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Re: Fish Story

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  • novasintra
    More on EU Fishing in Africa Richard Leary www.umassd.edu/specialprograms/caboverde ========================================== EU fishing fleets devastate
    Message 1 of 4 , Jun 2 9:42 AM
      More on EU Fishing in Africa

      Richard Leary
      www.umassd.edu/specialprograms/caboverde

      ==========================================

      EU fishing fleets devastate third world

      Paul Brown, environment correspondent
      Saturday March 16, 2002
      The Guardian

      Over-fishing by foreign fleets, including those from Europe, are
      causing alarming reductions in fish stocks off west Africa and South
      America, putting local fishermen out of business and removing
      valuable food resources, according to the United Nations Environment
      Programme (Unep).
      The world's poorest countries are selling off their fishing rights in
      a series of agreements that are ruining their natural resources.

      To try to counter the trend, the UN held a special conference in
      Geneva yesterday with 100 delegates from the states involved, with
      environmental groups, the World Trade Organisation, and the
      Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development.

      Country after country has been plundered by foreign fleets, which
      have then moved on to new areas, the conference was told.

      Case studies by Unep of Mauritania, Argentina and Senegal show that
      all three countries have depleted stocks. The Mauritanian study
      published yesterday reveals that catches of octopus have halved in
      the past four years, and that some species, such as sawfish, have
      completely disappeared. EU, Japanese and Chinese boats have been
      given access to the fishing grounds and there are now an estimated
      251 industrial, factory-style foreign vessels operating there.


      more --> http://www.guardian.co.uk/fish/story/0,7369,668521,00.html

      ----------------------------------------------------------------------

      AFROL.com

      Environment
      West African nations to ban EU fishing fleets

      Misanet.com / IPS, 18 March - Mauritania, Senegal and Guinea-Bissau
      were expected this week to announce drastic action to save one of the
      world's richest marine environments from overfishing by European
      Union (EU) and other fishing fleets. Environmentalists say such a
      move would have been unnecessary had the EU negotiated responsible
      fisheries agreements.

      West Africa has suffered "massive overfishing" by EU fishing fleets,
      with local small fishing boats forced to fish further and further out
      to sea or to concentrate their activities in sensitive coastal areas,
      Souleymane Zeba, director of World Wildlife Fund's (WWF) West Africa
      programme, told journalists Tuesday.

      more -->
      http://www.afrol.com/Categories/Environment/env059_eu_fisheries.htm

      --------------------------------------------------------

      EU proposes radical fishing cuts

      By Alex Kirby
      BBC News Online environment correspondent


      Proposals for a major overhaul of Europe's fisheries policy have been
      announced in Brussels.
      The plans, aimed at saving endangered fish species, could mean the
      loss of about 28,000 jobs in Europe's fishing industry.

      The reforms, which would mean cutting the size of the European fleet
      by 8.5%, are expected to meet fierce opposition from the countries
      most affected.

      But with Britain's fleet already greatly reduced in recent years,
      fishermen's leaders are hoping the latest cuts will not be too
      punitive in the UK.

      The European Union Fisheries Commissioner, Franz Fischler, said it
      was "make or break time".

      "Either we have the courage to make bold reforms now, or we watch the
      demise of our fisheries sectors in the years ahead", he said in a
      statement.

      Scientists have been warning for years that stocks of many fish
      species have fallen to dangerously low levels.

      At a recent conference in Boston, US, Researchers said that if
      current over-fishing continued in the North Atlantic basin, trawlers
      could soon be left chasing jellyfish and even plankton to make "fake"
      fish products.


      more-->
      http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/world/europe/newsid_2012000/2012175.s
      tm

      -------------------------------------------------------------------

      International Gender & Trade Network

      Africa - Regional News
      IPS-Africa Environment
      Environmentalists Cheer Departure of EU Fishing Boats from Senegal
      Brian Kenety


      BRUSSELS, Jan 8 (IPS) - A leading environmental group has welcomed
      the European Commission's failure to secure a new fishing rights
      agreement with Senegal.

      They say this is a 'positive sign' that developing countries are
      becoming more prudent in weighing short-term economic gains against
      protecting their natural resources.

      With the talks suspended, the last European trawlers - mainly from
      France, Greece, Italy, Spain and Portugal - had left Senegal's
      territorial waters by the weekend. Sticking points in negotiations
      included Senegal's attempts to extend an area restricted to the local
      fishing fleet and rest periods for the recovery of stocks, as well as
      the price of a new accord.

      Julie Cator, Fisheries Coordinator for the World Wide Fund for
      Nature 's (WWF) European Policy Office in Brussels, said that West
      Africa has suffered ''massive over-fishing'' by EU fishing fleets,
      with local small fishing boats forced to fish further and further out
      to sea or to concentrate their activities in sensitive coastal areas.

