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Endless Universe Made Possible By New Model

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  • Robert G. Seeberger
    http://www.spacedaily.com/reports/Endless_Universe_Made_Possible_By_New_Model_999.html A new cosmological model demonstrates the universe can endlessly expand
    Message 1 of 30 , Jan 31, 2007
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      http://www.spacedaily.com/reports/Endless_Universe_Made_Possible_By_New_Model_999.html

      A new cosmological model demonstrates the universe can endlessly
      expand and contract, providing a rival to Big Bang theories and
      solving a thorny modern physics problem, according to University of
      North Carolina at Chapel Hill physicists.
      The cyclic model proposed by Dr. Paul Frampton, Louis J. Rubin Jr.
      distinguished professor of physics in UNC's College of Arts and
      Sciences, and co-author Lauris Baum, a UNC graduate student in
      physics, has four key parts: expansion, turnaround, contraction and
      bounce.

      During expansion, dark energy -- the unknown force causing the
      universe to expand at an accelerating rate -- pushes and pushes until
      all matter fragments into patches so far apart that nothing can bridge
      the gaps. Everything from black holes to atoms disintegrates. This
      point, just a fraction of a second before the end of time, is the
      turnaround.

      At the turnaround, each fragmented patch collapses and contracts
      individually instead of pulling back together in a reversal of the Big
      Bang. The patches become an infinite number of independent universes
      that contract and then bounce outward again, reinflating in a manner
      similar to the Big Bang. One patch becomes our universe.

      "This cycle happens an infinite number of times, thus eliminating any
      start or end of time," Frampton said. "There is no Big Bang."

      An article describing the model is available on the arXiv.org e-print
      archive and will appear in an upcoming issue of Physical Review
      Letters. The work was supported in part by a U.S. Department of Energy
      grant.

      Cosmologists first offered an oscillating universe model, with no
      beginning or end, as a Big Bang alternative in the 1930s. The idea was
      abandoned because the oscillations could not be reconciled with the
      rules of physics, including the second law of thermodynamics, Frampton
      said.

      The second law says entropy (a measure of disorder) can't be
      destroyed. But if entropy increases from one oscillation to the next,
      the universe becomes larger with each cycle. "The universe would grow
      like a runaway snowball," Frampton said. Each oscillation will also
      become successively longer. "Extrapolating backwards in time, this
      implies that the oscillations before our present one were shorter and
      shorter. This leads inevitably to a Big Bang," he said.

      Frampton and Baum circumvent the Big Bang by postulating that, at the
      turnaround, any remaining entropy is in patches too remote for
      interaction. Having each "causal patch" become a separate universe
      allows each universe to contract essentially empty of matter and
      entropy. "The presence of any matter creates insuperable difficulties
      with contraction," Frampton said. "The idea of coming back empty is
      the most important ingredient of this new cyclic model."

      This concept jolted Frampton when it popped into his head last
      October.

      "I suddenly saw there was a new way of solving this seemingly
      impossible problem," he said. "I was sitting with my feet on my desk,
      half-asleep and puzzled, and I almost fell out of my chair when I
      realized there was a much, much simpler possibility."

      Also key to Frampton and Baum's model is an assumption about dark
      energy's equation of state -- the mathematical description of its
      pressure and density. Frampton and Baum assume dark energy's equation
      of state is always less than -1. This distinguishes their work from a
      similar cyclic model proposed in 2002 by physicists Paul Steinhardt
      and Neil Turok, who assumed the equation of state is never less
      than -1.

      A negative equation of state gives Frampton and Baum a way to stop the
      universe from blowing itself apart irreversibly, an end physicists
      call the "Big Rip." The pair found that in their model, the density of
      dark energy becomes equal to the density of the universe and expansion
      stops just before the Big Rip.

      New satellites currently under construction, such as the European
      Space Agency's Planck satellite, could gather enough information to
      determine dark energy's equation of state, Frampton said.

      A copy of the paper may be downloaded here. (
      http://arxiv.org/abs/hep-th/0610213 )



      xponent

      YoYoverse Maru

      rob


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    • Charlie Bell
      ... Um... I thought Big Bang theory doesn t rule out a prior Big Crunch. What they re doing is presenting a new model for collapse at the end of this universe,
      Message 2 of 30 , Jan 31, 2007
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        On 01/02/2007, at 1:20 PM, Robert G. Seeberger wrote:

        >
        > "This cycle happens an infinite number of times, thus eliminating any
        > start or end of time," Frampton said. "There is no Big Bang."

        Um... I thought Big Bang theory doesn't rule out a prior Big Crunch.
        What they're doing is presenting a new model for collapse at the end
        of this universe, not changing the start point, as far as I
        understand it. Now, where's a physicist when we need one...

        Charlie
        Paging Rich Maru
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      • Robert G. Seeberger
        ... Yeah! Where am them? What I wonder is if the secondary cycles repeat the conditions of the parent cycle. (As if they are seeds) IOW, will the daughter
        Message 3 of 30 , Jan 31, 2007
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          On 1/31/2007 8:54:36 PM, Charlie Bell (charlie@...) wrote:
          > On 01/02/2007, at 1:20 PM, Robert G. Seeberger wrote:
          >
          > >
          > >
          > "This cycle happens an infinite number of times, thus eliminating
          > any
          > > start or end of time,"
          > Frampton said. "There is no Big Bang."
          >
          > Um... I thought Big Bang theory
          > doesn't rule out a prior Big Crunch.
          > What they're doing is presenting a
          > new model for collapse at the end
          > of this universe, not changing the start point, as far as I
          > understand it. Now, where's a physicist when we need one...
          >

          Yeah!
          Where am them?
          <G>
          What I wonder is if the secondary cycles repeat the conditions of the
          parent cycle.
          (As if they are seeds)
          IOW, will the daughter universes be as favorable for life as ours, or
          will they be random iterations?


          xponent
          Always With the Questions Maru
          rob
          xponent


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        • Charlie Bell
          ... Very tiny, almost unmeasurably small, bits of our universe are favourable to life. This whole fine tuning set of arguments strikes me as looking at the
          Message 4 of 30 , Jan 31, 2007
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            On 01/02/2007, at 2:13 PM, Robert G. Seeberger wrote:


            > IOW, will the daughter universes be as favorable for life as ours, or
            > will they be random iterations?

