21512Re: [ ThuphaZomi ] 135 Ethnic Groups or Just 59? [1 Attachment]
- Jan 25, 2014Dear all,135 Ethnic Groups are official and already recognized by the Myanmar government before SPDC and all ethnic groups in Myanmar. We can put a new ethnic group or a new name if there is a new settler came into Myanmar after the recognition of 135 ethnic group.ZovonenpiFrom: Zomi News Relay Service <thuphazomi@...>
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Sent: Thursday, January 23, 2014 7:46 AM
Subject: [ ThuphaZomi ] 135 Ethnic Groups or Just 59? [1 Attachment][Attachment(s) from Zomi News Relay Service included below]Hereunder is reproduced an article by one Gamanii, who is supposed to be a Bamar.The article answers the question: "Are there all 135 ethnic groups in Burma?"Attachment:135 Ethnic Groups or Just 59.pdf (144 K)
========Table of Contents==Tuesday, 25 September 2012 10:50Though the Burmese junta is claiming that they are trail-blazers totally different from and exceedingly superior to former ruling parties of Burma, they still have to use the Kaba-aye Cave built by U Nu’s government for religious purposes; follow Ne Win’s order on Burmese language spellings of “one”; hold on to the “theory of human evolution originating from Pondaung” sold by Khin Nyunt; and still employ Saw Maung's official count of “135 races of Burma.” Now let’s see if there are really 135 ethnic groups in our country.The SLORC-SPDC claims that there are twelve Kachin groups and persists in depicting clans or dialect differences as separate races. Besides, it also portrays Kachin as a name of a distinct race in addition to Jingpho. Although everyone knows that Kachin is a term encompassing a number of ethnic groups, the SPDC misrepresents it in his list intending to inflate the numbers. Guari, Khakhu and Duleng are not separate ethnic groups but clans of Jingpho ethnic group. Indeed, Khakhu and Duleng is one clan with two different names. Also, Trone and Dalaung are clans of Rawang. Therefore, twelve Kachin ethnic groups listed by the SPDC actually amount to six:SPDC list (12)Actual list (6)1KachinA General term covering Jingpo, Maru, Rawang, Lashi, Atsi and Lisu2TroneA clan of Rawang3DalaungA clan of Rawang4Jingpho1Jingpho (including Guari, Khakhu, Duleng and other clans)5GuariA clan of Jingpho6KhakhuA clan of Jingpho7DulengA clan of Jingpho8Maru (Lawgore)2Maru or Lawgore9Rawang3Rawang or Nung (including Dalaung, Trone and other clans)10Lashi (Lachit)4Lashi or Lachit11Atsi5Atsi or Zaiwa12Lisu6Lisu or Yawyin12Total6TotalThe SPDC list gives nine Kayah ethnic groups. Among them, Zayein, Kayan (Padaung), Gheko and Yinbaw are just sub-races of Kayan, and Kebar is a sub-race of Bwe Karen ethnic group. So, SPDC list of nine Kayah ethnic groups amount to just five groups in reality.
The eleven Karen ethnic groups given out by the SPDC also show different name calls and clans as separate ethnic groups. It is ridiculous to find a Karen race separate from Sgaw, Pwo and Bwe Karens. Karen is a term embracing Sgaw, Pwo and Bwe. The military junta's desperate contrivance to exaggerate the race count also demonstrates the stupidity of those men in power, proving that they are governing the country in spite of not even knowing the true names of its indigenous ethnic groups. Indeed, there are only three Karen ethnic groups. Paku, Monnepwa and Ta-lay-pwa are Sgaw Karen clans while Kayinpyu and Palechi are Bwe Karen clans, and Monpwa is a Pwo Karen clan. Mon Karen is another name for Pwo Karen and not even a clan, far from being a separate ethnic group. Sarpyu is not a name of race but a term denoting Christian Karens. This fact highlights SPDC’s ploy to cheat.Kayah and Kayan ethnic groups originate from Bwe Karen and Pa-O ethnic group originates from Pwo Karen but these ethnic groups have now acquired separate identities. Kebar which is shown among the Kayah ethnic groups is actually a clan of Bwe Karen and not having separate identity from the Bwe yet.SPDC list (11)Actual list (3)1KarenA general term encompassing