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Re: [bukowsko_triangle] Wislok Wielki

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  • Philip Semanchuk
    ... What a life, eh? Your former home is gone. Now you live here. Be grateful. Tough stuff.
    Message 1 of 4 , Oct 7, 2009
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      On Oct 7, 2009, at 8:30 AM, Debbie Greenlee wrote:

      > Philip,
      >
      > I could have taken more notes but then it would have seemed like
      > school. LOL It is an interesting book. Even though its focus was on
      > how southern Polish villages adhered to the socialist programs, it was
      > interesting to read how Wislok Wielki, for example, was re-populated.

      What a life, eh? Your former home is gone. Now you live here. Be
      grateful.

      Tough stuff.


      >
      > Philip Semanchuk wrote:
      >> Hi Debbie,
      >> Thanks for typing all of that in; it's quite interesting. I am way
      >> behind on my book reading but I'd like to read this someday.
      >>
      >>
      >> On Oct 5, 2009, at 5:14 PM, Debbie Greenlee wrote:
      >>
      >>> The book, _A Village Without Solidarity: Polish peasants in years of
      >>> crisis_ by C. M. Hann (Yale University, 1985) has been mentioned a
      >>> couple of times on this list. I just finished it. It's only about
      >>> 200
      >>> pages but it gets technical in spots because it was Hann's thesis.
      >>>
      >>> The book basically describes life in Wislok Wielki from post WWII to
      >>> the early 1980s, years after Akcja Wisla. All of the inhabitants,
      >>> save
      >>> 8 or 9, were immigrants to the village from other parts of Poland.
      >>> The study was conducted during communist control. Though what
      >>> happened
      >>> in this village may not be interesting to those whose ancestors were
      >>> expelled from the village, the book does describe how the immigrants
      >>> were brought in, life in the surrounding villages and so on. The
      >>> book
      >>> has a lot of photographs.
      >>>
      >>> If you buy or borrow this book I suggest you read the notes for each
      >>> chapter as well. The notes are located at the back of the book.
      >>>
      >>> Here are some excerpts and notes I made while reading the book.
      >>>
      >>> The book mentions many southern BT area villages including Komancza,
      >>> Moszczaniec, Rzepedz and Bukowsko.
      >>>
      >>> Peter and Paul "from Hungary" owned Wislok at one time. These are
      >>> the
      >>> same brothers who owned Bukowsko and several other area villages.
      >>>
      >>>
      >>> pg. 32 ". . . particularly after 1930, there was still little or no
      >>> antagonism at the local level between Rusnaks and the Poles in the
      >>> Sanok Lands."
      >>>
      >>> ". . . Wislok remained an isolated village, bounded on all sides by
      >>> smaller. equally homogeneous, Rus villages; yet marriages with Poles
      >>> were still quite common (Poles were outnumbered only by Jews at the
      >>> market centre of Bukowsko). The rules applied were the same as in
      >>> Austrian times - both partners adhered to the language and
      >>> religion of
      >>> the community in which they resided, and their children were raised
      >>> accordingly."
      >>>
      >>> pg. 32 "In 1939, Wislok was occupied by German forces (the
      >>> Soviet-German demarcation line followed the line of the River San a
      >>> short distance to the east). A short time later many of her
      >>> able-bodied men were transferred to Germany as slave labour. The
      >>> Poles
      >>> at the police station were replaced by a Ukrainian staff. Throughout
      >>> the war the Germans were astute in exploiting the accumulated
      >>> grievances and aspirations of the nationally conscious Ukrainians,
      >>> though they never showed themselves to be genuinely interested in
      >>> satisfying the desire for independence. In the course of the war the
      >>> Rusnaks were more exposed to Ukrainian influence than ever before;
      >>> even the priests sent to Wislok were from lowland regions of the
      >>> Ukraine proper, with no knowledge of the 'Lemkian' dialect."
      >>>
      >>> pg. 60 "In Wislok large investments in the State Farms (communal
      >>> farms DG) were made in the mid-1950s, some time before major
      >>> improvements in local communications and in the community
      >>> infrastructure. A major complex was constructed at each end of the
      >>> long valley of the Wislok."
      >>>
      >>> ". . . Later the centre of the State Farm was moved to the main site
      >>> of the new penal colony in Moszczaniec. a village 6 km from Wislok
      >>> which had also been evacuated in 1947, but where no attempt had been
      >>> made to resettle peasants."
      >>>
      >>> pg. 69 ". . . The exception is a foreman who is of local Rus origin
      >>> and who purchased his own house and farm when he returned to Wislok
      >>> after many years in the North. He is the only employee who is also
      >>> registered as the owner of an individual farm, a small one of
      >>> about 5
      >>> hectares."
      >>>
      >>> pg. 103 ". . . A notable example in which several Wislok men
      >>> participated was the establishment by the Komancza parish priest
      >>> of a
      >>> new church . . . in the village of Rzepedz, site of the sawmill and
      >>> model socialist housing estates."
      >>>
      >>> pg. 116 ". . . The third and last contrasting community is
      >>> Moszczaniec, about 6 km west of Wislok along the main road. Sine the
      >>> late 1950s Moszczaniec has witnessed the construction of a large
      >>> penal
      >>> colony, with room for up to about 500 prisoners. Warders and other
      >>> ancillary staff, including officials of the State Farm on which most
      >>> of the prisoners work, are accommodated on a new housing estate in
      >>> four-storeyed (sp) blocks of flats. It is a sort of garrison
      >>> settlement, provisioned directly form Komancza, without a shop, a
      >>> school, or public institutions on any kind. It has no church, and
      >>> relatively few inhabitants attend the services in Wislok. For th
      >>> peasants the settlement at Moszczaniec has represented something
      >>> deeply disturbing. The staff there is as emphatically outside the
      >>> community of civilised (sp) society as the prisoners themselves.
      >>> Warders are looked upon with some contempt: their uniforms
      >>> distinguish
      >>> them from those who have to work honestly for a living, and although
      >>> they enjoy prosperity and relative comfort in their state-owned
      >>> accommodation, they have turned their backs on God. . . No ties
      >>> (from
      >>> Wislok, DG) are maintained with persons who do not attend church."
      >>>
      >>>
      >>> A book on the history of the Jewish community in Poland and the
      >>> early
      >>> beginnings of its economic role in the countryside is _The Jews of
      >>> Poland: a social and economic history of the Jewish Community in
      >>> Poland from 1100 to 1800_ by Bernard E. Weinryb. Philadelphia, 1973
      >>>
      >>>
      >>> For a brief account of the migratory process from the Rus zone, see
      >>> Stanislaw Fischer, "Wyjazdy Lemkow nadoslawskich na roboty zarobkowe
      >>> do Ameryki" in _Materialy Muzeum Budnownictwa Ludowego w Sanoku
      >>> 6" (1967)
      >>>
      >>> Note #17 from chapter 2 is packed with books and articles written
      >>> about Lemkos as well as a short discussion about the origin of the
      >>> name, "Lemko."
      >>>
      >>> Note #1 from chapter 3 lists census numbers and information for
      >>> Wislok
      >>> for 1950, 1961, 1970 and 1978.
      >>>
      >>>
      >>> Debbie
      >>
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