            Very tiny, almost unmeasurably small, bits of our universe are
            favourable to life. This whole "fine tuning" set of arguments strikes
            me as looking at the whole thing arse-about-face. Life has done
            pretty well on one planet in the entire universe. Now, there's a
            convincing set of arguments that emergent properties might lead to
            life on many planetary bodies (and the evidence is starting to take
            shape that life may well have moved between bodies in our Solar
            System), but for now, we only know for sure that life exists on one
            planet. Anywhere.

            Even most of our planet is bloody dangerous for humans... This
            continent certainly is.

            Charlie
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          • Robert G. Seeberger
            ... Heh! I m thinking more along the lines of Pi, C, or Planks Constant having differing values. xponent Columbia Memorial Maru rob
            Message 5 of 30 , Feb 1, 2007
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              On 1/31/2007 9:35:28 PM, Charlie Bell (charlie@...) wrote:
              > On 01/02/2007, at 2:13 PM, Robert G. Seeberger wrote:
              >
              >
              > > IOW, will the daughter universes be as favorable for life as ours,
              > > or
              > > will they be random iterations?
              >
              > Very tiny, almost unmeasurably small, bits of our universe are
              > favourable to life. This whole "fine tuning" set of arguments
              > strikes
              > me as looking at the whole thing arse-about-face. Life has done
              > pretty well on one planet in the entire universe. Now, there's a
              > convincing set of arguments that emergent properties might lead to
              > life on many planetary bodies (and the evidence is starting to take
              > shape that life may well have moved between bodies in our Solar
              > System), but for now, we only know for sure that life exists on one
              > planet. Anywhere.
              >
              > Even most of our planet is bloody dangerous for humans... This
              > continent certainly is.
              >

              Heh!
              I'm thinking more along the lines of Pi, C, or Planks Constant having
              differing values.


              xponent
              Columbia Memorial Maru
              rob


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            • Charlie Bell
              ... I know that s what you meant, but it still seems to be a wrong-way- round argument. Even if those constants were different, whatever the universe described
              Message 6 of 30 , Feb 1, 2007
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                On 01/02/2007, at 10:22 PM, Robert G. Seeberger wrote:

                >
                > Heh!
                > I'm thinking more along the lines of Pi, C, or Planks Constant having
                > differing values.


                I know that's what you meant, but it still seems to be a wrong-way-
                round argument. Even if those constants were different, whatever the
                universe described was like (assuming there was at least some form of
                matter and some form of chemistry) might be able to form life on one
                tiny speck amongst all its vast space, and that life might say "isn't
                it amazing, this universe seems perfect for life". To take Douglas
                Adams' puddle a step further, it's like a shower of rain in the
                middle of the Sahara and a tiny puddle formed in a hollow of rock
                saying that it seems to fit the hole perfectly, even as the rest of
                the desert is parched and the puddle itself is evaporating in the
                sirocco.

                Charlie
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              • Robert G. Seeberger
                ... Well....that is pretty much what I was getting at, that chemistry might not be possible in some configurations. Or that even atoms might not be possible.
                Message 7 of 30 , Feb 1, 2007
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                  On 2/1/2007 7:33:42 AM, Charlie Bell (charlie@...) wrote:
                  > On 01/02/2007, at 10:22 PM, Robert G. Seeberger wrote:
                  >
                  > >
                  > > Heh!
                  > >
                  > I'm thinking more along the lines of Pi, C, or Planks Constant
                  > having
                  > > differing values.
                  >
                  >
                  > I know that's
                  > what you meant, but it still seems to be a wrong-way-
                  > round argument. Even if those constants were different, whatever the
                  > universe described was like (assuming there was at least some form
                  > of
                  > matter and some form of chemistry)

                  Well....that is pretty much what I was getting at, that chemistry
                  might not be possible in some configurations. Or that even atoms might
                  not be possible.
                  WRT that, I think it is a valid question.



                  >might be able to form life on one
                  > tiny speck amongst all its vast space, and that life might say
                  > "isn't
                  > it amazing, this universe seems perfect for life". To take
                  > Douglas
                  > Adams' puddle a step further, it's like a shower of rain in the
                  > middle of the Sahara and a tiny puddle formed in a hollow of rock
                  > saying that it seems to fit the hole perfectly, even as the rest of
                  > the desert is parched and the puddle itself is evaporating in the
                  > sirocco.
                  >

                  That is certainly true and I agree. If there is chemistry there is
                  always some potential for life. But if there is no chemistry in a
                  universe it would likely be an uninteresting place. (Though there
                  could be room for some sort of sapience quite different from our own.)

                  I think I understand your objections. Such discussions tread quite
                  close to the playground of the ID crowd and I'm not interested in
                  their fanciful ontologies.

                  What I'm actually interested in knowing is if the daughter universes
                  "inherit" the physical properties of the parent universe or if they
                  are a complete reformulation of a timespace from scratch. For me, it
                  is the difference between barely relevant and completely
                  irrelevant.<G>


                  xponent
                  Continuui Maru
                  rob


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                • Charlie Bell
                  ... Sure, but there will also be many many different ways of producing matter and chemistry. There ll be a whole range of values that ll allow complex
                  Message 8 of 30 , Feb 1, 2007
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                    On 02/02/2007, at 11:02 AM, Robert G. Seeberger wrote:

                    >
                    > Well....that is pretty much what I was getting at, that chemistry
                    > might not be possible in some configurations. Or that even atoms might
                    > not be possible.
                    > WRT that, I think it is a valid question.

                    Sure, but there will also be many many different ways of producing
                    matter and chemistry. There'll be a whole range of values that'll
                    allow complex reactions, and there'll be values that are much more
                    favourable to life than ours.

                    >
                    >
                    >
                    >> might be able to form life on one
                    >> tiny speck amongst all its vast space, and that life might say
                    >> "isn't
                    >> it amazing, this universe seems perfect for life". To take
                    >> Douglas
                    >> Adams' puddle a step further, it's like a shower of rain in the
                    >> middle of the Sahara and a tiny puddle formed in a hollow of rock
                    >> saying that it seems to fit the hole perfectly, even as the rest of
                    >> the desert is parched and the puddle itself is evaporating in the
                    >> sirocco.
                    >>
                    >
                    > That is certainly true and I agree. If there is chemistry there is
                    > always some potential for life. But if there is no chemistry in a
                    > universe it would likely be an uninteresting place. (Though there
                    > could be room for some sort of sapience quite different from our own.)
                    >
                    > I think I understand your objections. Such discussions tread quite
                    > close to the playground of the ID crowd and I'm not interested in
                    > their fanciful ontologies.

