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Re: Fwd: STORY OF PHOSPHORUS

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  • Folke Günther
    2010/7/22 Edward Someus ... *That is not true. Recycling is an endless resource of phosphorus. However, our habitation structure (HEAP
    Message 1 of 20 , Jul 23, 2010
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      2010/7/22 Edward Someus <edward@...>
      Dear Friends,
       
      YES, Phosphorous is underway to be  larger problem for the agriculture than the energetic issues. While on the energy issue there are several different alternatives, on P the ONLY NATURAL SOURCE IS APATITE MINERAL, in 2 forms, rock phosphate and animal bone (13-15 % P). In past bat guano was the next alternative 3% P, now it is natural protected.
       
      That is not true. Recycling is an endless resource of phosphorus.
      However, our habitation structure (HEAP accumulation areas leading to leakage) and our common waste water management method (MIFSLA) make up a  phosphorus-loosing system. If we keep that structure, we will loose our food production capacity.
      But I agree with Edward. The P in bones should not be wasted either.
      However, the main way of loosing P is through urine and urban area leakage.
      FG

       
       
      Unfortunately P rock is incorporated with Uranium and Thorium, and in many cases the agri food production P fertilizer is a byproduct of the NUC U enrichment. 80% of the humana Cadmium intake to human is originating  from P rock agri fertilization.
       
      Pls visit my black page http://www.3ragrocarbon.com/Img/Black.htm  on the chemosynthetic agro industrial problems, where I made a summary.
       
      My AGROCARBON IS:  The AGROCARBON biochar is plant and/or animal biomass origin carboniferous material and biotechnological formulated substance that is special quality produced by integrated thermal and biotech means for open ecological soil applications. The zero emission AGROCARBON biorefinery manufacturing is based on input organic refuse/waste streams from the agriculture, food and forest industries. The refined and formulated carbon product multi effect used for sustainable soil and carbon negative environmental improvements, economical food crop production and forest nursery, including plant growth promotion, biocontrol, natural fertilization,  soil moisture retention, restoration of soil biodiversity and natural balance. The AGROCARBON is applied in all formulations, from stand alone biofertilizer to any combination as compost activator. The full AGROCARBON life cycle from feed material supply, zero emission production processing, formulation to carbon negative open ecological soil application is reflecting environmental sustainability and meets all major international, industrial and environmental norms/standards and Authority permit requirements.
       
       
       
                              
      Sincerely yours: Edward Someus (environmental engineer)
      EMAIL:   edward@...   or   edward.someus@...
      TEL:       +(36-20) 201 7557  or  +(36-20) 805 4727
      TEL / FAX:   +(36-1) 424 0224
      SKYPE:  Edward Someus
      Save paper and save forest - Think before you print
      This is always right to do the right thing, so do what you can, with what you have and wherever you are: PROTECT OUR ENVIRONMENT
      -------Original Message-------
       
      Date: 2010.07.22. 16:28:29
      Subject: Re: Fwd: STORY OF PHOSPHORUS
       
      Absolutely!
      This is the OTHER main reason why Biochar could be so critical -- and why integrating it into (organic) systems that recycle nutrients (with a particular focus on P) is utterly critical. Rock phosphorus is not only in limited supply as a mineral, but the resources are becoming of lower quality as we mine into the best sources. (more below)

      When I first read that the addition of biochar to soils could sometimes result in reduced runoff of phosphorus (and nitrogen) into surface waters, that is when I jumped on it.
      It was Edward Someus and Folke Gunther who really drove home to point to me and made the case for this critical P issue: one that is nowhere near being on people's "radar screen" (biochar carbon sequestration is probably a better known issue in the public domain right now).

      Edward's technology produces "processed carboniferous agro materials" that have a high Phosphorus and Calcium content, and this really interested me when I first found out about it. (I attempted to assist Edward for many months when I first started working and studying biochar.)

        One of the lesser-known-facts about the phosphate industry is that Natural phosphate ores contain radionuclides of the uranium series and its processing facilities have produced and sold sizeable quantities of uranium. According to the Office for Official Publications of the European Communities in Luxembourg, the processing and waste handling in the phosphate industry is associated with "radiation levels of concern for workers and the public" and as such, Radiation protection measures for workers are necessary.

      In 1997, just two phosphate plants in Louisiana produced 950,000 pounds of commercial uranium, which amounted to roughly 16% of the domestically produced uranium in the US. 4 US phosphate plants (2 in Louisiana & 2 in Florida) would have the capacity to produce a combined 2.75 million pounds of uranium per year, according to the Department of Energy (DOE).
       The DOE has termed these 4 facilities "Nonconventional Uranium Plants."

        And the lower quality "rock phosphate" fertilizers, which are now being used in increasing amounts as the "clean" sources are depleted, can contain significant amounts of toxic Uranium, which is often quite radioactive as well.
        Plants like tobacco are particularly vulnerable to uranium laced rock phosphorus since the U binds to the leaf surfaces. Radon gas is given off by phosphate fertilizers (since phosphate ores are so rich in uranium). When tobacco crops are fertilized with U contaminated rock phosphorus, this radon gas accumulates under the thick canopy of tobacco leaves, and tiny dust particles impregnated with "radon daughters" adhere to the sticky, resinous hairs on the underside of each leaf. When harvested, the tobacco contains high concentrations of radioactive lead-210 and polonium-210 (http://ajph.aphapublications.org/cgi/content/abstract/98/9/1643: "Cigarette packs should carry a radiation-exposure warning label."). Cigarette smokers breathe these "radon daughters" into their lungs. Many researchers now believe these excessive concentrations of radon daughters are responsible for most of the 135,000 deaths each year in the U.S. from lung cancer, strokes and heart disease which the American Medical Association attributes to smoking.
      (This is likely why many indigenous cultures will only smoke "organic" tobacco, with some native elders having been able to do so for decades without any apparent ill effects.)

      Apparently there might be some kind of stable phosphate minerals that are formed in Manure derived biochar, but I don't know how bioavailable they are.
      Given that an estimated 7.8 million pounds of fertilizer flow down the Mississippi River to the Gulf of Mexico every day, and that the EPA has presented targets to reduce both nitrogen and phosphorus in these waterways by 45 percent by 2015 in order to limit the size of the "dead zone" in the gulf, if we can reduce the non-point-source leaching into watersheds with biochar, this could have substantial implications.

      Yet the main "loss route" of P from soils is not from erosion, which results in the contamination of waterways: it is from food export.
      As Folke pointed out, if phosphorus is not actually recycled, that is where there is a risk that we might "run out" of P. It is mostly because we have arranged "linear flows of P" in our current type of agricultural / food systems that we are "losing it"... "and no char can fix that".

      On top of increasing the recycling of P (which thus also minimized the use of limited rock phosphate sources), there are two main steps that the EPA is currently considering to reduce agricultural pollution reaching waterways (places like the gulf):
      1. cut application rates so crops can absorb more of the fertilizer, and
      2. improve barriers to intercept whatever fertility escapes plant uptake.

        But these steps do not tackle the "linear flow" problem.  While Biochar could likely help to tackle both the first and the second "pollution abatement" issues by allowing for better retention of P in the soil** (longer lasting P that does not immediately run off), we really need to find methods of recycling our "wastes" (and the P it contains) back into the agricultural systems, which is why I believe Biochar could help so much.
      (By helping us think differently about waste recycling, especially of human excrement: hence the importance of Biochar Composting Toilets, for instance.)

      **The mechanisms around why this occurs are more complicated because on its own P does not bind very well to char surfaces, if at all.
      "P is only weakly bound (or not at all) to char. But when there is a developed (arbuscular mycorrhyzal) fungal growth in and around the char surfaces, the P will stitch to the char-fungal complex, and will thus stay in the soil complex for longer periods of time, and can then be delivered to plants as they 'buy' it with sugar." "Probably most of the action of making P available to the plants is done by the mycorrhiza fungi."
        - Folke G.

        This is actually the main reason why research into (and testing of) both the abiotic and biotic mycorrhyzal fungal associations with biochar is vital as well, which is why there is such an emphasis on biochar and compost [including vermicompost] (which can help provide mycorrhizal inoculation).
       (This is something that Lehmann does not stress enough in his work, yet it is subtly acknowledged on an ongoing basis.)
        It is also why anyone who can become an sustainable biochar producer and produce a consistent quality biochar will likely have a market for their biochar in the Ag sector: Because there are people who have been developing Biochar that is tailored to specific soils and crops through the incorporation of specific mycorrhyzal innoculants, and they will need these reliable sources of biochar.

        It was David Laird at USDA who once said to me, "Biochar is part of the answer and will make food production more sustainable. Mostly, I think it can buy time. For example, if we had global use of biochar on ag soils, perhaps we could make our phosphorous reserves last 300 to 500 years rather than 60."
        I like the quote from one of the members of the CBI in Saskatchewan: "There's no such thing as a day-off for recycling."

        Lloyd Helferty, Engineering Technologist
        Principal, Biochar Consulting (Canada)
        www.biochar-consulting.ca
        603-48 Suncrest Blvd, Thornhill, ON, Canada
        905-707-8754; 647-886-8754 (cell)
           Skype: lloyd.helferty
        Steering Committee member, Canadian Biochar Initiative
        President, Co-founder & CBI Liaison, Biochar-Ontario
          Advisory Committee Member, IBI
        http://www.linkedin.com/groups?gid=1404717
        http://www.facebook.com/group.php?id=42237506675
        http://groups.google.com/group/biochar-ontario
        http://www.meetup.com/biocharontario/
        http://grassrootsintelligence.blogspot.com
         www.biochar.ca
      
      Biochar Offsets Group: http://www.linkedin.com/groups?home=&gid=2446475

      On 7/21/2010 7:36 PM, heiner benking wrote:
      Dear Victoria, dear Lloyd,
      did you get to the STORY OF PHOSPHORUS !?

      Heiner


      Subject: STORY OF PHOSPHORUS
      To: "Pieplow, Haiko" <Haiko.Pieplow@...>, Wilhelm Ripl <W.Ripl@...>

      1. The Story of Phosphorus: 8 reasons why we need to rethink the ...

        25 Apr 2010 ... The Story of Phosphorus: 8 reasons why we need to rethink the management of phosphorus resources in the global food system ...
        phosphorusfutures.net/why-phosphorus -
      2. The Story of Phosphorus: missing global governance of a critical ...

        Paper prepared for SENSE Earth Systems Governance, Amsterdam, 24th-31st August, 2008. Dana Cordell Dana.Cordell@.... 1. The Story of Phosphorus: ...
        phosphorusfutures.net/files/DCordell_SENSEpaper.pdf
      3. THE STORY OF PHOSPHORUS 

        18 Feb 2009 ... Cordell, D., Drangert, J-O. and White, S., The story of phosphorus: Global food security and food for thought. Global Environmental ...
        www.uts.edu.au/new/speaks/2009/February/.../1802-slides-3.pdf


       



      --
      ----------------------------------------
      Join the Facebook group Charcoal against Global Warming!
      ----------------------------------------
      Folke Günther
      Kollegievägen 19
      224 73 Lund
      Sweden
      Phone: +46 (0)46 141429
      Cell: +46 (0)709 710306
      Skype:folkegun
      URL: http://www.holon.se/folke
      BLOG: http://folkegunther.blogspot.com/
    • Andrew Crane-Droesch
      Easily accessible mineral phosphorous is almost certainly a non-renewable resource. I don t think that it is really clear whether biochar can help or hurt
      Message 2 of 20 , Jul 23, 2010
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        Easily accessible mineral phosphorous is almost certainly a non-renewable resource.  I don't think that it is really clear whether biochar can help or hurt with this problem. 
        On the positive side, it can probably reduce P leaching, stimulate mycorrhizal recycling, and raise pH in acid soils to the point where P will be more available to plants.

        One the negative side, P can get locked up in the chemical structure of char (according to one of the chapters (5?) of Biochar for Environmental Management).  If people are using crop residues to make char in P-limited soils, like what can be found in the tropics, they may find that they are not only sequestering C, but also sequestering P. 

        Someone needs to answer this question better -- find out whether the balance lies more on the favorable or unfavorable side of things, and by how much and in what circumstances. 

        Cheers,
        Andrew



        On 07/23/2010 12:20 PM, Folke Günther wrote:  



        2010/7/22 Edward Someus <edward@terrenum. net>
        Dear Friends,
         
        YES, Phosphorous is underway to be  larger problem for the agriculture than the energetic issues. While on the energy issue there are several different alternatives, on P the ONLY NATURAL SOURCE IS APATITE MINERAL, in 2 forms, rock phosphate and animal bone (13-15 % P). In past bat guano was the next alternative 3% P, now it is natural protected.
         
        That is not true. Recycling is an endless resource of phosphorus.
        However, our habitation structure (HEAP accumulation areas leading to leakage) and our common waste water management method (MIFSLA) make up a  phosphorus-loosing system. If we keep that structure, we will loose our food production capacity.
        But I agree with Edward. The P in bones should not be wasted either.
        However, the main way of loosing P is through urine and urban area leakage.
        FG

         
         
        Unfortunately P rock is incorporated with Uranium and Thorium, and in many cases the agri food production P fertilizer is a byproduct of the NUC U enrichment. 80% of the humana Cadmium intake to human is originating  from P rock agri fertilization.
         