      The WWF argues that while the EU aims to alleviate poverty in the
      developing world its own heavily subsidised fleets have pushed small-
      scale local fisherfolk to the side and damaged fragile ecosystems.

      ''I am not a fly on the wall at the talks, unfortunately, so I don't
      know if the European Commission is acting more responsibly than (in
      the past), but it does not appear at the moment as though
      environmental concerns are at the very top of their agenda,'' Cator
      told IPS.

      ''We need to get fair and equitable fisheries access agreements,
      where the environment and sustainable development are at the top of
      the agenda. At the same time, the EU has to put its own house in
      order, to solve the 40 percent overcapacity of the EU fleet,'' she
      said.

      The WWF believes that, in effect, the EU has exported its own
      unsustainable fishing practices to threatened coastal states in West
      Africa.

      ''This pressure to forever find new places to fish is crucial.
      Overcapacity of the EU fleet is really a root cause of many of the
      environmental problems,'' Cator said. She added that agreements
      should only be negotiated when there is clear evidence fish stocks
      are underused by the national fleets and there is a surplus.


      .
      .
      .
      Meanwhile, the United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP) has
      warned in a comprehensive report, which focused on Senegal and
      Argentina, that developing countries which allow foreign fishing
      fleets access to their territorial waters stood to lose a great deal
      more than they might gain.

      The UNEP-commissioned study, released Dec 27, said that trade
      liberalisation in Senegal ''has had a devastating effect on some key
      stocks, especially those deep-living, coastal species, favoured by
      European consumers'' and that the country's local market supply could
      face shortages in the near future as a result.

      ''Some developing countries with reasonably healthy levels of stocks
      have, in their search for foreign, external earnings needed to pay
      off debts and to stimulate economic growth, entered into fishing
      agreements which allow foreign fleets into their waters,'' said UNEP
      Executive Director Klaus Toepfer.

      ''But our research indicates that unless strict safeguards are in
      place, this can be a costly mistake.''

      The UNEP recommends that for countries like Senegal, foreign fishing
      fleets should be charged more for having access to its fishing
      territories and that agreements should be placed under moratorium in
      cases where fish stocks have been seriously depleted. In addition,
      the studies recommend that agreements should also be limited to
      species that are not at risk and suggest the possibility of a quota
      system.

      Mauritania recently negotiated a payment of 430 million euros (about
      387 million United States dollars) over next five years, up from 266
      million euros the country secured under a previous fisheries
      agreement with the EU; Senegal is likely to have been emboldened by
      her neighbour's success.

      Senegal became a major exporter of fish to the European market in the
      late 1980s, with its industry growing rapidly the next decade on the
      back of the 1994 devaluation of the CFA franc and preferential terms
      extended by the EU under the Lomé 'trade and aid' agreement with
      the
      African, Pacific and Caribbean (ACP) group of countries, of which
      Senegal is a member.

      Fish is one of Senegal's biggest foreign exchange earners, with two-
      thirds of the country's export revenues now coming from fish exported
      to Europe.

      However, the UNEP study warns there is a massive wastage of the fish
      caught. One of the reasons for this is that instead of developing
      modern fish-processing factories the existing old-fashioned ones in
      Senegal were merely expanded.

      ''This is because most of the developed countries wanted to fish in
      Senegalese waters, instead of giving preferential tariffs for value-
      added Senegalese fish products,'' said the study. ''Thus, there was a
      tendency to export raw fresh and frozen fish rather than processed
      fish. The wastage rate was very high and the pressure on resources
      (fish stocks) increased.''

