Loading ...
Sorry, an error occurred while loading the content.

3 February #1

Expand Messages
  • ambrós
    Celtic and Old English Saints 3 February =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-= * St. Ia of Cornwall * St. Colman of Kilmacduagh (see #2) *
    Message 1 of 11 , Feb 2, 2003
    • 0 Attachment
      Celtic and Old English Saints 3 February

      =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=
      * St. Ia of Cornwall
      * St. Colman of Kilmacduagh (see #2)
      * St. Anatolius of Salins
      * St. Caellainn
      * St. Werburg of Mercia
      * St. Werburga of Chester
      =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=


      St. Ia of Cornwall, Virgin and Martyr
      (Hia, Hya, Iia; Ives)
      -----------------------------------------------------------
      Died 6th century or 450 (sources are evenly split between the two
      dates); another feast on October 27. According to the late medieval
      legend, the sister of Saints Ercus (or Euny; f.d. October 31) and
      Herygh, Saint Ia, was a holy maiden who came from Ireland to
      Cornwall--sailing on a leaf that grew to accommodate her--and landed and
      settled at the mouth of the Hayle River where Saint Ives, formerly
      called Porth Ia, now stands. She is said to have crossed with Saints
      Fingar, Phiala, and other missionaries (f.d. December 14). In Cornwall
      she erected a cell where she lived the life of prayer and austerities.
      This version relates that Ia suffered martyrdom in Cornwall at the mouth
      of the Hayle River. Leland saw her "vita" at Saint Ives, which depicted
      her as a noble of Saint Barricus; a church was built at her request by
      Dinan, a great lord of Cornwall.
      Breton tradition makes her a convert of Saint Patrick, and says that she
      went to Armorica with 777 disciples, where she was
      martyred. She is the eponym of Plouye, near Carhaix. Do not confuse her
      with Saint Ives (f.d. April 24) of Saint Ives, Huntingdonshire
      (Attwater, Attwater2, Benedictines, Coulson, D'Arcy, Farmer, Montague,
      Moran).

      Troparion of St Ia tone 5
      Thy life and mission/ were pleasing to God, most pious Ia,/ for seeing
      thee left behind in Ireland,/ He miraculously transported thee across
      the sea to Cornwall on a leaf./ Wherefore O Saint, pray to God for us/
      that we may never give way to despair/ but ever trust in His great
      mercy.

      Kontakion of St Ia tone 8
      By a miracle, God showed that the first should be last and the last,
      first, O righteous Ia,/ and therefore we look to thee as a symbol of
      Gospel truth,/ ever praising thy illustrious memory.


      St. Anatolius of Salins, Bishop
      -----------------------------------------------------------
      (9th? or) 11th century. A Scottish or Irish bishop who went as a pilgrim
      to Rome and settled as a hermit at Salins in the diocese of Besancon,
      Burgundy, about 1029. He lived the rest of life in a mountain retreat
      overlooking a favourite stopover of Irish pilgrims near the oratory of
      Saint Symphorian. At a later date a church was built in his honour at
      Salins. His biographer said that it would be impossible to enumerate all
      the miracles he worked in his lifetime (Benedictines, D'Arcy, Kenney,
      O'Hanlon).


      St. Caellainn (Caoilfionn), Virgin
      -----------------------------------------------------------
      6th century. An Irish saint listed in the Martyrology of Donegal. A
      church in Roscommon perpetuates her name (Benedictines).


      St. Werburg of Mercia
      -----------------------------------------------------------
      Died c. 785. When Ceolred of Mercia died, his wife Werburg retired to a
      convent (Bardney?) of which she became abbess (Benedictines).


      St. Werburga of Chester
      (Werburg, Werebrurge, Werbyrgh)
      -----------------------------------------------------------
      Born at Stone, Staffordshire, England; died at Threckingham, England, c.
      690-700; feast of her translation at Chester, June 21.

      The patroness of Chester, England, Saint Werburga, was born of a line of
      kings, being a daughter of Wulfhere, King of Mercia. From her mother,
      the saintly Ermingilde (Ermenilda; f.d. February 13), she learned as a
      child the Christian faith. By temperament she was pious and virtuous,
      and her beauty attracted many admirers, among them a prince of the West
      Saxons, who offered her rich gifts and made flattering proposals, and
      also Werbode, a powerful knight of her father's court. But refusing all
      her suitors, she secured, after much persuasion, her father's permission
      to enter a convent (or she did so after her father's death).

      When the time came, he and his courtiers escorted her in great state to
      the abbey of Ely, where they were greeted at the gates by her aunt, the
      royal abbess, Ethelreda (f.d. June 23), and her nuns. Werburga fell upon
      her knees and asked that she might be received as a novice, and to the
      chanting of the "Te Deum" they entered the cloister, where she was
      stripped of her costly apparel, exchanged her coronet for a veil, and in
      a rough habit began her new life.

      She made good progress, and after many years, at the request of her
      uncle, King Ethelred, was chosen to superintend all the convents of his
      kingdom. This opened to her a large and fruitful sphere of duty, and the
      religious houses under her care became models of monastic discipline.
      Through the wealth and influence of her family she also founded new
      convents at Trentham in Staffordshire, Hanbury near Tutbury, and Weedon
      in Northamptonshire, and secured the interest of Ethelred in
      establishing the collegiate Church of Saint John the Baptist in Chester,
      and in giving land to Egwin (f.d. December 30) for the great abbey of
      Evesham.

      Werburga won many from dissipation and vice, and God crowned her life
      with many blessings. Her work was deeply rooted in prayer and
      discipline. She took but one meal daily and that only of the coarsest
      food; she set before her the example of the desert fathers; and she
      recited the whole of the Psalter daily upon her knees.

      She lived to a ripe age, and before her death she journeyed to all her
      convents, paying to each a farewell visit; she then retired to Trentham
      (Threckingham in Lincolnshire), where she died. She was buried in the
      monastery of Hanbury in Staffordshire. Later, her remains were
      transferred with great ceremony in the presence of King Coolred and many
      bishops to a costly shrine in Leicester, which attracted many pilgrims.

      In 875, for fear of the Danes, her relics were removed to Chester. In
      1095, they were translated within Chester, where in the course of time a
      great church, now the cathedral, was built over it, and where the
      remains of it may still be seen, carved with the figures of her
      ancestors, the ancient kings of Mercia. On its four sides the deep
      niches remain, where the pilgrims knelt, seeking healing, afterwards
      receiving a metal token to show that they had visited her shrine. This
      final translation was the occasion for Goselin to write her "vita." Her
      magnificent shrine was in the Lady Chapel until it was despoiled in the
      sixteenth century by those oddly called Reformers, and her church was
      made the Cathedral Church of Christ and the Blessed Virgin. Some of the
      stones from the base of the shrine were used to make a bishop's throne,
      but they were restored in 1888 and now stand on their original site
      behind the high altar. Twelve ancient English churches were dedicated to
      her, including Hanbury and Chester (Attwater, Benedictines,
      Encyclopaedia, Farmer, Gill).

      In art Saint Werburga holds the abbey, while her crown lays at her feet.
      Sometimes there are wild geese near her (Roeder), because, according to
      Goselin she restored one to life (see below); however, the writer
      borrowed the story from his own "vita" of the Flemish Saint Amelburga
      (Farmer). She is, of course, the patroness of Chester (Roeder).

      William of Malmesbury writes this of a local miracle wrought by Saint
      Werburga:

      "It was in the city of Chester that the girl Werburga, daughter of
      Wulfhere, King of Mercia, and Ermenilda . . . took her vows, and her
      goodness shone for many years. The story of one miracle done by her I
      now shall tell, which made a great stir and was long told about the
      countryside.

      "She had a farm outside the walls, where the wild geese would come and
      destroy the standing corn in the fields. The stewart in charge of the
      farm took all shifts to drive them off, but with small success. And so,
      when he came to wait upon his lady, he added his complaint of them to
      the other tales he would tell her of the day.

      "'Go,' said she, 'and shut them all into a house.' The
      countryman,mbfounded at the oddness of the command, thought that his
      lady was jesting: but finding her serious and insistent, went back to
      the field where he had first spied the miscreants, and bade them,
      speaking loud and clear, to do their lady's bidding and come after him.
      Whereupon with one accord they gathered themselves into a flock, and
      walking with down-bent necks after their enemy, were shut up under a
      roof. On one of them, however, the rustic, with no thought of any to
      accuse him, made bold to dine.

      "At dawn came the maid, and after scolding the birds for pillaging other
      people's property, bade them take their flight. But the winged creatures
      knew that one of their company was missing; nor did they lack wit to go
      circling round their lady's feet, refusing to budge further, and
      complaining as best they could, to excite her compassion. She, through
      God's revealing, and convinced that all this clamour was not without
      cause, turned her gaze upon the steward, and divined the theft.

      "She bade him gather up the bones and bring them to her. And
      straightway, at a healing sign from the girl's hand, skin and flesh
      began to come upon the bones, and feathers to fledge upon the skin, till
      the living bird, at first with eager hop and soon upon the wing,
      launched itself into the air. Nor were the others slow to follow it,
      their numbers now complete, though first they made obeisance to their
      lady and deliverer.

      "And so the merits of this maid are told at Chester, and her miracles
      extolled. Yet though she be generous and swift to answer all men's
      prayers, yet most gracious is her footfall among the women and boys, who
      pray as it might be to a neighbour and a woman of their own countryside"
      (Malmesbury).


      Sources:
      =====

      Attwater, D. (1983). The Penguin Dictionary of Saints, 2nd edition,
      revised and updated by Catherine Rachel John. New York: Penguin Books.

      Benedictine Monks of St. Augustine Abbey, Ramsgate. (1966). The Book of
      Saints. NY: Thomas Y. Crowell. Benedictine Monks of St. Augustine Abbey,
      Ramsgate. (1947).

      Coulson, J. (ed.). (1960). The Saints: A Concise Biographical
      Dictionary. New York: Hawthorn Books.

      D'Arcy, M. R. (1974). The Saints of Ireland. Saint Paul, Minnesota:
      Irish American Cultural Institute. [This is probably the most useful
      book to choose to own on the Irish saints. The author provides a great
      deal of historical context in which to place the lives of the saints.]

      Farmer, D. H. (1997). The Oxford Dictionary of Saints. Oxford: Oxford
      University Press.

      Gill, F. C. (1958). The Glorious Company: Lives of Great Christians for
      daily devotion, vol. I. London: Epworth Press.

      Kenney, J. F. (1929). Sources for Early History of Ireland, vol. 1,
      Ecclesiastical. New York: Columbia University Press.

      Montague, H. P. (1981). The Saints and Martyrs of Ireland. Guildford:
      Billing & Sons.

      Moran, P. Card. (1879). Irish Saints in Great Britain.

      O'Hanlon, J. (1875). Lives of Irish saints, 10 vol. Dublin.

      For All the Saints:
      http://users.erols.com/saintpat/ss/ss-index.htm

      Celtic Orthodox Christianity Home Page
      http://www.orthodoxireland.com/celtic.htm

      These Lives are archived at:
      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/celt-saints
      *****************************************
    • emrys@globe.net.nz
      Celtic and Old English Saints 3 February =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-= * St. Ia of Cornwall * St. Colman of Kilmacduagh (see #2) *
      Message 2 of 11 , Feb 1, 2004
      • 0 Attachment
        Celtic and Old English Saints 3 February

        =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=
        * St. Ia of Cornwall
        * St. Colman of Kilmacduagh (see #2)
        * St. Anatolius of Salins
        * St. Caellainn
        * St. Werburg of Mercia
        * St. Werburga of Chester
        =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=


        St. Ia of Cornwall, Virgin and Martyr
        (Hia, Hya, Iia; Ives)
        -----------------------------------------------------------
        Died 6th century or 450 (sources are evenly split between the two
        dates); another feast on October 27. According to the late medieval
        legend, the sister of Saints Ercus (or Euny; f.d. October 31) and
        Herygh, Saint Ia, was a holy maiden who came from Ireland to
        Cornwall--sailing on a leaf that grew to accommodate her--and landed and
        settled at the mouth of the Hayle River where Saint Ives, formerly
        called Porth Ia, now stands. She is said to have crossed with Saints
        Fingar, Phiala, and other missionaries (f.d. December 14). In Cornwall
        she erected a cell where she lived the life of prayer and austerities.
        This version relates that Ia suffered martyrdom in Cornwall at the mouth
        of the Hayle River. Leland saw her "vita" at Saint Ives, which depicted
        her as a noble of Saint Barricus; a church was built at her request by
        Dinan, a great lord of Cornwall.
        Breton tradition makes her a convert of Saint Patrick, and says that she
        went to Armorica with 777 disciples, where she was
        martyred. She is the eponym of Plouye, near Carhaix. Do not confuse her
        with Saint Ives (f.d. April 24) of Saint Ives, Huntingdonshire
        (Attwater, Attwater2, Benedictines, Coulson, D'Arcy, Farmer, Montague,
        Moran).

        Troparion of St Ia tone 5
        Thy life and mission/ were pleasing to God, most pious Ia,/ for seeing
        thee left behind in Ireland,/ He miraculously transported thee across
        the sea to Cornwall on a leaf./ Wherefore O Saint, pray to God for us/
        that we may never give way to despair/ but ever trust in His great
        mercy.

        Kontakion of St Ia tone 8
        By a miracle, God showed that the first should be last and the last,
        first, O righteous Ia,/ and therefore we look to thee as a symbol of
        Gospel truth,/ ever praising thy illustrious memory.


        St. Anatolius of Salins, Bishop
        -----------------------------------------------------------
        (9th? or) 11th century. A Scottish or Irish bishop who went as a pilgrim
        to Rome and settled as a hermit at Salins in the diocese of Besancon,
        Burgundy, about 1029. He lived the rest of life in a mountain retreat
        overlooking a favourite stopover of Irish pilgrims near the oratory of
        Saint Symphorian. At a later date a church was built in his honour at
        Salins. His biographer said that it would be impossible to enumerate all
        the miracles he worked in his lifetime (Benedictines, D'Arcy, Kenney,
        O'Hanlon).


        St. Caellainn (Caoilfionn), Virgin
        -----------------------------------------------------------
        6th century. An Irish saint listed in the Martyrology of Donegal. A
        church in Roscommon perpetuates her name (Benedictines).


        St. Werburg of Mercia
        -----------------------------------------------------------
        Died c. 785. When Ceolred of Mercia died, his wife Werburg retired to a
        convent (Bardney?) of which she became abbess (Benedictines).


        St. Werburga of Chester
        (Werburg, Werebrurge, Werbyrgh)
        -----------------------------------------------------------
        Born at Stone, Staffordshire, England; died at Threckingham, England, c.
        690-700; feast of her translation at Chester, June 21.

        The patroness of Chester, England, Saint Werburga, was born of a line of
        kings, being a daughter of Wulfhere, King of Mercia. From her mother,
        the saintly Ermingilde (Ermenilda; f.d. February 13), she learned as a
        child the Christian faith. By temperament she was pious and virtuous,
        and her beauty attracted many admirers, among them a prince of the West
        Saxons, who offered her rich gifts and made flattering proposals, and
        also Werbode, a powerful knight of her father's court. But refusing all
        her suitors, she secured, after much persuasion, her father's permission
        to enter a convent (or she did so after her father's death).