        Pls visit my black page http://www.3ragroca rbon.com/ Img/Black. htm  on the chemosynthetic agro industrial problems, where I made a summary.
         
        My AGROCARBON IS:  The AGROCARBON biochar is plant and/or animal biomass origin carboniferous material and biotechnological formulated substance that is special quality produced by integrated thermal and biotech means for open ecological soil applications. The zero emission AGROCARBON biorefinery manufacturing is based on input organic refuse/waste streams from the agriculture, food and forest industries. The refined and formulated carbon product multi effect used for sustainable soil and carbon negative environmental improvements, economical food crop production and forest nursery, including plant growth promotion, biocontrol, natural fertilization,  soil moisture retention, restoration of soil biodiversity and natural balance. The AGROCARBON is applied in all formulations, from stand alone biofertilizer to any combination as compost activator. The full AGROCARBON life cycle from feed material supply, zero emission production processing, formulation to carbon negative open ecological soil application is reflecting environmental sustainability and meets all major international, industrial and environmental norms/standards and Authority permit requirements.
         
         
         
                                
        Sincerely yours: Edward Someus (environmental engineer)
        EMAIL:   edward@terrenum. net   or   edward.someus@ gmail.com
        TEL:       +(36-20) 201 7557  or  +(36-20) 805 4727
        TEL / FAX:   +(36-1) 424 0224
        SKYPE:  Edward Someus
        Save paper and save forest - Think before you print
        This is always right to do the right thing, so do what you can, with what you have and wherever you are: PROTECT OUR ENVIRONMENT
        -------Original Message----- --
         
        Date: 2010.07.22. 16:28:29
        Subject: Re: Fwd: STORY OF PHOSPHORUS
         
        Absolutely!
        This is the OTHER main reason why Biochar could be so critical -- and why integrating it into (organic) systems that recycle nutrients (with a particular focus on P) is utterly critical. Rock phosphorus is not only in limited supply as a mineral, but the resources are becoming of lower quality as we mine into the best sources. (more below)

        When I first read that the addition of biochar to soils could sometimes result in reduced runoff of phosphorus (and nitrogen) into surface waters, that is when I jumped on it.
        It was Edward Someus and Folke Gunther who really drove home to point to me and made the case for this critical P issue: one that is nowhere near being on people's "radar screen" (biochar carbon sequestration is probably a better known issue in the public domain right now).

        Edward's technology produces "processed carboniferous agro materials" that have a high Phosphorus and Calcium content, and this really interested me when I first found out about it. (I attempted to assist Edward for many months when I first started working and studying biochar.)

          One of the lesser-known- facts about the phosphate industry is that Natural phosphate ores contain radionuclides of the uranium series and its processing facilities have produced and sold sizeable quantities of uranium. According to the Office for Official Publications of the European Communities in Luxembourg, the processing and waste handling in the phosphate industry is associated with "radiation levels of concern for workers and the public" and as such, Radiation protection measures for workers are necessary.

        In 1997, just two phosphate plants in Louisiana produced 950,000 pounds of commercial uranium, which amounted to roughly 16% of the domestically produced uranium in the US. 4 US phosphate plants (2 in Louisiana & 2 in Florida) would have the capacity to produce a combined 2.75 million pounds of uranium per year, according to the Department of Energy (DOE).
         The DOE has termed these 4 facilities "Nonconventional Uranium Plants."

          And the lower quality "rock phosphate" fertilizers, which are now being used in increasing amounts as the "clean" sources are depleted, can contain significant amounts of toxic Uranium, which is often quite radioactive as well.
          Plants like tobacco are particularly vulnerable to uranium laced rock phosphorus since the U binds to the leaf surfaces. Radon gas is given off by phosphate fertilizers (since phosphate ores are so rich in uranium). When tobacco crops are fertilized with U contaminated rock phosphorus, this radon gas accumulates under the thick canopy of tobacco leaves, and tiny dust particles impregnated with "radon daughters" adhere to the sticky, resinous hairs on the underside of each leaf. When harvested, the tobacco contains high concentrations of radioactive lead-210 and polonium-210 (http://ajph. aphapublications .org/cgi/ content/abstract /98/9/1643: "Cigarette packs should carry a radiation-exposure warning label."). Cigarette smokers breathe these "radon daughters" into their lungs. Many researchers now believe these excessive concentrations of radon daughters are responsible for most of the 135,000 deaths each year in the U.S. from lung cancer, strokes and heart disease which the American Medical Association attributes to smoking.
        (This is likely why many indigenous cultures will only smoke "organic" tobacco, with some native elders having been able to do so for decades without any apparent ill effects.)

        Apparently there might be some kind of stable phosphate minerals that are formed in Manure derived biochar, but I don't know how bioavailable they are.
        Given that an estimated 7.8 million pounds of fertilizer flow down the Mississippi River to the Gulf of Mexico every day, and that the EPA has presented targets to reduce both nitrogen and phosphorus in these waterways by 45 percent by 2015 in order to limit the size of the "dead zone" in the gulf, if we can reduce the non-point-source leaching into watersheds with biochar, this could have substantial implications.

        Yet the main "loss route" of P from soils is not from erosion, which results in the contamination of waterways: it is from food export.
        As Folke pointed out, if phosphorus is not actually recycled, that is where there is a risk that we might "run out" of P. It is mostly because we have arranged "linear flows of P" in our current type of agricultural / food systems that we are "losing it"... "and no char can fix that".

        On top of increasing the recycling of P (which thus also minimized the use of limited rock phosphate sources), there are two main steps that the EPA is currently considering to reduce agricultural pollution reaching waterways (places like the gulf):
        1. cut application rates so crops can absorb more of the fertilizer, and
        2. improve barriers to intercept whatever fertility escapes plant uptake.

          But these steps do not tackle the "linear flow" problem.  While Biochar could likely help to tackle both the first and the second "pollution abatement" issues by allowing for better retention of P in the soil** (longer lasting P that does not immediately run off), we really need to find methods of recycling our "wastes" (and the P it contains) back into the agricultural systems, which is why I believe Biochar could help so much.
        (By helping us think differently about waste recycling, especially of human excrement: hence the importance of Biochar Composting Toilets, for instance.)

        **The mechanisms around why this occurs are more complicated because on its own P does not bind very well to char surfaces, if at all.
        "P is only weakly bound (or not at all) to char. But when there is a developed (arbuscular mycorrhyzal) fungal growth in and around the char surfaces, the P will stitch to the char-fungal complex, and will thus stay in the soil complex for longer periods of time, and can then be delivered to plants as they 'buy' it with sugar." "Probably most of the action of making P available to the plants is done by the mycorrhiza fungi."
          - Folke G.

          This is actually the main reason why research into (and testing of) both the abiotic and biotic mycorrhyzal fungal associations with biochar is vital as well, which is why there is such an emphasis on biochar and compost [including vermicompost] (which can help provide mycorrhizal inoculation) .
         (This is something that Lehmann does not stress enough in his work, yet it is subtly acknowledged on an ongoing basis.)
          It is also why anyone who can become an sustainable biochar producer and produce a consistent quality biochar will likely have a market for their biochar in the Ag sector: Because there are people who have been developing Biochar that is tailored to specific soils and crops through the incorporation of specific mycorrhyzal innoculants, and they will need these reliable sources of biochar.

          It was David Laird at USDA who once said to me, "Biochar is part of the answer and will make food production more sustainable. Mostly, I think it can buy time. For example, if we had global use of biochar on ag soils, perhaps we could make our phosphorous reserves last 300 to 500 years rather than 60."
          I like the quote from one of the members of the CBI in Saskatchewan: "There's no such thing as a day-off for recycling."

          Lloyd Helferty, Engineering Technologist
          Principal, Biochar Consulting (Canada)
          www.biochar- consulting. ca
          603-48 Suncrest Blvd, Thornhill, ON, Canada
          905-707-8754; 647-886-8754 (cell)
             Skype: lloyd.helferty
          Steering Committee member, Canadian Biochar Initiative
          President, Co-founder & CBI Liaison, Biochar-Ontario
            Advisory Committee Member, IBI
          http://www.linkedin .com/groups? gid=1404717
          http://www.facebook .com/group. php?id=422375066 75
          http://groups. google.com/ group/biochar- ontario
          http://www.meetup. com/biocharontar io/
          http://grassrootsin telligence. blogspot. com
           www.biochar. ca
        
        Biochar Offsets Group: http://www.linkedin .com/groups? home=&gid=2446475

        On 7/21/2010 7:36 PM, heiner benking wrote:
        Dear Victoria, dear Lloyd,
        did you get to the STORY OF PHOSPHORUS !?

        Heiner


        Subject: STORY OF PHOSPHORUS
        To: "Pieplow, Haiko" <Haiko.Pieplow@ bmu.bund. de>, Wilhelm Ripl <W.Ripl@tu-berlin. de>

        1. The Story of Phosphorus: 8 reasons why we need to rethink the ...

          25 Apr 2010 ... The Story of Phosphorus: 8 reasons why we need to rethink the management of phosphorus resources in the global food system ...
          phosphorusfutures. net/why-phosphor us -
        2. The Story of Phosphorus: missing global governance of a critical ...

          Paper prepared for SENSE Earth Systems Governance, Amsterdam, 24th-31st August, 2008. Dana Cordell Dana.Cordell@ uts.edu.au. 1. The Story of Phosphorus: ...
          phosphorusfutures. net/files/ DCordell_ SENSEpaper. pdf
        3. THE STORY OF PHOSPHORUS 

          18 Feb 2009 ... Cordell, D., Drangert, J-O. and White, S., The story of phosphorus: Global food security and food for thought. Global Environmental ...
          www.uts.edu. au/new/speaks/ 2009/February/ .../1802- slides-3. pdf


         





        --
        ------------ --------- --------- --------- -
        Join the Facebook group Charcoal against Global Warming!
        ------------ --------- --------- --------- -
        Folke Günther
        Kollegievägen 19
        224 73 Lund
        Sweden
        Phone: +46 (0)46 141429
        Cell: +46 (0)709 710306
        Skype:folkegun
        URL: http://www.holon. se/folke
        BLOG: http://folkegunther .blogspot. com/
      • Richard Haard
        Lloyd, others - your ideas on this We harvest almost 100% of the plants at our farm, roots, tops though not leaves usually. As a soil test only looks at
        Message 3 of 20 , Jul 23, 2010
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          Lloyd, others - your ideas on this 

          We harvest  almost 100% of the plants at our farm, roots, tops though not leaves usually. As a soil test only looks at available P it appears that applied fertilizer P moves rapidly into  unavailable pools of surface adsorbed P on soil particles (with Fe and Al coating), hence erosion losses. Also soluble is lost as biomass and in organic, insoluble complexes. We have high calcium soils and pH above 6 hence binding by this route is also evident. For the farmer logical solution is to apply phosphate fertilizer annualy even though a reserve exists in soil of phosphate, though not soluble. 

          Only way out of this seems to be enhance biological processes that convert surface adsorbed p and complex organic p to soluble forms in a timely way when the plants need it , in the spring when they are actively growing. VA fungi? and what role can biochar play in this process?

          http://www.inpofos.org/ppiweb/ppinews.nsf/$webcontents/FF5C6A5F8AC7431C8525691B0066A943/$file/98175-AEL+P-mobility.pdf


          Yet the main "loss route" of P from soils is not from erosion, which results in the contamination of waterways: it is from food export.
          As Folke pointed out, if phosphorus is not actually recycled, that is where there is a risk that we might "run out" of P. It is mostly because we have arranged "linear flows of P" in our current type of agricultural / food systems that we are "losing it"... "and no char can fix that".

          On top of increasing the recycling of P (which thus also minimized the use of limited rock phosphate sources), there are two main steps that the EPA is currently considering to reduce agricultural pollution reaching waterways (places like the gulf):
          1. cut application rates so crops can absorb more of the fertilizer, and
          2. improve barriers to intercept whatever fertility escapes plant uptake. 

        • Robert Klein
          hi all agriculture has never properly exploited bat husbandry to suppress insect populations and produce guano. combining collected guano with biochar may be
          Message 4 of 20 , Jul 23, 2010
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            hi all

            agriculture has never properly exploited bat husbandry to suppress insect populations and produce guano. combining collected guano with biochar may be very surprising and should be explored.  an artificial bat shed can hold thousands.  Because they are nocturnal they do not even interfere with necessary bees and wasps.

            it would be nice to have production numbers and acres covered.

            bob
             
            I write a daily column, principally about the ongoing scientific debate over Global Warming and Terraforming the Earth that can be followed at:
            http://globalwarming-arclein.blogspot.com or by googling arclein



            From: Folke Günther <folkeg@...>
            To: Edward Someus <edward@...>
            Cc: heiner benking <heiner@...>; Lloyd Helferty <lhelferty@...>; Victoria Kamsler <vkamsler@...>; j.fingas@...; biochar@yahoogroups.com
            Sent: Fri, July 23, 2010 3:20:40 AM
            Subject: [biochar] Re: Fwd: STORY OF PHOSPHORUS

             



            2010/7/22 Edward Someus <edward@terrenum. net>
            Dear Friends,
             
            YES, Phosphorous is underway to be  larger problem for the agriculture than the energetic issues. While on the energy issue there are several different alternatives, on P the ONLY NATURAL SOURCE IS APATITE MINERAL, in 2 forms, rock phosphate and animal bone (13-15 % P). In past bat guano was the next alternative 3% P, now it is natural protected.
             