      more --> http://www.genderandtrade.net/Regions/Africa_environment.htm


      =========================================================


      --- In capeverdeFORUM@y..., "novasintra" <novasintra@y...> wrote:
      >
      >
      >
      > What is happening with respect to fishing in Cape Verde Islands,
      and
      > in the outlying Cape Verde fishery grounds, where the big boys from
      > Japan and elsewhere are? Does CV, FAO, or anyone for that matter,
      > really know how much fish is being caught out there in the CV
      > fishery, and the health of that fishery? In New England, story is
      > pretty much denial on fishing industry's part, though they would
      beg
      > to differ. Complex systems theory as applied to fish stock
      > rebounding, as I understand it, suggests no one knows answer, but
      if
      > you guess wrong and keep fishing at current rates, the Georges Bank
      > fishery – one the richest and most plentiful in the world –
      my
      > undergo irreversible collapse.
      >
      > I believe there had been talk of CV getting assistance (funds,
      boats,
      > training, real-time satellite data, etc) to help with monitoring
      and
      > enforcement of fisheries. Did this ever materialize? Is something
      in
      > the works?
      >
      > Richard Leary
      >
      >
      > From today's April 10 New York Times -
      > In Mexico, Greed Kills Fish by the Seaful
      > By TIM WEINER
      >
      > BAHÍA DE LOBOS, Mexico, April 5 — The fishermen set out
      before dawn
      > from this dirt-poor town to the Gulf of California. They returned
      > with seven crabs and a baby shark.
      >
      > "There just aren't any fish anymore," said Teresa López, 39, a
      > villager. "Less and less every year for many years. Now we haven't
      > enough to eat."
      >
      > Greed and corruption are draining the gulf, also known as the Sea
      of
      > Cortés. It is not dead yet, but it is exhausted.
      >
      > American and Japanese ships were the first to exploit it. Now
      fleets
      > of Mexican fishermen, mostly unlicensed and ungoverned, are taking
      > whatever they can, as fast as they can, for American and Asian
      > markets. Every important species of fish in the sea is in sharp
      > decline, fishermen and marine scientists say.
      >
      > "Too many fishermen and not enough fish," said Pedro Álvarez,
      pulling
      > tiny mullet from his net near the city of Guaymas.
      >
      > Overfishing is a global problem. People are taking marine life
      faster
      > than it can reproduce. The world's catch peaked at 86 million tons
      in
      > 1989, up fourfold in 50 years.
      >
      > But many governments, including the United States, Mexico, the
      > European Union, Japan and China, kept on pouring subsidies into
      > commercial fishing fleets to keep them afloat.
      > Crucial fisheries have collapsed worldwide.
      >
      > "We have an endowment in the bank, and we're spending it all
      instead
      > of living off the interest," said Juan Manuel García Caudillo, a
      > Guaymas conservationist trying to protect the Gulf of California.
      > This, the world's youngest sea, created when the San Andreas fault
      > split Mexico millions of years ago and let the Pacific pour in, is
      > home to 875 species of fish and 30 species of marine mammals. They
      > have been killed indiscriminately for years.
      >
      > "The philosophy is: get it now; grab it — if I don't, the next
      guy
      > will," said Juan Pablo Gallo, a marine biologist in Guaymas who has
      > recorded steep declines in sea lion populations and has found DDT
      > residues among dolphins in the gulf.
      >
      > Some say the trouble began when the United States started damming
      and
      > diverting the Colorado River in the 1930's. The river that carved
      the
      > Grand Canyon became a bare trickle at its Mexican mouth, turning
      the
      > gulf's biggest estuary, a bountiful breeding ground, into a dried-
      up
      > delta.
      >
      > Before and after World War II, American ships took every school of
      > tuna and every swarm of sardines they could, along with sea lions
      for
      > pet food and sharks to use the livers to remedy iron-poor "tired
      > blood." The Japanese came too, "destroying the ecological balance
      of
      > the whole region," John Steinbeck wrote in 1940.
      >
      > The foreign boats, many buying permits and government concessions
      > with bribes, worked the gulf hard until the catch started
      plummeting
      > about a decade ago.
      >
      > Then the great divide between Mexico's laws and its law enforcement
      > began taking its toll. In 1992, President Carlos Salinas, fighting
      > for the free-trade agreement with the United States, essentially
      > deregulated Mexican commercial fishing without creating an
      effective
      > system of licensing and permits.
      >
      > "The political mistakes of past governments had a terrible effect,"
      > said Otto Clausen, the federal environmental protection officer for
      > the state of Sonora, which is bordered on the west by the
      gulf. "The
      > economic development strategy was wrong. It broke all authority
      over
      > fishing."
      >
      > Jerónimo Ramos, the national fisheries commissioner, is based in
      > Mexico City. He said about 1,200 permits existed for boats in the
      > Gulf of California and the Pacific Ocean, estimating that 20 to 30
      > percent of the catch was being taken illegally.
      >
      > León Tissot of Mexico's National Fishing Industry Council says
      > that "there is an illegal traffic in permits." Fishermen say
      permits
      > are bought under the table, sold and resold, ignored with impunity.
      > "The laws are totally clear, and their application is totally
      > cloudy," said Felipe Rodríguez, a scientist working with the
      > fishermen of the Seri Indian tribe.
      >