        When the time came, he and his courtiers escorted her in great state to
        the abbey of Ely, where they were greeted at the gates by her aunt, the
        royal abbess, Ethelreda (f.d. June 23), and her nuns. Werburga fell upon
        her knees and asked that she might be received as a novice, and to the
        chanting of the "Te Deum" they entered the cloister, where she was
        stripped of her costly apparel, exchanged her coronet for a veil, and in
        a rough habit began her new life.

        She made good progress, and after many years, at the request of her
        uncle, King Ethelred, was chosen to superintend all the convents of his
        kingdom. This opened to her a large and fruitful sphere of duty, and the
        religious houses under her care became models of monastic discipline.
        Through the wealth and influence of her family she also founded new
        convents at Trentham in Staffordshire, Hanbury near Tutbury, and Weedon
        in Northamptonshire, and secured the interest of Ethelred in
        establishing the collegiate Church of Saint John the Baptist in Chester,
        and in giving land to Egwin (f.d. December 30) for the great abbey of
        Evesham.

        Werburga won many from dissipation and vice, and God crowned her life
        with many blessings. Her work was deeply rooted in prayer and
        discipline. She took but one meal daily and that only of the coarsest
        food; she set before her the example of the desert fathers; and she
        recited the whole of the Psalter daily upon her knees.

        She lived to a ripe age, and before her death she journeyed to all her
        convents, paying to each a farewell visit; she then retired to Trentham
        (Threckingham in Lincolnshire), where she died. She was buried in the
        monastery of Hanbury in Staffordshire. Later, her remains were
        transferred with great ceremony in the presence of King Coolred and many
        bishops to a costly shrine in Leicester, which attracted many pilgrims.

        In 875, for fear of the Danes, her relics were removed to Chester. In
        1095, they were translated within Chester, where in the course of time a
        great church, now the cathedral, was built over it, and where the
        remains of it may still be seen, carved with the figures of her
        ancestors, the ancient kings of Mercia. On its four sides the deep
        niches remain, where the pilgrims knelt, seeking healing, afterwards
        receiving a metal token to show that they had visited her shrine. This
        final translation was the occasion for Goselin to write her "vita." Her
        magnificent shrine was in the Lady Chapel until it was despoiled in the
        sixteenth century by those oddly called Reformers, and her church was
        made the Cathedral Church of Christ and the Blessed Virgin. Some of the
        stones from the base of the shrine were used to make a bishop's throne,
        but they were restored in 1888 and now stand on their original site
        behind the high altar. Twelve ancient English churches were dedicated to
        her, including Hanbury and Chester (Attwater, Benedictines,
        Encyclopaedia, Farmer, Gill).

        In art Saint Werburga holds the abbey, while her crown lays at her feet.
        Sometimes there are wild geese near her (Roeder), because, according to
        Goselin she restored one to life (see below); however, the writer
        borrowed the story from his own "vita" of the Flemish Saint Amelburga
        (Farmer). She is, of course, the patroness of Chester (Roeder).

        William of Malmesbury writes this of a local miracle wrought by Saint
        Werburga:

        "It was in the city of Chester that the girl Werburga, daughter of
        Wulfhere, King of Mercia, and Ermenilda . . . took her vows, and her
        goodness shone for many years. The story of one miracle done by her I
        now shall tell, which made a great stir and was long told about the
        countryside.

        "She had a farm outside the walls, where the wild geese would come and
        destroy the standing corn in the fields. The stewart in charge of the
        farm took all shifts to drive them off, but with small success. And so,
        when he came to wait upon his lady, he added his complaint of them to
        the other tales he would tell her of the day.

        "'Go,' said she, 'and shut them all into a house.' The
        countryman,mbfounded at the oddness of the command, thought that his
        lady was jesting: but finding her serious and insistent, went back to
        the field where he had first spied the miscreants, and bade them,
        speaking loud and clear, to do their lady's bidding and come after him.
        Whereupon with one accord they gathered themselves into a flock, and
        walking with down-bent necks after their enemy, were shut up under a
        roof. On one of them, however, the rustic, with no thought of any to
        accuse him, made bold to dine.

        "At dawn came the maid, and after scolding the birds for pillaging other
        people's property, bade them take their flight. But the winged creatures
        knew that one of their company was missing; nor did they lack wit to go
        circling round their lady's feet, refusing to budge further, and
        complaining as best they could, to excite her compassion. She, through
        God's revealing, and convinced that all this clamour was not without
        cause, turned her gaze upon the steward, and divined the theft.

        "She bade him gather up the bones and bring them to her. And
        straightway, at a healing sign from the girl's hand, skin and flesh
        began to come upon the bones, and feathers to fledge upon the skin, till
        the living bird, at first with eager hop and soon upon the wing,
        launched itself into the air. Nor were the others slow to follow it,
        their numbers now complete, though first they made obeisance to their
        lady and deliverer.

        "And so the merits of this maid are told at Chester, and her miracles
        extolled. Yet though she be generous and swift to answer all men's
        prayers, yet most gracious is her footfall among the women and boys, who
        pray as it might be to a neighbour and a woman of their own countryside"
        (Malmesbury).


        Sources:
        =====

        Attwater, D. (1983). The Penguin Dictionary of Saints, 2nd edition,
        revised and updated by Catherine Rachel John. New York: Penguin Books.

        Benedictine Monks of St. Augustine Abbey, Ramsgate. (1966). The Book of
        Saints. NY: Thomas Y. Crowell. Benedictine Monks of St. Augustine Abbey,
        Ramsgate. (1947).

        Coulson, J. (ed.). (1960). The Saints: A Concise Biographical
        Dictionary. New York: Hawthorn Books.

        D'Arcy, M. R. (1974). The Saints of Ireland. Saint Paul, Minnesota:
        Irish American Cultural Institute. [This is probably the most useful
        book to choose to own on the Irish saints. The author provides a great
        deal of historical context in which to place the lives of the saints.]

        Farmer, D. H. (1997). The Oxford Dictionary of Saints. Oxford: Oxford
        University Press.

        Gill, F. C. (1958). The Glorious Company: Lives of Great Christians for
        daily devotion, vol. I. London: Epworth Press.

        Kenney, J. F. (1929). Sources for Early History of Ireland, vol. 1,
        Ecclesiastical. New York: Columbia University Press.

        Montague, H. P. (1981). The Saints and Martyrs of Ireland. Guildford:
        Billing & Sons.

        Moran, P. Card. (1879). Irish Saints in Great Britain.

        O'Hanlon, J. (1875). Lives of Irish saints, 10 vol. Dublin.

        For All the Saints:
        http://www.saintpatrickdc.org/ss/ss-index.htm

        Orthodox Ireland Saints
        http://www.orthodoxireland.com/saints/

        An Alphabetical Index of the Saints of the West
        http://www.orthodoxengland.btinternet.co.uk/saintsa.htm

        These Lives are archived at:
        http://groups.yahoo.com/group/celt-saints
        *****************************************
      • emrys@globe.net.nz
        Celtic and Old English Saints 3 February =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-= * St. Ia of Cornwall * St. Colman of Kilmacduagh (see #2) *
        Message 3 of 11 , Feb 1, 2005
        • 0 Attachment
          Celtic and Old English Saints 3 February

          =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=
          * St. Ia of Cornwall
          * St. Colman of Kilmacduagh (see #2)
          * St. Anatolius of Salins
          * St. Caellainn
          * St. Werburg of Mercia
          * St. Werburga of Chester
          =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=


          St. Ia of Cornwall, Virgin and Martyr
          (Hia, Hya, Iia; Ives)
          -----------------------------------------------------------
          Died 6th century or 450 (sources are evenly split between the two
          dates); another feast on October 27. According to the late medieval
          legend, the sister of Saints Ercus (or Euny; f.d. October 31) and
          Herygh, Saint Ia, was a holy maiden who came from Ireland to
          Cornwall--sailing on a leaf that grew to accommodate her--and landed and
          settled at the mouth of the Hayle River where Saint Ives, formerly
          called Porth Ia, now stands. She is said to have crossed with Saints
          Fingar, Phiala, and other missionaries (f.d. December 14). In Cornwall
          she erected a cell where she lived the life of prayer and austerities.
          This version relates that Ia suffered martyrdom in Cornwall at the mouth
          of the Hayle River. Leland saw her "vita" at Saint Ives, which depicted
          her as a noble of Saint Barricus; a church was built at her request by
          Dinan, a great lord of Cornwall.
          Breton tradition makes her a convert of Saint Patrick, and says that she
          went to Armorica with 777 disciples, where she was
          martyred. She is the eponym of Plouye, near Carhaix. Do not confuse her
          with Saint Ives (f.d. April 24) of Saint Ives, Huntingdonshire
          (Attwater, Attwater2, Benedictines, Coulson, D'Arcy, Farmer, Montague,
          Moran).

          Troparion of St Ia tone 5
          Thy life and mission/ were pleasing to God, most pious Ia,/ for seeing
          thee left behind in Ireland,/ He miraculously transported thee across
          the sea to Cornwall on a leaf./ Wherefore O Saint, pray to God for us/
          that we may never give way to despair/ but ever trust in His great
          mercy.

          Kontakion of St Ia tone 8
          By a miracle, God showed that the first should be last and the last,
          first, O righteous Ia,/ and therefore we look to thee as a symbol of
          Gospel truth,/ ever praising thy illustrious memory.


          St. Anatolius of Salins, Bishop
          -----------------------------------------------------------
          (9th? or) 11th century. A Scottish or Irish bishop who went as a pilgrim
          to Rome and settled as a hermit at Salins in the diocese of Besancon,
          Burgundy, about 1029. He lived the rest of life in a mountain retreat
          overlooking a favourite stopover of Irish pilgrims near the oratory of
          Saint Symphorian. At a later date a church was built in his honour at
          Salins. His biographer said that it would be impossible to enumerate all
          the miracles he worked in his lifetime (Benedictines, D'Arcy, Kenney,
          O'Hanlon).


          St. Caellainn (Caoilfionn), Virgin
          -----------------------------------------------------------
          6th century. An Irish saint listed in the Martyrology of Donegal. A
          church in Roscommon perpetuates her name (Benedictines).


          St. Werburg of Mercia
          -----------------------------------------------------------
          Died c. 785. When Ceolred of Mercia died, his wife Werburg retired to a
          convent (Bardney?) of which she became abbess (Benedictines).


          St. Werburga of Chester
          (Werburg, Werebrurge, Werbyrgh)
          -----------------------------------------------------------
          Born at Stone, Staffordshire, England; died at Threckingham, England, c.
          690-700; feast of her translation at Chester, June 21.

          The patroness of Chester, England, Saint Werburga, was born of a line of
          kings, being a daughter of Wulfhere, King of Mercia. From her mother,
          the saintly Ermingilde (Ermenilda; f.d. February 13), she learned as a
          child the Christian faith. By temperament she was pious and virtuous,
          and her beauty attracted many admirers, among them a prince of the West
          Saxons, who offered her rich gifts and made flattering proposals, and
          also Werbode, a powerful knight of her father's court. But refusing all
          her suitors, she secured, after much persuasion, her father's permission
          to enter a convent (or she did so after her father's death).

          When the time came, he and his courtiers escorted her in great state to
          the abbey of Ely, where they were greeted at the gates by her aunt, the
          royal abbess, Ethelreda (f.d. June 23), and her nuns. Werburga fell upon
          her knees and asked that she might be received as a novice, and to the
          chanting of the "Te Deum" they entered the cloister, where she was
          stripped of her costly apparel, exchanged her coronet for a veil, and in
          a rough habit began her new life.

          She made good progress, and after many years, at the request of her
          uncle, King Ethelred, was chosen to superintend all the convents of his
          kingdom. This opened to her a large and fruitful sphere of duty, and the
          religious houses under her care became models of monastic discipline.
          Through the wealth and influence of her family she also founded new
          convents at Trentham in Staffordshire, Hanbury near Tutbury, and Weedon
          in Northamptonshire, and secured the interest of Ethelred in
          establishing the collegiate Church of Saint John the Baptist in Chester,
          and in giving land to Egwin (f.d. December 30) for the great abbey of
          Evesham.

          Werburga won many from dissipation and vice, and God crowned her life
          with many blessings. Her work was deeply rooted in prayer and
          discipline. She took but one meal daily and that only of the coarsest
          food; she set before her the example of the desert fathers; and she
          recited the whole of the Psalter daily upon her knees.

          She lived to a ripe age, and before her death she journeyed to all her
          convents, paying to each a farewell visit; she then retired to Trentham
          (Threckingham in Lincolnshire), where she died. She was buried in the
          monastery of Hanbury in Staffordshire. Later, her remains were
          transferred with great ceremony in the presence of King Coolred and many
          bishops to a costly shrine in Leicester, which attracted many pilgrims.

          In 875, for fear of the Danes, her relics were removed to Chester. In
          1095, they were translated within Chester, where in the course of time a
          great church, now the cathedral, was built over it, and where the
          remains of it may still be seen, carved with the figures of her
          ancestors, the ancient kings of Mercia. On its four sides the deep
          niches remain, where the pilgrims knelt, seeking healing, afterwards
          receiving a metal token to show that they had visited her shrine. This
          final translation was the occasion for Goselin to write her "vita." Her
          magnificent shrine was in the Lady Chapel until it was despoiled in the
          sixteenth century by those oddly called Reformers, and her church was
          made the Cathedral Church of Christ and the Blessed Virgin. Some of the
          stones from the base of the shrine were used to make a bishop's throne,
          but they were restored in 1888 and now stand on their original site
          behind the high altar. Twelve ancient English churches were dedicated to
          her, including Hanbury and Chester (Attwater, Benedictines,
          Encyclopaedia, Farmer, Gill).

          In art Saint Werburga holds the abbey, while her crown lays at her feet.
          Sometimes there are wild geese near her (Roeder), because, according to
          Goselin she restored one to life (see below); however, the writer
          borrowed the story from his own "vita" of the Flemish Saint Amelburga
          (Farmer). She is, of course, the patroness of Chester (Roeder).

          William of Malmesbury writes this of a local miracle wrought by Saint
          Werburga:

          "It was in the city of Chester that the girl Werburga, daughter of
          Wulfhere, King of Mercia, and Ermenilda . . . took her vows, and her
          goodness shone for many years. The story of one miracle done by her I
          now shall tell, which made a great stir and was long told about the
          countryside.

          "She had a farm outside the walls, where the wild geese would come and
          destroy the standing corn in the fields. The stewart in charge of the
          farm took all shifts to drive them off, but with small success. And so,
          when he came to wait upon his lady, he added his complaint of them to
          the other tales he would tell her of the day.

          "'Go,' said she, 'and shut them all into a house.' The
          countryman,mbfounded at the oddness of the command, thought that his
          lady was jesting: but finding her serious and insistent, went back to
          the field where he had first spied the miscreants, and bade them,
          speaking loud and clear, to do their lady's bidding and come after him.
          Whereupon with one accord they gathered themselves into a flock, and
          walking with down-bent necks after their enemy, were shut up under a
          roof. On one of them, however, the rustic, with no thought of any to
          accuse him, made bold to dine.

          "At dawn came the maid, and after scolding the birds for pillaging other
          people's property, bade them take their flight. But the winged creatures
          knew that one of their company was missing; nor did they lack wit to go
          circling round their lady's feet, refusing to budge further, and
          complaining as best they could, to excite her compassion. She, through
          God's revealing, and convinced that all this clamour was not without
          cause, turned her gaze upon the steward, and divined the theft.

