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VTPI NEWS - Winter 2013

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  • Todd Alexander Litman
    ... VTPI NEWS ... Victoria Transport Policy Institute Efficiency - Equity - Clarity ... Winter 2013 Vol. 13, No. 1 ... The Victoria Transport Policy
    Message 1 of 1 , Mar 16, 2013



      Victoria Transport Policy Institute

      "Efficiency - Equity - Clarity"


      Winter 2013 Vol. 13, No. 1


      The Victoria Transport Policy Institute is an independent research
      organization dedicated to developing innovative solutions to transportation
      problems. The VTPI website ( <http://www.vtpi.org> http://www.vtpi.org ) has
      many resources addressing a wide range of transport planning and policy
      issues. VTPI also provides consulting services.




      "Congestion Costing Critique: Critical Evaluation of the 'Urban Mobility
      Report'" ( <http://www.vtpi.org/UMR_critique.pdf>
      www.vtpi.org/UMR_critique.pdf ).

      The 'Urban Mobility Report' (UMR) is a widely-cited study that estimates
      U.S. traffic congestion costs. This report critically examines the UMR’s
      assumptions and methods. The UMR evaluates urban transport system
      performance based only on vehicle traffic congestion; it ignores other modes
      and impacts. It tends to exaggerate congestion costs and roadway expansion
      benefits. It assumes that urban traffic will grow rapidly in the future,
      ignoring evidence that vehicle travel is peaking and travel demands are
      changing. The UMR ignores basic research principles: it fails to explain
      assumptions, document sources, incorporate independent peer review, or
      respond to criticisms. More comprehensive and multi-modal planning can
      identify truly optimal congestion reduction strategies.

      "Critical Analysis of Conventional Transport Economic Evaluation" (
      http://www.vtpi.org/crit_econ_eval.pdf ).

      This report critically examines conventional transport economic evaluation
      practices. It integrates two different but overlapping perspectives:
      planners interested in comprehensive and multi-modal transport system
      analysis, and economists interested in economic efficiency and economic
      development impacts. The analysis indicates that conventional transport
      economic evaluation fails to reflect basic economic principles including
      comprehensive and neutral analysis, economic efficiency, consumer
      sovereignty and integrated decision-making. More comprehensive and
      multi-modal evaluation can provide better guidance for transport planning
      and economic development.

      "Evaluating Complete Streets: The Value of Designing Roads For Diverse
      Modes, Users and Activities" ( <http://www.vtpi.org/compstr.pdf>
      http://www.vtpi.org/compstr.pdf ).
      'Complete streets' refers to roads designed to accommodate diverse modes,
      users and activities including walking, cycling, public transit, automobile,
      nearby businesses and residents. Such street design helps create more
      multi-modal transport systems and more livable communities. This report
      discusses reasons to implement complete streets and how it relates to other
      planning innovations.

      * * * * *



      "Transportation Affordability: Evaluation and Improvement Strategies"
      (http://www.vtpi.org/affordability.pdf )

      Transportation affordability means that all households, including those with
      low incomes, can afford to access basic services and activities. User
      surveys indicate that affordability is an important issue, but conventional
      transport planning gives it little consideration and overlooks ways that
      common planning reduces affordability. This report discusses ways to
      incorporate affordability as a transport planning objective.

      "Whose Roads? Evaluating Bicyclists’ and Pedestrians’ Right to Use Public
      Roadways" ( <http://www.vtpi.org/whoserd.pdf>
      http://www.vtpi.org/whoserd.pdf )

      Many people believe that non-motorized modes (walking, cycling, and their
      variants) have less right to use public roads than motorists, based on
      assumptions that motor vehicle travel is more important than non-motorized
      travel and motor vehicle user fees finance roads. This report investigates
      these assumptions. It finds that non-motorized modes have clear legal rights
      to use public roads, that non-motorized travel is important for an efficient
      transport system and provides significant benefits to users and society,
      that less than half of roadway expenses are financed by motor vehicle user
      fees, and pedestrians and cyclists pay more than their share of roadway
      costs. Since bicycling and walking impose lower roadway costs than motorized
      modes, people who rely on non-motorized modes tend to overpay their fair
      share of roadway costs and subsidize motorists.

      * * * * *



      "Transport Elasticities: Impacts on Travel Behaviour: Understanding
      Transport Demand To Support Sustainable Travel Behavior" (
      55/3506-transport-elasticities-impacts-on-travel-behaviour ).

      This new Sustainable Urban Transport Project Technical Document explains in
      simple language concepts related to travel demands and elasticities,
      summarizes estimates of various transport elasticities, and discusses
      factors affecting their responsiveness. It discusses how pricing reforms can
      help address transport problems and create more efficient and sustainable
      transport systems.