            That is not true. Recycling is an endless resource of phosphorus.
            However, our habitation structure (HEAP accumulation areas leading to leakage) and our common waste water management method (MIFSLA) make up a  phosphorus-loosing system. If we keep that structure, we will loose our food production capacity.
            But I agree with Edward. The P in bones should not be wasted either.
            However, the main way of loosing P is through urine and urban area leakage.
            FG

             
             
            Unfortunately P rock is incorporated with Uranium and Thorium, and in many cases the agri food production P fertilizer is a byproduct of the NUC U enrichment. 80% of the humana Cadmium intake to human is originating  from P rock agri fertilization.
             
            Pls visit my black page http://www.3ragroca rbon.com/ Img/Black. htm  on the chemosynthetic agro industrial problems, where I made a summary.
             
            My AGROCARBON IS:  The AGROCARBON biochar is plant and/or animal biomass origin carboniferous material and biotechnological formulated substance that is special quality produced by integrated thermal and biotech means for open ecological soil applications. The zero emission AGROCARBON biorefinery manufacturing is based on input organic refuse/waste streams from the agriculture, food and forest industries. The refined and formulated carbon product multi effect used for sustainable soil and carbon negative environmental improvements, economical food crop production and forest nursery, including plant growth promotion, biocontrol, natural fertilization,  soil moisture retention, restoration of soil biodiversity and natural balance. The AGROCARBON is applied in all formulations, from stand alone biofertilizer to any combination as compost activator. The full AGROCARBON life cycle from feed material supply, zero emission production processing, formulation to carbon negative open ecological soil application is reflecting environmental sustainability and meets all major international, industrial and environmental norms/standards and Authority permit requirements.
             
             
             
                                    
            Sincerely yours: Edward Someus (environmental engineer)
            EMAIL:   edward@terrenum. net   or   edward.someus@ gmail.com
            TEL:       +(36-20) 201 7557  or  +(36-20) 805 4727
            TEL / FAX:   +(36-1) 424 0224
            SKYPE:  Edward Someus
            Save paper and save forest - Think before you print
            This is always right to do the right thing, so do what you can, with what you have and wherever you are: PROTECT OUR ENVIRONMENT
            -------Original Message----- --
             
            Date: 2010.07.22. 16:28:29
            Subject: Re: Fwd: STORY OF PHOSPHORUS
             
            Absolutely!
            This is the OTHER main reason why Biochar could be so critical -- and why integrating it into (organic) systems that recycle nutrients (with a particular focus on P) is utterly critical. Rock phosphorus is not only in limited supply as a mineral, but the resources are becoming of lower quality as we mine into the best sources. (more below)

            When I first read that the addition of biochar to soils could sometimes result in reduced runoff of phosphorus (and nitrogen) into surface waters, that is when I jumped on it.
            It was Edward Someus and Folke Gunther who really drove home to point to me and made the case for this critical P issue: one that is nowhere near being on people's "radar screen" (biochar carbon sequestration is probably a better known issue in the public domain right now).

            Edward's technology produces "processed carboniferous agro materials" that have a high Phosphorus and Calcium content, and this really interested me when I first found out about it. (I attempted to assist Edward for many months when I first started working and studying biochar.)

              One of the lesser-known- facts about the phosphate industry is that Natural phosphate ores contain radionuclides of the uranium series and its processing facilities have produced and sold sizeable quantities of uranium. According to the Office for Official Publications of the European Communities in Luxembourg, the processing and waste handling in the phosphate industry is associated with "radiation levels of concern for workers and the public" and as such, Radiation protection measures for workers are necessary.

            In 1997, just two phosphate plants in Louisiana produced 950,000 pounds of commercial uranium, which amounted to roughly 16% of the domestically produced uranium in the US. 4 US phosphate plants (2 in Louisiana & 2 in Florida) would have the capacity to produce a combined 2.75 million pounds of uranium per year, according to the Department of Energy (DOE).
             The DOE has termed these 4 facilities "Nonconventional Uranium Plants."

              And the lower quality "rock phosphate" fertilizers, which are now being used in increasing amounts as the "clean" sources are depleted, can contain significant amounts of toxic Uranium, which is often quite radioactive as well.
              Plants like tobacco are particularly vulnerable to uranium laced rock phosphorus since the U binds to the leaf surfaces. Radon gas is given off by phosphate fertilizers (since phosphate ores are so rich in uranium). When tobacco crops are fertilized with U contaminated rock phosphorus, this radon gas accumulates under the thick canopy of tobacco leaves, and tiny dust particles impregnated with "radon daughters" adhere to the sticky, resinous hairs on the underside of each leaf. When harvested, the tobacco contains high concentrations of radioactive lead-210 and polonium-210 (http://ajph. aphapublications .org/cgi/ content/abstract /98/9/1643: "Cigarette packs should carry a radiation-exposure warning label."). Cigarette smokers breathe these "radon daughters" into their lungs. Many researchers now believe these excessive concentrations of radon daughters are responsible for most of the 135,000 deaths each year in the U.S. from lung cancer, strokes and heart disease which the American Medical Association attributes to smoking.
            (This is likely why many indigenous cultures will only smoke "organic" tobacco, with some native elders having been able to do so for decades without any apparent ill effects.)

            Apparently there might be some kind of stable phosphate minerals that are formed in Manure derived biochar, but I don't know how bioavailable they are.
            Given that an estimated 7.8 million pounds of fertilizer flow down the Mississippi River to the Gulf of Mexico every day, and that the EPA has presented targets to reduce both nitrogen and phosphorus in these waterways by 45 percent by 2015 in order to limit the size of the "dead zone" in the gulf, if we can reduce the non-point-source leaching into watersheds with biochar, this could have substantial implications.

            Yet the main "loss route" of P from soils is not from erosion, which results in the contamination of waterways: it is from food export.
            As Folke pointed out, if phosphorus is not actually recycled, that is where there is a risk that we might "run out" of P. It is mostly because we have arranged "linear flows of P" in our current type of agricultural / food systems that we are "losing it"... "and no char can fix that".

            On top of increasing the recycling of P (which thus also minimized the use of limited rock phosphate sources), there are two main steps that the EPA is currently considering to reduce agricultural pollution reaching waterways (places like the gulf):
            1. cut application rates so crops can absorb more of the fertilizer, and
            2. improve barriers to intercept whatever fertility escapes plant uptake.

              But these steps do not tackle the "linear flow" problem.  While Biochar could likely help to tackle both the first and the second "pollution abatement" issues by allowing for better retention of P in the soil** (longer lasting P that does not immediately run off), we really need to find methods of recycling our "wastes" (and the P it contains) back into the agricultural systems, which is why I believe Biochar could help so much.
            (By helping us think differently about waste recycling, especially of human excrement: hence the importance of Biochar Composting Toilets, for instance.)

            **The mechanisms around why this occurs are more complicated because on its own P does not bind very well to char surfaces, if at all.
            "P is only weakly bound (or not at all) to char. But when there is a developed (arbuscular mycorrhyzal) fungal growth in and around the char surfaces, the P will stitch to the char-fungal complex, and will thus stay in the soil complex for longer periods of time, and can then be delivered to plants as they 'buy' it with sugar." "Probably most of the action of making P available to the plants is done by the mycorrhiza fungi."
              - Folke G.

              This is actually the main reason why research into (and testing of) both the abiotic and biotic mycorrhyzal fungal associations with biochar is vital as well, which is why there is such an emphasis on biochar and compost [including vermicompost] (which can help provide mycorrhizal inoculation) .
             (This is something that Lehmann does not stress enough in his work, yet it is subtly acknowledged on an ongoing basis.)
              It is also why anyone who can become an sustainable biochar producer and produce a consistent quality biochar will likely have a market for their biochar in the Ag sector: Because there are people who have been developing Biochar that is tailored to specific soils and crops through the incorporation of specific mycorrhyzal innoculants, and they will need these reliable sources of biochar.

              It was David Laird at USDA who once said to me, "Biochar is part of the answer and will make food production more sustainable. Mostly, I think it can buy time. For example, if we had global use of biochar on ag soils, perhaps we could make our phosphorous reserves last 300 to 500 years rather than 60."
              I like the quote from one of the members of the CBI in Saskatchewan: "There's no such thing as a day-off for recycling."

              Lloyd Helferty, Engineering Technologist
              Principal, Biochar Consulting (Canada)
              www.biochar- consulting. ca
              603-48 Suncrest Blvd, Thornhill, ON, Canada
              905-707-8754; 647-886-8754 (cell)
                 Skype: lloyd.helferty
              Steering Committee member, Canadian Biochar Initiative
              President, Co-founder & CBI Liaison, Biochar-Ontario
                Advisory Committee Member, IBI
              http://www.linkedin .com/groups? gid=1404717
              http://www.facebook .com/group. php?id=422375066 75
              http://groups. google.com/ group/biochar- ontario
              http://www.meetup. com/biocharontar io/
              http://grassrootsin telligence. blogspot. com
               www.biochar. ca
            
            Biochar Offsets Group: http://www.linkedin .com/groups? home=&gid=2446475

            On 7/21/2010 7:36 PM, heiner benking wrote:
            Dear Victoria, dear Lloyd,
            did you get to the STORY OF PHOSPHORUS !?

            Heiner


            Subject: STORY OF PHOSPHORUS
            To: "Pieplow, Haiko" <Haiko.Pieplow@ bmu.bund. de>, Wilhelm Ripl <W.Ripl@tu-berlin. de>

            1. The Story of Phosphorus: 8 reasons why we need to rethink the ...

              25 Apr 2010 ... The Story of Phosphorus: 8 reasons why we need to rethink the management of phosphorus resources in the global food system ...
              phosphorusfutures. net/why-phosphor us -
            2. The Story of Phosphorus: missing global governance of a critical ...

              Paper prepared for SENSE Earth Systems Governance, Amsterdam, 24th-31st August, 2008. Dana Cordell Dana.Cordell@ uts.edu.au. 1. The Story of Phosphorus: ...
              phosphorusfutures. net/files/ DCordell_ SENSEpaper. pdf
            3. THE STORY OF PHOSPHORUS 

              18 Feb 2009 ... Cordell, D., Drangert, J-O. and White, S., The story of phosphorus: Global food security and food for thought. Global Environmental ...
              www.uts.edu. au/new/speaks/ 2009/February/ .../1802- slides-3. pdf


             



            --
            ------------ --------- --------- --------- -
            Join the Facebook group Charcoal against Global Warming!
            ------------ --------- --------- --------- -
            Folke Günther
            Kollegievägen 19
            224 73 Lund
            Sweden
            Phone: +46 (0)46 141429
            Cell: +46 (0)709 710306
            Skype:folkegun
            URL: http://www.holon. se/folke
            BLOG: http://folkegunther .blogspot. com/

          • Lloyd Helferty
            bat husbandry ! What a fantastic idea. Now there might be is a business that could work... I ve read before that there are companies that already do this.
            Message 5 of 20 , Jul 23, 2010
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              "bat husbandry"! What a fantastic idea.
              Now there might be is a business that could work... I've read before that there are companies that already do this. Here in Ontario I think one town tried using bats to get rid of an infestation of Asian Long-horned Beetle. I don't know if it was successful.

              But there are concerns about increasing the number of bats because they can carry rabies. They also harbour ectoparasites that may infect people.

              However,
              Check out "Farmscaping for Birds and Bats" on the ATTRA website:
              http://attra.ncat.org/attra-pub/farmscape.html#Farmscaping
              (The National Sustainable Agriculture Information Service)
              Both birds and bats will benefit from having a small pond or body of water on the property or nearby. Bats require a watering area ideally 10 feet long, as they drink "on the fly."
              In one season, a typical colony of about 150 big brown bats in the Midwest eats 50,000 leafhoppers, 38,000 cucumber beetles, 16,000 June bugs, and 19,000 stink bugs (11)—not to mention thousands of moths such as adult cornborers, earworms, and cutworms.
              
              They then go on to talk about: 
              

              Bat Housing...

              Lloyd Helferty, Engineering Technologist Principal, Biochar Consulting (Canada) www.biochar-consulting.ca 603-48 Suncrest Blvd, Thornhill, ON, Canada 905-707-8754; 647-886-8754 (cell) Skype: lloyd.helferty Steering Committee member, Canadian Biochar Initiative President, Co-founder & CBI Liaison, Biochar-Ontario Advisory Committee Member, IBI http://www.linkedin.com/groups?gid=1404717 http://www.facebook.com/group.php?id=42237506675 http://groups.google.com/group/biochar-ontario http://www.meetup.com/biocharontario/ http://grassrootsintelligence.blogspot.com www.biochar.ca Biochar Offsets Group: http://www.linkedin.com/groups?home=&gid=2446475

              On 7/23/2010 11:28 AM, Robert Klein wrote:
               
              hi all

              agriculture has never properly exploited bat husbandry to suppress insect populations and produce guano. combining collected guano with biochar may be very surprising and should be explored.  an artificial bat shed can hold thousands.  Because they are nocturnal they do not even interfere with necessary bees and wasps.

              it would be nice to have production numbers and acres covered.

              bob
               
              I write a daily column, principally about the ongoing scientific debate over Global Warming and Terraforming the Earth that can be followed at:
              http://globalwarmin g-arclein. blogspot. com or by googling arclein



              From: Folke Günther <folkeg@gmail. com>
              To: Edward Someus <edward@terrenum. net>
              Cc: heiner benking <heiner@benking. de>; Lloyd Helferty <lhelferty@sympatico .ca>; Victoria Kamsler <vkamsler@greenfinit i.com>; j.fingas@climatefar ming.org; biochar@yahoogroups .com
              Sent: Fri, July 23, 2010 3:20:40 AM
              Subject: [biochar] Re: Fwd: STORY OF PHOSPHORUS

               



              2010/7/22 Edward Someus <edward@terrenum. net>
              Dear Friends,
               
              YES, Phosphorous is underway to be  larger problem for the agriculture than the energetic issues. While on the energy issue there are several different alternatives, on P the ONLY NATURAL SOURCE IS APATITE MINERAL, in 2 forms, rock phosphate and animal bone (13-15 % P). In past bat guano was the next alternative 3% P, now it is natural protected.
               