          "She bade him gather up the bones and bring them to her. And
          straightway, at a healing sign from the girl's hand, skin and flesh
          began to come upon the bones, and feathers to fledge upon the skin, till
          the living bird, at first with eager hop and soon upon the wing,
          launched itself into the air. Nor were the others slow to follow it,
          their numbers now complete, though first they made obeisance to their
          lady and deliverer.

          "And so the merits of this maid are told at Chester, and her miracles
          extolled. Yet though she be generous and swift to answer all men's
          prayers, yet most gracious is her footfall among the women and boys, who
          pray as it might be to a neighbour and a woman of their own countryside"
          (Malmesbury).


          Sources:
          =====

          Attwater, D. (1983). The Penguin Dictionary of Saints, 2nd edition,
          revised and updated by Catherine Rachel John. New York: Penguin Books.

          Benedictine Monks of St. Augustine Abbey, Ramsgate. (1966). The Book of
          Saints. NY: Thomas Y. Crowell. Benedictine Monks of St. Augustine Abbey,
          Ramsgate. (1947).

          Coulson, J. (ed.). (1960). The Saints: A Concise Biographical
          Dictionary. New York: Hawthorn Books.

          D'Arcy, M. R. (1974). The Saints of Ireland. Saint Paul, Minnesota:
          Irish American Cultural Institute. [This is probably the most useful
          book to choose to own on the Irish saints. The author provides a great
          deal of historical context in which to place the lives of the saints.]

          Farmer, D. H. (1997). The Oxford Dictionary of Saints. Oxford: Oxford
          University Press.

          Gill, F. C. (1958). The Glorious Company: Lives of Great Christians for
          daily devotion, vol. I. London: Epworth Press.

          Kenney, J. F. (1929). Sources for Early History of Ireland, vol. 1,
          Ecclesiastical. New York: Columbia University Press.

          Montague, H. P. (1981). The Saints and Martyrs of Ireland. Guildford:
          Billing & Sons.

          Moran, P. Card. (1879). Irish Saints in Great Britain.

          O'Hanlon, J. (1875). Lives of Irish saints, 10 vol. Dublin.

          For All the Saints:
          http://www.saintpatrickdc.org/ss/ss-index.htm

          An Alphabetical Index of the Saints of the West
          http://www.orthodoxengland.btinternet.co.uk/saintsa.htm

          These Lives are archived at:
          http://groups.yahoo.com/group/celt-saints
          ¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤¤
        • emrys@globe.net.nz
          Celtic and Old English Saints 3 February =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-= * St. Ia of Cornwall * St. Colman of Kilmacduagh (see #2) *
          Message 4 of 11 , Feb 2, 2006
          • 0 Attachment
            Celtic and Old English Saints 3 February

            =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=
            * St. Ia of Cornwall
            * St. Colman of Kilmacduagh (see #2)
            * St. Anatolius of Salins
            * St. Caellainn
            * St. Werburg of Mercia
            * St. Werburga of Chester
            =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=


            St. Ia of Cornwall, Virgin and Martyr
            (Hia, Hya, Iia; Ives)
            -----------------------------------------------------------
            Died 6th century or 450 (sources are evenly split between the two
            dates); another feast on October 27. According to the late medieval
            legend, the sister of Saints Ercus (or Euny; f.d. October 31) and
            Herygh, Saint Ia, was a holy maiden who came from Ireland to
            Cornwall--sailing on a leaf that grew to accommodate her--and landed and
            settled at the mouth of the Hayle River where Saint Ives, formerly
            called Porth Ia, now stands. She is said to have crossed with Saints
            Fingar, Phiala, and other missionaries (f.d. December 14). In Cornwall
            she erected a cell where she lived the life of prayer and austerities.
            This version relates that Ia suffered martyrdom in Cornwall at the mouth
            of the Hayle River. Leland saw her "vita" at Saint Ives, which depicted
            her as a noble of Saint Barricus; a church was built at her request by
            Dinan, a great lord of Cornwall.
            Breton tradition makes her a convert of Saint Patrick, and says that she
            went to Armorica with 777 disciples, where she was
            martyred. She is the eponym of Plouye, near Carhaix. Do not confuse her
            with Saint Ives (f.d. April 24) of Saint Ives, Huntingdonshire
            (Attwater, Attwater2, Benedictines, Coulson, D'Arcy, Farmer, Montague,
            Moran).

            Troparion of St Ia tone 5
            Thy life and mission/ were pleasing to God, most pious Ia,/ for seeing
            thee left behind in Ireland,/ He miraculously transported thee across
            the sea to Cornwall on a leaf./ Wherefore O Saint, pray to God for us/
            that we may never give way to despair/ but ever trust in His great
            mercy.

            Kontakion of St Ia tone 8
            By a miracle, God showed that the first should be last and the last,
            first, O righteous Ia,/ and therefore we look to thee as a symbol of
            Gospel truth,/ ever praising thy illustrious memory.


            St. Anatolius of Salins, Bishop
            -----------------------------------------------------------
            (9th? or) 11th century. A Scottish or Irish bishop who went as a pilgrim
            to Rome and settled as a hermit at Salins in the diocese of Besancon,
            Burgundy, about 1029. He lived the rest of life in a mountain retreat
            overlooking a favourite stopover of Irish pilgrims near the oratory of
            Saint Symphorian. At a later date a church was built in his honour at
            Salins. His biographer said that it would be impossible to enumerate all
            the miracles he worked in his lifetime (Benedictines, D'Arcy, Kenney,
            O'Hanlon).


            St. Caellainn (Caoilfionn), Virgin
            -----------------------------------------------------------
            6th century. An Irish saint listed in the Martyrology of Donegal. A
            church in Roscommon perpetuates her name (Benedictines).


            St. Werburg of Mercia
            -----------------------------------------------------------
            Died c. 785. When Ceolred of Mercia died, his wife Werburg retired to a
            convent (Bardney?) of which she became abbess (Benedictines).


            St. Werburga of Chester
            (Werburg, Werebrurge, Werbyrgh)
            -----------------------------------------------------------
            Born at Stone, Staffordshire, England; died at Threckingham, England, c.
            690-700; feast of her translation at Chester, June 21.

            The patroness of Chester, England, Saint Werburga, was born of a line of
            kings, being a daughter of Wulfhere, King of Mercia. From her mother,
            the saintly Ermingilde (Ermenilda; f.d. February 13), she learned as a
            child the Christian faith. By temperament she was pious and virtuous,
            and her beauty attracted many admirers, among them a prince of the West
            Saxons, who offered her rich gifts and made flattering proposals, and
            also Werbode, a powerful knight of her father's court. But refusing all
            her suitors, she secured, after much persuasion, her father's permission
            to enter a convent (or she did so after her father's death).

            When the time came, he and his courtiers escorted her in great state to
            the abbey of Ely, where they were greeted at the gates by her aunt, the
            royal abbess, Ethelreda (f.d. June 23), and her nuns. Werburga fell upon
            her knees and asked that she might be received as a novice, and to the
            chanting of the "Te Deum" they entered the cloister, where she was
            stripped of her costly apparel, exchanged her coronet for a veil, and in
            a rough habit began her new life.

            She made good progress, and after many years, at the request of her
            uncle, King Ethelred, was chosen to superintend all the convents of his
            kingdom. This opened to her a large and fruitful sphere of duty, and the
            religious houses under her care became models of monastic discipline.
            Through the wealth and influence of her family she also founded new
            convents at Trentham in Staffordshire, Hanbury near Tutbury, and Weedon
            in Northamptonshire, and secured the interest of Ethelred in
            establishing the collegiate Church of Saint John the Baptist in Chester,
            and in giving land to Egwin (f.d. December 30) for the great abbey of
            Evesham.

            Werburga won many from dissipation and vice, and God crowned her life
            with many blessings. Her work was deeply rooted in prayer and
            discipline. She took but one meal daily and that only of the coarsest
            food; she set before her the example of the desert fathers; and she
            recited the whole of the Psalter daily upon her knees.

            She lived to a ripe age, and before her death she journeyed to all her
            convents, paying to each a farewell visit; she then retired to Trentham
            (Threckingham in Lincolnshire), where she died. She was buried in the
            monastery of Hanbury in Staffordshire. Later, her remains were
            transferred with great ceremony in the presence of King Coolred and many
            bishops to a costly shrine in Leicester, which attracted many pilgrims.

            In 875, for fear of the Danes, her relics were removed to Chester. In
            1095, they were translated within Chester, where in the course of time a
            great church, now the cathedral, was built over it, and where the
            remains of it may still be seen, carved with the figures of her
            ancestors, the ancient kings of Mercia. On its four sides the deep
            niches remain, where the pilgrims knelt, seeking healing, afterwards
            receiving a metal token to show that they had visited her shrine. This
            final translation was the occasion for Goselin to write her "vita." Her
            magnificent shrine was in the Lady Chapel until it was despoiled in the
            sixteenth century by those oddly called Reformers, and her church was
            made the Cathedral Church of Christ and the Blessed Virgin. Some of the
            stones from the base of the shrine were used to make a bishop's throne,
            but they were restored in 1888 and now stand on their original site
            behind the high altar. Twelve ancient English churches were dedicated to
            her, including Hanbury and Chester (Attwater, Benedictines,
            Encyclopaedia, Farmer, Gill).

            In art Saint Werburga holds the abbey, while her crown lays at her feet.
            Sometimes there are wild geese near her (Roeder), because, according to
            Goselin she restored one to life (see below); however, the writer
            borrowed the story from his own "vita" of the Flemish Saint Amelburga
            (Farmer). She is, of course, the patroness of Chester (Roeder).

            William of Malmesbury writes this of a local miracle wrought by Saint
            Werburga:

            "It was in the city of Chester that the girl Werburga, daughter of
            Wulfhere, King of Mercia, and Ermenilda . . . took her vows, and her
            goodness shone for many years. The story of one miracle done by her I
            now shall tell, which made a great stir and was long told about the
            countryside.

            "She had a farm outside the walls, where the wild geese would come and
            destroy the standing corn in the fields. The stewart in charge of the
            farm took all shifts to drive them off, but with small success. And so,
            when he came to wait upon his lady, he added his complaint of them to
            the other tales he would tell her of the day.

            "'Go,' said she, 'and shut them all into a house.' The
            countryman,mbfounded at the oddness of the command, thought that his
            lady was jesting: but finding her serious and insistent, went back to
            the field where he had first spied the miscreants, and bade them,
            speaking loud and clear, to do their lady's bidding and come after him.
            Whereupon with one accord they gathered themselves into a flock, and
            walking with down-bent necks after their enemy, were shut up under a
            roof. On one of them, however, the rustic, with no thought of any to
            accuse him, made bold to dine.

            "At dawn came the maid, and after scolding the birds for pillaging other
            people's property, bade them take their flight. But the winged creatures
            knew that one of their company was missing; nor did they lack wit to go
            circling round their lady's feet, refusing to budge further, and
            complaining as best they could, to excite her compassion. She, through
            God's revealing, and convinced that all this clamour was not without
            cause, turned her gaze upon the steward, and divined the theft.

            "She bade him gather up the bones and bring them to her. And
            straightway, at a healing sign from the girl's hand, skin and flesh
            began to come upon the bones, and feathers to fledge upon the skin, till
            the living bird, at first with eager hop and soon upon the wing,
            launched itself into the air. Nor were the others slow to follow it,
            their numbers now complete, though first they made obeisance to their
            lady and deliverer.

            "And so the merits of this maid are told at Chester, and her miracles
            extolled. Yet though she be generous and swift to answer all men's
            prayers, yet most gracious is her footfall among the women and boys, who
            pray as it might be to a neighbour and a woman of their own countryside"
            (Malmesbury).


            Sources:
            =====

            Attwater, D. (1983). The Penguin Dictionary of Saints, 2nd edition,
            revised and updated by Catherine Rachel John. New York: Penguin Books.

            Benedictine Monks of St. Augustine Abbey, Ramsgate. (1966). The Book of
            Saints. NY: Thomas Y. Crowell. Benedictine Monks of St. Augustine Abbey,
            Ramsgate. (1947).

            Coulson, J. (ed.). (1960). The Saints: A Concise Biographical
            Dictionary. New York: Hawthorn Books.

            D'Arcy, M. R. (1974). The Saints of Ireland. Saint Paul, Minnesota:
            Irish American Cultural Institute. [This is probably the most useful
            book to choose to own on the Irish saints. The author provides a great
            deal of historical context in which to place the lives of the saints.]

            Farmer, D. H. (1997). The Oxford Dictionary of Saints. Oxford: Oxford
            University Press.

            Gill, F. C. (1958). The Glorious Company: Lives of Great Christians for
            daily devotion, vol. I. London: Epworth Press.

            Kenney, J. F. (1929). Sources for Early History of Ireland, vol. 1,
            Ecclesiastical. New York: Columbia University Press.

            Montague, H. P. (1981). The Saints and Martyrs of Ireland. Guildford:
            Billing & Sons.

            Moran, P. Card. (1879). Irish Saints in Great Britain.

            O'Hanlon, J. (1875). Lives of Irish saints, 10 vol. Dublin.

            For All the Saints:
            http://www.saintpatrickdc.org/ss/ss-index.htm

            An Alphabetical Index of the Saints of the West
            http://www.orthodoxengland.btinternet.co.uk/saintsa.htm

            These Lives are archived at:
            http://groups.yahoo.com/group/celt-saints
          • emrys@globe.net.nz
            Celtic and Old English Saints 3 February =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-= * St. Ia of Cornwall * St. Colman of Kilmacduagh (see #2) *
            Message 5 of 11 , Feb 2, 2007
            • 0 Attachment
              Celtic and Old English Saints 3 February

              =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=
              * St. Ia of Cornwall
              * St. Colman of Kilmacduagh (see #2)
              * St. Anatolius of Salins
              * St. Caellainn
              * St. Werburg of Mercia
              * St. Werburga of Chester
              =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=


              St. Ia of Cornwall, Virgin and Martyr
              (Hia, Hya, Iia; Ives)
              -----------------------------------------------------------
              Died 6th century or 450 (sources are evenly split between the two
              dates); another feast on October 27. According to the late medieval
              legend, the sister of Saints Ercus (or Euny; f.d. October 31) and
              Herygh, Saint Ia, was a holy maiden who came from Ireland to
              Cornwall--sailing on a leaf that grew to accommodate her--and landed and
              settled at the mouth of the Hayle River where Saint Ives, formerly
              called Porth Ia, now stands. She is said to have crossed with Saints
              Fingar, Phiala, and other missionaries (f.d. December 14). In Cornwall
              she erected a cell where she lived the life of prayer and austerities.
              This version relates that Ia suffered martyrdom in Cornwall at the mouth
              of the Hayle River. Leland saw her "vita" at Saint Ives, which depicted
              her as a noble of Saint Barricus; a church was built at her request by
              Dinan, a great lord of Cornwall.
              Breton tradition makes her a convert of Saint Patrick, and says that she
              went to Armorica with 777 disciples, where she was
              martyred. She is the eponym of Plouye, near Carhaix. Do not confuse her
              with Saint Ives (f.d. April 24) of Saint Ives, Huntingdonshire
              (Attwater, Attwater2, Benedictines, Coulson, D'Arcy, Farmer, Montague,
              Moran).

              Troparion of St Ia tone 5
              Thy life and mission/ were pleasing to God, most pious Ia,/ for seeing
              thee left behind in Ireland,/ He miraculously transported thee across
              the sea to Cornwall on a leaf./ Wherefore O Saint, pray to God for us/
              that we may never give way to despair/ but ever trust in His great
              mercy.