                    Precisely. It's a bit close to the argument that you can calculate
                    the probability that a particular protein forms by chance and use
                    that as an indication of how ridiculously improbably evolution is,
                    when in reality you can change up to 40% of the amino acids in many
                    enzymes and they can still perform a similar function (or a different
                    one...). Or a small change might produce a totally novel function (as
                    with the sudden appearance of nylonase). The point is, there's
                    nothing special about any particular configuration.

                    So yes, I do bristle a bit at similar phrasing on the "fine-tuning"
                    of the universe.

                    >
                    > What I'm actually interested in knowing is if the daughter universes
                    > "inherit" the physical properties of the parent universe or if they
                    > are a complete reformulation of a timespace from scratch.

                    That's a far more interesting line of thought and I know you were
                    heading that way. It's something the black-hole-to-daughter-universe
                    crowd have speculated on, Brin has alluded to it, Baxter has written
                    a novel based around it. Yes, if daugter universes have very similar
                    but not necessarily identical properties to the parent universe, then
                    lineages of universes that produce more universes will produce more
                    universes than ones that produce less... (sorry that's sort of
                    tautological, but you know what I mean). But unless there's some sort
                    of max limit on universe numbers and therefore there are frequencies
                    of properties, then it's all a bit meaningless as there's no
                    selection, and that's the bit that would allow the relative succuss
                    to be manifested.

                    Basically, as soon as one property is unbounded (like infinite space
                    to expand), then evolution just doesn't work as evolution is a change
                    in the relative frequencies of measurable properties of a replicating
                    system over time.

                    However, that we're in a universe of matter and chemistry might then
                    be easier to understand as a lineage of universes producing matter
                    and chemistry would lead to daughters of matter and chemistry.

                    Charlie
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                  • Dan Minette
                    ... It doesn t rule it out because nothing is ruled out, but the mechanism for going from a Big Crunch to a Big Bang is so problematic that it might best be
                    Message 9 of 30 , Feb 2, 2007
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                      > -----Original Message-----
                      > From: brin-l-bounces@... [mailto:brin-l-bounces@...] On
                      > Behalf Of Charlie Bell
                      > Sent: Wednesday, January 31, 2007 8:55 PM
                      > To: Killer Bs Discussion
                      > Subject: Re: Endless Universe Made Possible By New Model
                      >
                      >
                      > On 01/02/2007, at 1:20 PM, Robert G. Seeberger wrote:
                      >
                      > >
                      > > "This cycle happens an infinite number of times, thus eliminating any
                      > > start or end of time," Frampton said. "There is no Big Bang."
                      >
                      > Um... I thought Big Bang theory doesn't rule out a prior Big Crunch.

                      It doesn't rule it out because nothing is ruled out, but the mechanism for
                      going from a Big Crunch to a Big Bang is so problematic that it might best
                      be described by waving one's hands and muttering.

                      The reason for this is the state of the universe after virtually every Big
                      Crunch state that could exist and it's state just before the Big Bang are
                      radically different. It's true that both cases could be seen as a
                      singularity. But, the Big Bang starts at a unique point, out of 10^x
                      possible states, where x is a very very big number. Probably > 1 million,
                      but I don't have time to do the estimate this morning. :-)

                      So, it is far more likely for every glass that have fallen off shelves to
                      spontaneously reverse and reconstruct than for the Big Crunch to end in a
                      state that can result in a Big Bang....well at least with known physics.
                      And, for those folks tasked with developing new physics, they could pull
                      untestable mechanisms out of the air, I suppose, but that kind of latitude
                      would allow for almost anything.

                      Dan M.


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                    • Charlie Bell
                      ... But isn t that what these guys are proposing, in effect? The differences are lost on this non-physicist... Of course, given the general state of reportage
                      Message 10 of 30 , Feb 2, 2007
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                        On 03/02/2007, at 1:44 AM, Dan Minette wrote:

                        >
                        >
                        >> -----Original Message-----
                        >> From: brin-l-bounces@... [mailto:brin-l-
                        >> bounces@...] On
                        >> Behalf Of Charlie Bell
                        >> Sent: Wednesday, January 31, 2007 8:55 PM
                        >> To: Killer Bs Discussion
                        >> Subject: Re: Endless Universe Made Possible By New Model
                        >>
                        >>
                        >> On 01/02/2007, at 1:20 PM, Robert G. Seeberger wrote:
                        >>
                        >>>
                        >>> "This cycle happens an infinite number of times, thus eliminating
                        >>> any
                        >>> start or end of time," Frampton said. "There is no Big Bang."
                        >>
                        >> Um... I thought Big Bang theory doesn't rule out a prior Big Crunch.
                        >
                        > It doesn't rule it out because nothing is ruled out, but the
                        > mechanism for
                        > going from a Big Crunch to a Big Bang is so problematic that it
                        > might best
                        > be described by waving one's hands and muttering.

                        But isn't that what these guys are proposing, in effect? The
                        differences are lost on this non-physicist...

                        Of course, given the general state of reportage these days, they
                        could have said anything.

                        Charlie
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                      • Robert Seeberger
                        ... From: Charlie Bell To: Killer Bs Discussion Sent: Friday, February 02, 2007 2:29 PM Subject: Re:
                        Message 11 of 30 , Feb 3, 2007
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                          ----- Original Message -----
                          From: "Charlie Bell" <charlie@...>
                          To: "Killer Bs Discussion" <brin-l@...>
                          Sent: Friday, February 02, 2007 2:29 PM
                          Subject: Re: Endless Universe Made Possible By New Model


                          >
                          > On 03/02/2007, at 1:44 AM, Dan Minette wrote:
                          >
                          >>
                          >>
                          >>> -----Original Message-----
                          >>> From: brin-l-bounces@... [mailto:brin-l-
                          >>> bounces@...] On
                          >>> Behalf Of Charlie Bell
                          >>> Sent: Wednesday, January 31, 2007 8:55 PM
                          >>> To: Killer Bs Discussion
                          >>> Subject: Re: Endless Universe Made Possible By New Model
                          >>>
                          >>>
                          >>> On 01/02/2007, at 1:20 PM, Robert G. Seeberger wrote:
                          >>>
                          >>>>
                          >>>> "This cycle happens an infinite number of times, thus eliminating
                          >>>> any
                          >>>> start or end of time," Frampton said. "There is no Big Bang."
                          >>>
                          >>> Um... I thought Big Bang theory doesn't rule out a prior Big
                          >>> Crunch.
                          >>
                          >> It doesn't rule it out because nothing is ruled out, but the
                          >> mechanism for
                          >> going from a Big Crunch to a Big Bang is so problematic that it
                          >> might best
                          >> be described by waving one's hands and muttering.
                          >
                          > But isn't that what these guys are proposing, in effect? The
                          > differences are lost on this non-physicist...
                          >
                          > Of course, given the general state of reportage these days, they
                          > could have said anything.
                          >


                          I think the key "new" idea is given in this paragraph:

                          "At the turnaround, each fragmented patch collapses and contracts
                          individually instead of pulling back together in a reversal of the Big
                          Bang. The patches become an infinite number of independent universes
                          that contract and then bounce outward again, reinflating in a manner
                          similar to the Big Bang. One patch becomes our universe."

