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Fwd: ECMAScript Harmony

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  • Mark S. Miller
    Not directly object-capability news, but very good news from an ocap perspective. ... From: Brendan Eich Date: Wed, Aug 13, 2008 at 2:26
    Message 1 of 1 , Aug 13, 2008
      Not directly object-capability news, but very good news from an ocap

      ---------- Forwarded message ----------
      From: Brendan Eich <brendan@...>
      Date: Wed, Aug 13, 2008 at 2:26 PM
      Subject: ECMAScript Harmony
      To: "es4-discuss@... es4-discuss" <es4-discuss@...>,
      "es3.x-discuss@... x-discuss" <es3.x-discuss@...>
      Cc: TC39 <e-TC39@...>

      It's no secret that the JavaScript standards body, Ecma's Technical
      Committee 39, has been split for over a year, with some members
      favoring ES4, a major fourth edition to ECMA-262, and others
      advocating ES3.1 based on the existing ECMA-262 Edition 3 (ES3)
      specification. Now, I'm happy to report, the split is over.

      The Ecma TC39 meeting in Oslo at the end of July was very productive,
      and if we keep working together, it will be seen as seminal when we
      look back in a couple of years. Before this meeting, I worked with
      John Neumann, TC39 chair, and ES3.1 and ES4 principals, especially
      Lars Hansen (Adobe), Mark Miller (Google), and Allen Wirfs-Brock
      (Microsoft), to unify the committee around shared values and a common
      roadmap. This message is my attempt to announce the main result of the
      meeting, which I've labeled "Harmony".

      Executive Summary

      The committee has resolved in favor of these tasks and conclusions:

      1. Focus work on ES3.1 with full collaboration of all parties, and
      target two interoperable implementations by early next year.
      2. Collaborate on the next step beyond ES3.1, which will include
      syntactic extensions but which will be more modest than ES4 in both
      semantic and syntactic innovation.
      3. Some ES4 proposals have been deemed unsound for the Web, and are
      off the table for good: packages, namespaces and early binding. This
      conclusion is key to Harmony.
      4. Other goals and ideas from ES4 are being rephrased to keep
      consensus in the committee; these include a notion of classes based on
      existing ES3 concepts combined with proposed ES3.1 extensions.

      Detailed Statement

      A split committee is good for no one and nothing, least of all any
      language specs that might come out of it. Harmony was my proposal
      based on this premise, but it also required (at least on the part of
      key ES4 folks) intentionally dropping namespaces.

      This is good news for everyone, both those who favor smaller changes
      to the language and those who advocate ongoing evolution that requires
      new syntax if not new semantics. It does mean that some of the ideas
      going back to the first ES4 proposals in 1999, implemented variously
      in JScript.NET and ActionScript, won't make it into any ES standard.
      But the benefit is collaboration on unified successor specifications
      to follow ES3, starting with ES3.1 and continuing after it with larger
      changes and improved specification techniques.

      One of the use-cases for namespaces in ES4 was early binding (use
      namespace intrinsic), both for performance and for programmer
      comprehension -- no chance of runtime name binding disagreeing with
      any earlier binding. But early binding in any dynamic code loading
      scenario like the web requires a prioritization or reservation
      mechanism to avoid early versus late binding conflicts.

      Plus, as some JS implementors have noted with concern, multiple open
      namespaces impose runtime cost unless an implementation works
      significantly harder.

      For these reasons, namespaces and early binding (like packages before
      them, this past April) must go. This is final, they are not even a
      future possibility. To achieve harmony, we have to focus not only on
      nearer term improvements -- on "what's in" or what could be in -- we
      must also strive to agree on what's out.

      Once namespaces and early binding are out, classes can desugar to
      lambda-coding + Object.freeze and friends from ES3.1. There's no need
      for new runtime semantics to model what we talked about in Oslo as a
      harmonized class proposal (I will publish wiki pages shortly to show
      what was discussed).

      We talked about desugaring classes in some detail in Oslo. During
      these exchanges, we discussed several separable issues, including
      classes, inheritance, like patterns, and type annotations. I'll avoid
      writing more here, except to note that there were clear axes of
      disagreement and agreement, grounds for hope that the committee could
      reach consensus on some of these ideas, and general preference for
      starting with the simplest proposals and keeping consensus as we go.

      We may add runtime helpers if lambda-coding is too obscure for the
      main audience of the spec, namely implementors who aim to achieve
      interoperation, but who may not be lambda-coding gurus. But we will
      try to avoid extending the runtime semantic model of the 3.1 spec, as
      a discipline to guard against complexity.

      One possible semantic addition to fill a notorious gap in the
      language, which I sketched with able help from Mark Miller: a way to
      generate new Name objects that do not equate as property identifiers
      to any string. I also showed some sugar, but that is secondary at this
      point. Many were in favor of this new Name object idea.

      There remain challenges, in particular getting off of the untestable
      and increasingly unwieldy ES1-3.x spec formalism. I heard some
      generally agree, and no one demur, about the ES4 approach of using an
      SML + self-hosted built-ins reference implementation (RI).

      We are going to look into stripping the RI of namespaces and early
      binding (which it uses to ensure normative self-hosted behavior, not
      susceptible to "user code" modifying the meaning of built-ins),
      simplifying it to implement ES3.1plus or minus (self-hosted built-ins
      may require a bit more magic). More on that effort soon.

      ES3.1 standardizes getters and setters that were first implemented at
      Mozilla and copied by Apple and Opera. More such de-facto
      standardization is on the table for a successor edition in the
      harmonized committee.

      I heard good agreement on low-hanging "de-facto standard" fruit,
      particularly let as the new var, to match block-scoped const as still
      proposed (IIRC) in 3.1. Also some favorable comments about simple
      desugarings such as expression closures and destructuring assignment,
      and other changes in JS1.7 and 1.8 that do not require new runtime
      semantic models.

      Obviously, these require new syntax, which is appropriate for a major
      post-3.1 "ES-harmony" edition. Syntax is user interface, there's no
      reason to avoid improving it. What's more, the intersection semantics
      of extended ES3 implementations conflict and choke off
      backward-compatible *semantics* for syntax that may even parse in all
      top four browsers (e.g., functions in blocks).

      Both the appropriateness of new syntax, and the need to make
      incompatible (with ES3 extensions) semantic changes, motivate opt-in
      versioning of harmonized successor edition. I believe that past
      concerns about opt-in versioning requiring server file suffix to MIME
      type mapping maintenance were assuaged (browsers in practice, and
      HTML5 + RFC 4329, do not consider server-sent Content-Type -- the web
      page author can write version parameters directly in script tag type

      Some expressed interest in an in-language pragma to select version;
      this would require immediate version change during parsing. It's a
      topic for future discussions.

      The main point, as important as cutting namespaces in my view, is that
      the committee has a vision for extending the language syntactically,
      not trying to fit new semantics entirely within some combination of
      existing "three of four top browsers" syntax and standard library

      As Waldemar Horwat (Google) said on the final day, the meeting was
      seminal, and one of the most productive in a long while. Much work
      remains on 3.1 and Harmony, but we are now on a good footing to make
      progress as a single committee.


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