              Kontakion of St Ia tone 8
              By a miracle, God showed that the first should be last and the last,
              first, O righteous Ia,/ and therefore we look to thee as a symbol of
              Gospel truth,/ ever praising thy illustrious memory.


              St. Anatolius of Salins, Bishop
              -----------------------------------------------------------
              (9th? or) 11th century. A Scottish or Irish bishop who went as a pilgrim
              to Rome and settled as a hermit at Salins in the diocese of Besancon,
              Burgundy, about 1029. He lived the rest of life in a mountain retreat
              overlooking a favourite stopover of Irish pilgrims near the oratory of
              Saint Symphorian. At a later date a church was built in his honour at
              Salins. His biographer said that it would be impossible to enumerate all
              the miracles he worked in his lifetime (Benedictines, D'Arcy, Kenney,
              O'Hanlon).


              St. Caellainn (Caoilfionn), Virgin
              -----------------------------------------------------------
              6th century. An Irish saint listed in the Martyrology of Donegal. A
              church in Roscommon perpetuates her name (Benedictines).


              St. Werburg of Mercia
              -----------------------------------------------------------
              Died c. 785. When Ceolred of Mercia died, his wife Werburg retired to a
              convent (Bardney?) of which she became abbess (Benedictines).


              St. Werburga of Chester
              (Werburg, Werebrurge, Werbyrgh)
              -----------------------------------------------------------
              Born at Stone, Staffordshire, England; died at Threckingham, England, c.
              690-700; feast of her translation at Chester, June 21.

              The patroness of Chester, England, Saint Werburga, was born of a line of
              kings, being a daughter of Wulfhere, King of Mercia. From her mother,
              the saintly Ermingilde (Ermenilda; f.d. February 13), she learned as a
              child the Christian faith. By temperament she was pious and virtuous,
              and her beauty attracted many admirers, among them a prince of the West
              Saxons, who offered her rich gifts and made flattering proposals, and
              also Werbode, a powerful knight of her father's court. But refusing all
              her suitors, she secured, after much persuasion, her father's permission
              to enter a convent (or she did so after her father's death).

              When the time came, he and his courtiers escorted her in great state to
              the abbey of Ely, where they were greeted at the gates by her aunt, the
              royal abbess, Ethelreda (f.d. June 23), and her nuns. Werburga fell upon
              her knees and asked that she might be received as a novice, and to the
              chanting of the "Te Deum" they entered the cloister, where she was
              stripped of her costly apparel, exchanged her coronet for a veil, and in
              a rough habit began her new life.

              She made good progress, and after many years, at the request of her
              uncle, King Ethelred, was chosen to superintend all the convents of his
              kingdom. This opened to her a large and fruitful sphere of duty, and the
              religious houses under her care became models of monastic discipline.
              Through the wealth and influence of her family she also founded new
              convents at Trentham in Staffordshire, Hanbury near Tutbury, and Weedon
              in Northamptonshire, and secured the interest of Ethelred in
              establishing the collegiate Church of Saint John the Baptist in Chester,
              and in giving land to Egwin (f.d. December 30) for the great abbey of
              Evesham.

              Werburga won many from dissipation and vice, and God crowned her life
              with many blessings. Her work was deeply rooted in prayer and
              discipline. She took but one meal daily and that only of the coarsest
              food; she set before her the example of the desert fathers; and she
              recited the whole of the Psalter daily upon her knees.

              She lived to a ripe age, and before her death she journeyed to all her
              convents, paying to each a farewell visit; she then retired to Trentham
              (Threckingham in Lincolnshire), where she died. She was buried in the
              monastery of Hanbury in Staffordshire. Later, her remains were
              transferred with great ceremony in the presence of King Coolred and many
              bishops to a costly shrine in Leicester, which attracted many pilgrims.

              In 875, for fear of the Danes, her relics were removed to Chester. In
              1095, they were translated within Chester, where in the course of time a
              great church, now the cathedral, was built over it, and where the
              remains of it may still be seen, carved with the figures of her
              ancestors, the ancient kings of Mercia. On its four sides the deep
              niches remain, where the pilgrims knelt, seeking healing, afterwards
              receiving a metal token to show that they had visited her shrine. This
              final translation was the occasion for Goselin to write her "vita." Her
              magnificent shrine was in the Lady Chapel until it was despoiled in the
              sixteenth century by those oddly called Reformers, and her church was
              made the Cathedral Church of Christ and the Blessed Virgin. Some of the
              stones from the base of the shrine were used to make a bishop's throne,
              but they were restored in 1888 and now stand on their original site
              behind the high altar. Twelve ancient English churches were dedicated to
              her, including Hanbury and Chester (Attwater, Benedictines,
              Encyclopaedia, Farmer, Gill).

              In art Saint Werburga holds the abbey, while her crown lays at her feet.
              Sometimes there are wild geese near her (Roeder), because, according to
              Goselin she restored one to life (see below); however, the writer
              borrowed the story from his own "vita" of the Flemish Saint Amelburga
              (Farmer). She is, of course, the patroness of Chester (Roeder).

              William of Malmesbury writes this of a local miracle wrought by Saint
              Werburga:

              "It was in the city of Chester that the girl Werburga, daughter of
              Wulfhere, King of Mercia, and Ermenilda . . . took her vows, and her
              goodness shone for many years. The story of one miracle done by her I
              now shall tell, which made a great stir and was long told about the
              countryside.

              "She had a farm outside the walls, where the wild geese would come and
              destroy the standing corn in the fields. The stewart in charge of the
              farm took all shifts to drive them off, but with small success. And so,
              when he came to wait upon his lady, he added his complaint of them to
              the other tales he would tell her of the day.

              "'Go,' said she, 'and shut them all into a house.' The
              countryman,mbfounded at the oddness of the command, thought that his
              lady was jesting: but finding her serious and insistent, went back to
              the field where he had first spied the miscreants, and bade them,
              speaking loud and clear, to do their lady's bidding and come after him.
              Whereupon with one accord they gathered themselves into a flock, and
              walking with down-bent necks after their enemy, were shut up under a
              roof. On one of them, however, the rustic, with no thought of any to
              accuse him, made bold to dine.

              "At dawn came the maid, and after scolding the birds for pillaging other
              people's property, bade them take their flight. But the winged creatures
              knew that one of their company was missing; nor did they lack wit to go
              circling round their lady's feet, refusing to budge further, and
              complaining as best they could, to excite her compassion. She, through
              God's revealing, and convinced that all this clamour was not without
              cause, turned her gaze upon the steward, and divined the theft.

              "She bade him gather up the bones and bring them to her. And
              straightway, at a healing sign from the girl's hand, skin and flesh
              began to come upon the bones, and feathers to fledge upon the skin, till
              the living bird, at first with eager hop and soon upon the wing,
              launched itself into the air. Nor were the others slow to follow it,
              their numbers now complete, though first they made obeisance to their
              lady and deliverer.

              "And so the merits of this maid are told at Chester, and her miracles
              extolled. Yet though she be generous and swift to answer all men's
              prayers, yet most gracious is her footfall among the women and boys, who
              pray as it might be to a neighbour and a woman of their own countryside"
              (Malmesbury).


              Sources:
              =====

              Attwater, D. (1983). The Penguin Dictionary of Saints, 2nd edition,
              revised and updated by Catherine Rachel John. New York: Penguin Books.

              Benedictine Monks of St. Augustine Abbey, Ramsgate. (1966). The Book of
              Saints. NY: Thomas Y. Crowell. Benedictine Monks of St. Augustine Abbey,
              Ramsgate. (1947).

              Coulson, J. (ed.). (1960). The Saints: A Concise Biographical
              Dictionary. New York: Hawthorn Books.

              D'Arcy, M. R. (1974). The Saints of Ireland. Saint Paul, Minnesota:
              Irish American Cultural Institute. [This is probably the most useful
              book to choose to own on the Irish saints. The author provides a great
              deal of historical context in which to place the lives of the saints.]

              Farmer, D. H. (1997). The Oxford Dictionary of Saints. Oxford: Oxford
              University Press.

              Gill, F. C. (1958). The Glorious Company: Lives of Great Christians for
              daily devotion, vol. I. London: Epworth Press.

              Kenney, J. F. (1929). Sources for Early History of Ireland, vol. 1,
              Ecclesiastical. New York: Columbia University Press.

              Montague, H. P. (1981). The Saints and Martyrs of Ireland. Guildford:
              Billing & Sons.

              Moran, P. Card. (1879). Irish Saints in Great Britain.

              O'Hanlon, J. (1875). Lives of Irish saints, 10 vol. Dublin.

              For All the Saints:
              http://www.saintpatrickdc.org/ss/ss-index.htm

              An Alphabetical Index of the Saints of the West
              http://www.orthodoxengland.btinternet.co.uk/saintsa.htm

              These Lives are archived at:
              http://groups.yahoo.com/group/celt-saints
            • emrys@globe.net.nz
              Celtic and Old English Saints 3 February =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-= * St. Ia of Cornwall * St. Colman of Kilmacduagh (see #2) *
              Message 6 of 11 , Feb 2, 2008
              • 0 Attachment
                Celtic and Old English Saints 3 February

                =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=
                * St. Ia of Cornwall
                * St. Colman of Kilmacduagh (see #2)
                * St. Anatolius of Salins
                * St. Caellainn
                * St. Werburg of Mercia
                * St. Werburga of Chester
                =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=


                St. Ia of Cornwall, Virgin and Martyr
                (Hia, Hya, Iia; Ives)
                -----------------------------------------------------------
                Died 6th century or 450 (sources are evenly split between the two
                dates); another feast on October 27. According to the late medieval
                legend, the sister of Saints Ercus (or Euny; f.d. October 31) and
                Herygh, Saint Ia, was a holy maiden who came from Ireland to
                Cornwall--sailing on a leaf that grew to accommodate her--and landed and
                settled at the mouth of the Hayle River where Saint Ives, formerly
                called Porth Ia, now stands. She is said to have crossed with Saints
                Fingar, Phiala, and other missionaries (f.d. December 14). In Cornwall
                she erected a cell where she lived the life of prayer and austerities.
                This version relates that Ia suffered martyrdom in Cornwall at the mouth
                of the Hayle River. Leland saw her "vita" at Saint Ives, which depicted
                her as a noble of Saint Barricus; a church was built at her request by
                Dinan, a great lord of Cornwall.
                Breton tradition makes her a convert of Saint Patrick, and says that she
                went to Armorica with 777 disciples, where she was
                martyred. She is the eponym of Plouye, near Carhaix. Do not confuse her
                with Saint Ives (f.d. April 24) of Saint Ives, Huntingdonshire
                (Attwater, Attwater2, Benedictines, Coulson, D'Arcy, Farmer, Montague,
                Moran).

                Troparion of St Ia tone 5
                Thy life and mission/ were pleasing to God, most pious Ia,/ for seeing
                thee left behind in Ireland,/ He miraculously transported thee across
                the sea to Cornwall on a leaf./ Wherefore O Saint, pray to God for us/
                that we may never give way to despair/ but ever trust in His great
                mercy.

                Kontakion of St Ia tone 8
                By a miracle, God showed that the first should be last and the last,
                first, O righteous Ia,/ and therefore we look to thee as a symbol of
                Gospel truth,/ ever praising thy illustrious memory.


                St. Anatolius of Salins, Bishop
                -----------------------------------------------------------
                (9th? or) 11th century. A Scottish or Irish bishop who went as a pilgrim
                to Rome and settled as a hermit at Salins in the diocese of Besancon,
                Burgundy, about 1029. He lived the rest of life in a mountain retreat
                overlooking a favourite stopover of Irish pilgrims near the oratory of
                Saint Symphorian. At a later date a church was built in his honour at
                Salins. His biographer said that it would be impossible to enumerate all
                the miracles he worked in his lifetime (Benedictines, D'Arcy, Kenney,
                O'Hanlon).


                St. Caellainn (Caoilfionn), Virgin
                -----------------------------------------------------------
                6th century. An Irish saint listed in the Martyrology of Donegal. A
                church in Roscommon perpetuates her name (Benedictines).


                St. Werburg of Mercia
                -----------------------------------------------------------
                Died c. 785. When Ceolred of Mercia died, his wife Werburg retired to a
                convent (Bardney?) of which she became abbess (Benedictines).


                St. Werburga of Chester
                (Werburg, Werebrurge, Werbyrgh)
                -----------------------------------------------------------
                Born at Stone, Staffordshire, England; died at Threckingham, England, c.
                690-700; feast of her translation at Chester, June 21.

                The patroness of Chester, England, Saint Werburga, was born of a line of
                kings, being a daughter of Wulfhere, King of Mercia. From her mother,
                the saintly Ermingilde (Ermenilda; f.d. February 13), she learned as a
                child the Christian faith. By temperament she was pious and virtuous,
                and her beauty attracted many admirers, among them a prince of the West
                Saxons, who offered her rich gifts and made flattering proposals, and
                also Werbode, a powerful knight of her father's court. But refusing all
                her suitors, she secured, after much persuasion, her father's permission
                to enter a convent (or she did so after her father's death).

                When the time came, he and his courtiers escorted her in great state to
                the abbey of Ely, where they were greeted at the gates by her aunt, the
                royal abbess, Ethelreda (f.d. June 23), and her nuns. Werburga fell upon
                her knees and asked that she might be received as a novice, and to the
                chanting of the "Te Deum" they entered the cloister, where she was
                stripped of her costly apparel, exchanged her coronet for a veil, and in
                a rough habit began her new life.

                She made good progress, and after many years, at the request of her
                uncle, King Ethelred, was chosen to superintend all the convents of his
                kingdom. This opened to her a large and fruitful sphere of duty, and the
                religious houses under her care became models of monastic discipline.
                Through the wealth and influence of her family she also founded new
                convents at Trentham in Staffordshire, Hanbury near Tutbury, and Weedon
                in Northamptonshire, and secured the interest of Ethelred in
                establishing the collegiate Church of Saint John the Baptist in Chester,
                and in giving land to Egwin (f.d. December 30) for the great abbey of
                Evesham.

                Werburga won many from dissipation and vice, and God crowned her life
                with many blessings. Her work was deeply rooted in prayer and
                discipline. She took but one meal daily and that only of the coarsest
                food; she set before her the example of the desert fathers; and she
                recited the whole of the Psalter daily upon her knees.

                She lived to a ripe age, and before her death she journeyed to all her
                convents, paying to each a farewell visit; she then retired to Trentham
                (Threckingham in Lincolnshire), where she died. She was buried in the
                monastery of Hanbury in Staffordshire. Later, her remains were
                transferred with great ceremony in the presence of King Coolred and many
                bishops to a costly shrine in Leicester, which attracted many pilgrims.

                In 875, for fear of the Danes, her relics were removed to Chester. In
                1095, they were translated within Chester, where in the course of time a
                great church, now the cathedral, was built over it, and where the
                remains of it may still be seen, carved with the figures of her
                ancestors, the ancient kings of Mercia. On its four sides the deep
                niches remain, where the pilgrims knelt, seeking healing, afterwards
                receiving a metal token to show that they had visited her shrine. This
                final translation was the occasion for Goselin to write her "vita." Her
                magnificent shrine was in the Lady Chapel until it was despoiled in the
                sixteenth century by those oddly called Reformers, and her church was
                made the Cathedral Church of Christ and the Blessed Virgin. Some of the
                stones from the base of the shrine were used to make a bishop's throne,
                but they were restored in 1888 and now stand on their original site
                behind the high altar. Twelve ancient English churches were dedicated to
                her, including Hanbury and Chester (Attwater, Benedictines,
                Encyclopaedia, Farmer, Gill).