      > Fishermen, businessmen, scientists and even some federal officials
      > say at least 12,000 unregulated fishing boats, probably more, now
      are
      > at large in the gulf, a number that doubled in the last decade.
      > "It's the law of the jungle out there," said Luis Bourillón, a
      marine
      > biologist in Guaymas. "You can do anything you want."
      >
      > The unregulated boats, whose crews include thousands of men who
      came
      > to the coast in the 1990's looking for a living, set gill nets,
      nylon
      > webs banned by many nations as a barbaric and indiscriminate form
      of
      > fishing, but not in Mexico. More than 1,000 miles of gill nets were
      > sold in Sonora last year.
      >
      > Gill nets trap everything: endangered sea turtles, sea lions, even
      > the vaquita, a rare porpoise on the edge of extinction. They take
      so
      > many sailfish, tuna and marlins that the rich American sports
      > fishermen who considered the gulf a paradise are staying home —
      > another drain on the local economy.
      >
      > A gill net fleet backed by unknown financiers appeared seven years
      > ago in Sonora. Fishermen and scientists say it slaughters thousands
      > of sharks solely for their fins, which when dried sell for as much
      as
      > $300 a pound in Asian markets.
      >
      > The fishing boats also play out long lines, each with hundreds of
      > baited hooks, reaching for miles. The long-liners land as much as
      20
      > tons a day of dorado, sold as mahi-mahi, in the port of Guaymas
      > alone, along with unrecorded illegal catches like sea turtles,
      which
      > can sell for as much as $200 apiece in Mexican black markets.
      > The high price of turtle meat and shark fins, founded on male
      > folklore long predating Viagra, spurs the fleet.
      >
      > The shrimp fleet wreaks its own separate havoc. Shrimping
      throughout
      > the world uses bottom-scraping dragnets that haul up 10 pounds of
      > life — often young fish too small to sell — for every pound
      of
      > shrimp, like gathering wild mushrooms with a bulldozer.
      >
      > Underwater, "one day there's all kinds of fish, crab, octopus,
      maybe
      > a turtle, and the next day it's empty, nothing but rocks and a
      sandy
      > bottom," said Feliza Ríos, a scuba diving instructor in San
      Carlos
      > who has seen the effect at first hand. "It takes years, many years,
      > to come back."
      >
      > Discarded shrimp nets do more damage: one strangled three whales
      last
      > week.
      >
      > A pound of Mexican shrimp sells for $16 or more in American
      markets,
      > and though Mexico no longer directly subsidizes shrimp boats, it
      > underwrites the fleet through a quasi-governmental, California-
      based
      > corporation called Ocean Gardens, which buys half of its catch. So
      > the shrimpers work the sea floor as hard as they can.
      >
      > Recognition is now dawning that if nothing changes, "in a few
      years,
      > you could end up without any fish in the sea," said Víctor
      > Lichtinger, Mexico's environmental minister.
      >
      > Change may begin with the Mexican government observing its own laws.
      > "We have to prevent the sales of permits under the table," said
      Juan
      > Carlos Barrera, the World Wildlife Fund's representative in
      > Sonora. "The answer is zero tolerance for corruption. If we do
      > nothing, we'll kill the sea."
      >
      > The Mexican Navy has standing orders to police the outlaws by
      chasing
      > them from the sea. If not, fishing villages may take the law into
      > their own hands. The Seri Indians, Mexico's smallest tribe, already
      > have.
      >
      > At gunpoint, they guard the waters around their fishing village,
      > Punta Chueca, barring outsiders or demanding tribute in the form of
      > shrimp or money. The other afternoon, their boats came back with a
      > bushel of scallops, a peck of crabs and a giant manta ray, a haul
      > that meant the difference between subsistence and the near-
      starvation
      > stalking Bahía de Lobos.
      >
      > The sea can revive if overfished areas are given a rest. But as
      > Josefina Molina, a 45-year-old Seri woman in Punta Chueca,
      said, "If
      > the sea takes a siesta, how are the people going to eat?"
      >
      > Some links:
      >
      >
      > FISHING FOR A LIVING* - Ray Almeida -
      > http://www.umassd.edu/SpecialPrograms/caboverde/fishing.html
      >
      > Also -
      > http://www.umassd.edu/SpecialPrograms/caboverde/fishprofile.html
      >
      > FAO Study Reference -
      > http://www.fishbase.org/References/SummaryRefList.cfm?
      > ID=8078&GenusName=Virididentex&SpeciesName=acromegalus
      >
      > FAO Fishery Country Profiles (CV in French) -
      > http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/Africa.asp
      >
      > Japan-Cape Verde Relations -
      > http://www.mofa.go.jp/region/africa/cape_v/
      >
      > Small cost yields big catch for fishers in Cape Verde -
      > http://www.fao.org/News/2001/010102-e.htm
      >
      > In past years, fishers in the Cape Verde islands off the west coast
      > of Africa watched disappointingly as large pelagic fish like tuna
      and
      > mackerel passed through their area but evaded their nets. Now, a
      FAO-
      > coordinated project started one year ago has installed 17 fish-
      > aggregating devices (FADs) - simple, inexpensive tools suspended
      into
      > the water and anchored to the sea floor that attract these valuable
      > fish so fishers know exactly where to drop their lines. The result
      > has been very positive.
    • Leoney, Antoinette
      Please from my nake from this list. Thank you, Antoinette Leoney ... From: novasintra [mailto:novasintra@yahoo.com] Sent: Sunday, June 02, 2002 12:43 PM To:
      Message 2 of 4 , Jun 3 8:42 AM
        Please from my nake from this list.