              That is not true. Recycling is an endless resource of phosphorus.
              However, our habitation structure (HEAP accumulation areas leading to leakage) and our common waste water management method (MIFSLA) make up a  phosphorus-loosing system. If we keep that structure, we will loose our food production capacity.
              But I agree with Edward. The P in bones should not be wasted either.
              However, the main way of loosing P is through urine and urban area leakage.
              FG

               
               
              Unfortunately P rock is incorporated with Uranium and Thorium, and in many cases the agri food production P fertilizer is a byproduct of the NUC U enrichment. 80% of the humana Cadmium intake to human is originating  from P rock agri fertilization.
               
              Pls visit my black page http://www.3ragroca rbon.com/ Img/Black. htm  on the chemosynthetic agro industrial problems, where I made a summary.
               
              My AGROCARBON IS:  The AGROCARBON biochar is plant and/or animal biomass origin carboniferous material and biotechnological formulated substance that is special quality produced by integrated thermal and biotech means for open ecological soil applications. The zero emission AGROCARBON biorefinery manufacturing is based on input organic refuse/waste streams from the agriculture, food and forest industries. The refined and formulated carbon product multi effect used for sustainable soil and carbon negative environmental improvements, economical food crop production and forest nursery, including plant growth promotion, biocontrol, natural fertilization,  soil moisture retention, restoration of soil biodiversity and natural balance. The AGROCARBON is applied in all formulations, from stand alone biofertilizer to any combination as compost activator. The full AGROCARBON life cycle from feed material supply, zero emission production processing, formulation to carbon negative open ecological soil application is reflecting environmental sustainability and meets all major international, industrial and environmental norms/standards and Authority permit requirements.
               
               
               
                                      
              Sincerely yours: Edward Someus (environmental engineer)
              EMAIL:   edward@terrenum. net   or   edward.someus@ gmail.com
              TEL:       +(36-20) 201 7557  or  +(36-20) 805 4727
              TEL / FAX:   +(36-1) 424 0224
              SKYPE:  Edward Someus
              Save paper and save forest - Think before you print
              This is always right to do the right thing, so do what you can, with what you have and wherever you are: PROTECT OUR ENVIRONMENT
              -------Original Message----- --
               
              Date: 2010.07.22. 16:28:29
              Subject: Re: Fwd: STORY OF PHOSPHORUS
               
              Absolutely!
              This is the OTHER main reason why Biochar could be so critical -- and why integrating it into (organic) systems that recycle nutrients (with a particular focus on P) is utterly critical. Rock phosphorus is not only in limited supply as a mineral, but the resources are becoming of lower quality as we mine into the best sources. (more below)

              When I first read that the addition of biochar to soils could sometimes result in reduced runoff of phosphorus (and nitrogen) into surface waters, that is when I jumped on it.
              It was Edward Someus and Folke Gunther who really drove home to point to me and made the case for this critical P issue: one that is nowhere near being on people's "radar screen" (biochar carbon sequestration is probably a better known issue in the public domain right now).

              Edward's technology produces "processed carboniferous agro materials" that have a high Phosphorus and Calcium content, and this really interested me when I first found out about it. (I attempted to assist Edward for many months when I first started working and studying biochar.)

                One of the lesser-known- facts about the phosphate industry is that Natural phosphate ores contain radionuclides of the uranium series and its processing facilities have produced and sold sizeable quantities of uranium. According to the Office for Official Publications of the European Communities in Luxembourg, the processing and waste handling in the phosphate industry is associated with "radiation levels of concern for workers and the public" and as such, Radiation protection measures for workers are necessary.

              In 1997, just two phosphate plants in Louisiana produced 950,000 pounds of commercial uranium, which amounted to roughly 16% of the domestically produced uranium in the US. 4 US phosphate plants (2 in Louisiana & 2 in Florida) would have the capacity to produce a combined 2.75 million pounds of uranium per year, according to the Department of Energy (DOE).
               The DOE has termed these 4 facilities "Nonconventional Uranium Plants."

                And the lower quality "rock phosphate" fertilizers, which are now being used in increasing amounts as the "clean" sources are depleted, can contain significant amounts of toxic Uranium, which is often quite radioactive as well.
                Plants like tobacco are particularly vulnerable to uranium laced rock phosphorus since the U binds to the leaf surfaces. Radon gas is given off by phosphate fertilizers (since phosphate ores are so rich in uranium). When tobacco crops are fertilized with U contaminated rock phosphorus, this radon gas accumulates under the thick canopy of tobacco leaves, and tiny dust particles impregnated with "radon daughters" adhere to the sticky, resinous hairs on the underside of each leaf. When harvested, the tobacco contains high concentrations of radioactive lead-210 and polonium-210 (http://ajph. aphapublications .org/cgi/ content/abstract /98/9/1643: "Cigarette packs should carry a radiation-exposure warning label."). Cigarette smokers breathe these "radon daughters" into their lungs. Many researchers now believe these excessive concentrations of radon daughters are responsible for most of the 135,000 deaths each year in the U.S. from lung cancer, strokes and heart disease which the American Medical Association attributes to smoking.
              (This is likely why many indigenous cultures will only smoke "organic" tobacco, with some native elders having been able to do so for decades without any apparent ill effects.)

              Apparently there might be some kind of stable phosphate minerals that are formed in Manure derived biochar, but I don't know how bioavailable they are.
              Given that an estimated 7.8 million pounds of fertilizer flow down the Mississippi River to the Gulf of Mexico every day, and that the EPA has presented targets to reduce both nitrogen and phosphorus in these waterways by 45 percent by 2015 in order to limit the size of the "dead zone" in the gulf, if we can reduce the non-point-source leaching into watersheds with biochar, this could have substantial implications.

              Yet the main "loss route" of P from soils is not from erosion, which results in the contamination of waterways: it is from food export.
              As Folke pointed out, if phosphorus is not actually recycled, that is where there is a risk that we might "run out" of P. It is mostly because we have arranged "linear flows of P" in our current type of agricultural / food systems that we are "losing it"... "and no char can fix that".

              On top of increasing the recycling of P (which thus also minimized the use of limited rock phosphate sources), there are two main steps that the EPA is currently considering to reduce agricultural pollution reaching waterways (places like the gulf):
              1. cut application rates so crops can absorb more of the fertilizer, and
              2. improve barriers to intercept whatever fertility escapes plant uptake.

                But these steps do not tackle the "linear flow" problem.  While Biochar could likely help to tackle both the first and the second "pollution abatement" issues by allowing for better retention of P in the soil** (longer lasting P that does not immediately run off), we really need to find methods of recycling our "wastes" (and the P it contains) back into the agricultural systems, which is why I believe Biochar could help so much.
              (By helping us think differently about waste recycling, especially of human excrement: hence the importance of Biochar Composting Toilets, for instance.)

              **The mechanisms around why this occurs are more complicated because on its own P does not bind very well to char surfaces, if at all.
              "P is only weakly bound (or not at all) to char. But when there is a developed (arbuscular mycorrhyzal) fungal growth in and around the char surfaces, the P will stitch to the char-fungal complex, and will thus stay in the soil complex for longer periods of time, and can then be delivered to plants as they 'buy' it with sugar." "Probably most of the action of making P available to the plants is done by the mycorrhiza fungi."
                - Folke G.

                This is actually the main reason why research into (and testing of) both the abiotic and biotic mycorrhyzal fungal associations with biochar is vital as well, which is why there is such an emphasis on biochar and compost [including vermicompost] (which can help provide mycorrhizal inoculation) .
               (This is something that Lehmann does not stress enough in his work, yet it is subtly acknowledged on an ongoing basis.)
                It is also why anyone who can become an sustainable biochar producer and produce a consistent quality biochar will likely have a market for their biochar in the Ag sector: Because there are people who have been developing Biochar that is tailored to specific soils and crops through the incorporation of specific mycorrhyzal innoculants, and they will need these reliable sources of biochar.

                It was David Laird at USDA who once said to me, "Biochar is part of the answer and will make food production more sustainable. Mostly, I think it can buy time. For example, if we had global use of biochar on ag soils, perhaps we could make our phosphorous reserves last 300 to 500 years rather than 60."
                I like the quote from one of the members of the CBI in Saskatchewan: "There's no such thing as a day-off for recycling."

                Lloyd Helferty, Engineering Technologist
                Principal, Biochar Consulting (Canada)
                www.biochar- consulting. ca
                603-48 Suncrest Blvd, Thornhill, ON, Canada
                905-707-8754; 647-886-8754 (cell)
                   Skype: lloyd.helferty
                Steering Committee member, Canadian Biochar Initiative
                President, Co-founder & CBI Liaison, Biochar-Ontario
                  Advisory Committee Member, IBI
                http://www.linkedin .com/groups? gid=1404717
                http://www.facebook .com/group. php?id=422375066 75
                http://groups. google.com/ group/biochar- ontario
                http://www.meetup. com/biocharontar io/
                http://grassrootsin telligence. blogspot. com
                 www.biochar. ca
              
              Biochar Offsets Group: http://www.linkedin .com/groups? home=&gid=2446475

              On 7/21/2010 7:36 PM, heiner benking wrote:
              Dear Victoria, dear Lloyd,
              did you get to the STORY OF PHOSPHORUS !?

              Heiner


              Subject: STORY OF PHOSPHORUS
              To: "Pieplow, Haiko" <Haiko.Pieplow@ bmu.bund. de>, Wilhelm Ripl <W.Ripl@tu-berlin. de>

              1. The Story of Phosphorus: 8 reasons why we need to rethink the ...

                25 Apr 2010 ... The Story of Phosphorus: 8 reasons why we need to rethink the management of phosphorus resources in the global food system ...
                phosphorusfutures. net/why-phosphor us -
              2. The Story of Phosphorus: missing global governance of a critical ...

                Paper prepared for SENSE Earth Systems Governance, Amsterdam, 24th-31st August, 2008. Dana Cordell Dana.Cordell@ uts.edu.au. 1. The Story of Phosphorus: ...
                phosphorusfutures. net/files/ DCordell_ SENSEpaper. pdf
              3. THE STORY OF PHOSPHORUS 

                18 Feb 2009 ... Cordell, D., Drangert, J-O. and White, S., The story of phosphorus: Global food security and food for thought. Global Environmental ...
                www.uts.edu. au/new/speaks/ 2009/February/ .../1802- slides-3. pdf


               





              --
              ------------ --------- --------- --------- -
              Join the Facebook group Charcoal against Global Warming!
              ------------ --------- --------- --------- -
              Folke Günther
              Kollegievägen 19
              224 73 Lund
              Sweden
              Phone: +46 (0)46 141429
              Cell: +46 (0)709 710306
              Skype:folkegun
              URL: http://www.holon. se/folke
              BLOG: http://folkegunther .blogspot. com/

            • Lloyd Helferty
              Richard, These are extremely important questions that I do not have the answer to, and this is exactly why we need to start soon to start this type of
              Message 6 of 20 , Jul 23, 2010
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                Richard,

                  These are extremely important questions that I do not have the answer to, and this is exactly why we need to start soon to start this type of research. This could potentially fall under the umbrella of the type of research that could be done by a Biochar Research Centre, but more likely it would simply fall under normal "soil science" research departments... (possibly with Biochar thrown in as part of the mix of technologies that might help with finding ways to "enhance biological processes that convert surface adsorbed p and complex organic p to soluble forms in a timely way when the plants need it"...)
                  Lloyd Helferty, Engineering Technologist
                  Principal, Biochar Consulting (Canada)
                  www.biochar-consulting.ca
                  603-48 Suncrest Blvd, Thornhill, ON, Canada
                  905-707-8754; 647-886-8754 (cell)
                     Skype: lloyd.helferty
                  Steering Committee member, Canadian Biochar Initiative
                  President, Co-founder & CBI Liaison, Biochar-Ontario
                    Advisory Committee Member, IBI
                  http://www.linkedin.com/groups?gid=1404717
                  http://www.facebook.com/group.php?id=42237506675
                  http://groups.google.com/group/biochar-ontario
                  http://www.meetup.com/biocharontario/
                  http://grassrootsintelligence.blogspot.com
                   www.biochar.ca
                
                Biochar Offsets Group: http://www.linkedin.com/groups?home=&gid=2446475

                On 7/23/2010 11:25 AM, Richard Haard wrote:
                 
                Lloyd, others - your ideas on this 

                We harvest  almost 100% of the plants at our farm, roots, tops though not leaves usually. As a soil test only looks at available P it appears that applied fertilizer P moves rapidly into  unavailable pools of surface adsorbed P on soil particles (with Fe and Al coating), hence erosion losses. Also soluble is lost as biomass and in organic, insoluble complexes. We have high calcium soils and pH above 6 hence binding by this route is also evident. For the farmer logical solution is to apply phosphate fertilizer annualy even though a reserve exists in soil of phosphate, though not soluble. 