                          In all the Big Bang/Big Crunch concepts that *I* have personally read
                          about, the idea revolved around a single universe expanding,
                          contracting, and reconstituting itself endlessly. Sort of an eternal
                          reciprocating cycle.

                          What makes this idea different is that it posits an eternal branching
                          of new discrete entities. IMO the concept bears only a superficial
                          resemblence to Bang/Crunch theories, but more closely resembles the
                          theories where black holes generate universe entities. Well....not in
                          the maths and physics areas of course, but in the sense of how one
                          tries to visualize the bigger picture of extra-universal relation. The
                          Bang/Crunch can be described as a simple circle, but this new theory
                          (as far as I understand it) would resemble a branching tree or a sort
                          of fractal sargassum.

                          AFAICT it is all meta-physics and only nominally related to reality as
                          we know it.
                          Like Charlie, I am not a physicist. Unlike Charlie, I have even less
                          background to speculate from. So if anyone has even specks that might
                          edify me I would be interested. I find the whole idea of "where
                          spacetime/reality comes from" to be fascinating, and discussions of
                          such to be entertaining.
                          Endlessly useless, but entertaining.<G>


                          xponent
                          Of Eshatological Importance To The Skrulls Maru
                          rob



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                        • Doug
                          ... I probably have less expertise than either of you, but though I probably should just believe the experts, I can t get rid of my skepticism concerning the
                          Message 12 of 30 , Feb 3, 2007
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                            Rob wrote:

                            > AFAICT it is all meta-physics and only nominally related to reality as
                            > we know it.
                            > Like Charlie, I am not a physicist. Unlike Charlie, I have even less
                            > background to speculate from. So if anyone has even specks that might
                            > edify me I would be interested. I find the whole idea of "where
                            > spacetime/reality comes from" to be fascinating, and discussions of
                            > such to be entertaining.
                            > Endlessly useless, but entertaining.<G>

                            I probably have less expertise than either of you, but though I probably should just believe the experts, I can't get rid of my skepticism concerning the Big Bang. Everywhere we look, from the microscopic to the vastness of space, we see constructs that are orbital in nature and that together with other constructs of similar size are the building blocks for the next larger construct. Atoms, solar systems, galaxies. Are we so sure that the galaxies and other constructs we observe in space aren't part of some fantastically, unimaginably large construct that is itself just one of many? Isn't it egotistical to place ourselves at the center of the universe in this respect?

                            --
                            Doug
                            Spellcheck complete maru
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                          • dsummersminet@houston.rr.com
                            ... From: Charlie Bell charlie@culturelist.org Date: Sat, 03 Feb 2007 07:29:10 +1100 To: brin-l@mccmedia.com Subject: Re: Endless Universe Made Possible By New
                            Message 13 of 30 , Feb 3, 2007
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                              Original Message:
                              -----------------
                              From: Charlie Bell charlie@...
                              Date: Sat, 03 Feb 2007 07:29:10 +1100
                              To: brin-l@...
                              Subject: Re: Endless Universe Made Possible By New Model



                              On 03/02/2007, at 1:44 AM, Dan Minette wrote:

                              >
                              >
                              >> -----Original Message-----
                              >> From: brin-l-bounces@... [mailto:brin-l-
                              >> bounces@...] On
                              >> Behalf Of Charlie Bell
                              >> Sent: Wednesday, January 31, 2007 8:55 PM
                              >> To: Killer Bs Discussion
                              >> Subject: Re: Endless Universe Made Possible By New Model
                              >>
                              >>
                              >> On 01/02/2007, at 1:20 PM, Robert G. Seeberger wrote:
                              >>
                              >>>
                              >>> "This cycle happens an infinite number of times, thus eliminating
                              >>> any
                              >>> start or end of time," Frampton said. "There is no Big Bang."
                              >>
                              >> Um... I thought Big Bang theory doesn't rule out a prior Big Crunch.
                              >
                              >> It doesn't rule it out because nothing is ruled out, but the
                              >> mechanism for going from a Big Crunch to a Big Bang is so problematic
                              that it
                              >> might best be described by waving one's hands and muttering.

                              >But isn't that what these guys are proposing, in effect? The
                              >differences are lost on this non-physicist...

                              >Of course, given the general state of reportage these days, they
                              >could have said anything.


                              Well, I think I understand what they are saying...or at least what makes
                              sense out of the report. My references are a bit old....from 25 year old
                              cosmoloy, so Rich might correct me a bit, but since he hasn't answered
                              here, I'll give it a try.

                              The critical thing to point at is the evidence for dark energy. The
                              acceleration of the expansion of the universe requires some force/energy
                              behind it. It's unseen, and thus called dark energy. This allows some
                              freedom in the definition of space after the universe expands for billions
                              and billions of additional years. What I don't understand is how dark
                              energy can cause symmetry to return to space....alowing for small patches
                              of it to freeze and produce new universes.

                              The advantage of these schemes is that there is real evidence for dark
                              energy...so that parameter isn't just a free one. But, the theories like
                              the one proposed are still minimally constrained...so we should expect a
                              lot of different explainations to fit data.

                              Dan M.