        Thank you,
        Antoinette Leoney

        -----Original Message-----
        From: novasintra [mailto:novasintra@...]
        Sent: Sunday, June 02, 2002 12:43 PM
        To: capeverdeFORUM@yahoogroups.com
        Subject: [capeverdeFORUM] Re: Fish Story
        Importance: Low


        More on EU Fishing in Africa

        Richard Leary
        www.umassd.edu/specialprograms/caboverde

        ==========================================

        EU fishing fleets devastate third world

        Paul Brown, environment correspondent
        Saturday March 16, 2002
        The Guardian

        Over-fishing by foreign fleets, including those from Europe, are
        causing alarming reductions in fish stocks off west Africa and South
        America, putting local fishermen out of business and removing
        valuable food resources, according to the United Nations Environment
        Programme (Unep).
        The world's poorest countries are selling off their fishing rights in
        a series of agreements that are ruining their natural resources.

        To try to counter the trend, the UN held a special conference in
        Geneva yesterday with 100 delegates from the states involved, with
        environmental groups, the World Trade Organisation, and the
        Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development.

        Country after country has been plundered by foreign fleets, which
        have then moved on to new areas, the conference was told.

        Case studies by Unep of Mauritania, Argentina and Senegal show that
        all three countries have depleted stocks. The Mauritanian study
        published yesterday reveals that catches of octopus have halved in
        the past four years, and that some species, such as sawfish, have
        completely disappeared. EU, Japanese and Chinese boats have been
        given access to the fishing grounds and there are now an estimated
        251 industrial, factory-style foreign vessels operating there.


        more --> http://www.guardian.co.uk/fish/story/0,7369,668521,00.html

        ----------------------------------------------------------------------

        AFROL.com

        Environment
        West African nations to ban EU fishing fleets

        Misanet.com / IPS, 18 March - Mauritania, Senegal and Guinea-Bissau
        were expected this week to announce drastic action to save one of the
        world's richest marine environments from overfishing by European
        Union (EU) and other fishing fleets. Environmentalists say such a
        move would have been unnecessary had the EU negotiated responsible
        fisheries agreements.

        West Africa has suffered "massive overfishing" by EU fishing fleets,
        with local small fishing boats forced to fish further and further out
        to sea or to concentrate their activities in sensitive coastal areas,
        Souleymane Zeba, director of World Wildlife Fund's (WWF) West Africa
        programme, told journalists Tuesday.

        more -->
        http://www.afrol.com/Categories/Environment/env059_eu_fisheries.htm

        --------------------------------------------------------

        EU proposes radical fishing cuts

        By Alex Kirby
        BBC News Online environment correspondent


        Proposals for a major overhaul of Europe's fisheries policy have been
        announced in Brussels.
        The plans, aimed at saving endangered fish species, could mean the
        loss of about 28,000 jobs in Europe's fishing industry.

        The reforms, which would mean cutting the size of the European fleet
        by 8.5%, are expected to meet fierce opposition from the countries
        most affected.

        But with Britain's fleet already greatly reduced in recent years,
        fishermen's leaders are hoping the latest cuts will not be too
        punitive in the UK.

        The European Union Fisheries Commissioner, Franz Fischler, said it
        was "make or break time".

        "Either we have the courage to make bold reforms now, or we watch the
        demise of our fisheries sectors in the years ahead", he said in a
        statement.

        Scientists have been warning for years that stocks of many fish
        species have fallen to dangerously low levels.

        At a recent conference in Boston, US, Researchers said that if
        current over-fishing continued in the North Atlantic basin, trawlers
        could soon be left chasing jellyfish and even plankton to make "fake"
        fish products.


        more-->
        http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/world/europe/newsid_2012000/2012175.s
        tm

        -------------------------------------------------------------------

        International Gender & Trade Network

        Africa - Regional News
        IPS-Africa Environment
        Environmentalists Cheer Departure of EU Fishing Boats from Senegal
        Brian Kenety


        BRUSSELS, Jan 8 (IPS) - A leading environmental group has welcomed
        the European Commission's failure to secure a new fishing rights
        agreement with Senegal.

        They say this is a 'positive sign' that developing countries are
        becoming more prudent in weighing short-term economic gains against
        protecting their natural resources.

        With the talks suspended, the last European trawlers - mainly from
        France, Greece, Italy, Spain and Portugal - had left Senegal's
        territorial waters by the weekend. Sticking points in negotiations
        included Senegal's attempts to extend an area restricted to the local
        fishing fleet and rest periods for the recovery of stocks, as well as
        the price of a new accord.