                Only way out of this seems to be enhance biological processes that convert surface adsorbed p and complex organic p to soluble forms in a timely way when the plants need it , in the spring when they are actively growing. VA fungi? and what role can biochar play in this process?

                http://www.inpofos. org/ppiweb/ ppinews.nsf/ $webcontents/ FF5C6A5F8AC7431C 8525691B0066A943 /$file/98175- AEL+P-mobility. pdf


                Yet the main "loss route" of P from soils is not from erosion, which results in the contamination of waterways: it is from food export.
                As Folke pointed out, if phosphorus is not actually recycled, that is where there is a risk that we might "run out" of P. It is mostly because we have arranged "linear flows of P" in our current type of agricultural / food systems that we are "losing it"... "and no char can fix that".

                On top of increasing the recycling of P (which thus also minimized the use of limited rock phosphate sources), there are two main steps that the EPA is currently considering to reduce agricultural pollution reaching waterways (places like the gulf):
                1. cut application rates so crops can absorb more of the fertilizer, and
                2. improve barriers to intercept whatever fertility escapes plant uptake. 

              • Barry Husk
                logo BlueLeaf_texte 80% One of our biochar research field trials begun this summer in Eastern Canada, in collaboration with McGill University, will be looking
                Message 7 of 20 , Jul 23, 2010
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                  logo BlueLeaf_texte 80%

                   

                   

                  One of our biochar research field trials begun this summer in Eastern Canada, in collaboration with McGill University, will be looking specifically at the fate of phosphorus in soil with biochar.

                   

                  Barry

                   

                   

                  Barry Husk

                  President

                  BlueLeaf Inc.

                  T (819) 472-9525

                  F (819) 477-1857

                  bhusk@...

                  www.blue-leaf.ca

                  Feuille BlueLeaf

                   

                   

                   

                  From: biochar@yahoogroups.com [mailto:biochar@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of Lloyd Helferty
                  Sent: Friday, July 23, 2010 4:48 PM
                  To: biochar@yahoogroups.com
                  Cc: Richard Haard
                  Subject: Re: [biochar] Re: Fwd: STORY OF PHOSPHORUS

                   

                   

                  Richard,

                    These are extremely important questions that I do not have the answer to, and this is exactly why we need to start soon to start this type of research. This could potentially fall under the umbrella of the type of research that could be done by a Biochar Research Centre, but more likely it would simply fall under normal "soil science" research departments... (possibly with Biochar thrown in as part of the mix of technologies that might help with finding ways to "enhance biological processes that convert surface adsorbed p and complex organic p to soluble forms in a timely way when the plants need it"...)

                    Lloyd Helferty, Engineering Technologist
                    Principal, Biochar Consulting (Canada)
                    www.biochar-consulting.ca
                    603-48 Suncrest Blvd, Thornhill, ON, Canada
                    905-707-8754; 647-886-8754 (cell)
                       Skype: lloyd.helferty
                    Steering Committee member, Canadian Biochar Initiative
                    President, Co-founder & CBI Liaison, Biochar-Ontario
                      Advisory Committee Member, IBI
                    http://www.linkedin.com/groups?gid=1404717
                    http://www.facebook.com/group.php?id=42237506675
                    http://groups.google.com/group/biochar-ontario
                    http://www.meetup.com/biocharontario/
                    http://grassrootsintelligence.blogspot.com
                     www.biochar.ca
                    
                  Biochar Offsets Group: http://www.linkedin.com/groups?home=&gid=2446475


                  On 7/23/2010 11:25 AM, Richard Haard wrote:

                   

                  Lloyd, others - your ideas on this 

                   

                  We harvest  almost 100% of the plants at our farm, roots, tops though not leaves usually. As a soil test only looks at available P it appears that applied fertilizer P moves rapidly into  unavailable pools of surface adsorbed P on soil particles (with Fe and Al coating), hence erosion losses. Also soluble is lost as biomass and in organic, insoluble complexes. We have high calcium soils and pH above 6 hence binding by this route is also evident. For the farmer logical solution is to apply phosphate fertilizer annualy even though a reserve exists in soil of phosphate, though not soluble. 

                   

                  Only way out of this seems to be enhance biological processes that convert surface adsorbed p and complex organic p to soluble forms in a timely way when the plants need it , in the spring when they are actively growing. VA fungi? and what role can biochar play in this process?

                   

                  http://www.inpofos.org/ppiweb/ppinews.nsf/$webcontents/FF5C6A5F8AC7431C8525691B0066A943/$file/98175-AEL+P-mobility.pdf

                   



                  Yet the main "loss route" of P from soils is not from erosion, which results in the contamination of waterways: it is from food export.
                  As Folke pointed out, if phosphorus is not actually recycled, that is where there is a risk that we might "run out" of P. It is mostly because we have arranged "linear flows of P" in our current type of agricultural / food systems that we are "losing it"... "and no char can fix that".

                  On top of increasing the recycling of P (which thus also minimized the use of limited rock phosphate sources), there are two main steps that the EPA is currently considering to reduce agricultural pollution reaching waterways (places like the gulf):
                  1. cut application rates so crops can absorb more of the fertilizer, and
                  2. improve barriers to intercept whatever fertility escapes plant uptake. 

                   

                • Erich Knight
                  Hi List,The passage below from Michinori Nishio, National Institute of Agro-Environmental Sciences, http://www.agnet.org/library/eb/430/ clearly show the
                  Message 8 of 20 , Jul 23, 2010
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                    Hi List,

                    The passage below from  Michinori Nishio, National Institute of Agro-Environmental Sciences, http://www.agnet.org/library/eb/430/  clearly show the process for microbes , AMF and solubilization of bound phosphate

                    Of course Folke G. said the same thing in one paragraph;
                     "P is only weakly bound (or not at all) to char. But when there is a developed (arbuscular mycorrhyzal) fungal growth in and around the char surfaces, the P will stitch to the char-fungal complex, and will thus stay in the soil complex for longer periods of time, and can then be delivered to plants as they 'buy' it with sugar." "Probably most of the action of making P available to the plants is done by the mycorrhiza fungi."
                      - Folke G.



                    Cheers,
                    Erich

                    Utilization of Phosphate Solubilizing Microorganisms

                    Japan has only very small amounts of rock phosphate, and most of its soils immobilize phosphate ions into unavailable forms. Rock phosphate which can be mined by current technology is predicted to become exhausted in about 100 years' time. Therefore, there is a strong interest in developing alternative sources of phosphate fertilizer. Many countries are studying the direct utilization of rock phosphate. Australia has developed "biosuper", i.e. pellets composed of rock phosphate, sulfur and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. Japanese scientists are very interested in the solubilization of bound phosphate in soil which has accumulated phosphate from repeated, heavy applications of phosphate fertilizer.

                    While more than 70% of total phosphate is present in organic forms, such as inositol phosphate in volcanic ash soils, there are very few indigenous microorganisms with a strong ability to decompose inositol phosphate in the soil. On the contrary, Japanese soils contain many indigenous heterotrophic microorganisms which solubilize mineral bound phosphates by the excretion of chelating organic acids. In grassland soils, phosphate solubilizing microorganisms made up 1% of bacterial populations and 10% of fungal populations (Nishio 1985). Tinker (1980) raised doubts on the utilization of heterorophic phosphate solubilizing microorganisms, because they need a large amount of organic matter before they can excrete organic acids. Even if phosphate is solubilized, phosphate ions are incorporated into the microbial biomass, so roots cannot absorb enough of them. Thus, we adopted the following strategy: a) The addition of a large amount of organic matter makes phosphate solubilizing (PS) microorganisms proliferate and these solubilize bound phosphate. b) Solubilized phosphates are incorporated into the microbial biomass during other microbial multiplication, using organic matter. c) Once the organic matter becomes exhausted, the microbial biomass decreases and releases phosphate into the soil. d) The death of the microbial biomass can be accelerated by various soil treatments, including tillage, drying, liming and sterilization. e) Plants can absorb phosphate after microbial proliferation has ceased. f) The absorption of phosphate by plants can be accelerated by inoculation with AMF.

                    Experimental Evidence

                    Each step described above has been experimentally confirmed (Kimura and Nishio 1989). Fig. 4 shows the difference in biomass P (P retained in biomass) between the soils with and without compound phosphate. When the soil was incubated for 7 days by adding sucrose and ammonium sulfate, the biomass P significantly increased, utilizing Ca-, Al-, and Fe-phosphates and low-quality rock phosphate. However, no significant increase was observed with varicite (crystallized aluminum phosphate) over this short period. This indicates that insoluble phosphates which are not crystallized can be solubilized by indigenous microorganisms when abundant carbon sources are supplied.

                    The rate of increase in soil biomass P fell, and available phosphate increased, after the depletion of carbon sources, or after soil treatments such as chloropicrin fumigation, air-drying or grinding (Fig. 5). This indicates that after the exhaustion of organic matter, microbial biomass falls, releasing phosphate into the soil, and that the release of available phosphate can be accelerated by soil treatments.

                    To demonstrate the stimulatory effect of AMF on plant absorption of phosphate released from soil biomass, an experiment was conducted using dry yeast as an alternative to dead soil biomass. Fig. 6 shows that the simultaneous addition of dry yeast and AMF had a marked effect on both the growth of alfalfa and phosphate absorption by the plant.

                    Implications

                    Although this experimental evidence merely shows the principles underlying the technology, this is very useful when we attempt to utilize heterotrophic phosphate-solubilizing (PS) microorganisms in soil. It indicates that

                    • PS microorganisms need the addition of a large amount of organic matter as a substrate (excretes from roots are not sufficient);
                    • Phosphate solubilized by PS micro-organisms is seldom absorbed directly by the plant as long as a large amount of organic matter remains, because other heterotrophs incorporate phosphate into biomass; thus,
                    • Growth retardation of the plant may be a possibility just after the application of organic matter.
                    • To avoid growth retardation, seeding or transplanting should be delayed.
                    • If rock phosphate, basic sludge or other low-grade phosphate is added, pre-solubilization of bound phosphate in the compost is one way of avoiding growth retardation.


                    On Fri, Jul 23, 2010 at 10:04 PM, Barry Husk <husk@...> wrote:
                     

                    logo BlueLeaf_texte 80%

                     

                     

                    One of our biochar research field trials begun this summer in Eastern Canada, in collaboration with McGill University, will be looking specifically at the fate of phosphorus in soil with biochar.

                     

                    Barry

                     

                     

                    Barry Husk

                    President

                    BlueLeaf Inc.

                    T (819) 472-9525

                    F (819) 477-1857

                    bhusk@...

                    www.blue-leaf.ca

                    Feuille BlueLeaf

                     

                     

                     

                    From: biochar@yahoogroups.com [mailto:biochar@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of Lloyd Helferty
                    Sent: Friday, July 23, 2010 4:48 PM
                    To: biochar@yahoogroups.com
                    Cc: Richard Haard
                    Subject: Re: [biochar] Re: Fwd: STORY OF PHOSPHORUS

                     

                     

                    Richard,

                      These are extremely important questions that I do not have the answer to, and this is exactly why we need to start soon to start this type of research. This could potentially fall under the umbrella of the type of research that could be done by a Biochar Research Centre, but more likely it would simply fall under normal "soil science" research departments... (possibly with Biochar thrown in as part of the mix of technologies that might help with finding ways to "enhance biological processes that convert surface adsorbed p and complex organic p to soluble forms in a timely way when the plants need it"...)

                      Lloyd Helferty, 
                    .


                  • Edward Someus
                    Folke, I have been talking about natural source. Human generated waste is also a valuable resource, but different. However, in order to progress for
                    Message 9 of 20 , Jul 23, 2010
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                      Folke,
                       
                      I have been talking about natural source. Human generated waste is also a valuable resource, but different. However, in order to progress for environmental improvements we must think on solid economical based industrial platform with market demanded production performances, which is very different than theoretical possibilities.
                       
                      Recycling is of course a wide perspective -------- (this is what we do on economical industrial scale from science to industrial scale up performance, converting trash into cash), ---------- however, in many case it is a challenge to make an economical and market demanded product of it and to be both technically and economically also successfully, and in the top of it towards zero emission processing. With no true value economy behind waste recycling, no true value environmental achievements can be done.
                       
                      One of the key challenge is, that the input material (both natural and waste) is of variating composition and character, which is converted to even product quality with economical process. The micro pollutants are very tricky issues in different feed streams.
                       
                      I am not sure if you remarked in my papers, that I perform zero emission process, in this context "waste" is not existing, only valuable raw materials and economical market demanded output products. This is same as when a tree is falling in the forest, human says wasted tree, but for the nature it is a new cycle, when busy organism taking case of everything.
                       
