Re: [bukowsko_triangle] Wislok Wielki
- On Oct 7, 2009, at 8:30 AM, Debbie Greenlee wrote:
> Philip,What a life, eh? Your former home is gone. Now you live here. Be
> I could have taken more notes but then it would have seemed like
> school. LOL It is an interesting book. Even though its focus was on
> how southern Polish villages adhered to the socialist programs, it was
> interesting to read how Wislok Wielki, for example, was re-populated.
> Philip Semanchuk wrote:
>> Hi Debbie,
>> Thanks for typing all of that in; it's quite interesting. I am way
>> behind on my book reading but I'd like to read this someday.
>> On Oct 5, 2009, at 5:14 PM, Debbie Greenlee wrote:
>>> The book, _A Village Without Solidarity: Polish peasants in years of
>>> crisis_ by C. M. Hann (Yale University, 1985) has been mentioned a
>>> couple of times on this list. I just finished it. It's only about
>>> pages but it gets technical in spots because it was Hann's thesis.
>>> The book basically describes life in Wislok Wielki from post WWII to
>>> the early 1980s, years after Akcja Wisla. All of the inhabitants,
>>> 8 or 9, were immigrants to the village from other parts of Poland.
>>> The study was conducted during communist control. Though what
>>> in this village may not be interesting to those whose ancestors were
>>> expelled from the village, the book does describe how the immigrants
>>> were brought in, life in the surrounding villages and so on. The
>>> has a lot of photographs.
>>> If you buy or borrow this book I suggest you read the notes for each
>>> chapter as well. The notes are located at the back of the book.
>>> Here are some excerpts and notes I made while reading the book.
>>> The book mentions many southern BT area villages including Komancza,
>>> Moszczaniec, Rzepedz and Bukowsko.
>>> Peter and Paul "from Hungary" owned Wislok at one time. These are
>>> same brothers who owned Bukowsko and several other area villages.
>>> pg. 32 ". . . particularly after 1930, there was still little or no
>>> antagonism at the local level between Rusnaks and the Poles in the
>>> Sanok Lands."
>>> ". . . Wislok remained an isolated village, bounded on all sides by
>>> smaller. equally homogeneous, Rus villages; yet marriages with Poles
>>> were still quite common (Poles were outnumbered only by Jews at the
>>> market centre of Bukowsko). The rules applied were the same as in
>>> Austrian times - both partners adhered to the language and
>>> religion of
>>> the community in which they resided, and their children were raised
>>> pg. 32 "In 1939, Wislok was occupied by German forces (the
>>> Soviet-German demarcation line followed the line of the River San a
>>> short distance to the east). A short time later many of her
>>> able-bodied men were transferred to Germany as slave labour. The
>>> at the police station were replaced by a Ukrainian staff. Throughout
>>> the war the Germans were astute in exploiting the accumulated
>>> grievances and aspirations of the nationally conscious Ukrainians,
>>> though they never showed themselves to be genuinely interested in
>>> satisfying the desire for independence. In the course of the war the
>>> Rusnaks were more exposed to Ukrainian influence than ever before;
>>> even the priests sent to Wislok were from lowland regions of the
>>> Ukraine proper, with no knowledge of the 'Lemkian' dialect."
>>> pg. 60 "In Wislok large investments in the State Farms (communal
>>> farms DG) were made in the mid-1950s, some time before major
>>> improvements in local communications and in the community
>>> infrastructure. A major complex was constructed at each end of the
>>> long valley of the Wislok."
>>> ". . . Later the centre of the State Farm was moved to the main site
>>> of the new penal colony in Moszczaniec. a village 6 km from Wislok
>>> which had also been evacuated in 1947, but where no attempt had been
>>> made to resettle peasants."
>>> pg. 69 ". . . The exception is a foreman who is of local Rus origin
>>> and who purchased his own house and farm when he returned to Wislok
>>> after many years in the North. He is the only employee who is also
>>> registered as the owner of an individual farm, a small one of
>>> about 5
>>> pg. 103 ". . . A notable example in which several Wislok men
>>> participated was the establishment by the Komancza parish priest
>>> of a
>>> new church . . . in the village of Rzepedz, site of the sawmill and
>>> model socialist housing estates."
>>> pg. 116 ". . . The third and last contrasting community is
>>> Moszczaniec, about 6 km west of Wislok along the main road. Sine the
>>> late 1950s Moszczaniec has witnessed the construction of a large
>>> colony, with room for up to about 500 prisoners. Warders and other
>>> ancillary staff, including officials of the State Farm on which most
>>> of the prisoners work, are accommodated on a new housing estate in
>>> four-storeyed (sp) blocks of flats. It is a sort of garrison
>>> settlement, provisioned directly form Komancza, without a shop, a
>>> school, or public institutions on any kind. It has no church, and
>>> relatively few inhabitants attend the services in Wislok. For th
>>> peasants the settlement at Moszczaniec has represented something
>>> deeply disturbing. The staff there is as emphatically outside the
>>> community of civilised (sp) society as the prisoners themselves.
>>> Warders are looked upon with some contempt: their uniforms
>>> them from those who have to work honestly for a living, and although
>>> they enjoy prosperity and relative comfort in their state-owned
>>> accommodation, they have turned their backs on God. . . No ties
>>> Wislok, DG) are maintained with persons who do not attend church."
>>> A book on the history of the Jewish community in Poland and the
>>> beginnings of its economic role in the countryside is _The Jews of
>>> Poland: a social and economic history of the Jewish Community in
>>> Poland from 1100 to 1800_ by Bernard E. Weinryb. Philadelphia, 1973
>>> For a brief account of the migratory process from the Rus zone, see
>>> Stanislaw Fischer, "Wyjazdy Lemkow nadoslawskich na roboty zarobkowe
>>> do Ameryki" in _Materialy Muzeum Budnownictwa Ludowego w Sanoku
>>> 6" (1967)
>>> Note #17 from chapter 2 is packed with books and articles written
>>> about Lemkos as well as a short discussion about the origin of the
>>> name, "Lemko."
>>> Note #1 from chapter 3 lists census numbers and information for
>>> for 1950, 1961, 1970 and 1978.