      "Changing North American Vehicle-Travel Price Sensitivities: Implications
      For Transport and Energy Policy" (
      http://www.vtpi.org/VMT_Elasticities.pdf ).

      This paper recently published in 'Transport Policy' discusses the concepts
      of price elasticities and rebound effects, reviews vehicle travel and fuel
      price elasticity estimates, examines evidence of changing price
      sensitivities, and discusses policy implications. Price sensitivities have
      increased in recent years, indicating that mobility management strategies
      are more effective, and cleaner vehicle strategies are less effective and
      beneficial than previously assumed.

      "Comprehensive Evaluation Of Energy Conservation And Emission Reduction
      Policies" (http://www.vtpi.org/comp_em_eval.pdf ). This article recently
      published in 'Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice' uses a
      comprehensive framework for evaluating various transportation energy
      conservation and emission reduction strategies.

      "Gestión de la movilidad para México"
      (http://mexico.itdp.org/documentos/gestion-de-la-movilidad-para-mexico ).

      This report, ’Mobility Management For Mexico’, for the Mexico City Institute
      for Transportation and Development Policy (ITDP) defines mobility
      management, discusses the role it plays in an efficient and equitable
      transportation system, and describes various ways to maximize its benefits.
      It highlights examples and case studies of management policies in cities
      around the world.

      "Guía De Estrategias Para La Reducción Del Uso Del Auto En Ciudades
      Mexicanas" (
      uso-del-auto-en-ciudades-mexicanas ). This document, 'Guide to Reducing Car
      Use in Mexican Cities', provides practical advice for implementing urban
      mobility improvement programs in Mexican cities. It describes 29 strategies
      that can reduce car traffic and its negative impacts.

      "Planes Integrales de Movilidad"
      (http://mexico.itdp.org/documentos/planes-integrales-de-movilidad ). This
      document, 'Comprehensive Mobility Plans,' discusses the importance of
      integrating urban development and mobility planning. It discusses current
      Mexican urban mobility planning practices and ways to make them more
      efficient and inclusive.

      "Manual De Implementación De Sistemas De Parquímetros Para Ciudades
      Mexicanas" (Parking Meter System Deployment Manual for Mexican Cities)
      arquimetros-para-ciudades-mexicanas ). This guide describes why and how
      Mexico City is implementing parking pricing as a demand management strategy.

      "Paying for Parking" ( <http://www.cbc.ca/player/Radio/Ideas/ID/2329692421>
      http://www.cbc.ca/player/Radio/Ideas/ID/2329692421 ). This “Ideas” CBC Radio
      program discusses the high costs of vehicle parking, and potential reforms
      for encouraging more efficient and equitable parking management, including
      an interview with Todd Litman by host Dave Redel.

      'Full Cost Analysis of Petroleum Consumption' in "Transport Beyond Oil:
      Policy Choices for a Multimodal Future" (
      http://islandpress.org/ip/books/book/islandpress/T/bo8637519.html ). This
      new book discusses the costs of petroleum consumption and offers practical
      solutions for creating more resource efficient transport systems. Receive
      20% pre-publication discount with this code: TRB2013.

      'Economic Value of Walkability' in Transport, the Environment, and Public
      Health: Classic Papers on Non-Motorised Travel (
      http://www.e-elgar.com/bookentry_mainUS.lasso?id=14642 ). This volume brings
      together a collection of seminal articles published in the past twelve years
      focused around non-motorised transport.

      "Arguments Against Non-Motorized Transport Development Beginning to Lose
      Steam" (
      development-beginning-to-lose-steam ). This blog discusses the true costs
      and benefits of sidewalks, bicycle lanes and paths, and pedestrian
      improvements, and responds to criticisms of such projects.

      "Transportation and Public Health" (
      2 ). This article published in 'The Annual Review of Public Health'
      investigates various ways that transportation policy and planning decisions
      affect public health, and transport planning can better incorporate public
      health objectives. It identifies 'win-win' strategies that help improve
      public health and achieve other planning objectives.

      Recent Planetizen Blogs ( <http://www.planetizen.com/blog/2394>
      http://www.planetizen.com/blog/2394 ):

      · "Critiquing the 'Urban Mobility Report'" (
      <http://www.planetizen.com/node/61087> http://www.planetizen.com/node/61087)

      · "Smart Transportation Funding" (
      <http://www.planetizen.com/node/60454> http://www.planetizen.com/node/60454

      · "Measuring Transport System Efficiency" (
      <http://www.planetizen.com/node/59995> http://www.planetizen.com/node/59995

      · "Affordability As A Transportation Planning Objective" (
      <http://www.planetizen.com/node/60908> http://www.planetizen.com/node/60908
      ). Also see:



      Let’s be friends. Todd Litman regularly posts on his Facebook page (
      <http://www.facebook.com/todd.litman> http://www.facebook.com/todd.litman ).
      Befriend him now!