                       
                                              
                      Sincerely yours: Edward Someus (environmental engineer)
                      EMAIL:   edward@...   or   edward.someus@...
                      TEL:       +(36-20) 201 7557  or  +(36-20) 805 4727
                      TEL / FAX:   +(36-1) 424 0224
                      SKYPE:  Edward Someus
                      Save paper and save forest - Think before you print
                      This is always right to do the right thing, so do what you can, with what you have and wherever you are: PROTECT OUR ENVIRONMENT
                      -------Original Message-------
                       
                      Date: 2010.07.23. 16:38:18
                      Subject: [biochar] Re: Fwd: STORY OF PHOSPHORUS
                       
                       



                      2010/7/22 Edward Someus <edward@terrenum. net>
                      Dear Friends,
                       
                      YES, Phosphorous is underway to be  larger problem for the agriculture than the energetic issues. While on the energy issue there are several different alternatives, on P the ONLY NATURAL SOURCE IS APATITE MINERAL, in 2 forms, rock phosphate and animal bone (13-15 % P). In past bat guano was the next alternative 3% P, now it is natural protected.
                       
                      That is not true. Recycling is an endless resource of phosphorus.
                      However, our habitation structure (HEAP accumulation areas leading to leakage) and our common waste water management method (MIFSLA) make up a  phosphorus-loosing system. If we keep that structure, we will loose our food production capacity.
                      But I agree with Edward. The P in bones should not be wasted either.
                      However, the main way of loosing P is through urine and urban area leakage.
                      FG

                       
                       
                      Unfortunately P rock is incorporated with Uranium and Thorium, and in many cases the agri food production P fertilizer is a byproduct of the NUC U enrichment. 80% of the humana Cadmium intake to human is originating  from P rock agri fertilization.
                       
                      Pls visit my black page http://www.3ragroca rbon.com/ Img/Black. htm  on the chemosynthetic agro industrial problems, where I made a summary.
                       
                      My AGROCARBON IS:  The AGROCARBON biochar is plant and/or animal biomass origin carboniferous material and biotechnological formulated substance that is special quality produced by integrated thermal and biotech means for open ecological soil applications. The zero emission AGROCARBON biorefinery manufacturing is based on input organic refuse/waste streams from the agriculture, food and forest industries. The refined and formulated carbon product multi effect used for sustainable soil and carbon negative environmental improvements, economical food crop production and forest nursery, including plant growth promotion, biocontrol, natural fertilization,  soil moisture retention, restoration of soil biodiversity and natural balance. The AGROCARBON is applied in all formulations, from stand alone biofertilizer to any combination as compost activator. The full AGROCARBON life cycle from feed material supply, zero emission production processing, formulation to carbon negative open ecological soil application is reflecting environmental sustainability and meets all major international, industrial and environmental norms/standards and Authority permit requirements.
                       
                       
                       
                                              
                      Sincerely yours: Edward Someus (environmental engineer)
                      EMAIL:   edward@terrenum. net   or   edward.someus@ gmail.com
                      TEL:       +(36-20) 201 7557  or  +(36-20) 805 4727
                      TEL / FAX:   +(36-1) 424 0224
                      SKYPE:  Edward Someus
                      Save paper and save forest - Think before you print
                      This is always right to do the right thing, so do what you can, with what you have and wherever you are: PROTECT OUR ENVIRONMENT
                      -------Original Message----- --
                       
                      Date: 2010.07.22. 16:28:29
                      Subject: Re: Fwd: STORY OF PHOSPHORUS
                       
                      Absolutely!
                      This is the OTHER main reason why Biochar could be so critical -- and why integrating it into (organic) systems that recycle nutrients (with a particular focus on P) is utterly critical. Rock phosphorus is not only in limited supply as a mineral, but the resources are becoming of lower quality as we mine into the best sources. (more below)

                      When I first read that the addition of biochar to soils could sometimes result in reduced runoff of phosphorus (and nitrogen) into surface waters, that is when I jumped on it.
                      It was Edward Someus and Folke Gunther who really drove home to point to me and made the case for this critical P issue: one that is nowhere near being on people's "radar screen" (biochar carbon sequestration is probably a better known issue in the public domain right now).

                      Edward's technology produces "processed carboniferous agro materials" that have a high Phosphorus and Calcium content, and this really interested me when I first found out about it. (I attempted to assist Edward for many months when I first started working and studying biochar.)

                        One of the lesser-known- facts about the phosphate industry is that Natural phosphate ores contain radionuclides of the uranium series and its processing facilities have produced and sold sizeable quantities of uranium. According to the Office for Official Publications of the European Communities in Luxembourg, the processing and waste handling in the phosphate industry is associated with "radiation levels of concern for workers and the public" and as such, Radiation protection measures for workers are necessary.

                      In 1997, just two phosphate plants in Louisiana produced 950,000 pounds of commercial uranium, which amounted to roughly 16% of the domestically produced uranium in the US. 4 US phosphate plants (2 in Louisiana & 2 in Florida) would have the capacity to produce a combined 2.75 million pounds of uranium per year, according to the Department of Energy (DOE).
                       The DOE has termed these 4 facilities "Nonconventional Uranium Plants."

                        And the lower quality "rock phosphate" fertilizers, which are now being used in increasing amounts as the "clean" sources are depleted, can contain significant amounts of toxic Uranium, which is often quite radioactive as well.
                        Plants like tobacco are particularly vulnerable to uranium laced rock phosphorus since the U binds to the leaf surfaces. Radon gas is given off by phosphate fertilizers (since phosphate ores are so rich in uranium). When tobacco crops are fertilized with U contaminated rock phosphorus, this radon gas accumulates under the thick canopy of tobacco leaves, and tiny dust particles impregnated with "radon daughters" adhere to the sticky, resinous hairs on the underside of each leaf. When harvested, the tobacco contains high concentrations of radioactive lead-210 and polonium-210 (http://ajph. aphapublications .org/cgi/ content/abstract /98/9/1643: "Cigarette packs should carry a radiation-exposure warning label."). Cigarette smokers breathe these "radon daughters" into their lungs. Many researchers now believe these excessive concentrations of radon daughters are responsible for most of the 135,000 deaths each year in the U.S. from lung cancer, strokes and heart disease which the American Medical Association attributes to smoking.
                      (This is likely why many indigenous cultures will only smoke "organic" tobacco, with some native elders having been able to do so for decades without any apparent ill effects.)

                      Apparently there might be some kind of stable phosphate minerals that are formed in Manure derived biochar, but I don't know how bioavailable they are.
                      Given that an estimated 7.8 million pounds of fertilizer flow down the Mississippi River to the Gulf of Mexico every day, and that the EPA has presented targets to reduce both nitrogen and phosphorus in these waterways by 45 percent by 2015 in order to limit the size of the "dead zone" in the gulf, if we can reduce the non-point-source leaching into watersheds with biochar, this could have substantial implications.

                      Yet the main "loss route" of P from soils is not from erosion, which results in the contamination of waterways: it is from food export.
                      As Folke pointed out, if phosphorus is not actually recycled, that is where there is a risk that we might "run out" of P. It is mostly because we have arranged "linear flows of P" in our current type of agricultural / food systems that we are "losing it"... "and no char can fix that".

                      On top of increasing the recycling of P (which thus also minimized the use of limited rock phosphate sources), there are two main steps that the EPA is currently considering to reduce agricultural pollution reaching waterways (places like the gulf):
                      1. cut application rates so crops can absorb more of the fertilizer, and
                      2. improve barriers to intercept whatever fertility escapes plant uptake.

                        But these steps do not tackle the "linear flow" problem.  While Biochar could likely help to tackle both the first and the second "pollution abatement" issues by allowing for better retention of P in the soil** (longer lasting P that does not immediately run off), we really need to find methods of recycling our "wastes" (and the P it contains) back into the agricultural systems, which is why I believe Biochar could help so much.
                      (By helping us think differently about waste recycling, especially of human excrement: hence the importance of Biochar Composting Toilets, for instance.)

                      **The mechanisms around why this occurs are more complicated because on its own P does not bind very well to char surfaces, if at all.
                      "P is only weakly bound (or not at all) to char. But when there is a developed (arbuscular mycorrhyzal) fungal growth in and around the char surfaces, the P will stitch to the char-fungal complex, and will thus stay in the soil complex for longer periods of time, and can then be delivered to plants as they 'buy' it with sugar." "Probably most of the action of making P available to the plants is done by the mycorrhiza fungi."
                        - Folke G.

                        This is actually the main reason why research into (and testing of) both the abiotic and biotic mycorrhyzal fungal associations with biochar is vital as well, which is why there is such an emphasis on biochar and compost [including vermicompost] (which can help provide mycorrhizal inoculation) .
                       (This is something that Lehmann does not stress enough in his work, yet it is subtly acknowledged on an ongoing basis.)
                        It is also why anyone who can become an sustainable biochar producer and produce a consistent quality biochar will likely have a market for their biochar in the Ag sector: Because there are people who have been developing Biochar that is tailored to specific soils and crops through the incorporation of specific mycorrhyzal innoculants, and they will need these reliable sources of biochar.

                        It was David Laird at USDA who once said to me, "Biochar is part of the answer and will make food production more sustainable. Mostly, I think it can buy time. For example, if we had global use of biochar on ag soils, perhaps we could make our phosphorous reserves last 300 to 500 years rather than 60."
                        I like the quote from one of the members of the CBI in Saskatchewan: "There's no such thing as a day-off for recycling."

                        Lloyd Helferty, Engineering Technologist
                        Principal, Biochar Consulting (Canada)
                        www.biochar- consulting. ca
                        603-48 Suncrest Blvd, Thornhill, ON, Canada
                        905-707-8754; 647-886-8754 (cell)
                           Skype: lloyd.helferty
                        Steering Committee member, Canadian Biochar Initiative
                        President, Co-founder & CBI Liaison, Biochar-Ontario
                          Advisory Committee Member, IBI
                        http://www.linkedin .com/groups? gid=1404717
                        http://www.facebook .com/group. php?id=422375066 75
                        http://groups. google.com/ group/biochar- ontario
                        http://www.meetup. com/biocharontar io/
                        http://grassrootsin telligence. blogspot. com
                         www.biochar. ca
                      
                      Biochar Offsets Group: http://www.linkedin .com/groups? home=&gid=2446475

                      On 7/21/2010 7:36 PM, heiner benking wrote:
                      Dear Victoria, dear Lloyd,
                      did you get to the STORY OF PHOSPHORUS !?

                      Heiner


                      Subject: STORY OF PHOSPHORUS
                      To: "Pieplow, Haiko" <Haiko.Pieplow@ bmu.bund. de>, Wilhelm Ripl <W.Ripl@tu-berlin. de>

                      1. The Story of Phosphorus: 8 reasons why we need to rethink the ...

                        25 Apr 2010 ... The Story of Phosphorus: 8 reasons why we need to rethink the management of phosphorus resources in the global food system ...
                        phosphorusfutures. net/why-phosphor us -
                      2. The Story of Phosphorus: missing global governance of a critical ...

                        Paper prepared for SENSE Earth Systems Governance, Amsterdam, 24th-31st August, 2008. Dana Cordell Dana.Cordell@ uts.edu.au. 1. The Story of Phosphorus: ...
                        phosphorusfutures. net/files/ DCordell_ SENSEpaper. pdf
                      3. THE STORY OF PHOSPHORUS 

                        18 Feb 2009 ... Cordell, D., Drangert, J-O. and White, S., The story of phosphorus: Global food security and food for thought. Global Environmental ...
                        www.uts.edu. au/new/speaks/ 2009/February/ .../1802- slides-3. pdf


                       



                      --
                      ------------ --------- --------- --------- -
                      Join the Facebook group Charcoal against Global Warming!
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                      224 73 Lund
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                    • Mark Ludlow
                      Dear Erich, It is my impression that arbuscular mycorrhyzal fungi only grow in the presence of root systems, with which they are symbiotic. I doubt that soil
                      Message 10 of 20 , Jul 23, 2010
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                        Dear Erich,

                        It is my impression that arbuscular mycorrhyzal fungi only grow in the presence of root systems, with which they are symbiotic. I doubt that soil char alone would cause a bloom of these structures.

                        Best, Mark

                         

                        From: biochar@yahoogroups.com [mailto:biochar@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of Erich Knight
                        Sent: Friday, July 23, 2010 8:29 PM
                        To: biochar@yahoogroups.com
                        Subject: Re: [biochar] RE: STORY OF PHOSPHORUS

                         

                         

                        Hi List,

                        The passage below from  Michinori Nishio, National Institute of Agro-Environmental Sciences, http://www.agnet.org/library/eb/430/  clearly show the process for microbes , AMF and solubilization of bound phosphate

                        Of course Folke G. said the same thing in one paragraph;
                         "P is only weakly bound (or not at all) to char. But when there is a developed (arbuscular mycorrhyzal) fungal growth in and around the char surfaces, the P will stitch to the char-fungal complex, and will thus stay in the soil complex for longer periods of time, and can then be delivered to plants as they 'buy' it with sugar." "Probably most of the action of making P available to the plants is done by the mycorrhiza fungi."
                          - Folke G.