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                            • dsummersminet@houston.rr.com
                              ... From: Doug brighto@zo.com Date: Sat, 03 Feb 2007 12:33:41 -0800 To: brin-l@mccmedia.com Subject: Re: Endless Universe Made Possible By New Model ... should
                              Message 14 of 30 , Feb 3, 2007
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                                Original Message:
                                -----------------
                                From: Doug brighto@...
                                Date: Sat, 03 Feb 2007 12:33:41 -0800
                                To: brin-l@...
                                Subject: Re: Endless Universe Made Possible By New Model


                                Rob wrote:

                                > AFAICT it is all meta-physics and only nominally related to reality as
                                > we know it.
                                > Like Charlie, I am not a physicist. Unlike Charlie, I have even less
                                > background to speculate from. So if anyone has even specks that might
                                > edify me I would be interested. I find the whole idea of "where
                                > spacetime/reality comes from" to be fascinating, and discussions of
                                > such to be entertaining.
                                > Endlessly useless, but entertaining.<G>

                                >I probably have less expertise than either of you, but though I probably
                                should just >believe the experts, I can't get rid of my skepticism
                                concerning the Big Bang. >Everywhere we look, from the microscopic to the
                                vastness of space, we see constructs >that are orbital in nature and that
                                together with other constructs of similar size are >the building blocks for
                                the next larger construct.

                                Actually, atoms, protons, neutrons, pions, etc. are not orbital in nature.

                                >Atoms, solar systems, galaxies. Are we so sure that the galaxies and
                                other constructs >we observe in space aren't part of some fantastically,
                                unimaginably large construct >that is itself just one of many? Isn't it
                                egotistical to place ourselves at the center >of the universe in this
                                respect?

                                Why egotistical? Science is not about uncovering mysteries and truths,
                                it's about modeling observation. The Big Bang does a very good job of
                                that. There are lotsa cross correlations with other observations, there is
                                a tremendous amount of data that are consistant with the Big Bang., etc.

                                Finally, what if Wheeler is right about the universe. :-)

                                Dan M.

                                --
                                Doug
                                Spellcheck complete maru
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                              • Charlie Bell
                                ... Ah, yes. My brain didn t parse that properly the first time. Still, it doesn t seem to change anything we know about the expansion phase of this universe,
                                Message 15 of 30 , Feb 3, 2007
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                                  On 04/02/2007, at 6:48 AM, Robert Seeberger wrote:

                                  >
                                  > I think the key "new" idea is given in this paragraph:
                                  >
                                  > "At the turnaround, each fragmented patch collapses and contracts
                                  > individually instead of pulling back together in a reversal of the Big
                                  > Bang. The patches become an infinite number of independent universes
                                  > that contract and then bounce outward again, reinflating in a manner
                                  > similar to the Big Bang. One patch becomes our universe."

                                  Ah, yes. My brain didn't parse that properly the first time.

                                  Still, it doesn't seem to change anything we know about the expansion
                                  phase of this universe, just postulate a different end. I'm in no
                                  position to judge the maths though.

                                  Charlie.
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                                • Robert Seeberger
                                  ... From: To: Sent: Saturday, February 03, 2007 5:19 PM Subject: Re: Endless Universe Made Possible By New
                                  Message 16 of 30 , Feb 3, 2007
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                                    ----- Original Message -----
                                    From: <dsummersminet@...>
                                    To: <brin-l@...>
                                    Sent: Saturday, February 03, 2007 5:19 PM
                                    Subject: Re: Endless Universe Made Possible By New Model


                                    >
                                    > Finally, what if Wheeler is right about the universe. :-)
                                    >

                                    [Guessing]
                                    Delayed Choice?


                                    xponent
                                    Anthropic Digressions Maru
                                    rob


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                                  • Robert Seeberger
                                    ... From: Charlie Bell To: Killer Bs Discussion Sent: Saturday, February 03, 2007 5:36 PM Subject: Re:
                                    Message 17 of 30 , Feb 3, 2007
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                                      ----- Original Message -----
                                      From: "Charlie Bell" <charlie@...>
                                      To: "Killer Bs Discussion" <brin-l@...>
                                      Sent: Saturday, February 03, 2007 5:36 PM
                                      Subject: Re: Endless Universe Made Possible By New Model


                                      >
                                      > Still, it doesn't seem to change anything we know about the
                                      > expansion
                                      > phase of this universe, just postulate a different end.

                                      No, I don't believe it addresses expansion but in the most indirect of
                                      ways. As much as I am given to understand, there has not been an
                                      accounting that allows for enough mass to cause an eventual collapse.

                                      >I'm in no
                                      > position to judge the maths though.
                                      >
                                      Yoiu're in better position than me.<G>



                                      xponent
                                      Ilmathematic Maru
                                      rob


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                                    • Doug
                                      ... Are there similarities in structure? ... As long as the universe is 74% mysterious dark energy, for which there is no direct evidence. ... It s
                                      Message 18 of 30 , Feb 6, 2007
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                                        Dan wrote:

                                        > Actually, atoms, protons, neutrons, pions, etc. are not orbital in nature.

                                        Are there similarities in structure?

                                        > Why egotistical? Science is not about uncovering mysteries and truths,
                                        > it's about modeling observation. The Big Bang does a very good job of
                                        > that.

                                        As long as the universe is 74% "mysterious" dark energy, for which there is no direct evidence.

                                        > There are lotsa cross correlations with other observations, there is
                                        > a tremendous amount of data that are consistent with the Big Bang., etc.

                                        It's consistant with "let there be light" and the scientist's desire to _know_ the answer as well.

                                        > Finally, what if Wheeler is right about the universe. :-)

                                        Eh?

                                        --
                                        Doug
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                                      • Dan Minette
                                        ... Some, but the differences are more staggering. In all cases, we are dealing with angular momentum and an attractive force. This leads to certain patterns
                                        Message 19 of 30 , Feb 7, 2007
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                                          > -----Original Message-----
                                          > From: brin-l-bounces@... [mailto:brin-l-bounces@...] On
                                          > Behalf Of Doug
                                          > Sent: Tuesday, February 06, 2007 10:31 PM
                                          > To: Killer Bs Discussion
                                          > Subject: Re: Endless Universe Made Possible By New Model
                                          >
                                          > Dan wrote:
                                          >
                                          > > Actually, atoms, protons, neutrons, pions, etc. are not orbital in
                                          > nature.
                                          >
                                          > Are there similarities in structure?

                                          Some, but the differences are more staggering. In all cases, we are dealing
                                          with angular momentum and an attractive force. This leads to certain
                                          patterns in systems with any complexity at all. Almost all of the time, the
                                          angular momentum is such that a singularity will not form. The well known
                                          exception is, of course, a black hole....where a singularity still forms.
                                          Now, other factors are involved, and there can be more than one force
                                          involved, but that does not undermine the utility of looking at the
                                          similarity in atoms and galaxies in terms of attractive force and angular
                                          momentum.