Sgaw, Pwo and Bwe.2KarenpyuA clan of Bwe3PalechiA clan of Bwe4Mon Karen (Sarpyu)A different name of Pwo; Sarpyu denotes Christian5Sgaw1Sgaw (including Paku, Ta-lay-pwa, Monnepwa and other clans)6Ta-lay-pwaA clan of Sgaw7PakuA clan or different name of Sgaw8Bwe2Bwe (including Karenpyu, Palechi, Kebar and other clans)9MonnepwaA clan of Sgaw10MonpwaA clan of Pwo11Shu (Pwo)3Pwo (including Monpwa, Mon Karen and other clans)11Total3TotalThe worst thing in the SPDC list is the display of 53 Chin ethnic groups. As usual, it includes a separate race with the name “Chin”. Also included among the Chin ethnic groups are categorically non-Chin ethnic groups such as Naga, Meithei (Kathe) of Manipur and Lhinbu of Nepal that could not be identified as Chins. Chin ethnic groups acknowledged by Chin political parties and scholars today total eight. The SPDC list displays clans or dialects which are not separate races or tribes. These clans or dialects can be classified into following eight Chin ethnic groups:SPDC list (53)Actual list (8)(1)ChinA general term embracing Zomi, Kuki, Laimi, Mara, Chomi, Khami, Shomi and Mizo(10)Khawno, Gunte, Gwete, Ngorn, Zizan, Saing Zan, Zo, Tiddim, Tay Zan, Dim1Zomi(2)Kaung Saing, Thado2Kuki(15)Kwelshin, Kwangli, Sengtang, Za-how, Zotung, Zo-pe, Zahnyet, Tapong, Taishon, Torr, Mi-er, Lyente, Lawhtu, Lai, Laizao3Laimi(2)Mara (Miram), Matu4Mara(5)Dai (Yindu), Magun, Mgan, Oo-Pu, Rongtu5Chomi(7)Khami, Awa Khami, Kaungso, Panun, Laymyo, Wakim, Anu6Khami (Mro)(2)Saline, Asho7Shomi(3)Ka-Lin-Kaw, Lushei, Haulngo8Mizo(4)Naga, Tanghkul, Malin, AnunNaga(1)Meithei (Kathe)Manipur(1)LhinbuNepal53Total8+3TotalKuki originated from Zomi and Mara from Laimi but they now exist as separate ethnic groups with their own identities. Have the SPDC not placed Kwe-myi and Mro among the Arakanese, the number of Chin ethnic groups could get 55. If other different name calls such as Chinbon, Chinbok, etc. were added, total number of SPDC Chin ethnic groups could climb up to almost 100. Naga could not be counted among the Chins but should be displayed separately. There are at least 64 Naga clans—probably more than Chins. However, it is assumed that, as the Nagas do not have a State like the Chins, the SPDC downplays the Naga count. Otherwise, the “ethnic race count” in Burma could shoot up to 300 or something.The Burmese junta, ever obsessed with the occult number “9,” puts the figure of Burman ethnic groups as exactly nine. It shows Yaw, (Dawei) Tavoyan and (Beik) Merguian as separate ethnic groups. But in reality, anthropologists and linguists classify those as different dialects and not as different races. Those people have not yet become significantly eager to exist as separate races with their own identities. Maybe, in some future, Tavoyans and Merguians could acquire separate identities. However, the SPDC puts other separate Burman ethnic groups like Danu, Taungyo and Intha among the Shan ethnic groups. It also lists Kadu and Ganan separately, and lists Phon, a cousin of Kachins living in Kachin and Shan States, and Salon or Moken, a non-Tibeto-Burman Austronesian Malayo-Polynesian among the Burmans. This shows the junta’s poor sense of anthropology. Naga living in Sagaing Division is put among the Chins while Kadu-Ganan living in Kachin State is indexed among the Burmans.
- SPDC list (9)Actual list (5)1Kayah1Kayah2ZayeinA clan of Kayan3Kayan (Padaung)2Kayan (including Padaung, Gheko, Yinbaw and Zayein)4GhekoA clan of Kayan5KebarA clan of Bwe Karen6Bre (Kayaw)3Kayaw7Manu Manaw4Manu Manaw8Yin Talai5Yin Talai9Yin BawA clan of Kayan9Total5Total
The SPDC lists only one Mon ethnic group but categorized other Mon-Khmer ethnic groups like Wa, Palaung and Riang in Shan ethnic groups.
- SPDC list (9)Actual list (4)1Burman1Burman2Dawei2Tavoyan3BeikA dialect of Tavoyan4YawA dialect of Burman5Yabein3Yabein6Kadu4Kadu-Ganan7GananA clan of Kadu-Ganan8SalonMoken (Malayo-Polynesian)9PhonPhon (Northern Burmish)9Total4+2Total
- SPDC list (1)
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