                In art Saint Werburga holds the abbey, while her crown lays at her feet.
                Sometimes there are wild geese near her (Roeder), because, according to
                Goselin she restored one to life (see below); however, the writer
                borrowed the story from his own "vita" of the Flemish Saint Amelburga
                (Farmer). She is, of course, the patroness of Chester (Roeder).

                William of Malmesbury writes this of a local miracle wrought by Saint
                Werburga:

                "It was in the city of Chester that the girl Werburga, daughter of
                Wulfhere, King of Mercia, and Ermenilda . . . took her vows, and her
                goodness shone for many years. The story of one miracle done by her I
                now shall tell, which made a great stir and was long told about the
                countryside.

                "She had a farm outside the walls, where the wild geese would come and
                destroy the standing corn in the fields. The stewart in charge of the
                farm took all shifts to drive them off, but with small success. And so,
                when he came to wait upon his lady, he added his complaint of them to
                the other tales he would tell her of the day.

                "'Go,' said she, 'and shut them all into a house.' The
                countryman,mbfounded at the oddness of the command, thought that his
                lady was jesting: but finding her serious and insistent, went back to
                the field where he had first spied the miscreants, and bade them,
                speaking loud and clear, to do their lady's bidding and come after him.
                Whereupon with one accord they gathered themselves into a flock, and
                walking with down-bent necks after their enemy, were shut up under a
                roof. On one of them, however, the rustic, with no thought of any to
                accuse him, made bold to dine.

                "At dawn came the maid, and after scolding the birds for pillaging other
                people's property, bade them take their flight. But the winged creatures
                knew that one of their company was missing; nor did they lack wit to go
                circling round their lady's feet, refusing to budge further, and
                complaining as best they could, to excite her compassion. She, through
                God's revealing, and convinced that all this clamour was not without
                cause, turned her gaze upon the steward, and divined the theft.

                "She bade him gather up the bones and bring them to her. And
                straightway, at a healing sign from the girl's hand, skin and flesh
                began to come upon the bones, and feathers to fledge upon the skin, till
                the living bird, at first with eager hop and soon upon the wing,
                launched itself into the air. Nor were the others slow to follow it,
                their numbers now complete, though first they made obeisance to their
                lady and deliverer.

                "And so the merits of this maid are told at Chester, and her miracles
                extolled. Yet though she be generous and swift to answer all men's
                prayers, yet most gracious is her footfall among the women and boys, who
                pray as it might be to a neighbour and a woman of their own countryside"
                (Malmesbury).


                Sources:
                =====

                Attwater, D. (1983). The Penguin Dictionary of Saints, 2nd edition,
                revised and updated by Catherine Rachel John. New York: Penguin Books.

                Benedictine Monks of St. Augustine Abbey, Ramsgate. (1966). The Book of
                Saints. NY: Thomas Y. Crowell. Benedictine Monks of St. Augustine Abbey,
                Ramsgate. (1947).

                Coulson, J. (ed.). (1960). The Saints: A Concise Biographical
                Dictionary. New York: Hawthorn Books.

                D'Arcy, M. R. (1974). The Saints of Ireland. Saint Paul, Minnesota:
                Irish American Cultural Institute. [This is probably the most useful
                book to choose to own on the Irish saints. The author provides a great
                deal of historical context in which to place the lives of the saints.]

                Farmer, D. H. (1997). The Oxford Dictionary of Saints. Oxford: Oxford
                University Press.

                Gill, F. C. (1958). The Glorious Company: Lives of Great Christians for
                daily devotion, vol. I. London: Epworth Press.

                Kenney, J. F. (1929). Sources for Early History of Ireland, vol. 1,
                Ecclesiastical. New York: Columbia University Press.

                Montague, H. P. (1981). The Saints and Martyrs of Ireland. Guildford:
                Billing & Sons.

                Moran, P. Card. (1879). Irish Saints in Great Britain.

                O'Hanlon, J. (1875). Lives of Irish saints, 10 vol. Dublin.

                For All the Saints:
                http://www.saintpatrickdc.org/ss/ss-index.htm

                An Alphabetical Index of the Saints of the West
                http://www.orthodoxengland.btinternet.co.uk/saintsa.htm

                These Lives are archived at:
                http://groups.yahoo.com/group/celt-saints
              • emrys@globe.net.nz
                Celtic and Old English Saints 3 February =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-= * St. Ia of Cornwall * St. Colman of Kilmacduagh (see #2) *
                Message 7 of 11 , Feb 2, 2009
                • 0 Attachment
                  Celtic and Old English Saints 3 February

                  =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=
                  * St. Ia of Cornwall
                  * St. Colman of Kilmacduagh (see #2)
                  * St. Anatolius of Salins
                  * St. Caellainn
                  * St. Werburg of Mercia
                  * St. Werburga of Chester
                  =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=


                  St. Ia of Cornwall, Virgin and Martyr
                  (Hia, Hya, Iia; Ives)
                  -----------------------------------------------------------
                  Died 6th century or 450 (sources are evenly split between the two
                  dates); another feast on October 27. According to the late medieval
                  legend, the sister of Saints Ercus (or Euny; f.d. October 31) and
                  Herygh, Saint Ia, was a holy maiden who came from Ireland to
                  Cornwall--sailing on a leaf that grew to accommodate her--and landed and
                  settled at the mouth of the Hayle River where Saint Ives, formerly
                  called Porth Ia, now stands. She is said to have crossed with Saints
                  Fingar, Phiala, and other missionaries (f.d. December 14). In Cornwall
                  she erected a cell where she lived the life of prayer and austerities.
                  This version relates that Ia suffered martyrdom in Cornwall at the mouth
                  of the Hayle River. Leland saw her "vita" at Saint Ives, which depicted
                  her as a noble of Saint Barricus; a church was built at her request by
                  Dinan, a great lord of Cornwall.
                  Breton tradition makes her a convert of Saint Patrick, and says that she
                  went to Armorica with 777 disciples, where she was
                  martyred. She is the eponym of Plouye, near Carhaix. Do not confuse her
                  with Saint Ives (f.d. April 24) of Saint Ives, Huntingdonshire
                  (Attwater, Attwater2, Benedictines, Coulson, D'Arcy, Farmer, Montague,
                  Moran).

                  Troparion of St Ia tone 5
                  Thy life and mission/ were pleasing to God, most pious Ia,/ for seeing
                  thee left behind in Ireland,/ He miraculously transported thee across
                  the sea to Cornwall on a leaf./ Wherefore O Saint, pray to God for us/
                  that we may never give way to despair/ but ever trust in His great
                  mercy.

                  Kontakion of St Ia tone 8
                  By a miracle, God showed that the first should be last and the last,
                  first, O righteous Ia,/ and therefore we look to thee as a symbol of
                  Gospel truth,/ ever praising thy illustrious memory.


                  St. Anatolius of Salins, Bishop
                  -----------------------------------------------------------
                  (9th? or) 11th century. A Scottish or Irish bishop who went as a pilgrim
                  to Rome and settled as a hermit at Salins in the diocese of Besancon,
                  Burgundy, about 1029. He lived the rest of life in a mountain retreat
                  overlooking a favourite stopover of Irish pilgrims near the oratory of
                  Saint Symphorian. At a later date a church was built in his honour at
                  Salins. His biographer said that it would be impossible to enumerate all
                  the miracles he worked in his lifetime (Benedictines, D'Arcy, Kenney,
                  O'Hanlon).


                  St. Caellainn (Caoilfionn), Virgin
                  -----------------------------------------------------------
                  6th century. An Irish saint listed in the Martyrology of Donegal. A
                  church in Roscommon perpetuates her name (Benedictines).


                  St. Werburg of Mercia
                  -----------------------------------------------------------
                  Died c. 785. When Ceolred of Mercia died, his wife Werburg retired to a
                  convent (Bardney?) of which she became abbess (Benedictines).


                  St. Werburga of Chester
                  (Werburg, Werebrurge, Werbyrgh)
                  -----------------------------------------------------------
                  Born at Stone, Staffordshire, England; died at Threckingham, England, c.
                  690-700; feast of her translation at Chester, June 21.

                  The patroness of Chester, England, Saint Werburga, was born of a line of
                  kings, being a daughter of Wulfhere, King of Mercia. From her mother,
                  the saintly Ermingilde (Ermenilda; f.d. February 13), she learned as a
                  child the Christian faith. By temperament she was pious and virtuous,
                  and her beauty attracted many admirers, among them a prince of the West
                  Saxons, who offered her rich gifts and made flattering proposals, and
                  also Werbode, a powerful knight of her father's court. But refusing all
                  her suitors, she secured, after much persuasion, her father's permission
                  to enter a convent (or she did so after her father's death).

                  When the time came, he and his courtiers escorted her in great state to
                  the abbey of Ely, where they were greeted at the gates by her aunt, the
                  royal abbess, Ethelreda (f.d. June 23), and her nuns. Werburga fell upon
                  her knees and asked that she might be received as a novice, and to the
                  chanting of the "Te Deum" they entered the cloister, where she was
                  stripped of her costly apparel, exchanged her coronet for a veil, and in
                  a rough habit began her new life.

                  She made good progress, and after many years, at the request of her
                  uncle, King Ethelred, was chosen to superintend all the convents of his
                  kingdom. This opened to her a large and fruitful sphere of duty, and the
                  religious houses under her care became models of monastic discipline.
                  Through the wealth and influence of her family she also founded new
                  convents at Trentham in Staffordshire, Hanbury near Tutbury, and Weedon
                  in Northamptonshire, and secured the interest of Ethelred in
                  establishing the collegiate Church of Saint John the Baptist in Chester,
                  and in giving land to Egwin (f.d. December 30) for the great abbey of
                  Evesham.

                  Werburga won many from dissipation and vice, and God crowned her life
                  with many blessings. Her work was deeply rooted in prayer and
                  discipline. She took but one meal daily and that only of the coarsest
                  food; she set before her the example of the desert fathers; and she
                  recited the whole of the Psalter daily upon her knees.

                  She lived to a ripe age, and before her death she journeyed to all her
                  convents, paying to each a farewell visit; she then retired to Trentham
                  (Threckingham in Lincolnshire), where she died. She was buried in the
                  monastery of Hanbury in Staffordshire. Later, her remains were
                  transferred with great ceremony in the presence of King Coolred and many
                  bishops to a costly shrine in Leicester, which attracted many pilgrims.

                  In 875, for fear of the Danes, her relics were removed to Chester. In
                  1095, they were translated within Chester, where in the course of time a
                  great church, now the cathedral, was built over it, and where the
                  remains of it may still be seen, carved with the figures of her
                  ancestors, the ancient kings of Mercia. On its four sides the deep
                  niches remain, where the pilgrims knelt, seeking healing, afterwards
                  receiving a metal token to show that they had visited her shrine. This
                  final translation was the occasion for Goselin to write her "vita." Her
                  magnificent shrine was in the Lady Chapel until it was despoiled in the
                  sixteenth century by those oddly called Reformers, and her church was
                  made the Cathedral Church of Christ and the Blessed Virgin. Some of the
                  stones from the base of the shrine were used to make a bishop's throne,
                  but they were restored in 1888 and now stand on their original site
                  behind the high altar. Twelve ancient English churches were dedicated to
                  her, including Hanbury and Chester (Attwater, Benedictines,
                  Encyclopaedia, Farmer, Gill).

                  In art Saint Werburga holds the abbey, while her crown lays at her feet.
                  Sometimes there are wild geese near her (Roeder), because, according to
                  Goselin she restored one to life (see below); however, the writer
                  borrowed the story from his own "vita" of the Flemish Saint Amelburga
                  (Farmer). She is, of course, the patroness of Chester (Roeder).

                  William of Malmesbury writes this of a local miracle wrought by Saint
                  Werburga:

                  "It was in the city of Chester that the girl Werburga, daughter of
                  Wulfhere, King of Mercia, and Ermenilda . . . took her vows, and her
                  goodness shone for many years. The story of one miracle done by her I
                  now shall tell, which made a great stir and was long told about the
                  countryside.

                  "She had a farm outside the walls, where the wild geese would come and
                  destroy the standing corn in the fields. The stewart in charge of the
                  farm took all shifts to drive them off, but with small success. And so,
                  when he came to wait upon his lady, he added his complaint of them to
                  the other tales he would tell her of the day.

                  "'Go,' said she, 'and shut them all into a house.' The
                  countryman,mbfounded at the oddness of the command, thought that his
                  lady was jesting: but finding her serious and insistent, went back to
                  the field where he had first spied the miscreants, and bade them,
                  speaking loud and clear, to do their lady's bidding and come after him.
                  Whereupon with one accord they gathered themselves into a flock, and
                  walking with down-bent necks after their enemy, were shut up under a
                  roof. On one of them, however, the rustic, with no thought of any to
                  accuse him, made bold to dine.

                  "At dawn came the maid, and after scolding the birds for pillaging other
                  people's property, bade them take their flight. But the winged creatures
                  knew that one of their company was missing; nor did they lack wit to go
                  circling round their lady's feet, refusing to budge further, and
                  complaining as best they could, to excite her compassion. She, through
                  God's revealing, and convinced that all this clamour was not without
                  cause, turned her gaze upon the steward, and divined the theft.

                  "She bade him gather up the bones and bring them to her. And
                  straightway, at a healing sign from the girl's hand, skin and flesh
                  began to come upon the bones, and feathers to fledge upon the skin, till
                  the living bird, at first with eager hop and soon upon the wing,
                  launched itself into the air. Nor were the others slow to follow it,
                  their numbers now complete, though first they made obeisance to their
                  lady and deliverer.

                  "And so the merits of this maid are told at Chester, and her miracles
                  extolled. Yet though she be generous and swift to answer all men's
                  prayers, yet most gracious is her footfall among the women and boys, who
                  pray as it might be to a neighbour and a woman of their own countryside"
                  (Malmesbury).


                  Sources:
                  =====

                  Attwater, D. (1983). The Penguin Dictionary of Saints, 2nd edition,
                  revised and updated by Catherine Rachel John. New York: Penguin Books.

                  Benedictine Monks of St. Augustine Abbey, Ramsgate. (1966). The Book of
                  Saints. NY: Thomas Y. Crowell. Benedictine Monks of St. Augustine Abbey,
                  Ramsgate. (1947).

                  Coulson, J. (ed.). (1960). The Saints: A Concise Biographical
                  Dictionary. New York: Hawthorn Books.

                  D'Arcy, M. R. (1974). The Saints of Ireland. Saint Paul, Minnesota:
                  Irish American Cultural Institute. [This is probably the most useful
                  book to choose to own on the Irish saints. The author provides a great
                  deal of historical context in which to place the lives of the saints.]

                  Farmer, D. H. (1997). The Oxford Dictionary of Saints. Oxford: Oxford
                  University Press.

                  Gill, F. C. (1958). The Glorious Company: Lives of Great Christians for
                  daily devotion, vol. I. London: Epworth Press.

                  Kenney, J. F. (1929). Sources for Early History of Ireland, vol. 1,
                  Ecclesiastical. New York: Columbia University Press.

                  Montague, H. P. (1981). The Saints and Martyrs of Ireland. Guildford:
                  Billing & Sons.

                  Moran, P. Card. (1879). Irish Saints in Great Britain.