        Julie Cator, Fisheries Coordinator for the World Wide Fund for
        Nature 's (WWF) European Policy Office in Brussels, said that West
        Africa has suffered ''massive over-fishing'' by EU fishing fleets,
        with local small fishing boats forced to fish further and further out
        to sea or to concentrate their activities in sensitive coastal areas.

        The WWF argues that while the EU aims to alleviate poverty in the
        developing world its own heavily subsidised fleets have pushed small-
        scale local fisherfolk to the side and damaged fragile ecosystems.

        ''I am not a fly on the wall at the talks, unfortunately, so I don't
        know if the European Commission is acting more responsibly than (in
        the past), but it does not appear at the moment as though
        environmental concerns are at the very top of their agenda,'' Cator
        told IPS.

        ''We need to get fair and equitable fisheries access agreements,
        where the environment and sustainable development are at the top of
        the agenda. At the same time, the EU has to put its own house in
        order, to solve the 40 percent overcapacity of the EU fleet,'' she
        said.

        The WWF believes that, in effect, the EU has exported its own
        unsustainable fishing practices to threatened coastal states in West
        Africa.

        ''This pressure to forever find new places to fish is crucial.
        Overcapacity of the EU fleet is really a root cause of many of the
        environmental problems,'' Cator said. She added that agreements
        should only be negotiated when there is clear evidence fish stocks
        are underused by the national fleets and there is a surplus.


        .
        .
        .
        Meanwhile, the United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP) has
        warned in a comprehensive report, which focused on Senegal and
        Argentina, that developing countries which allow foreign fishing
        fleets access to their territorial waters stood to lose a great deal
        more than they might gain.

        The UNEP-commissioned study, released Dec 27, said that trade
        liberalisation in Senegal ''has had a devastating effect on some key
        stocks, especially those deep-living, coastal species, favoured by
        European consumers'' and that the country's local market supply could
        face shortages in the near future as a result.

        ''Some developing countries with reasonably healthy levels of stocks
        have, in their search for foreign, external earnings needed to pay
        off debts and to stimulate economic growth, entered into fishing
        agreements which allow foreign fleets into their waters,'' said UNEP
        Executive Director Klaus Toepfer.

        ''But our research indicates that unless strict safeguards are in
        place, this can be a costly mistake.''

        The UNEP recommends that for countries like Senegal, foreign fishing
        fleets should be charged more for having access to its fishing
        territories and that agreements should be placed under moratorium in
        cases where fish stocks have been seriously depleted. In addition,
        the studies recommend that agreements should also be limited to
        species that are not at risk and suggest the possibility of a quota
        system.

        Mauritania recently negotiated a payment of 430 million euros (about
        387 million United States dollars) over next five years, up from 266
        million euros the country secured under a previous fisheries
        agreement with the EU; Senegal is likely to have been emboldened by
        her neighbour's success.

        Senegal became a major exporter of fish to the European market in the
        late 1980s, with its industry growing rapidly the next decade on the
        back of the 1994 devaluation of the CFA franc and preferential terms
        extended by the EU under the Lomé 'trade and aid' agreement with
        the
        African, Pacific and Caribbean (ACP) group of countries, of which
        Senegal is a member.

        Fish is one of Senegal's biggest foreign exchange earners, with two-
        thirds of the country's export revenues now coming from fish exported
        to Europe.

        However, the UNEP study warns there is a massive wastage of the fish
        caught. One of the reasons for this is that instead of developing
        modern fish-processing factories the existing old-fashioned ones in
        Senegal were merely expanded.

        ''This is because most of the developed countries wanted to fish in
        Senegalese waters, instead of giving preferential tariffs for value-
        added Senegalese fish products,'' said the study. ''Thus, there was a
        tendency to export raw fresh and frozen fish rather than processed
        fish. The wastage rate was very high and the pressure on resources
        (fish stocks) increased.''