                                          It should be noted that there are extremely important differences that are
                                          not seen in the classical models we use to describe the atom. For example,
                                          the highest values for the function that determines the probability of
                                          measuring an electron's position is within the nucleus. If that happened on
                                          a classical level, the most likely position to find the earth would be
                                          within the sun.

                                          > > Why egotistical? Science is not about uncovering mysteries and truths,
                                          > > it's about modeling observation. The Big Bang does a very good job of
                                          > > that.
                                          >
                                          > As long as the universe is 74% "mysterious" dark energy, for which there
                                          > is no direct evidence.


                                          Huh? The Big Bang theory is over 50 years old. It, and the steady state
                                          universe theory were evenly competing theories until 1964, when the cosmic
                                          background radiation was discovered....supporting the Big Bang.

                                          Numerous observations were made since then, allowing for/requiring
                                          refinement of the Big Bang theory. One thing worth noting on this is the
                                          tie in with particle physics. The energy densities of the early universe and
                                          the energy densities available at particle accelerators were similar,
                                          allowing for cross correlations of the physics of the universe and the
                                          physics seen in the lab. There were a large number of strong cross
                                          correlations observed.

                                          There are, of course, still problems modeling some of the structure. One
                                          problem is the grainy nature of the universe. The universe is structured in
                                          such a way that it was difficult to reconcile the size of the structures
                                          with both the speed of light and the energy densities at which these
                                          structures could form. In other words, in a classical big bang theory, when
                                          the universe was small enough for these structures to form in a manner
                                          consistent with the speed of light, it was too hot for these structures to
                                          form.

                                          Thus, the expansion phase was introduced. It postulates somewhat different
                                          physics during the first few milliseconds than is seen now. It is not
                                          unreasonable to consider this as somewhat of an ad hoc theory, somewhat like
                                          the Bohr atom.

                                          Now, on to dark energy.... Recent observations have indicated that the
                                          expansion of the universe is accelerating. Some unknown force is causing
                                          the galaxies to fly apart at an increasing rate. Force is correlated with
                                          energy, of course, and the rate of expansion can be used to calculate how
                                          much energy is required....thus the estimate of the amounts that are given.
                                          Another way of expressing this is the cosmological constant.

                                          Both dark energy and the cosmological constant are ways of modeling what we
                                          see. They are different ways of saying the same thing. Neither are
                                          required for the Big Bang theory, per se, but both are means of modeling the
                                          fact that the universe is observed to be expanding at an accelerating rate.

                                          Now, it is possible to come up with other theories that have other
                                          explanations for the acceleration. But, in order for these theories to
                                          supplant the Big Bang, they will also have to model all that the Big Bang
                                          has successfully modeled. And, that's a large amount of data. The interest
                                          is focused on the difficulties of the Big Bang....and how it needs to be
                                          modified to fit new observations.

                                          That's where the interest should be, and where the fun is. If you were to
                                          tell me that you think that the present theories will be replaced with a
                                          better theory in a few years, a few decades, etc., I wouldn't argue. What I
                                          would argue is that the present theories will be seen as a subset of that
                                          theory....just as classical electromagnetism is a subset of QED.




                                          > > There are lotsa cross correlations with other observations, there is
                                          > > a tremendous amount of data that are consistent with the Big Bang., etc.

                                          > It's consistant with "let there be light" and the scientist's desire to
                                          > _know_ the answer as well.

                                          Virtually every (if not actually every) physicist/astrophysicist I've talked
                                          with about this are happy coming up with the best models of observations
                                          they can...period. Usually, it's the non-professionals that insist that
                                          science is a means of knowing "the truth." Carl Sagan is a noticeable
                                          exception to this....and I find much of what he says to be problematic. As
                                          an aside, I'd argue that this is correlated to his letting his politics
                                          trump his professionalism later in his career.



                                          > > Finally, what if Wheeler is right about the universe. :-)
                                          >
                                          > Eh?

                                          A paraphrase of his statement is:

                                          "It's true that the universe is vast, and we are a small part of it. But,
                                          it's also true that the universe would not exist without a primitive act of
                                          registration."

                                          This metaphysics is more consistent with observations than realism. This
                                          doesn't make it right, and it certainly isn't proven by physics....but it is
                                          very consistent with observations.

                                          Dan M.


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                                        • Klaus Stock
                                          ... is no ... Yup, but we ve got indirect evidence already. As for direct evidence, we don t have any at all. Not even for gravity. All we notice is that
                                          Message 20 of 30 , Feb 8, 2007
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                                            > > Why egotistical? Science is not about uncovering mysteries and truths,
                                            > > it's about modeling observation. The Big Bang does a very good job of
                                            > > that.
                                            >
                                            > As long as the universe is 74% "mysterious" dark energy, for which there
                                            is no
                                            > direct evidence.

                                            Yup, but we've got indirect "evidence" already.

                                            As for direct evidence, we don't have any at all. Not even for gravity. All
                                            we notice is that things keep falling to the ground, and some people came up
                                            with a fishy theory about "gravity". D'oh! Yup, this model helps us to
                                            explain why things fall to the ground, but there is no way to find out the
                                            real truth. And there will never be.

                                            Meanwhile, cosmology and particle physics make darn intersting subjects to
                                            discuss! ;-)

                                            - Klaus

                                            If the universe was created by the Big Bang, was the intrenet created by the
                                            Big Flame?
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                                          • Doug
                                            ... Not really. All we ve got is that some of our pet theories don t work without it. That type 1A su ... We didn t invent gravity as a fudge factor to prove
                                            Message 21 of 30 , Feb 9, 2007
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                                              Klaus wrote:

                                              > Yup, but we've got indirect "evidence" already.

                                              Not really. All we've got is that some of our pet theories don't work without it. That type 1A su
                                              >
                                              > As for direct evidence, we don't have any at all. Not even for gravity. All
                                              > we notice is that things keep falling to the ground, and some people came up
                                              > with a fishy theory about "gravity".


                                              We didn't invent gravity as a fudge factor to prove our theory that things fall to the ground.

                                              D'oh! Yup, this model helps us to
                                              > explain why things fall to the ground, but there is no way to find out the
                                              > real truth. And there will never be.

                                              Why not? Never is way to absolute for me. Especially on an SF list!

                                              > Meanwhile, cosmology and particle physics make darn intersting subjects to
                                              > discuss! ;-)

                                              Now _that_ we can agree on.