                  O'Hanlon, J. (1875). Lives of Irish saints, 10 vol. Dublin.

                  For All the Saints:
                  http://www.saintpatrickdc.org/ss/ss-index.htm

                  An Alphabetical Index of the Saints of the West
                  http://www.orthodoxengland.btinternet.co.uk/saintsa.htm

                  These Lives are archived at:
                  http://groups.yahoo.com/group/celt-saints
                • ambrois@xtra.co.nz
                  Celtic and Old English Saints 3 February =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-= * St. Ia of Cornwall * St. Colman of Kilmacduagh (see #2) *
                  Message 8 of 11 , Feb 2, 2011
                  • 0 Attachment
                    Celtic and Old English Saints 3 February

                    =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=
                    * St. Ia of Cornwall
                    * St. Colman of Kilmacduagh (see #2)
                    * St. Anatolius of Salins
                    * St. Caellainn
                    * St. Werburg of Mercia
                    * St. Werburga of Chester
                    =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=


                    St. Ia of Cornwall, Virgin and Martyr
                    (Hia, Hya, Iia; Ives)
                    -----------------------------------------------------------
                    Died 6th century or 450 (sources are evenly split between the two
                    dates); another feast on October 27. According to the late medieval
                    legend, the sister of Saints Ercus (or Euny; f.d. October 31) and
                    Herygh, Saint Ia, was a holy maiden who came from Ireland to
                    Cornwall--sailing on a leaf that grew to accommodate her--and landed and
                    settled at the mouth of the Hayle River where Saint Ives, formerly
                    called Porth Ia, now stands. She is said to have crossed with Saints
                    Fingar, Phiala, and other missionaries (f.d. December 14). In Cornwall
                    she erected a cell where she lived the life of prayer and austerities.
                    This version relates that Ia suffered martyrdom in Cornwall at the mouth
                    of the Hayle River. Leland saw her "vita" at Saint Ives, which depicted
                    her as a noble of Saint Barricus; a church was built at her request by
                    Dinan, a great lord of Cornwall.
                    Breton tradition makes her a convert of Saint Patrick, and says that she
                    went to Armorica with 777 disciples, where she was
                    martyred. She is the eponym of Plouye, near Carhaix. Do not confuse her
                    with Saint Ives (f.d. April 24) of Saint Ives, Huntingdonshire
                    (Attwater, Attwater2, Benedictines, Coulson, D'Arcy, Farmer, Montague,
                    Moran).

                    Troparion of St Ia tone 5
                    Thy life and mission/ were pleasing to God, most pious Ia,/ for seeing
                    thee left behind in Ireland,/ He miraculously transported thee across
                    the sea to Cornwall on a leaf./ Wherefore O Saint, pray to God for us/
                    that we may never give way to despair/ but ever trust in His great
                    mercy.

                    Kontakion of St Ia tone 8
                    By a miracle, God showed that the first should be last and the last,
                    first, O righteous Ia,/ and therefore we look to thee as a symbol of
                    Gospel truth,/ ever praising thy illustrious memory.


                    St. Anatolius of Salins, Bishop
                    -----------------------------------------------------------
                    (9th? or) 11th century. A Scottish or Irish bishop who went as a pilgrim
                    to Rome and settled as a hermit at Salins in the diocese of Besancon,
                    Burgundy, about 1029. He lived the rest of life in a mountain retreat
                    overlooking a favourite stopover of Irish pilgrims near the oratory of
                    Saint Symphorian. At a later date a church was built in his honour at
                    Salins. His biographer said that it would be impossible to enumerate all
                    the miracles he worked in his lifetime (Benedictines, D'Arcy, Kenney,
                    O'Hanlon).


                    St. Caellainn (Caoilfionn), Virgin
                    -----------------------------------------------------------
                    6th century. An Irish saint listed in the Martyrology of Donegal. A
                    church in Roscommon perpetuates her name (Benedictines).


                    St. Werburg of Mercia
                    -----------------------------------------------------------
                    Died c. 785. When Ceolred of Mercia died, his wife Werburg retired to a
                    convent (Bardney?) of which she became abbess (Benedictines).


                    St. Werburga of Chester
                    (Werburg, Werebrurge, Werbyrgh)
                    -----------------------------------------------------------
                    Born at Stone, Staffordshire, England; died at Threckingham, England, c.
                    690-700; feast of her translation at Chester, June 21.

                    The patroness of Chester, England, Saint Werburga, was born of a line of
                    kings, being a daughter of Wulfhere, King of Mercia. From her mother,
                    the saintly Ermingilde (Ermenilda; f.d. February 13), she learned as a
                    child the Christian faith. By temperament she was pious and virtuous,
                    and her beauty attracted many admirers, among them a prince of the West
                    Saxons, who offered her rich gifts and made flattering proposals, and
                    also Werbode, a powerful knight of her father's court. But refusing all
                    her suitors, she secured, after much persuasion, her father's permission
                    to enter a convent (or she did so after her father's death).

                    When the time came, he and his courtiers escorted her in great state to
                    the abbey of Ely, where they were greeted at the gates by her aunt, the
                    royal abbess, Ethelreda (f.d. June 23), and her nuns. Werburga fell upon
                    her knees and asked that she might be received as a novice, and to the
                    chanting of the "Te Deum" they entered the cloister, where she was
                    stripped of her costly apparel, exchanged her coronet for a veil, and in
                    a rough habit began her new life.

                    She made good progress, and after many years, at the request of her
                    uncle, King Ethelred, was chosen to superintend all the convents of his
                    kingdom. This opened to her a large and fruitful sphere of duty, and the
                    religious houses under her care became models of monastic discipline.
                    Through the wealth and influence of her family she also founded new
                    convents at Trentham in Staffordshire, Hanbury near Tutbury, and Weedon
                    in Northamptonshire, and secured the interest of Ethelred in
                    establishing the collegiate Church of Saint John the Baptist in Chester,
                    and in giving land to Egwin (f.d. December 30) for the great abbey of
                    Evesham.

                    Werburga won many from dissipation and vice, and God crowned her life
                    with many blessings. Her work was deeply rooted in prayer and
                    discipline. She took but one meal daily and that only of the coarsest
                    food; she set before her the example of the desert fathers; and she
                    recited the whole of the Psalter daily upon her knees.

                    She lived to a ripe age, and before her death she journeyed to all her
                    convents, paying to each a farewell visit; she then retired to Trentham
                    (Threckingham in Lincolnshire), where she died. She was buried in the
                    monastery of Hanbury in Staffordshire. Later, her remains were
                    transferred with great ceremony in the presence of King Coolred and many
                    bishops to a costly shrine in Leicester, which attracted many pilgrims.

                    In 875, for fear of the Danes, her relics were removed to Chester. In
                    1095, they were translated within Chester, where in the course of time a
                    great church, now the cathedral, was built over it, and where the
                    remains of it may still be seen, carved with the figures of her
                    ancestors, the ancient kings of Mercia. On its four sides the deep
                    niches remain, where the pilgrims knelt, seeking healing, afterwards
                    receiving a metal token to show that they had visited her shrine. This
                    final translation was the occasion for Goselin to write her "vita." Her
                    magnificent shrine was in the Lady Chapel until it was despoiled in the
                    sixteenth century by those oddly called Reformers, and her church was
                    made the Cathedral Church of Christ and the Blessed Virgin. Some of the
                    stones from the base of the shrine were used to make a bishop's throne,
                    but they were restored in 1888 and now stand on their original site
                    behind the high altar. Twelve ancient English churches were dedicated to
                    her, including Hanbury and Chester (Attwater, Benedictines,
                    Encyclopaedia, Farmer, Gill).

                    In art Saint Werburga holds the abbey, while her crown lays at her feet.
                    Sometimes there are wild geese near her (Roeder), because, according to
                    Goselin she restored one to life (see below); however, the writer
                    borrowed the story from his own "vita" of the Flemish Saint Amelburga
                    (Farmer). She is, of course, the patroness of Chester (Roeder).

                    William of Malmesbury writes this of a local miracle wrought by Saint
                    Werburga:

                    "It was in the city of Chester that the girl Werburga, daughter of
                    Wulfhere, King of Mercia, and Ermenilda . . . took her vows, and her
                    goodness shone for many years. The story of one miracle done by her I
                    now shall tell, which made a great stir and was long told about the
                    countryside.

                    "She had a farm outside the walls, where the wild geese would come and
                    destroy the standing corn in the fields. The stewart in charge of the
                    farm took all shifts to drive them off, but with small success. And so,
                    when he came to wait upon his lady, he added his complaint of them to
                    the other tales he would tell her of the day.

                    "'Go,' said she, 'and shut them all into a house.' The
                    countryman,mbfounded at the oddness of the command, thought that his
                    lady was jesting: but finding her serious and insistent, went back to
                    the field where he had first spied the miscreants, and bade them,
                    speaking loud and clear, to do their lady's bidding and come after him.
                    Whereupon with one accord they gathered themselves into a flock, and
                    walking with down-bent necks after their enemy, were shut up under a
                    roof. On one of them, however, the rustic, with no thought of any to
                    accuse him, made bold to dine.

                    "At dawn came the maid, and after scolding the birds for pillaging other
                    people's property, bade them take their flight. But the winged creatures
                    knew that one of their company was missing; nor did they lack wit to go
                    circling round their lady's feet, refusing to budge further, and
                    complaining as best they could, to excite her compassion. She, through
                    God's revealing, and convinced that all this clamour was not without
                    cause, turned her gaze upon the steward, and divined the theft.

                    "She bade him gather up the bones and bring them to her. And
                    straightway, at a healing sign from the girl's hand, skin and flesh
                    began to come upon the bones, and feathers to fledge upon the skin, till
                    the living bird, at first with eager hop and soon upon the wing,
                    launched itself into the air. Nor were the others slow to follow it,
                    their numbers now complete, though first they made obeisance to their
                    lady and deliverer.

                    "And so the merits of this maid are told at Chester, and her miracles
                    extolled. Yet though she be generous and swift to answer all men's
                    prayers, yet most gracious is her footfall among the women and boys, who
                    pray as it might be to a neighbour and a woman of their own countryside"
                    (Malmesbury).


                    Sources:
                    =====

                    Attwater, D. (1983). The Penguin Dictionary of Saints, 2nd edition,
                    revised and updated by Catherine Rachel John. New York: Penguin Books.

                    Benedictine Monks of St. Augustine Abbey, Ramsgate. (1966). The Book of
                    Saints. NY: Thomas Y. Crowell. Benedictine Monks of St. Augustine Abbey,
                    Ramsgate. (1947).

                    Coulson, J. (ed.). (1960). The Saints: A Concise Biographical
                    Dictionary. New York: Hawthorn Books.

                    D'Arcy, M. R. (1974). The Saints of Ireland. Saint Paul, Minnesota:
                    Irish American Cultural Institute. [This is probably the most useful
                    book to choose to own on the Irish saints. The author provides a great
                    deal of historical context in which to place the lives of the saints.]

                    Farmer, D. H. (1997). The Oxford Dictionary of Saints. Oxford: Oxford
                    University Press.

                    Gill, F. C. (1958). The Glorious Company: Lives of Great Christians for
                    daily devotion, vol. I. London: Epworth Press.

                    Kenney, J. F. (1929). Sources for Early History of Ireland, vol. 1,
                    Ecclesiastical. New York: Columbia University Press.

                    Montague, H. P. (1981). The Saints and Martyrs of Ireland. Guildford:
                    Billing & Sons.

                    Moran, P. Card. (1879). Irish Saints in Great Britain.

                    O'Hanlon, J. (1875). Lives of Irish saints, 10 vol. Dublin.

                    For All the Saints:
                    http://www.saintpatrickdc.org/ss/ss-index.htm

                    An Alphabetical Index of the Saints of the West
                    http://www.orthodoxengland.btinternet.co.uk/saintsa.htm

                    These Lives are archived at:
                    http://groups.yahoo.com/group/celt-saints
                  • ambrois@xtra.co.nz
                    Celtic and Old English Saints 3 February =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-= * St. Ia of Cornwall * St. Colman of Kilmacduagh (see #2) *
                    Message 9 of 11 , Feb 3, 2012
                    • 0 Attachment
                      Celtic and Old English Saints 3 February

                      =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=
                      * St. Ia of Cornwall
                      * St. Colman of Kilmacduagh (see #2)
                      * St. Anatolius of Salins
                      * St. Caellainn
                      * St. Werburg of Mercia
                      * St. Werburga of Chester
                      =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=


                      St. Ia of Cornwall, Virgin and Martyr
                      (Hia, Hya, Iia; Ives)
                      -----------------------------------------------------------
                      Died 6th century or 450 (sources are evenly split between the two
                      dates); another feast on October 27. According to the late medieval
                      legend, the sister of Saints Ercus (or Euny; f.d. October 31) and
                      Herygh, Saint Ia, was a holy maiden who came from Ireland to
                      Cornwall--sailing on a leaf that grew to accommodate her--and landed and
                      settled at the mouth of the Hayle River where Saint Ives, formerly
                      called Porth Ia, now stands. She is said to have crossed with Saints
                      Fingar, Phiala, and other missionaries (f.d. December 14). In Cornwall
                      she erected a cell where she lived the life of prayer and austerities.
                      This version relates that Ia suffered martyrdom in Cornwall at the mouth
                      of the Hayle River. Leland saw her "vita" at Saint Ives, which depicted
                      her as a noble of Saint Barricus; a church was built at her request by
                      Dinan, a great lord of Cornwall.
                      Breton tradition makes her a convert of Saint Patrick, and says that she
                      went to Armorica with 777 disciples, where she was
                      martyred. She is the eponym of Plouye, near Carhaix. Do not confuse her
                      with Saint Ives (f.d. April 24) of Saint Ives, Huntingdonshire
                      (Attwater, Attwater2, Benedictines, Coulson, D'Arcy, Farmer, Montague,
                      Moran).

                      Troparion of St Ia tone 5
                      Thy life and mission/ were pleasing to God, most pious Ia,/ for seeing
                      thee left behind in Ireland,/ He miraculously transported thee across
                      the sea to Cornwall on a leaf./ Wherefore O Saint, pray to God for us/
                      that we may never give way to despair/ but ever trust in His great
                      mercy.

                      Kontakion of St Ia tone 8
                      By a miracle, God showed that the first should be last and the last,
                      first, O righteous Ia,/ and therefore we look to thee as a symbol of
                      Gospel truth,/ ever praising thy illustrious memory.


                      St. Anatolius of Salins, Bishop
                      -----------------------------------------------------------
                      (9th? or) 11th century. A Scottish or Irish bishop who went as a pilgrim
                      to Rome and settled as a hermit at Salins in the diocese of Besancon,
                      Burgundy, about 1029. He lived the rest of life in a mountain retreat
                      overlooking a favourite stopover of Irish pilgrims near the oratory of
                      Saint Symphorian. At a later date a church was built in his honour at
                      Salins. His biographer said that it would be impossible to enumerate all
                      the miracles he worked in his lifetime (Benedictines, D'Arcy, Kenney,
                      O'Hanlon).


                      St. Caellainn (Caoilfionn), Virgin
                      -----------------------------------------------------------
                      6th century. An Irish saint listed in the Martyrology of Donegal. A
                      church in Roscommon perpetuates her name (Benedictines).


                      St. Werburg of Mercia
                      -----------------------------------------------------------
                      Died c. 785. When Ceolred of Mercia died, his wife Werburg retired to a
                      convent (Bardney?) of which she became abbess (Benedictines).