                        Cheers,
                        Erich


                        Utilization of Phosphate Solubilizing Microorganisms

                        Japan has only very small amounts of rock phosphate, and most of its soils immobilize phosphate ions into unavailable forms. Rock phosphate which can be mined by current technology is predicted to become exhausted in about 100 years' time. Therefore, there is a strong interest in developing alternative sources of phosphate fertilizer. Many countries are studying the direct utilization of rock phosphate. Australia has developed "biosuper", i.e. pellets composed of rock phosphate, sulfur and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. Japanese scientists are very interested in the solubilization of bound phosphate in soil which has accumulated phosphate from repeated, heavy applications of phosphate fertilizer.

                        While more than 70% of total phosphate is present in organic forms, such as inositol phosphate in volcanic ash soils, there are very few indigenous microorganisms with a strong ability to decompose inositol phosphate in the soil. On the contrary, Japanese soils contain many indigenous heterotrophic microorganisms which solubilize mineral bound phosphates by the excretion of chelating organic acids. In grassland soils, phosphate solubilizing microorganisms made up 1% of bacterial populations and 10% of fungal populations (Nishio 1985). Tinker (1980) raised doubts on the utilization of heterorophic phosphate solubilizing microorganisms, because they need a large amount of organic matter before they can excrete organic acids. Even if phosphate is solubilized, phosphate ions are incorporated into the microbial biomass, so roots cannot absorb enough of them. Thus, we adopted the following strategy: a) The addition of a large amount of organic matter makes phosphate solubilizing (PS) microorganisms proliferate and these solubilize bound phosphate. b) Solubilized phosphates are incorporated into the microbial biomass during other microbial multiplication, using organic matter. c) Once the organic matter becomes exhausted, the microbial biomass decreases and releases phosphate into the soil. d) The death of the microbial biomass can be accelerated by various soil treatments, including tillage, drying, liming and sterilization. e) Plants can absorb phosphate after microbial proliferation has ceased. f) The absorption of phosphate by plants can be accelerated by inoculation with AMF.

                        Experimental Evidence

                        Each step described above has been experimentally confirmed (Kimura and Nishio 1989). Fig. 4 shows the difference in biomass P (P retained in biomass) between the soils with and without compound phosphate. When the soil was incubated for 7 days by adding sucrose and ammonium sulfate, the biomass P significantly increased, utilizing Ca-, Al-, and Fe-phosphates and low-quality rock phosphate. However, no significant increase was observed with varicite (crystallized aluminum phosphate) over this short period. This indicates that insoluble phosphates which are not crystallized can be solubilized by indigenous microorganisms when abundant carbon sources are supplied.

                        The rate of increase in soil biomass P fell, and available phosphate increased, after the depletion of carbon sources, or after soil treatments such as chloropicrin fumigation, air-drying or grinding (Fig. 5). This indicates that after the exhaustion of organic matter, microbial biomass falls, releasing phosphate into the soil, and that the release of available phosphate can be accelerated by soil treatments.

                        To demonstrate the stimulatory effect of AMF on plant absorption of phosphate released from soil biomass, an experiment was conducted using dry yeast as an alternative to dead soil biomass. Fig. 6 shows that the simultaneous addition of dry yeast and AMF had a marked effect on both the growth of alfalfa and phosphate absorption by the plant.

                        Implications

                        Although this experimental evidence merely shows the principles underlying the technology, this is very useful when we attempt to utilize heterotrophic phosphate-solubilizing (PS) microorganisms in soil. It indicates that

                        • PS microorganisms need the addition of a large amount of organic matter as a substrate (excretes from roots are not sufficient);
                        • Phosphate solubilized by PS micro-organisms is seldom absorbed directly by the plant as long as a large amount of organic matter remains, because other heterotrophs incorporate phosphate into biomass; thus,
                        • Growth retardation of the plant may be a possibility just after the application of organic matter.
                        • To avoid growth retardation, seeding or transplanting should be delayed.
                        • If rock phosphate, basic sludge or other low-grade phosphate is added, pre-solubilization of bound phosphate in the compost is one way of avoiding growth retardation.

                         

                        On Fri, Jul 23, 2010 at 10:04 PM, Barry Husk <husk@...> wrote:

                         

                        logo BlueLeaf_texte 80%

                         

                         

                        One of our biochar research field trials begun this summer in Eastern Canada, in collaboration with McGill University, will be looking specifically at the fate of phosphorus in soil with biochar.

                         

                        Barry

                         

                         

                        Barry Husk

                        President

                        BlueLeaf Inc.

                        T (819) 472-9525

                        F (819) 477-1857

                        bhusk@...

                        www.blue-leaf.ca

                        Feuille BlueLeaf

                         

                         

                         

                        From: biochar@yahoogroups.com [mailto:biochar@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of Lloyd Helferty
                        Sent: Friday, July 23, 2010 4:48 PM
                        To: biochar@yahoogroups.com
                        Cc: Richard Haard
                        Subject: Re: [biochar] Re: Fwd: STORY OF PHOSPHORUS

                         

                         

                        Richard,

                          These are extremely important questions that I do not have the answer to, and this is exactly why we need to start soon to start this type of research. This could potentially fall under the umbrella of the type of research that could be done by a Biochar Research Centre, but more likely it would simply fall under normal "soil science" research departments... (possibly with Biochar thrown in as part of the mix of technologies that might help with finding ways to "enhance biological processes that convert surface adsorbed p and complex organic p to soluble forms in a timely way when the plants need it"...)

                          Lloyd Helferty, 

                        Error! Filename not specified.

                        .

                        Error! Filename not specified.

                         

                      • Erich Knight
                        Hi Mark, Hence the plants buy P with sugar. from the char-fungal complex , My point is that we know MYC / AMF have an affinity with char From the link I
                        Message 11 of 20 , Jul 23, 2010
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                          Hi Mark,
                          Hence the plants "buy P with sugar." from the "char-fungal complex",
                          My point is that we know MYC / AMF have an affinity with char

                          From the link I gave;

                          Utilization of Indigenous Amf by the Application of Charcoal

                          The idea that the application of charcoal stimulates indigenous AMF in soil and thus promotes plant growth is relatively well-known in Japan, although the actual application of charcoal is limited due to its high cost. The concept originated in the work of M. Ogawa, a former soil microbiologist in the Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute in Tsukuba. He and his colleagues applied charcoal around the roots of pine trees growing by the seashore, and found that Japanese truffles became plentiful. He also tested the application of charcoal to soybean with a small quantity of applied fertilizer, and demonstrated the stimulation of plant growth and nodule formation (Ogawa 1983). His findings with regard to legumes were taken up for further study by the National Grassland Research Institute (Nishio and Okano 1991).

                          And

                          Mechanism Whereby Charcoal Stimulates the Growth of Amf

                          Charcoal may stimulate the growth of AMF by the following mechanism. Charcoal particles have a large number of continuous pores with a diameter of more than 100µm. They do not contain any organic nutrients, because of the carbonization process. The large pores in the charcoal may offer a new microhabitat to the AMF, which can obtain organic nutrients through mycelia extended from roots. This may enable the AMF to extend their mycelia far out from the roots, thus collecting a larger amount of available phosphate.

                          http://www.agnet.org/library/eb/430/

                          Cheers,
                          Erich

                          On Sat, Jul 24, 2010 at 1:57 AM, Mark Ludlow <mark@...> wrote:
                           

                          Dear Erich,

                          It is my impression that arbuscular mycorrhyzal fungi only grow in the presence of root systems, with which they are symbiotic. I doubt that soil char alone would cause a bloom of these structures.

                          Best, Mark

                           

                          From: biochar@yahoogroups.com [mailto:biochar@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of Erich Knight
                          Sent: Friday, July 23, 2010 8:29 PM
                          To: biochar@yahoogroups.com
                          Subject: Re: [biochar] RE: STORY OF PHOSPHORUS

                           

                           

                          Hi List,

                          The passage below from  Michinori Nishio, National Institute of Agro-Environmental Sciences, http://www.agnet.org/library/eb/430/  clearly show the process for microbes , AMF and solubilization of bound phosphate

                          Of course Folke G. said the same thing in one paragraph;
                           "P is only weakly bound (or not at all) to char. But when there is a developed (arbuscular mycorrhyzal) fungal growth in and around the char surfaces, the P will stitch to the char-fungal complex, and will thus stay in the soil complex for longer periods of time, and can then be delivered to plants as they 'buy' it with sugar." "Probably most of the action of making P available to the plants is done by the mycorrhiza fungi."
                            - Folke G.



                          Cheers,
                          Erich


                          Utilization of Phosphate Solubilizing Microorganisms

                          Japan has only very small amounts of rock phosphate, and most of its soils immobilize phosphate ions into unavailable forms. Rock phosphate which can be mined by current technology is predicted to become exhausted in about 100 years' time. Therefore, there is a strong interest in developing alternative sources of phosphate fertilizer. Many countries are studying the direct utilization of rock phosphate. Australia has developed "biosuper", i.e. pellets composed of rock phosphate, sulfur and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. Japanese scientists are very interested in the solubilization of bound phosphate in soil which has accumulated phosphate from repeated, heavy applications of phosphate fertilizer.

                          While more than 70% of total phosphate is present in organic forms, such as inositol phosphate in volcanic ash soils, there are very few indigenous microorganisms with a strong ability to decompose inositol phosphate in the soil. On the contrary, Japanese soils contain many indigenous heterotrophic microorganisms which solubilize mineral bound phosphates by the excretion of chelating organic acids. In grassland soils, phosphate solubilizing microorganisms made up 1% of bacterial populations and 10% of fungal populations (Nishio 1985). Tinker (1980) raised doubts on the utilization of heterorophic phosphate solubilizing microorganisms, because they need a large amount of organic matter before they can excrete organic acids. Even if phosphate is solubilized, phosphate ions are incorporated into the microbial biomass, so roots cannot absorb enough of them. Thus, we adopted the following strategy: a) The addition of a large amount of organic matter makes phosphate solubilizing (PS) microorganisms proliferate and these solubilize bound phosphate. b) Solubilized phosphates are incorporated into the microbial biomass during other microbial multiplication, using organic matter. c) Once the organic matter becomes exhausted, the microbial biomass decreases and releases phosphate into the soil. d) The death of the microbial biomass can be accelerated by various soil treatments, including tillage, drying, liming and sterilization. e) Plants can absorb phosphate after microbial proliferation has ceased. f) The absorption of phosphate by plants can be accelerated by inoculation with AMF.

                          Experimental Evidence

                          Each step described above has been experimentally confirmed (Kimura and Nishio 1989). Fig. 4 shows the difference in biomass P (P retained in biomass) between the soils with and without compound phosphate. When the soil was incubated for 7 days by adding sucrose and ammonium sulfate, the biomass P significantly increased, utilizing Ca-, Al-, and Fe-phosphates and low-quality rock phosphate. However, no significant increase was observed with varicite (crystallized aluminum phosphate) over this short period. This indicates that insoluble phosphates which are not crystallized can be solubilized by indigenous microorganisms when abundant carbon sources are supplied.

                          The rate of increase in soil biomass P fell, and available phosphate increased, after the depletion of carbon sources, or after soil treatments such as chloropicrin fumigation, air-drying or grinding (Fig. 5). This indicates that after the exhaustion of organic matter, microbial biomass falls, releasing phosphate into the soil, and that the release of available phosphate can be accelerated by soil treatments.

                          To demonstrate the stimulatory effect of AMF on plant absorption of phosphate released from soil biomass, an experiment was conducted using dry yeast as an alternative to dead soil biomass. Fig. 6 shows that the simultaneous addition of dry yeast and AMF had a marked effect on both the growth of alfalfa and phosphate absorption by the plant.

                          Implications

                          Although this experimental evidence merely shows the principles underlying the technology, this is very useful when we attempt to utilize heterotrophic phosphate-solubilizing (PS) microorganisms in soil. It indicates that

                          • PS microorganisms need the addition of a large amount of organic matter as a substrate (excretes from roots are not sufficient);
                          • Phosphate solubilized by PS micro-organisms is seldom absorbed directly by the plant as long as a large amount of organic matter remains, because other heterotrophs incorporate phosphate into biomass; thus,
                          • Growth retardation of the plant may be a possibility just after the application of organic matter.
                          • To avoid growth retardation, seeding or transplanting should be delayed.
                          • If rock phosphate, basic sludge or other low-grade phosphate is added, pre-solubilization of bound phosphate in the compost is one way of avoiding growth retardation.

                           

                          On Fri, Jul 23, 2010 at 10:04 PM, Barry Husk <husk@...> wrote:

                           

                          logo BlueLeaf_texte 80%

                           

                           

                          One of our biochar research field trials begun this summer in Eastern Canada, in collaboration with McGill University, will be looking specifically at the fate of phosphorus in soil with biochar.

                           

                          Barry

                           

                           

                          Barry Husk

                          President

                          BlueLeaf Inc.

                          T (819) 472-9525

                          F (819) 477-1857

                          bhusk@...

                          www.blue-leaf.ca

                          Feuille BlueLeaf

                           

                           

                           

                          From: biochar@yahoogroups.com [mailto:biochar@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of Lloyd Helferty
                          Sent: Friday, July 23, 2010 4:48 PM
                          To: biochar@yahoogroups.com
                          Cc: Richard Haard
                          Subject: Re: [biochar] Re: Fwd: STORY OF PHOSPHORUS

                           

                           

                          Richard,

                            These are extremely important questions that I do not have the answer to, and this is exactly why we need to start soon to start this type of research. This could potentially fall under the umbrella of the type of research that could be done by a Biochar Research Centre, but more likely it would simply fall under normal "soil science" research departments... (possibly with Biochar thrown in as part of the mix of technologies that might help with finding ways to "enhance biological processes that convert surface adsorbed p and complex organic p to soluble forms in a timely way when the plants need it"...)

