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document on collection development and classifications

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  • emd89bz
    here is the document: February 27, 2008 Proposals for library collection development. Adequate informational material is an important part of the teaching
    Message 1 of 2 , Feb 27, 2008
      here is the document:

      February 27, 2008

      Proposals for library collection development.

      Adequate informational material is an important part of the teaching
      mission of schools of Oriental Medicine. Equally important is the
      arrangement of and access to this material. Here are some
      suggestions for developing and maintaining such a collection.

      Size of the collection.
      The collection of materials in all formats should be sufficient to
      support the needs of faculty and students and be consistent with the
      mission statement of the institution. Some items are required as
      part of the teaching curriculum, others support general research or
      clinic needs.

      Access to the collection.
      The collection should be readily accessible to users. There must be
      a system in place to put each item in its proper place on the shelf
      and some means to have a data base sufficient to categorize, find and
      account for the material. This usually means a computer-based file
      of some kind. Such a file should have at least these characteristics:
      *adequate power to properly provide sufficient information on each
      *be flexible and capable of dealing with increasing amounts of data
      as the collection grows. A filing system for 40 to 100 items can be
      fairly simple, but will probably be unable to support a larger
      *be based on standard library cataloging practices to a high degree
      in both description of a given item and a classification scheme which
      places items on the shelf in a coherent manner.

      In general it is best to think of future growth when starting up or
      expanding a collection. It is easier to build an adequate
      classification system for even a small collection rather than have to
      retrofit a collection later on. This applies to allocation of
      physical space as well.

      Data-base requirements.
      Each item should have a file record using all of the
      following "fields"
      *main author
      *physical description, e.g. 241 p.; ill., 23 cm; 1 tape, analog, 30
      *a main subject upon which the classification number is based
      *classification ("call") number
      *subjects(multiple fields may be needed)
      *isbn or issn number
      *additional authors (may be optional)
      Other items which may be part of the record:
      **corporate authors or schools associated with the item
      **accompanying material, e.g. CDRom, CD,etc.

      The fields with a single * should be indexed and searchable.

      These fields should adhere to standard cataloging procedures embodied
      in the Library of Congress Machine Readable format. Subject headings
      should follow guidelines provided by the Library of Congress of the
      National Medical Library.

      Generally it is advisable to use one of the standard classification
      schemes for the "call" number:
      *Dewey decimal system-used in most public libraries; most medical
      material is put into a relatively small range of numbers.
      *Library of Congress and National Medical library classifications use
      letters and number combinations and have more flexibility. NML use
      Library of Congress numbers except for medicine.. See sample below.

      Subject: Acupuncture
      Dewey: 615
      Library of Congress RM184
      National Medical Library: WB369

      Online help is available for finding the correct number for each
      subject. National Medical library provides the most complete
      classification help.

      A key criterion in selecting a database system is portability. Data
      in the system should be in such a format or be formatable to transfer
      to a different database. This is important because at some point it
      may be desirable to go from a small system file such as Excell to a
      more standard library vendor file such as Surpass or LibraryWorld.

      It is probably best to use an internet based system as the collection
      grows. Internet based systems provide these advantages:
      *access from in the library or remotely.
      *no need for dedicated servers and storage devices.
      There is of course some loss of control over the data and one must
      rely on the internet vendor for reliable storage. In case of an
      internet connection failure, your database will not be available.

      Some online library internet vendors:
      LibraryWorld is based in Saratoga, California. One month free trial;
      from $365 a year.
      Surpass offers a variety of packages, also one month free trial.
      CyberTools is probably more suited for larger collections. Some free
      trials may be available.

      Sample catalogued records with full MARC fields and LC or NML
      classification numbers can be viewed on the Five Branches University
      website http://www.fivebranches.edu Go to the student life button,
      click on library in the pull down menu and you will find a link to
      the online catalog. Other information will also be found this page
      regarding other information sources.

      Standardized terminology and practices.
      Using a standardized terminology set is important for classifying and
      finding materials. Most libraries use either Library of Congress or
      National Medical Library subject headings. Further documentations
      will go into more detail on this matter. Here is an example:

      subject: Theory and practice of medicine in China:

      Library of Congress basic heading: Medicine, Chinese.

      National Medical Library: Medicine, Chinese Traditional.

      Subject headings and author entries usually have these inverted
      Peter Deadman is listed as Deadman. Peter. etc.

      Some tips for cataloging an item:
      Look for a catalog record for a given item in another database rather
      than trying to do it from scratch. Copying a record that fits the
      local library's criteria saves time and insures a more uniform
      description between schools. If your library software allows for
      copying Library of Congress records, do so. You can modify the LC
      record for your own needs and save it in your database.

      Consistency in data management.
      Consistency in entering data is important in providing assured
      electronic access to materials in the collection. it is desirable
      that one person have this responsibility at any given time to set
      standards and direct helping personnel. Written protocols and manuals
      are a vital tool in maintaining continuity.

      It is probably inevitable that some materials will go missing. Here
      are some considerations regarding security of the collection.
      a. adequate inventory control. The database should provide an
      accurate list of materials and ideally a report for assisting in
      taking account of what is on the shelf.
      b. education of patrons in the value of honoring the collection and
      enhancing the sense that the library materials are for everyone to
      use. Promotion of mutual help and respect among users will go a long
      way to maintaining the integrity of the collection.
      c. Size of library and budget considerations. Security systems are
      relatively expensive. For a small collection the cost to benefit
      ratio is probably minimal. Better to allow for an amount for
      replacement of lost items. As a collection grows, security will
      become more cost effective and even necessary. The 3M company offers
      a security system for around $12,000. Establishment of any security
      system should be based on present needs and flexibility to meet future
      Unless the materials are available for use only in the library space,
      there must be a means to account for items which users take out for
      personal use. Most library-oriented database programs have a
      circulation module for registering patrons, checking items in and out,
      assessing fines etc. If you using a database without a dedicated
      circulation module, you will have to develop some other means to
      account for checked out materials. Libraries traditionally used a due
      date card system manually sorted and maintained. This may work for a
      small collection but becomes labor intensive and fraught with
      potential errors as the collection grows.

      If you have any questions or comments. please send to
      library@... or post to the CCAOMLCAOM group.

      Jim Emdy
      Five Branches University
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