                      St. Werburga of Chester
                      (Werburg, Werebrurge, Werbyrgh)
                      -----------------------------------------------------------
                      Born at Stone, Staffordshire, England; died at Threckingham, England, c.
                      690-700; feast of her translation at Chester, June 21.

                      The patroness of Chester, England, Saint Werburga, was born of a line of
                      kings, being a daughter of Wulfhere, King of Mercia. From her mother,
                      the saintly Ermingilde (Ermenilda; f.d. February 13), she learned as a
                      child the Christian faith. By temperament she was pious and virtuous,
                      and her beauty attracted many admirers, among them a prince of the West
                      Saxons, who offered her rich gifts and made flattering proposals, and
                      also Werbode, a powerful knight of her father's court. But refusing all
                      her suitors, she secured, after much persuasion, her father's permission
                      to enter a convent (or she did so after her father's death).

                      When the time came, he and his courtiers escorted her in great state to
                      the abbey of Ely, where they were greeted at the gates by her aunt, the
                      royal abbess, Ethelreda (f.d. June 23), and her nuns. Werburga fell upon
                      her knees and asked that she might be received as a novice, and to the
                      chanting of the "Te Deum" they entered the cloister, where she was
                      stripped of her costly apparel, exchanged her coronet for a veil, and in
                      a rough habit began her new life.

                      She made good progress, and after many years, at the request of her
                      uncle, King Ethelred, was chosen to superintend all the convents of his
                      kingdom. This opened to her a large and fruitful sphere of duty, and the
                      religious houses under her care became models of monastic discipline.
                      Through the wealth and influence of her family she also founded new
                      convents at Trentham in Staffordshire, Hanbury near Tutbury, and Weedon
                      in Northamptonshire, and secured the interest of Ethelred in
                      establishing the collegiate Church of Saint John the Baptist in Chester,
                      and in giving land to Egwin (f.d. December 30) for the great abbey of
                      Evesham.

                      Werburga won many from dissipation and vice, and God crowned her life
                      with many blessings. Her work was deeply rooted in prayer and
                      discipline. She took but one meal daily and that only of the coarsest
                      food; she set before her the example of the desert fathers; and she
                      recited the whole of the Psalter daily upon her knees.

                      She lived to a ripe age, and before her death she journeyed to all her
                      convents, paying to each a farewell visit; she then retired to Trentham
                      (Threckingham in Lincolnshire), where she died. She was buried in the
                      monastery of Hanbury in Staffordshire. Later, her remains were
                      transferred with great ceremony in the presence of King Coolred and many
                      bishops to a costly shrine in Leicester, which attracted many pilgrims.

                      In 875, for fear of the Danes, her relics were removed to Chester. In
                      1095, they were translated within Chester, where in the course of time a
                      great church, now the cathedral, was built over it, and where the
                      remains of it may still be seen, carved with the figures of her
                      ancestors, the ancient kings of Mercia. On its four sides the deep
                      niches remain, where the pilgrims knelt, seeking healing, afterwards
                      receiving a metal token to show that they had visited her shrine. This
                      final translation was the occasion for Goselin to write her "vita." Her
                      magnificent shrine was in the Lady Chapel until it was despoiled in the
                      sixteenth century by those oddly called Reformers, and her church was
                      made the Cathedral Church of Christ and the Blessed Virgin. Some of the
                      stones from the base of the shrine were used to make a bishop's throne,
                      but they were restored in 1888 and now stand on their original site
                      behind the high altar. Twelve ancient English churches were dedicated to
                      her, including Hanbury and Chester (Attwater, Benedictines,
                      Encyclopaedia, Farmer, Gill).

                      In art Saint Werburga holds the abbey, while her crown lays at her feet.
                      Sometimes there are wild geese near her (Roeder), because, according to
                      Goselin she restored one to life (see below); however, the writer
                      borrowed the story from his own "vita" of the Flemish Saint Amelburga
                      (Farmer). She is, of course, the patroness of Chester (Roeder).

                      William of Malmesbury writes this of a local miracle wrought by Saint
                      Werburga:

                      "It was in the city of Chester that the girl Werburga, daughter of
                      Wulfhere, King of Mercia, and Ermenilda . . . took her vows, and her
                      goodness shone for many years. The story of one miracle done by her I
                      now shall tell, which made a great stir and was long told about the
                      countryside.

                      "She had a farm outside the walls, where the wild geese would come and
                      destroy the standing corn in the fields. The stewart in charge of the
                      farm took all shifts to drive them off, but with small success. And so,
                      when he came to wait upon his lady, he added his complaint of them to
                      the other tales he would tell her of the day.

                      "'Go,' said she, 'and shut them all into a house.' The
                      countryman,mbfounded at the oddness of the command, thought that his
                      lady was jesting: but finding her serious and insistent, went back to
                      the field where he had first spied the miscreants, and bade them,
                      speaking loud and clear, to do their lady's bidding and come after him.
                      Whereupon with one accord they gathered themselves into a flock, and
                      walking with down-bent necks after their enemy, were shut up under a
                      roof. On one of them, however, the rustic, with no thought of any to
                      accuse him, made bold to dine.

                      "At dawn came the maid, and after scolding the birds for pillaging other
                      people's property, bade them take their flight. But the winged creatures
                      knew that one of their company was missing; nor did they lack wit to go
                      circling round their lady's feet, refusing to budge further, and
                      complaining as best they could, to excite her compassion. She, through
                      God's revealing, and convinced that all this clamour was not without
                      cause, turned her gaze upon the steward, and divined the theft.

                      "She bade him gather up the bones and bring them to her. And
                      straightway, at a healing sign from the girl's hand, skin and flesh
                      began to come upon the bones, and feathers to fledge upon the skin, till
                      the living bird, at first with eager hop and soon upon the wing,
                      launched itself into the air. Nor were the others slow to follow it,
                      their numbers now complete, though first they made obeisance to their
                      lady and deliverer.

                      "And so the merits of this maid are told at Chester, and her miracles
                      extolled. Yet though she be generous and swift to answer all men's
                      prayers, yet most gracious is her footfall among the women and boys, who
                      pray as it might be to a neighbour and a woman of their own countryside"
                      (Malmesbury).


                      Sources:
                      =====

                      Attwater, D. (1983). The Penguin Dictionary of Saints, 2nd edition,
                      revised and updated by Catherine Rachel John. New York: Penguin Books.

                      Benedictine Monks of St. Augustine Abbey, Ramsgate. (1966). The Book of
                      Saints. NY: Thomas Y. Crowell. Benedictine Monks of St. Augustine Abbey,
                      Ramsgate. (1947).

                      Coulson, J. (ed.). (1960). The Saints: A Concise Biographical
                      Dictionary. New York: Hawthorn Books.

                      D'Arcy, M. R. (1974). The Saints of Ireland. Saint Paul, Minnesota:
                      Irish American Cultural Institute. [This is probably the most useful
                      book to choose to own on the Irish saints. The author provides a great
                      deal of historical context in which to place the lives of the saints.]

                      Farmer, D. H. (1997). The Oxford Dictionary of Saints. Oxford: Oxford
                      University Press.

                      Gill, F. C. (1958). The Glorious Company: Lives of Great Christians for
                      daily devotion, vol. I. London: Epworth Press.

                      Kenney, J. F. (1929). Sources for Early History of Ireland, vol. 1,
                      Ecclesiastical. New York: Columbia University Press.

                      Montague, H. P. (1981). The Saints and Martyrs of Ireland. Guildford:
                      Billing & Sons.

                      Moran, P. Card. (1879). Irish Saints in Great Britain.

                      O'Hanlon, J. (1875). Lives of Irish saints, 10 vol. Dublin.

                      For All the Saints:
                      http://www.saintpatrickdc.org/ss/ss-index.htm

                      An Alphabetical Index of the Saints of the West
                      http://www.orthodoxengland.btinternet.co.uk/saintsa.htm

                      These Lives are archived at:
                      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/celt-saints
                    • ambrois@xtra.co.nz
                      Celtic and Old English Saints 3 February =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-= * St. Ia of Cornwall * St. Colman of Kilmacduagh (see #2) *
                      Message 10 of 11 , Feb 3, 2013
                      • 0 Attachment
                        Celtic and Old English Saints          3 February

                        =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=
                        * St. Ia of Cornwall
                        * St. Colman of Kilmacduagh (see #2)
                        * St. Anatolius of Salins
                        * St. Caellainn
                        * St. Werburg of Mercia
                        * St. Werburga of Chester
                        =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=


                        St. Ia of Cornwall, Virgin and Martyr
                        (Hia, Hya, Iia; Ives)
                        -----------------------------------------------------------
                        Died 6th century or 450 (sources are evenly split between the two
                        dates); another feast on October 27. According to the late medieval
                        legend, the sister of Saints Ercus (or Euny; f.d. October 31) and
                        Herygh, Saint Ia, was a holy maiden who came from Ireland to
                        Cornwall--sailing on a leaf that grew to accommodate her--and landed and
                        settled at the mouth of the Hayle River where Saint Ives, formerly
                        called Porth Ia, now stands. She is said to have crossed with Saints
                        Fingar, Phiala, and other missionaries (f.d. December 14). In Cornwall
                        she erected a cell where she lived the life of prayer and austerities.
                        This version relates that Ia suffered martyrdom in Cornwall at the mouth
                        of the Hayle River. Leland saw her "vita" at Saint Ives, which depicted
                        her as a noble of Saint Barricus; a church was built at her request by
                        Dinan, a great lord of Cornwall.
                        Breton tradition makes her a convert of Saint Patrick, and says that she
                        went to Armorica with 777 disciples, where she was
                        martyred. She is the eponym of Plouye, near Carhaix. Do not confuse her
                        with Saint Ives (f.d. April 24) of Saint Ives, Huntingdonshire
                        (Attwater, Attwater2, Benedictines, Coulson, D'Arcy, Farmer, Montague,
                        Moran).

                        Troparion of St Ia tone 5
                        Thy life and mission/ were pleasing to God, most pious Ia,/ for seeing
                        thee left behind in Ireland,/ He miraculously transported thee across
                        the sea to Cornwall on a leaf./ Wherefore O Saint, pray to God for us/
                        that we may never give way to despair/ but ever trust in His great
                        mercy.

                        Kontakion of St Ia tone 8
                        By a miracle, God showed that the first should be last and the last,
                        first, O righteous Ia,/ and therefore we look to thee as a symbol of
                        Gospel truth,/ ever praising thy illustrious memory.


                        St. Anatolius of Salins, Bishop
                        -----------------------------------------------------------
                        (9th? or) 11th century. A Scottish or Irish bishop who went as a pilgrim
                        to Rome and settled as a hermit at Salins in the diocese of Besancon,
                        Burgundy, about 1029. He lived the rest of life in a mountain retreat
                        overlooking a favourite stopover of Irish pilgrims near the oratory of
                        Saint Symphorian. At a later date a church was built in his honour at
                        Salins. His biographer said that it would be impossible to enumerate all
                        the miracles he worked in his lifetime (Benedictines, D'Arcy, Kenney,
                        O'Hanlon).


                        St. Caellainn (Caoilfionn), Virgin
                        -----------------------------------------------------------
                        6th century. An Irish saint listed in the Martyrology of Donegal. A
                        church in Roscommon perpetuates her name (Benedictines).


                        St. Werburg of Mercia
                        -----------------------------------------------------------
                        Died c. 785. When Ceolred of Mercia died, his wife Werburg retired to a
                        convent (Bardney?) of which she became abbess (Benedictines).


                        St. Werburga of Chester
                        (Werburg, Werebrurge, Werbyrgh)
                        -----------------------------------------------------------
                        Born at Stone, Staffordshire, England; died at Threckingham, England, c.
                        690-700; feast of her translation at Chester, June 21.

                        The patroness of Chester, England, Saint Werburga, was born of a line of
                        kings, being a daughter of Wulfhere, King of Mercia. From her mother,
                        the saintly Ermingilde (Ermenilda; f.d. February 13), she learned as a
                        child the Christian faith. By temperament she was pious and virtuous,
                        and her beauty attracted many admirers, among them a prince of the West
                        Saxons, who offered her rich gifts and made flattering proposals, and
                        also Werbode, a powerful knight of her father's court. But refusing all
                        her suitors, she secured, after much persuasion, her father's permission
                        to enter a convent (or she did so after her father's death).

                        When the time came, he and his courtiers escorted her in great state to
                        the abbey of Ely, where they were greeted at the gates by her aunt, the
                        royal abbess, Ethelreda (f.d. June 23), and her nuns. Werburga fell upon
                        her knees and asked that she might be received as a novice, and to the
                        chanting of the "Te Deum" they entered the cloister, where she was
                        stripped of her costly apparel, exchanged her coronet for a veil, and in
                        a rough habit began her new life.

                        She made good progress, and after many years, at the request of her
                        uncle, King Ethelred, was chosen to superintend all the convents of his
                        kingdom. This opened to her a large and fruitful sphere of duty, and the
                        religious houses under her care became models of monastic discipline.
                        Through the wealth and influence of her family she also founded new
                        convents at Trentham in Staffordshire, Hanbury near Tutbury, and Weedon
                        in Northamptonshire, and secured the interest of Ethelred in
                        establishing the collegiate Church of Saint John the Baptist in Chester,
                        and in giving land to Egwin (f.d. December 30) for the great abbey of
                        Evesham.

                        Werburga won many from dissipation and vice, and God crowned her life
                        with many blessings. Her work was deeply rooted in prayer and
                        discipline. She took but one meal daily and that only of the coarsest
                        food; she set before her the example of the desert fathers; and she
                        recited the whole of the Psalter daily upon her knees.

                        She lived to a ripe age, and before her death she journeyed to all her
                        convents, paying to each a farewell visit; she then retired to Trentham
                        (Threckingham in Lincolnshire), where she died. She was buried in the
                        monastery of Hanbury in Staffordshire. Later, her remains were
                        transferred with great ceremony in the presence of King Coolred and many
                        bishops to a costly shrine in Leicester, which attracted many pilgrims.

                        In 875, for fear of the Danes, her relics were removed to Chester. In
                        1095, they were translated within Chester, where in the course of time a
                        great church, now the cathedral, was built over it, and where the
                        remains of it may still be seen, carved with the figures of her
                        ancestors, the ancient kings of Mercia. On its four sides the deep
                        niches remain, where the pilgrims knelt, seeking healing, afterwards
                        receiving a metal token to show that they had visited her shrine. This
                        final translation was the occasion for Goselin to write her "vita." Her
                        magnificent shrine was in the Lady Chapel until it was despoiled in the
                        sixteenth century by those oddly called Reformers, and her church was
                        made the Cathedral Church of Christ and the Blessed Virgin. Some of the
                        stones from the base of the shrine were used to make a bishop's throne,
                        but they were restored in 1888 and now stand on their original site
                        behind the high altar. Twelve ancient English churches were dedicated to
                        her, including Hanbury and Chester (Attwater, Benedictines,
                        Encyclopaedia, Farmer, Gill).

                        In art Saint Werburga holds the abbey, while her crown lays at her feet.
                        Sometimes there are wild geese near her (Roeder), because, according to
                        Goselin she restored one to life (see below); however, the writer
                        borrowed the story from his own "vita" of the Flemish Saint Amelburga
                        (Farmer). She is, of course, the patroness of Chester (Roeder).