                                              --
                                              Doug
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                                            • dsummersminet@houston.rr.com
                                              ... From: Doug brighto@zo.com Date: Fri, 09 Feb 2007 18:36:35 -0800 To: brin-l@mccmedia.com Subject: Re: Endless Universe Made Possible By New Model ...
                                              Message 22 of 30 , Feb 10, 2007
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                                                Original Message:
                                                -----------------
                                                From: Doug brighto@...
                                                Date: Fri, 09 Feb 2007 18:36:35 -0800
                                                To: brin-l@...
                                                Subject: Re: Endless Universe Made Possible By New Model


                                                Klaus wrote:

                                                > Yup, but we've got indirect "evidence" already.

                                                >Not really. All we've got is that some of our pet theories don't work
                                                without it.

                                                You mean like F=ma? The use of dark energy as an explaination for
                                                accleration in the opposite direction of all known forces is fundamentally
                                                based on that. That's pretty well what it says.

                                                >
                                                > As for direct evidence, we don't have any at all. Not even for gravity.
                                                All
                                                > we notice is that things keep falling to the ground, and some people came
                                                up
                                                > with a fishy theory about "gravity".


                                                >We didn't invent gravity as a fudge factor to prove our theory that things
                                                fall to the >ground.

                                                But, it did have something that was considered in that light: spooky
                                                instantaneous action at a distance with no known mechanism. Further, the
                                                fudge factor of dark energy is more akin to the charge of the electron in
                                                QED or maybe the fudge factor used to explain the orbit of the moon for
                                                about 100 years before Laplace, I think, did the calculations that showed
                                                the consistancy of the moon's orbit with the predictions afforded by
                                                Newtonian gravitation.

                                                The expansion of the universe is accelerating. Dark energy is a means of
                                                expressing this in terms of force. I'm not sure what your difficulty is.
                                                Are you arguing that the expansion of the universe is not really
                                                accelerating, and that there were some unwarrented assumptions that went
                                                into these conclusions? Or, do you see a problem with describing this
                                                acceleration in terms of F=ma?

                                                Dan M.

                                                D'oh! Yup, this model helps us to
                                                > explain why things fall to the ground, but there is no way to find out the
                                                > real truth. And there will never be.

                                                Why not? Never is way to absolute for me. Especially on an SF list!

                                                > Meanwhile, cosmology and particle physics make darn intersting subjects to
                                                > discuss! ;-)

                                                Now _that_ we can agree on.

                                                --
                                                Doug
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                                              • Robert Seeberger
                                                ... From: To: Sent: Saturday, February 10, 2007 12:56 PM Subject: Re: Endless Universe Made Possible By
                                                Message 23 of 30 , Feb 10, 2007
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                                                  ----- Original Message -----
                                                  From: <dsummersminet@...>
                                                  To: <brin-l@...>
                                                  Sent: Saturday, February 10, 2007 12:56 PM
                                                  Subject: Re: Endless Universe Made Possible By New Model


                                                  >
                                                  >
                                                  > Original Message:
                                                  > -----------------
                                                  > From: Doug brighto@...
                                                  > Date: Fri, 09 Feb 2007 18:36:35 -0800
                                                  > To: brin-l@...
                                                  > Subject: Re: Endless Universe Made Possible By New Model
                                                  >
                                                  >
                                                  > Klaus wrote:
                                                  >
                                                  >> Yup, but we've got indirect "evidence" already.
                                                  >
                                                  >>Not really. All we've got is that some of our pet theories don't
                                                  >>work
                                                  > without it.
                                                  >
                                                  > You mean like F=ma? The use of dark energy as an explaination for
                                                  > accleration in the opposite direction of all known forces is
                                                  > fundamentally
                                                  > based on that. That's pretty well what it says.
                                                  >
                                                  >>
                                                  >> As for direct evidence, we don't have any at all. Not even for
                                                  >> gravity.
                                                  > All
                                                  >> we notice is that things keep falling to the ground, and some
                                                  >> people came
                                                  > up
                                                  >> with a fishy theory about "gravity".
                                                  >
                                                  >
                                                  >>We didn't invent gravity as a fudge factor to prove our theory that
                                                  >>things
                                                  > fall to the >ground.
                                                  >
                                                  > But, it did have something that was considered in that light: spooky
                                                  > instantaneous action at a distance with no known mechanism.
                                                  > Further, the
                                                  > fudge factor of dark energy is more akin to the charge of the
                                                  > electron in
                                                  > QED or maybe the fudge factor used to explain the orbit of the moon
                                                  > for
                                                  > about 100 years before Laplace, I think, did the calculations that
                                                  > showed
                                                  > the consistancy of the moon's orbit with the predictions afforded by
                                                  > Newtonian gravitation.
                                                  >
                                                  > The expansion of the universe is accelerating. Dark energy is a
                                                  > means of
                                                  > expressing this in terms of force. I'm not sure what your
                                                  > difficulty is.
                                                  > Are you arguing that the expansion of the universe is not really
                                                  > accelerating, and that there were some unwarrented assumptions that
                                                  > went
                                                  > into these conclusions? Or, do you see a problem with describing
                                                  > this
                                                  > acceleration in terms of F=ma?
                                                  >

                                                  Going back to basics, it seems to me that our experience with orbital
                                                  mechanics for spacecraft and satelites and our use of the "slingshot
                                                  effect" to propel interplanetary missions to the outer solar system
                                                  are pretty good evidence that we have a good theory and a good grasp
                                                  of it.
                                                  We have had discussions here of the Pioneer Anamoly in the past, and
                                                  IIRC the question is still open so it isn't like we need to abandon
                                                  current theory as unrealistic.


                                                  xponent
                                                  Evidential Maru
                                                  rob


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                                                • Dan Minette
                                                  ... Well, the fact that we can use it is always a good confirmation. Very precise measurements of this effect, more precise than needed to use the effect,
                                                  Message 24 of 30 , Feb 12, 2007
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                                                    >
                                                    > Going back to basics, it seems to me that our experience with orbital
                                                    > mechanics for spacecraft and satelites and our use of the "slingshot
                                                    > effect" to propel interplanetary missions to the outer solar system
                                                    > are pretty good evidence that we have a good theory and a good grasp
                                                    > of it.

                                                    Well, the fact that we can use it is always a good confirmation. Very
                                                    precise measurements of this effect, more precise than needed to use the
                                                    effect, will allow us to test the predictions of GR. So that's a good
                                                    thing.