      * * * * *



      "Transportation Bonanza 4: Creating Healthy, Mobile, And Livable Communities
      Through Safe Routes To School, Innovative Planning, Design, And

      ( <http://www.mml.org/pdf/events/2013-trans-bonanza.pdf>
      http://www.mml.org/pdf/events/2013-trans-bonanza.pdf ), 21 March 2013,
      Lansing Michigan, sponsored by the Michigan Association of Planning and the
      Michigan Safe Routes to School.

      "Adolescent Mobility Health Symposium" (
      https://blogs.otago.ac.nz/amc/symposium2013 ), 15 May 2013 in Dunedin, New
      Zealand. This international multidisciplinary event showcases new directions
      in the areas of teen mobility, the paradox of speed, and the importance of
      parental and youth engagement in mobility choices. Other New Zealand events
      are being planned.

      * * * * *



      The TRB Annual Meeting was interesting and productive. I enjoyed seeing many
      of you there! We had three good sessions on transportation-related data
      programs. Here is a summary report: "Valuing and Improving:
      Transportation-Related Data Programs - Report From 2013 TRB Sessions"
      (http://www.vtpi.org/TRB_data.pdf ). I also attended two wonderful side

      · "Transforming Transportation" (
      http://www.slideshare.net/EMBARQNetwork/presentations ) at the World Bank
      headquarters included excellent presentations on international sustainable
      transportation development.

      · Institute for Transportation and Development Policy Sustainable
      Transportation Award ( <http://www.st-award.org> http://www.st-award.org )
      ceremony. This year Mexico City won for its expanding Bus Rapid Transit
      network, bikesharing program, efficient parking pricing, and public space
      improvements. Felicitaciones! I am particularly pleased because I
      contributed to some of those projects ( <http://www.mexico.itdp.org>
      http://www.mexico.itdp.org ).

      "Long-run Trends in Travel Demand, OECD Roundtable" (
      /index.html ), Paris, 29-30 November 2012. This roundtable investigated
      evidence that travel demand is peaking in most affluent countries, the
      demographic and economic factors that contribute to this trend, and its
      policy implications.

      * * * * *



      "Integrating Demand Management into the Transportation Planning Process: A
      Desk Reference" (
      http://www.ops.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/fhwahop12035/fhwahop12035.pdf ).
      This document provides comprehensive information on ways to integrate demand
      management into the trans­portation planning process. It discusses how
      demand management relates to various policy objectives. It describes various
      tools for evaluating demand management measures and the known effectiveness
      of these measures.

      "Technologies for Climate Change Mitigation – Transport Sector" (
      http://tech-action.org/Guidebooks/TNA_Guidebook_MitigationTransport.pdf ).
      This report describes a broad range of transport options for increasing
      transport system efficiency. It describes walking, cycling and public
      transit improvements, transportation demand management strategies,
      transit-oriented development, as well as ideas for improving motorized
      transport technologies.

      "Transit-Oriented Communities Design Guidelines" and "Transit-Oriented
      Communities Primer" ( <http://www.translink.ca/TOCs>
      http://www.translink.ca\TOCs ). These documents provide excellent guidance
      on policies and planning practices to create more accessible, multi-modal

      "King County Right Size Parking Project" (
      http://metro.kingcounty.gov/up/projects/right-size-parking ). This project
      measured the parking demand (the number of parking spaces actually occupied)
      in 240 apartment buildings, and used sophisticated statistical analysis to
      evaluate how factors such as transit access, neighborhood density, rents and
      parking pricing affect demand.

      "Smart Growth And Economic Success: Benefits For Real Estate Developers,
      Investors, Businesses, And Local Governments" (
      http://www.epa.gov/smartgrowth/pdf/economic_success.pdf ). This new report
      indicates that compact, diverse, and walkable development can increase
      property values and property tax revenues, encourage job creation, reduce
      housing and transportation costs, and create amenities and places that
      improve residents’ quality of life. Real estate developers and investors,
      businesses, and local governments can use smart growth development as a
      strategy to maximize their economic advantages while improving the quality
      of life and creating attractive, healthy communities that help protect the

      "Welcome to Victoria 1907" ( <http://web.uvic.ca/lancenrd/AViewofVictoria>
      http://web.uvic.ca/lancenrd/AViewofVictoria ). Here is a very cool 1907 film
      from a movie camera mounted on the front of a trolley traveling through the
      city. If you like that one, also see San Francisco in 1906 (
      www.youtube.com/watch_popup?v=NINOxRxze9k ) and Barcelona, Spain in 1908 (
      www.flixxy.com/barcelona-spain-1908.htm ).