        more --> http://www.genderandtrade.net/Regions/Africa_environment.htm


        =========================================================


        --- In capeverdeFORUM@y..., "novasintra" <novasintra@y...> wrote:
        >
        >
        >
        > What is happening with respect to fishing in Cape Verde Islands,
        and
        > in the outlying Cape Verde fishery grounds, where the big boys from
        > Japan and elsewhere are? Does CV, FAO, or anyone for that matter,
        > really know how much fish is being caught out there in the CV
        > fishery, and the health of that fishery? In New England, story is
        > pretty much denial on fishing industry's part, though they would
        beg
        > to differ. Complex systems theory as applied to fish stock
        > rebounding, as I understand it, suggests no one knows answer, but
        if
        > you guess wrong and keep fishing at current rates, the Georges Bank
        > fishery ? one the richest and most plentiful in the world ?
        my
        > undergo irreversible collapse.
        >
        > I believe there had been talk of CV getting assistance (funds,
        boats,
        > training, real-time satellite data, etc) to help with monitoring
        and
        > enforcement of fisheries. Did this ever materialize? Is something
        in
        > the works?
        >
        > Richard Leary
        >
        >
        > From today's April 10 New York Times -
        > In Mexico, Greed Kills Fish by the Seaful
        > By TIM WEINER
        >
        > BAHÍA DE LOBOS, Mexico, April 5 ? The fishermen set out
        before dawn
        > from this dirt-poor town to the Gulf of California. They returned
        > with seven crabs and a baby shark.
        >
        > "There just aren't any fish anymore," said Teresa López, 39, a
        > villager. "Less and less every year for many years. Now we haven't
        > enough to eat."
        >
        > Greed and corruption are draining the gulf, also known as the Sea
        of
        > Cortés. It is not dead yet, but it is exhausted.
        >
        > American and Japanese ships were the first to exploit it. Now
        fleets
        > of Mexican fishermen, mostly unlicensed and ungoverned, are taking
        > whatever they can, as fast as they can, for American and Asian
        > markets. Every important species of fish in the sea is in sharp
        > decline, fishermen and marine scientists say.
        >
        > "Too many fishermen and not enough fish," said Pedro Álvarez,
        pulling
        > tiny mullet from his net near the city of Guaymas.
        >
        > Overfishing is a global problem. People are taking marine life
        faster
        > than it can reproduce. The world's catch peaked at 86 million tons
        in
        > 1989, up fourfold in 50 years.
        >
        > But many governments, including the United States, Mexico, the
        > European Union, Japan and China, kept on pouring subsidies into
        > commercial fishing fleets to keep them afloat.
        > Crucial fisheries have collapsed worldwide.
        >
        > "We have an endowment in the bank, and we're spending it all
        instead
        > of living off the interest," said Juan Manuel García Caudillo, a
        > Guaymas conservationist trying to protect the Gulf of California.
        > This, the world's youngest sea, created when the San Andreas fault
        > split Mexico millions of years ago and let the Pacific pour in, is
        > home to 875 species of fish and 30 species of marine mammals. They
        > have been killed indiscriminately for years.
        >
        > "The philosophy is: get it now; grab it ? if I don't, the next
        guy
        > will," said Juan Pablo Gallo, a marine biologist in Guaymas who has
        > recorded steep declines in sea lion populations and has found DDT
        > residues among dolphins in the gulf.
        >
        > Some say the trouble began when the United States started damming
        and
        > diverting the Colorado River in the 1930's. The river that carved
        the
        > Grand Canyon became a bare trickle at its Mexican mouth, turning
        the
        > gulf's biggest estuary, a bountiful breeding ground, into a dried-
        up
        > delta.
        >
        > Before and after World War II, American ships took every school of
        > tuna and every swarm of sardines they could, along with sea lions
        for
        > pet food and sharks to use the livers to remedy iron-poor "tired
        > blood." The Japanese came too, "destroying the ecological balance
        of
        > the whole region," John Steinbeck wrote in 1940.
        >
        > The foreign boats, many buying permits and government concessions
        > with bribes, worked the gulf hard until the catch started
        plummeting
        > about a decade ago.
        >
        > Then the great divide between Mexico's laws and its law enforcement
        > began taking its toll. In 1992, President Carlos Salinas, fighting
        > for the free-trade agreement with the United States, essentially
        > deregulated Mexican commercial fishing without creating an
        effective
        > system of licensing and permits.
        >
        > "The political mistakes of past governments had a terrible effect,"
        > said Otto Clausen, the federal environmental protection officer for
        > the state of Sonora, which is bordered on the west by the
        gulf. "The
        > economic development strategy was wrong. It broke all authority
        over
        > fishing."
        >
        > Jerónimo Ramos, the national fisheries commissioner, is based in
        > Mexico City. He said about 1,200 permits existed for boats in the
        > Gulf of California and the Pacific Ocean, estimating that 20 to 30
        > percent of the catch was being taken illegally.
        >
        > León Tissot of Mexico's National Fishing Industry Council says
        > that "there is an illegal traffic in permits." Fishermen say
        permits
        > are bought under the table, sold and resold, ignored with impunity.
        > "The laws are totally clear, and their application is totally