                        William of Malmesbury writes this of a local miracle wrought by Saint
                        Werburga:

                        "It was in the city of Chester that the girl Werburga, daughter of
                        Wulfhere, King of Mercia, and Ermenilda . .. . took her vows, and her
                        goodness shone for many years. The story of one miracle done by her I
                        now shall tell, which made a great stir and was long told about the
                        countryside.

                        "She had a farm outside the walls, where the wild geese would come and
                        destroy the standing corn in the fields. The stewart in charge of the
                        farm took all shifts to drive them off, but with small success. And so,
                        when he came to wait upon his lady, he added his complaint of them to
                        the other tales he would tell her of the day.

                        "'Go,' said she, 'and shut them all into a house.' The
                        countryman,mbfounded at the oddness of the command, thought that his
                        lady was jesting: but finding her serious and insistent, went back to
                        the field where he had first spied the miscreants, and bade them,
                        speaking loud and clear, to do their lady's bidding and come after him.
                        Whereupon with one accord they gathered themselves into a flock, and
                        walking with down-bent necks after their enemy, were shut up under a
                        roof. On one of them, however, the rustic, with no thought of any to
                        accuse him, made bold to dine.

                        "At dawn came the maid, and after scolding the birds for pillaging other
                        people's property, bade them take their flight. But the winged creatures
                        knew that one of their company was missing; nor did they lack wit to go
                        circling round their lady's feet, refusing to budge further, and
                        complaining as best they could, to excite her compassion. She, through
                        God's revealing, and convinced that all this clamour was not without
                        cause, turned her gaze upon the steward, and divined the theft.

                        "She bade him gather up the bones and bring them to her. And
                        straightway, at a healing sign from the girl's hand, skin and flesh
                        began to come upon the bones, and feathers to fledge upon the skin, till
                        the living bird, at first with eager hop and soon upon the wing,
                        launched itself into the air. Nor were the others slow to follow it,
                        their numbers now complete, though first they made obeisance to their
                        lady and deliverer.

                        "And so the merits of this maid are told at Chester, and her miracles
                        extolled. Yet though she be generous and swift to answer all men's
                        prayers, yet most gracious is her footfall among the women and boys, who
                        pray as it might be to a neighbour and a woman of their own countryside"
                        (Malmesbury).


                        Sources:
                        =====

                        Attwater, D. (1983). The Penguin Dictionary of Saints, 2nd edition,
                        revised and updated by Catherine Rachel John. New York: Penguin Books.

                        Benedictine Monks of St. Augustine Abbey, Ramsgate. (1966). The Book of
                        Saints. NY: Thomas Y. Crowell. Benedictine Monks of St. Augustine Abbey,
                        Ramsgate. (1947).

                        Coulson, J. (ed.). (1960). The Saints: A Concise Biographical
                        Dictionary. New York: Hawthorn Books.

                        D'Arcy, M. R. (1974). The Saints of Ireland. Saint Paul, Minnesota:
                        Irish American Cultural Institute. [This is probably the most useful
                        book to choose to own on the Irish saints. The author provides a great
                        deal of historical context in which to place the lives of the saints.]

                        Farmer, D. H. (1997). The Oxford Dictionary of Saints. Oxford: Oxford
                        University Press.

                        Gill, F. C. (1958). The Glorious Company: Lives of Great Christians for
                        daily devotion, vol. I. London: Epworth Press.

                        Kenney, J. F. (1929). Sources for Early History of Ireland, vol. 1,
                        Ecclesiastical. New York: Columbia University Press.

                        Montague, H. P. (1981). The Saints and Martyrs of Ireland. Guildford:
                        Billing & Sons.

                        Moran, P. Card. (1879). Irish Saints in Great Britain.

                        O'Hanlon, J. (1875). Lives of Irish saints, 10 vol. Dublin.

                        For All the Saints: - new active link
                        http://www.saintpatrickdc.org/ss/saint_a.shtml

                        An Alphabetical Index of the Saints of the West - new active link
                        http://orthodoxengland.org.uk/saintsa.htm
                         
                        These Lives are archived at:
                        http://groups.yahoo.com/group/celt-saints

                         
                         
                      • ambrois@xtra.co.nz
                        Celtic and Old English Saints 3 February =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-= * St. Ia of Cornwall * St. Colman of Kilmacduagh (see #2) *
                        Message 11 of 11 , Feb 6, 2014
                        • 0 Attachment
                          Celtic and Old English Saints 3 February

                          =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=
                          * St. Ia of Cornwall
                          * St. Colman of Kilmacduagh (see #2)
                          * St. Anatolius of Salins
                          * St. Caellainn
                          * St. Werburg of Mercia
                          * St. Werburga of Chester
                          =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=


                          St. Ia of Cornwall, Virgin and Martyr
                          (Hia, Hya, Iia; Ives)
                          -----------------------------------------------------------
                          Died 6th century or 450 (sources are evenly split between the two
                          dates); another feast on October 27. According to the late medieval
                          legend, the sister of Saints Ercus (or Euny; f.d. October 31) and
                          Herygh, Saint Ia, was a holy maiden who came from Ireland to
                          Cornwall--sailing on a leaf that grew to accommodate her--and landed and
                          settled at the mouth of the Hayle River where Saint Ives, formerly
                          called Porth Ia, now stands. She is said to have crossed with Saints
                          Fingar, Phiala, and other missionaries (f.d. December 14). In Cornwall
                          she erected a cell where she lived the life of prayer and austerities.
                          This version relates that Ia suffered martyrdom in Cornwall at the mouth
                          of the Hayle River. Leland saw her "vita" at Saint Ives, which depicted
                          her as a noble of Saint Barricus; a church was built at her request by
                          Dinan, a great lord of Cornwall.
                          Breton tradition makes her a convert of Saint Patrick, and says that she
                          went to Armorica with 777 disciples, where she was
                          martyred. She is the eponym of Plouye, near Carhaix. Do not confuse her
                          with Saint Ives (f.d. April 24) of Saint Ives, Huntingdonshire
                          (Attwater, Attwater2, Benedictines, Coulson, D'Arcy, Farmer, Montague,
                          Moran).

                          Troparion of St Ia tone 5
                          Thy life and mission/ were pleasing to God, most pious Ia,/ for seeing
                          thee left behind in Ireland,/ He miraculously transported thee across
                          the sea to Cornwall on a leaf./ Wherefore O Saint, pray to God for us/
                          that we may never give way to despair/ but ever trust in His great
                          mercy.

                          Kontakion of St Ia tone 8
                          By a miracle, God showed that the first should be last and the last,
                          first, O righteous Ia,/ and therefore we look to thee as a symbol of
                          Gospel truth,/ ever praising thy illustrious memory.


                          St. Anatolius of Salins, Bishop
                          -----------------------------------------------------------
                          (9th? or) 11th century. A Scottish or Irish bishop who went as a pilgrim
                          to Rome and settled as a hermit at Salins in the diocese of Besancon,
                          Burgundy, about 1029. He lived the rest of life in a mountain retreat
                          overlooking a favourite stopover of Irish pilgrims near the oratory of
                          Saint Symphorian. At a later date a church was built in his honour at
                          Salins. His biographer said that it would be impossible to enumerate all
                          the miracles he worked in his lifetime (Benedictines, D'Arcy, Kenney,
                          O'Hanlon).


                          St. Caellainn (Caoilfionn), Virgin
                          -----------------------------------------------------------
                          6th century. An Irish saint listed in the Martyrology of Donegal. A
                          church in Roscommon perpetuates her name (Benedictines).


                          St. Werburg of Mercia
                          -----------------------------------------------------------
                          Died c. 785. When Ceolred of Mercia died, his wife Werburg retired to a
                          convent (Bardney?) of which she became abbess (Benedictines).


                          St. Werburga of Chester
                          (Werburg, Werebrurge, Werbyrgh)
                          -----------------------------------------------------------
                          Born at Stone, Staffordshire, England; died at Threckingham, England, c.
                          690-700; feast of her translation at Chester, June 21.

                          The patroness of Chester, England, Saint Werburga, was born of a line of
                          kings, being a daughter of Wulfhere, King of Mercia. From her mother,
                          the saintly Ermingilde (Ermenilda; f.d. February 13), she learned as a
                          child the Christian faith. By temperament she was pious and virtuous,
                          and her beauty attracted many admirers, among them a prince of the West
                          Saxons, who offered her rich gifts and made flattering proposals, and
                          also Werbode, a powerful knight of her father's court. But refusing all
                          her suitors, she secured, after much persuasion, her father's permission
                          to enter a convent (or she did so after her father's death).

                          When the time came, he and his courtiers escorted her in great state to
                          the abbey of Ely, where they were greeted at the gates by her aunt, the
                          royal abbess, Ethelreda (f.d. June 23), and her nuns. Werburga fell upon
                          her knees and asked that she might be received as a novice, and to the
                          chanting of the "Te Deum" they entered the cloister, where she was
                          stripped of her costly apparel, exchanged her coronet for a veil, and in
                          a rough habit began her new life.

                          She made good progress, and after many years, at the request of her
                          uncle, King Ethelred, was chosen to superintend all the convents of his
                          kingdom. This opened to her a large and fruitful sphere of duty, and the
                          religious houses under her care became models of monastic discipline.
                          Through the wealth and influence of her family she also founded new
                          convents at Trentham in Staffordshire, Hanbury near Tutbury, and Weedon
                          in Northamptonshire, and secured the interest of Ethelred in
                          establishing the collegiate Church of Saint John the Baptist in Chester,
                          and in giving land to Egwin (f.d. December 30) for the great abbey of
                          Evesham.

                          Werburga won many from dissipation and vice, and God crowned her life
                          with many blessings. Her work was deeply rooted in prayer and
                          discipline. She took but one meal daily and that only of the coarsest
                          food; she set before her the example of the desert fathers; and she
                          recited the whole of the Psalter daily upon her knees.

                          She lived to a ripe age, and before her death she journeyed to all her
                          convents, paying to each a farewell visit; she then retired to Trentham
                          (Threckingham in Lincolnshire), where she died. She was buried in the
                          monastery of Hanbury in Staffordshire. Later, her remains were
                          transferred with great ceremony in the presence of King Coolred and many
                          bishops to a costly shrine in Leicester, which attracted many pilgrims.

                          In 875, for fear of the Danes, her relics were removed to Chester. In
                          1095, they were translated within Chester, where in the course of time a
                          great church, now the cathedral, was built over it, and where the
                          remains of it may still be seen, carved with the figures of her
                          ancestors, the ancient kings of Mercia. On its four sides the deep
                          niches remain, where the pilgrims knelt, seeking healing, afterwards
                          receiving a metal token to show that they had visited her shrine. This
                          final translation was the occasion for Goselin to write her "vita." Her
                          magnificent shrine was in the Lady Chapel until it was despoiled in the
                          sixteenth century by those oddly called Reformers, and her church was
                          made the Cathedral Church of Christ and the Blessed Virgin. Some of the
                          stones from the base of the shrine were used to make a bishop's throne,
                          but they were restored in 1888 and now stand on their original site
                          behind the high altar. Twelve ancient English churches were dedicated to
                          her, including Hanbury and Chester (Attwater, Benedictines,
                          Encyclopaedia, Farmer, Gill).

                          In art Saint Werburga holds the abbey, while her crown lays at her feet.
                          Sometimes there are wild geese near her (Roeder), because, according to
                          Goselin she restored one to life (see below); however, the writer
                          borrowed the story from his own "vita" of the Flemish Saint Amelburga
                          (Farmer). She is, of course, the patroness of Chester (Roeder).

                          William of Malmesbury writes this of a local miracle wrought by Saint
                          Werburga:

                          "It was in the city of Chester that the girl Werburga, daughter of
                          Wulfhere, King of Mercia, and Ermenilda . . . took her vows, and her
                          goodness shone for many years. The story of one miracle done by her I
                          now shall tell, which made a great stir and was long told about the
                          countryside.

                          "She had a farm outside the walls, where the wild geese would come and
                          destroy the standing corn in the fields. The stewart in charge of the
                          farm took all shifts to drive them off, but with small success. And so,
                          when he came to wait upon his lady, he added his complaint of them to
                          the other tales he would tell her of the day.

                          "'Go,' said she, 'and shut them all into a house.' The
                          countryman,mbfounded at the oddness of the command, thought that his
                          lady was jesting: but finding her serious and insistent, went back to
                          the field where he had first spied the miscreants, and bade them,
                          speaking loud and clear, to do their lady's bidding and come after him.
                          Whereupon with one accord they gathered themselves into a flock, and
                          walking with down-bent necks after their enemy, were shut up under a
                          roof. On one of them, however, the rustic, with no thought of any to
                          accuse him, made bold to dine.

                          "At dawn came the maid, and after scolding the birds for pillaging other
                          people's property, bade them take their flight. But the winged creatures
                          knew that one of their company was missing; nor did they lack wit to go
                          circling round their lady's feet, refusing to budge further, and
                          complaining as best they could, to excite her compassion. She, through
                          God's revealing, and convinced that all this clamour was not without
                          cause, turned her gaze upon the steward, and divined the theft.

                          "She bade him gather up the bones and bring them to her. And
                          straightway, at a healing sign from the girl's hand, skin and flesh
                          began to come upon the bones, and feathers to fledge upon the skin, till
                          the living bird, at first with eager hop and soon upon the wing,
                          launched itself into the air. Nor were the others slow to follow it,
                          their numbers now complete, though first they made obeisance to their
                          lady and deliverer.

                          "And so the merits of this maid are told at Chester, and her miracles
                          extolled. Yet though she be generous and swift to answer all men's
                          prayers, yet most gracious is her footfall among the women and boys, who
                          pray as it might be to a neighbour and a woman of their own countryside"
                          (Malmesbury).


                          Sources:
                          =====

                          Attwater, D. (1983). The Penguin Dictionary of Saints, 2nd edition,
                          revised and updated by Catherine Rachel John. New York: Penguin Books.

                          Benedictine Monks of St. Augustine Abbey, Ramsgate. (1966). The Book of
                          Saints. NY: Thomas Y. Crowell. Benedictine Monks of St. Augustine Abbey,
                          Ramsgate. (1947).

                          Coulson, J. (ed.). (1960). The Saints: A Concise Biographical
                          Dictionary. New York: Hawthorn Books.

                          D'Arcy, M. R. (1974). The Saints of Ireland. Saint Paul, Minnesota:
                          Irish American Cultural Institute. [This is probably the most useful
                          book to choose to own on the Irish saints. The author provides a great
                          deal of historical context in which to place the lives of the saints.]

                          Farmer, D. H. (1997). The Oxford Dictionary of Saints. Oxford: Oxford
                          University Press.

                          Gill, F. C. (1958). The Glorious Company: Lives of Great Christians for
                          daily devotion, vol. I. London: Epworth Press.

                          Kenney, J. F. (1929). Sources for Early History of Ireland, vol. 1,
                          Ecclesiastical. New York: Columbia University Press.

                          Montague, H. P. (1981). The Saints and Martyrs of Ireland. Guildford:
                          Billing & Sons.

                          Moran, P. Card. (1879). Irish Saints in Great Britain.

                          O'Hanlon, J. (1875). Lives of Irish saints, 10 vol. Dublin.


                          For All the Saints: - new active link
                          http://www.saintpatrickdc.org/ss/saint_a.shtml

                          An Alphabetical Index of the Saints of the West - new active link
                          http://orthodoxengland.org.uk/saintsa.htm


                          These Lives are archived at:
                          http://groups.yahoo.com/group/celt-saints
                        Your message has been successfully submitted and would be delivered to recipients shortly.