                                                    > We have had discussions here of the Pioneer Anamoly in the past, and
                                                    > IIRC the question is still open so it isn't like we need to abandon
                                                    > current theory as unrealistic.

                                                    The last thing that I read was that the anomalies were consistent with at
                                                    least one possible mundane cause. This is, almost universally, considered a
                                                    lack of evidence supporting an unknown force in science. Even, as with the
                                                    orbit of the moon, there appears to be no mundane explanation for observed
                                                    phenomena, the explanation almost always ends up being mundane. So, the
                                                    Pioneer Anamoly, while probably worth continued investigation, does not
                                                    offer any evidence for new physics.

                                                    Dark matter is only quazi-new physics....its existence can be explained
                                                    within the standard model. For the lurkers, I might mention that dark
                                                    matter is needed to explain gravitational attraction in galaxies...which is
                                                    higher than one would expect from the gravitational attraction of the
                                                    observed matter.

                                                    Dark energy, on the other hand, is not explicable in terms of the standard
                                                    model. It postulates a new force...an anti-gravity force. This force is
                                                    sufficient to overcome gravity and accelerate the expansion of the universe.

                                                    As an aside, the first results of GP-B will be given at the APS meeting in
                                                    April. My guess is that they are not earth shattering....or they'd be
                                                    pre-announced in the press.

                                                    Dan M.


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                                                  • Doug
                                                    ... I just spoke with someone who spent a good deal of time on that project and he seems to agree with you. He prefaced his conclusion with Einstein was a
                                                    Message 25 of 30 , Feb 12, 2007
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                                                      Dan wrote:


                                                      > As an aside, the first results of GP-B will be given at the APS meeting in
                                                      > April. My guess is that they are not earth shattering....or they'd be
                                                      > pre-announced in the press.

                                                      I just spoke with someone who spent a good deal of time on that project and he seems to agree with you. He prefaced his conclusion with "Einstein was a pretty bright guy..." One of his current projects is a satellite that will map type 1A supernovas.

                                                      Sorry I haven’t responded to previous posts; I just had minor surgery (doing fine) and being high on vicodin isn't much of an advantage in an this kind of discussion.

                                                      --
                                                      Doug
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                                                    • Charlie Bell
                                                      ... Yep. There were a few of them at that time. Pretty much the Golden Age of modern physics (and biology, for that matter... while the current era is
                                                      Message 26 of 30 , Feb 12, 2007
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                                                        On 13/02/2007, at 3:07 PM, Doug wrote:

                                                        > Dan wrote:
                                                        >
                                                        >
                                                        >> As an aside, the first results of GP-B will be given at the APS
                                                        >> meeting in
                                                        >> April. My guess is that they are not earth shattering....or
                                                        >> they'd be
                                                        >> pre-announced in the press.
                                                        >
                                                        > I just spoke with someone who spent a good deal of time on that
                                                        > project and he seems to agree with you. He prefaced his conclusion
                                                        > with "Einstein was a pretty bright guy..."

                                                        Yep. There were a few of them at that time. Pretty much the Golden
                                                        Age of modern physics (and biology, for that matter... while the
                                                        current era is tremendously exciting, that time between the Modern
                                                        Synthesis and the discovery of the structure of DNA was when modern
                                                        biology really came of age after 70 years of painful birth). So many
                                                        larger than life characters.

                                                        > One of his current projects is a satellite that will map type 1A
                                                        > supernovas.

                                                        Nifty!
                                                        >
                                                        > Sorry I haven’t responded to previous posts; I just had minor
                                                        > surgery (doing fine)

                                                        No such thing as minor surgery, in my opinion, just degrees of
                                                        major... Get well soon.

                                                        > and being high on vicodin isn't much of an advantage in an this
                                                        > kind of discussion.

                                                        On the contrary, I'd say it's a positive boon!

                                                        Charlie
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                                                      • Doug
                                                        ... I imagine it affects different people different ways. It makes me feel groggy and slightly nauseous. -- Doug
                                                        Message 27 of 30 , Feb 12, 2007
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                                                          Charlie wrote:

                                                          > On the contrary, I'd say it's a positive boon!

                                                          I imagine it affects different people different ways. It makes me feel groggy and slightly nauseous.

                                                          --
                                                          Doug
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                                                        • Charlie Bell
                                                          ... Coincidentally, that s precisely how physics makes me feel... Charlie _______________________________________________
                                                          Message 28 of 30 , Feb 12, 2007
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                                                            On 13/02/2007, at 5:43 PM, Doug wrote:

                                                            > Charlie wrote:
                                                            >
                                                            >> On the contrary, I'd say it's a positive boon!
                                                            >
                                                            > I imagine it affects different people different ways. It makes me
                                                            > feel groggy and slightly nauseous.

                                                            Coincidentally, that's precisely how physics makes me feel...

                                                            Charlie
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                                                          • Julia Thompson
                                                            ... No, but it makes it a lot of fun to watch Yellow Submarine.... :) Julia Been There, Done That _______________________________________________
                                                            Message 29 of 30 , Feb 13, 2007
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                                                              Doug wrote:

                                                              > Sorry I haven’t responded to previous posts; I just had minor surgery
                                                              > (doing fine) and being high on vicodin isn't much of an advantage in
                                                              > an this kind of discussion.

                                                              No, but it makes it a lot of fun to watch Yellow Submarine.... :)

                                                              Julia

                                                              Been There, Done That


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                                                            • Julia Thompson
                                                              ... I m sorry! One of the scripts I got after my surgery last fall (I had 2 different painkillers) included a bit of promethazine in each pill, so that cut
                                                              Message 30 of 30 , Feb 13, 2007
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                                                                Doug wrote:
                                                                > Charlie wrote:
                                                                >
                                                                >> On the contrary, I'd say it's a positive boon!
                                                                >
                                                                > I imagine it affects different people different ways. It makes me
                                                                > feel groggy and slightly nauseous.

                                                                I'm sorry!

                                                                One of the scripts I got after my surgery last fall (I had 2 different
                                                                painkillers) included a bit of promethazine in each pill, so that cut
                                                                down on the nausea. I think that was the Demerol stuff.

                                                                I did end up getting a prescription for promethazine by itself, but I'm
                                                                thinking it was the antibiotics prescribed to prevent postoperative
                                                                infection as much as anything else that was messing me up. (And it was
                                                                stronger than amoxicillin, which is about the only thing that doesn't
                                                                start doing nasty things to me.)

                                                                Julia

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