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Re: [carfree_cities] Re: A new neighborhood in Cambridge; carfree?

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  • T. J. Binkley
    ... Would these help? http://www.vtpi.org/0_land.htm Pavement Buster s Guide The Pavement Buster s Guide is for planners, developers and community activists
    Message 1 of 4 , Sep 4, 2001
      >... What we could also use is references to
      >studies that document the high cost of the car in dense urban
      >environments, whether to residents or city government.


      Would these help?
      http://www.vtpi.org/0_land.htm

      Pavement Buster's Guide
      The Pavement Buster's Guide is for planners, developers and community
      activists interested in reducing the amount of land devoted to parking and
      roadways. It describes how zoning laws tend to oversupply parking and
      roadway capacity, discusses the full costs of this additional pavement, and
      describes specific strategies that businesses and communities can use to
      reduce parking and traffic demand.

      The Trouble With Minimum Parking Requirements
      Minimum parking requirements are usually based on peak parking demand under
      suburban conditions, which results in generous and often arbitrary
      standards. These requirements increase the supply, reduce the price, and
      increase the total cost of parking. Free urban parking is one of the
      largest external costs of automobile use. To prevent spillover problems,
      cities could price on-street parking rather than require off-street
      parking. Compared with minimum parking requirements, market prices can
      allocate parking spaces fairly and efficiently. Posted with permission.

      Parking Requirement Impacts On Housing Affordability
      Zoning laws require residents to pay for a generous amount of parking,
      whether they need it or not. This policy raises housing costs, reduces the
      maximum potential density of development, and reduces developers' incentive
      to build affordable housing. It is unfair to small and lower income
      households who tend to own fewer than average vehicles, and often forces
      poor families to subsidize the automobile parking of their wealthier
      neighbors.

      Land Use Impact Costs Of Transportation
      Automobile oriented transport requires more land for roads and parking than
      other forms of travel, and encourages low-density urban expansion (sprawl),
      which increases per capita land development. These impose a variety of
      costs, including increased costs for road facilities (including the
      opportunity cost of land used for roads) and public services used by
      drivers, environmental and aesthetic costs from reduced greenspace, and
      higher per capita municipal and utility costs to serve lower density
      development. Since many of these costs are borne by society as a whole,
      benefits of increased driving and sprawl do not necessarily exceed total costs.


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