        > cloudy," said Felipe Rodríguez, a scientist working with the
        > fishermen of the Seri Indian tribe.
        >
        > Fishermen, businessmen, scientists and even some federal officials
        > say at least 12,000 unregulated fishing boats, probably more, now
        are
        > at large in the gulf, a number that doubled in the last decade.
        > "It's the law of the jungle out there," said Luis Bourillón, a
        marine
        > biologist in Guaymas. "You can do anything you want."
        >
        > The unregulated boats, whose crews include thousands of men who
        came
        > to the coast in the 1990's looking for a living, set gill nets,
        nylon
        > webs banned by many nations as a barbaric and indiscriminate form
        of
        > fishing, but not in Mexico. More than 1,000 miles of gill nets were
        > sold in Sonora last year.
        >
        > Gill nets trap everything: endangered sea turtles, sea lions, even
        > the vaquita, a rare porpoise on the edge of extinction. They take
        so
        > many sailfish, tuna and marlins that the rich American sports
        > fishermen who considered the gulf a paradise are staying home ?
        > another drain on the local economy.
        >
        > A gill net fleet backed by unknown financiers appeared seven years
        > ago in Sonora. Fishermen and scientists say it slaughters thousands
        > of sharks solely for their fins, which when dried sell for as much
        as
        > $300 a pound in Asian markets.
        >
        > The fishing boats also play out long lines, each with hundreds of
        > baited hooks, reaching for miles. The long-liners land as much as
        20
        > tons a day of dorado, sold as mahi-mahi, in the port of Guaymas
        > alone, along with unrecorded illegal catches like sea turtles,
        which
        > can sell for as much as $200 apiece in Mexican black markets.
        > The high price of turtle meat and shark fins, founded on male
        > folklore long predating Viagra, spurs the fleet.
        >
        > The shrimp fleet wreaks its own separate havoc. Shrimping
        throughout
        > the world uses bottom-scraping dragnets that haul up 10 pounds of
        > life ? often young fish too small to sell ? for every pound
        of
        > shrimp, like gathering wild mushrooms with a bulldozer.
        >
        > Underwater, "one day there's all kinds of fish, crab, octopus,
        maybe
        > a turtle, and the next day it's empty, nothing but rocks and a
        sandy
        > bottom," said Feliza Ríos, a scuba diving instructor in San
        Carlos
        > who has seen the effect at first hand. "It takes years, many years,
        > to come back."
        >
        > Discarded shrimp nets do more damage: one strangled three whales
        last
        > week.
        >
        > A pound of Mexican shrimp sells for $16 or more in American
        markets,
        > and though Mexico no longer directly subsidizes shrimp boats, it
        > underwrites the fleet through a quasi-governmental, California-
        based
        > corporation called Ocean Gardens, which buys half of its catch. So
        > the shrimpers work the sea floor as hard as they can.
        >
        > Recognition is now dawning that if nothing changes, "in a few
        years,
        > you could end up without any fish in the sea," said Víctor
        > Lichtinger, Mexico's environmental minister.
        >
        > Change may begin with the Mexican government observing its own laws.
        > "We have to prevent the sales of permits under the table," said
        Juan
        > Carlos Barrera, the World Wildlife Fund's representative in
        > Sonora. "The answer is zero tolerance for corruption. If we do
        > nothing, we'll kill the sea."
        >
        > The Mexican Navy has standing orders to police the outlaws by
        chasing
        > them from the sea. If not, fishing villages may take the law into
        > their own hands. The Seri Indians, Mexico's smallest tribe, already
        > have.
        >
        > At gunpoint, they guard the waters around their fishing village,
        > Punta Chueca, barring outsiders or demanding tribute in the form of
        > shrimp or money. The other afternoon, their boats came back with a
        > bushel of scallops, a peck of crabs and a giant manta ray, a haul
        > that meant the difference between subsistence and the near-
        starvation
        > stalking Bahía de Lobos.
        >
        > The sea can revive if overfished areas are given a rest. But as
        > Josefina Molina, a 45-year-old Seri woman in Punta Chueca,
        said, "If
        > the sea takes a siesta, how are the people going to eat?"
        >
        > Some links:
        >
        >
        > FISHING FOR A LIVING* - Ray Almeida -
        > http://www.umassd.edu/SpecialPrograms/caboverde/fishing.html
        >
        > Also -
        > http://www.umassd.edu/SpecialPrograms/caboverde/fishprofile.html
        >
        > FAO Study Reference -
        > http://www.fishbase.org/References/SummaryRefList.cfm?
        > ID=8078&GenusName=Virididentex&SpeciesName=acromegalus
        >
        > FAO Fishery Country Profiles (CV in French) -
        > http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/Africa.asp
        >
        > Japan-Cape Verde Relations -
        > http://www.mofa.go.jp/region/africa/cape_v/
        >
        > Small cost yields big catch for fishers in Cape Verde -
        > http://www.fao.org/News/2001/010102-e.htm
        >
        > In past years, fishers in the Cape Verde islands off the west coast
        > of Africa watched disappointingly as large pelagic fish like tuna
        and
        > mackerel passed through their area but evaded their nets. Now, a
        FAO-
        > coordinated project started one year ago has installed 17 fish-
        > aggregating devices (FADs) - simple, inexpensive tools suspended
        into
        > the water and anchored to the sea floor that attract these valuable
        > fish so fishers know exactly where to drop their lines. The result
        > has been very positive.



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