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## Re: [booksbybibin,www.booksbybibin.tk] about the use of a function

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• Thanks a lot Steven H. wish you good luck ________________________________ From: STEVEN HOLDER To: booksbybibin@yahoogroups.com
Message 1 of 7 , Mar 28, 2010
Thanks a lot Steven H.
wish you good luck

From: STEVEN HOLDER <s.holder123@...>
To: booksbybibin@yahoogroups.com
Sent: Monday, March 15, 2010 17:59:22
Subject: Re: [booksbybibin,www.booksbybibin.tk] about the use of a function

 The buffer size is entirely up to you and the values that you use in this equation. The function is integer to char array so you need a buffer that it big enough to hold a char array to represent the number. Example if the number is 255 you need a 4 item buffer for "2" "5" "5" and the null. If the number is a maximum (assuming signed int) 32768 so you will need a 6 char buffer. As a good comprimise you specify a buffer size of 8 , that will be big enough to hold any number presented to this function. That is assuming your radix is 10. Any other radix and you need to consider the max number that will be represented. If your radix was 2 (binary) then your buffer would need to be bigger (17). Hope that helps. Regards --- On Mon, 15/3/10, Kallol wrote:From: Kallol Subject: [booksbybibin, www.booksbybibin .tk] about the use of a functionTo: booksbybibin@ yahoogroups. comDate: Monday, 15 March, 2010, 7:50 Hi everyone,i was using char *itoa(int value, char *buffer, int radix); to convert interger data to character.avrlibc manual gives the following information:(Converts an integer value to a null-terminated string using the specified radix and stores the result in the given buffer.If radix is 10 and value is negative the string is preceded by the minus sign (-). With any other radix, value is always considered unsigned.buffer should be large enough to contain any possible value: (sizeof(int) *8+1) for radix=2, i.e. 17 bytes in 16-bits platforms and 33 in 32-bits platforms.)I cant understand how the buffer size is chosen ,when the radix is 10.after a little try i used a character array of 5.(ie char buffer[5]).But dont know why this array size is chosen.Can anyone help me with it.......... .......Thanking u allKallol KK

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• can anyone please suggest me a good tutorial for sound generation using atmega16
Message 2 of 7 , Apr 22, 2010
 can anyone please suggest me a good tutorial for sound generation using atmega16

• ... http://extremeelectronics.co.in/avr-tutorials/sound-generation-by-avr-micro-tutorial-i/ this is excellent tutorial for sound generation.
Message 3 of 7 , Apr 26, 2010
--- In booksbybibin@yahoogroups.com, Bhavin Shah <bhavinshah3671@...> wrote:
>
> can anyone please suggest me a good tutorial for sound generation using atmega16
>

http://extremeelectronics.co.in/avr-tutorials/sound-generation-by-avr-micro-tutorial-i/

this is excellent tutorial for sound generation.
• Hi Bhavin, I did not try before, but you can search about Pulse with modulation method. Example: - We generate 8000 cycle per second (125us period). - In each
Message 4 of 7 , Apr 26, 2010
Hi Bhavin,

I did not try before, but you can search about Pulse with modulation method. Example:
- We generate 8000 cycle per second (125us period).
- In each cycle:
Level 255 will be outputed as signal 1 in 125 us.
Level 127 will be outputed as signal 1 in 62.5 us.
Level 0 will be outputed as signal 1 in 0 us.
- Output will be connected with a simple filter circuit (RC circuit) before reach the audio amplifier.

Best regards,

Vu Trung Hieu.

Từ: Bhavin Shah <bhavinshah3671@...>
Đến: booksbybibin@yahoogroups.com
Gửi ngày: 23:51:09, Thứ Năm, 22 tháng 4 2010
Chủ đề: Re: [booksbybibin,www.booksbybibin.tk] about the use of a function

 can anyone please suggest me a good tutorial for sound generation using atmega16

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