      "Going On A Road Diet: Lane Reduction Can Increase Safety For Pedestrians,
      Bicyclists, And Motorists While Improving The Quality Of Life In Downtowns
      Across The Country" (
      http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/publicroads/11septoct/05.cfm ). This
      article published in "Public Roads" describes current efforts to redesign
      urban streets for multiple users and uses.

      "The Relevance Of Parking In The Success Of Urban Centres" (
      rkingurban.htm ). This study evaluated the role that parking policies play
      in urban economic development. It concludes that efficient parking
      management can support economic development and provide other benefits.

      "Transforming Cities with Transit: Transport and Land Use Integration for
      Sustainable Urban Development" (
      http://elibrary.worldbank.org/content/book/9780821397459 ). This attractive
      new book explores why and how to integrate transit and land-use in rapidly
      growing cities in developing countries. It provides recommendations for
      creating more sustainable cities through more integrated transport and land
      use planning.

      "Evaluate, Enable, Engage: Principles to Support Effective Decision Making
      in Mass Transit Investment Programs" (
      on-making-mass-transit-investment-programs ). This report examines 13
      existing national mass transit investment programs and uses the results to
      identify principles to foster effective decision making in national mass
      transit investment.

      "Impact Of Urban Form On Transport And Economic Outcomes" (
      http://www.nzta.govt.nz/resources/research/reports/513/docs/513.pdf ) and
      "The Contribution Of Public Transport To Economic Productivity" (
      http://www.nzta.govt.nz/resources/research/reports/514/docs/514.pdf ). These
      two studies for the New Zealand Transport Agency investigated how urban form
      impacts transport and economic outcomes, and planning policies can
      contribute to a more efficient and durable urban form. These findings have
      implications for the economic evaluation of transport policies and planning

      "Traditional Neighborhood Development Handbook" (
      http://www.dot.state.fl.us/rddesign/FloridaGreenbook/FGB.shtm ). The Florida
      Department of Transportation’s Manual of Uniform Minimum Standards for
      Design, Construction and Maintenance for Streets and Highways now includes a
      “Traditional Neighborhood Development Handbook” chapter which provides
      guidance for applying compact urban planning and design principles to
      greenfield (new), brownfield or urban infill and redevelopment projects.

      "Low-Carbon Land Transport Policy Handbook" (
      http://www.routledge.com/books/details/9781849713771 ). This is a practical
      guide for transport policymakers and planners to achieve low-carbon land
      transport systems. With case studies from developed and developing
      countries, it outlines measures for reducing emissions, tailoring these to
      specific circumstances. It also highlights how greenhouse gas savings are
      measured, as well as success factors for implementing policies and measures
      in complex decision-making processes.

      "Reshaping Metropolitan America: Development Trends and Opportunities to
      2030" ( <http://islandpress.org/ip/books/book/islandpress/R/bo8079737.html>
      http://islandpress.org/ip/books/book/islandpress/R/bo8079737.html ). This
      new book by Professor Arthur “Chris” Nelson examines new development trends
      and the opportunities they offer for reshaping urban areas into more livable
      and sustainable places. It is a reference tool with statistics about the
      changes in population, jobs, housing and other key factors that impact how
      and where people will live over the next two decades. It includes a
      searchable database at <http://www.reshapemetroamerica.net>
      www.reshapemetroamerica.net under the resources tab with the extensive
      metrics that formed the basis of the book. The discount code 2RESHAPE
      provides a 25% discount when ordering it from Island Press.

      "The Influence Of Urban Design On Neighbourhood Walking Following
      Residential Relocation: Longitudinal Results from the RESIDE Study" (
      http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/03/130307124427.htm ). This
      ten-year study found that the overall health of residents of new housing
      developments in Western Australia improved when their daily walking
      increased as a result of more access to parks, public transport, shops and

      "Does Accessibility Require Density or Speed?" (
      oximity.pdf ). This article recently published in the 'Journal of the
      American Planning Association' indicates that proximity tends to be more
      important than travel speed in overall accessibility.

      * * * * *

      Please let us know if you have comments or questions about any information
      in this newsletter, or if you would like to be removed from our email list.
      And please pass this newsletter on to others who may find it useful.

      Todd Litman
      Victoria Transport Policy Institute ( <http://www.vtpi.org> www.vtpi.org)
      <mailto:litman@...> litman@...

      Phone & Fax 250-360-1560
      1250 Rudlin Street, Victoria, BC, V8V 3R7, CANADA
      “Efficiency - Equity - Clarity”

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