.com/orthodox/alban.ht
                        m
                        http://tinyurl.com/aezwa

                        Service of Commemoration of the Holy Alban of Verulamium,
                        Protomartyr of Britain
                        http://www.orthodoxengland.btinternet.co.uk/servalb.htm

                        Icons of St. Alban:
                        http://www.allmercifulsavior.com/icons/Icons-Alban.htm##1
                        http://ocafs.oca.org/FeastSaintsViewer.asp?FSID=101785
                        http://www.cybercom.net/~htm/images/a-247.jpg
                        ( Homesite:. http://www.cybercom.net/~htm/ )

                        Shrine of Saint Alban:
                        http://www.cushnieent.force9.co.uk/alban.html


                        Sr Alban's relics were enshrined at his abbey at St Albans from the late
                        eighth century until its suppression in the sixteenth. In the later tenth
                        century relics said to be his were deposited in Kцln's church of St.
                        Pantaleon, which has them still (less a bone transferred to St Albans in
                        2002) in the late twelfth-century reliquary shown here:
                        http://www.pantaleon-koeln.de/Galerie/Kirche/alban.JPG
                        http://www.pantaleon-koeln.de/Galerie/Kirche/alban1.JPG
                        http://www.pantaleon-koeln.de/Galerie/Kirche/alban2.JPG
                        http://www.pantaleon-koeln.de/Galerie/Kirche/alban3.JPG
                        http://www.pantaleon-koeln.de/Galerie/Kirche/alban4.JPG

                        A few views of St Albans Abbey:
                        http://www.pbase.com/ohsharonho2/image/24304225
                        http://www.newgreens.demon.co.uk/sta2.jpg
                        http://www.flickr.com/photos/ishida/154612997/
                        http://tinyurl.com/3bn7ka
                        The Abbey's "Virtual Visit":
                        http://www.thegrid.org.uk/learning/re/virtual/cathedral/
                        One of a fifteenth-century pair of doors made for the Abbey:
                        http://tinyurl.com/ysvpsp


                        St. Heraclius the Soldier
                        ------------------------
                        Martyred at Verulamium in Hertfordshire, together with Saint Alban and
                        the holy priest-martyr who taught St. Alban, Amphibalus (commemorated
                        25 June.)


                        St. Aaron of Brittany, Abbot
                        -------------------------------------
                        Died after 552. The Briton Saint Aaron crossed into Armorica (Brittany)
                        and lived as a hermit on the island of Cesambre, called Saint Aaron
                        until 1150 and now Saint Malo. The island was separated from Aleth by an
                        arm of the sea, which the tide at low water left dry twice daily.
                        Eventually Aaron was joined by a group of disciples and became their
                        abbot. Among the disciples was Saint Malo, who arrived from Wales about
                        the middle of the 6th century and was warmly welcomed. A parish church
                        in the diocese of Saint Brieuc bears Aaron's name (Benedictines,
                        Husenbeth).


                        Sources:
                        ========

                        Attwater, D. (1983). The Penguin Dictionary of Saints, NY:
                        Penguin Books.

                        Benedictine Monks of St. Augustine Abbey, Ramsgate.
                        (1947). The Book of Saints. NY: Macmillan.

                        Delaney, J. J. (1983). Pocket Dictionary of Saints, NY:
                        Doubleday Image.

                        Encyclopaedia of Catholic Saints, June. (1966).
                        Philadelphia: Chilton Books.

                        Gill, F. C. (1958). The Glorious Company: Lives of Great Christians
                        for Daily Devotion, vol. I. London: Epworth Press.

                        Husenbeth, Rev. F. C., DD, VG (ed.). (1928). Butler's
                        Lives of the Fathers, Martyrs, and Other Principal Saints.
                        London: Virtue & Co.

                        Morris, J. (1968). Hertfordshire Archaeology, vol. 1.

                        Roeder, H. (1956). Saints and Their Attributes, Chicago: Henry
                        Regnery.

                        For All the Saints: - new active link
                        http://www.saintpatrickdc.org/ss/saint_a.shtml

                        Orthodox Ireland Saints
                        http://tinyurl.com/ysvzbh

                        An Alphabetical Index of the Saints of the West - new active link
                        http://orthodoxengland.org.uk/saintsa.htm

                        These Lives are archived at:
                        http://groups.yahoo.com/group/celt-saints
                        *****************************************
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