                            Lloyd Helferty, 

                          Error! Filename not specified.

                          .

                          Error! Filename not specified.

                           


                        • Mark Ludlow
                          Hi Erich, Are you asserting that AMF will bloom without the presence of root hairs that they can “infect”? Could be; but it seems contrary to what I
                          Message 12 of 20 , Jul 24, 2010
                          View Source
                          • 0 Attachment

                            Hi Erich,

                            Are you asserting that AMF will bloom without the presence of root hairs that they can “infect”? Could be; but it seems contrary to what I understand. What symbiosis would the AMF have with char? Nature is economical!

                            Best, Mark

                             

                            From: biochar@yahoogroups.com [mailto:biochar@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of Erich Knight
                            Sent: Friday, July 23, 2010 11:39 PM
                            To: biochar@yahoogroups.com
                            Subject: Re: [biochar] RE: STORY OF PHOSPHORUS

                             

                             

                            Hi Mark,
                            Hence the plants "buy P with sugar." from the "char-fungal complex",
                            My point is that we know MYC / AMF have an affinity with char


                            From the link I gave;

                            Utilization of Indigenous Amf by the Application of Charcoal

                            The idea that the application of charcoal stimulates indigenous AMF in soil and thus promotes plant growth is relatively well-known in Japan, although the actual application of charcoal is limited due to its high cost. The concept originated in the work of M. Ogawa, a former soil microbiologist in the Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute in Tsukuba. He and his colleagues applied charcoal around the roots of pine trees growing by the seashore, and found that Japanese truffles became plentiful. He also tested the application of charcoal to soybean with a small quantity of applied fertilizer, and demonstrated the stimulation of plant growth and nodule formation (Ogawa 1983). His findings with regard to legumes were taken up for further study by the National Grassland Research Institute (Nishio and Okano 1991).

                            And


                            Mechanism Whereby Charcoal Stimulates the Growth of Amf

                            Charcoal may stimulate the growth of AMF by the following mechanism. Charcoal particles have a large number of continuous pores with a diameter of more than 100µm. They do not contain any organic nutrients, because of the carbonization process. The large pores in the charcoal may offer a new microhabitat to the AMF, which can obtain organic nutrients through mycelia extended from roots. This may enable the AMF to extend their mycelia far out from the roots, thus collecting a larger amount of available phosphate.

                            http://www.agnet.org/library/eb/430/

                            Cheers,
                            Erich

                            On Sat, Jul 24, 2010 at 1:57 AM, Mark Ludlow <mark@...> wrote:

                             

                            Dear Erich,

                            It is my impression that arbuscular mycorrhyzal fungi only grow in the presence of root systems, with which they are symbiotic. I doubt that soil char alone would cause a bloom of these structures.

                            Best, Mark

                             

                            From: biochar@yahoogroups.com [mailto:biochar@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of Erich Knight
                            Sent: Friday, July 23, 2010 8:29 PM
                            To: biochar@yahoogroups.com
                            Subject: Re: [biochar] RE: STORY OF PHOSPHORUS

                             

                             

                            Hi List,

                            The passage below from  Michinori Nishio, National Institute of Agro-Environmental Sciences, http://www.agnet.org/library/eb/430/  clearly show the process for microbes , AMF and solubilization of bound phosphate

                            Of course Folke G. said the same thing in one paragraph;
                             "P is only weakly bound (or not at all) to char. But when there is a developed (arbuscular mycorrhyzal) fungal growth in and around the char surfaces, the P will stitch to the char-fungal complex, and will thus stay in the soil complex for longer periods of time, and can then be delivered to plants as they 'buy' it with sugar." "Probably most of the action of making P available to the plants is done by the mycorrhiza fungi."
                              - Folke G.



                            Cheers,
                            Erich

                            Utilization of Phosphate Solubilizing Microorganisms

                            Japan has only very small amounts of rock phosphate, and most of its soils immobilize phosphate ions into unavailable forms. Rock phosphate which can be mined by current technology is predicted to become exhausted in about 100 years' time. Therefore, there is a strong interest in developing alternative sources of phosphate fertilizer. Many countries are studying the direct utilization of rock phosphate. Australia has developed "biosuper", i.e. pellets composed of rock phosphate, sulfur and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. Japanese scientists are very interested in the solubilization of bound phosphate in soil which has accumulated phosphate from repeated, heavy applications of phosphate fertilizer.

                            While more than 70% of total phosphate is present in organic forms, such as inositol phosphate in volcanic ash soils, there are very few indigenous microorganisms with a strong ability to decompose inositol phosphate in the soil. On the contrary, Japanese soils contain many indigenous heterotrophic microorganisms which solubilize mineral bound phosphates by the excretion of chelating organic acids. In grassland soils, phosphate solubilizing microorganisms made up 1% of bacterial populations and 10% of fungal populations (Nishio 1985). Tinker (1980) raised doubts on the utilization of heterorophic phosphate solubilizing microorganisms, because they need a large amount of organic matter before they can excrete organic acids. Even if phosphate is solubilized, phosphate ions are incorporated into the microbial biomass, so roots cannot absorb enough of them. Thus, we adopted the following strategy: a) The addition of a large amount of organic matter makes phosphate solubilizing (PS) microorganisms proliferate and these solubilize bound phosphate. b) Solubilized phosphates are incorporated into the microbial biomass during other microbial multiplication, using organic matter. c) Once the organic matter becomes exhausted, the microbial biomass decreases and releases phosphate into the soil. d) The death of the microbial biomass can be accelerated by various soil treatments, including tillage, drying, liming and sterilization. e) Plants can absorb phosphate after microbial proliferation has ceased. f) The absorption of phosphate by plants can be accelerated by inoculation with AMF.

                            Experimental Evidence

                            Each step described above has been experimentally confirmed (Kimura and Nishio 1989). Fig. 4 shows the difference in biomass P (P retained in biomass) between the soils with and without compound phosphate. When the soil was incubated for 7 days by adding sucrose and ammonium sulfate, the biomass P significantly increased, utilizing Ca-, Al-, and Fe-phosphates and low-quality rock phosphate. However, no significant increase was observed with varicite (crystallized aluminum phosphate) over this short period. This indicates that insoluble phosphates which are not crystallized can be solubilized by indigenous microorganisms when abundant carbon sources are supplied.

                            The rate of increase in soil biomass P fell, and available phosphate increased, after the depletion of carbon sources, or after soil treatments such as chloropicrin fumigation, air-drying or grinding (Fig. 5). This indicates that after the exhaustion of organic matter, microbial biomass falls, releasing phosphate into the soil, and that the release of available phosphate can be accelerated by soil treatments.

                            To demonstrate the stimulatory effect of AMF on plant absorption of phosphate released from soil biomass, an experiment was conducted using dry yeast as an alternative to dead soil biomass. Fig. 6 shows that the simultaneous addition of dry yeast and AMF had a marked effect on both the growth of alfalfa and phosphate absorption by the plant.

                            Implications

                            Although this experimental evidence merely shows the principles underlying the technology, this is very useful when we attempt to utilize heterotrophic phosphate-solubilizing (PS) microorganisms in soil. It indicates that

                            • PS microorganisms need the addition of a large amount of organic matter as a substrate (excretes from roots are not sufficient);
                            • Phosphate solubilized by PS micro-organisms is seldom absorbed directly by the plant as long as a large amount of organic matter remains, because other heterotrophs incorporate phosphate into biomass; thus,
                            • Growth retardation of the plant may be a possibility just after the application of organic matter.
                            • To avoid growth retardation, seeding or transplanting should be delayed.
                            • If rock phosphate, basic sludge or other low-grade phosphate is added, pre-solubilization of bound phosphate in the compost is one way of avoiding growth retardation.

                             

                            On Fri, Jul 23, 2010 at 10:04 PM, Barry Husk <husk@...> wrote:

                             

                            logo BlueLeaf_texte 80%

                             

                             

                            One of our biochar research field trials begun this summer in Eastern Canada, in collaboration with McGill University, will be looking specifically at the fate of phosphorus in soil with biochar.

                             

                            Barry

                             

                             

                            Barry Husk

                            President

                            BlueLeaf Inc.

                            T (819) 472-9525

                            F (819) 477-1857

                            bhusk@...

                            www.blue-leaf.ca

                            Feuille BlueLeaf

                             

                             

                             

                            From: biochar@yahoogroups.com [mailto:biochar@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of Lloyd Helferty
                            Sent: Friday, July 23, 2010 4:48 PM
                            To: biochar@yahoogroups.com
                            Cc: Richard Haard
                            Subject: Re: [biochar] Re: Fwd: STORY OF PHOSPHORUS

                             

                             

                            Richard,

                              These are extremely important questions that I do not have the answer to, and this is exactly why we need to start soon to start this type of research. This could potentially fall under the umbrella of the type of research that could be done by a Biochar Research Centre, but more likely it would simply fall under normal "soil science" research departments... (possibly with Biochar thrown in as part of the mix of technologies that might help with finding ways to "enhance biological processes that convert surface adsorbed p and complex organic p to soluble forms in a timely way when the plants need it"...)

                              Lloyd Helferty, 

                            Error! Filename not specified.

                            .

                            Error! Filename not specified.

                             

                             

                          • Folke Günther
                            2010/7/23 Richard Haard ... 1. *Applying P to a soil will, after some time lead to a corresponding leakage. At first, available recipient
                            Message 13 of 20 , Jul 24, 2010
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                              2010/7/23 Richard Haard <richrd@...>
                               

                              Lloyd, others - your ideas on this 

                              We harvest  almost 100% of the plants at our farm, roots, tops though not leaves usually. As a soil test only looks at available P it appears that applied fertilizer P moves rapidly into  unavailable pools of surface adsorbed P on soil particles (with Fe and Al coating), hence erosion losses. Also soluble is lost as biomass and in organic, insoluble complexes. We have high calcium soils and pH above 6 hence binding by this route is also evident. For the farmer logical solution is to apply phosphate fertilizer annualy even though a reserve exists in soil of phosphate, though not soluble. 
                              1. Applying P to a soil will, after some time lead to a corresponding leakage. At first, available recipient sites (Fe, Al etc) are used, then, the leakage will increase. That is why applying sludge, sooner or later will lead to a leakage,
                              2. Mycorrhizal fungi increase the availability of P caught by mineral site, but to do that, they need energy from plants. Trying to find this effect in vitro is therefore very hard, or impossible.
                              3. The effect of biochar in soils seem to increase mycorrhizal activity, eg. VAM,  thus helping the release of 'insoluble' P.

                                FG




                              Only way out of this seems to be enhance biological processes that convert surface adsorbed p and complex organic p to soluble forms in a timely way when the plants need it , in the spring when they are actively growing. VA fungi? and what role can biochar play in this process?

                              http://www.inpofos.org/ppiweb/ppinews.nsf/$webcontents/FF5C6A5F8AC7431C8525691B0066A943/$file/98175-AEL+P-mobility.pdf



                              Yet the main "loss route" of P from soils is not from erosion, which results in the contamination of waterways: it is from food export.
                              As Folke pointed out, if phosphorus is not actually recycled, that is where there is a risk that we might "run out" of P. It is mostly because we have arranged "linear flows of P" in our current type of agricultural / food systems that we are "losing it"... "and no char can fix that".

                              On top of increasing the recycling of P (which thus also minimized the use of limited rock phosphate sources), there are two main steps that the EPA is currently considering to reduce agricultural pollution reaching waterways (places like the gulf):
                              1. cut application rates so crops can absorb more of the fertilizer, and
                              2. improve barriers to intercept whatever fertility escapes plant uptake. 




                              --
                              ----------------------------------------
                              Join the Facebook group Charcoal against Global Warming!
                              ----------------------------------------
                              Folke Günther
                              Kollegievägen 19
                              224 73 Lund
                              Sweden
                              Phone: +46 (0)46 141429
                              Cell: +46 (0)709 710306
                              Skype:folkegun
                              URL: http://www.holon.se/folke
                              BLOG: http://folkegunther.blogspot.com/
                            • Teel, Wayne
                              Mark and Erich, Perhaps it is best to see the biochar role in the AMF/plant mutualism as a kind of catalyst. Generally a catalyst is unchanged by a reaction,
                              Message 14 of 20 , Jul 24, 2010
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                                Mark and Erich,

                                Perhaps it is best to see the biochar role in the AMF/plant mutualism as a kind of catalyst. Generally a catalyst is unchanged by a reaction, functioning to lower the activation energy. In this case we can see biochar as the site for the interaction, with the additional role of warehousing nutrients and water. Mastering the details of the interaction between the biotic and abiotic actors in this system will take scientists sometimes to sort out (if we ever do) but the encouraging results of plant productivity make the effort worthwhile.

                                Wayne

                                ________________________________________
                                From: biochar@yahoogroups.com [biochar@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of Mark Ludlow [mark@...]
                                Sent: Saturday, July 24, 2010 3:21 AM
                                To: biochar@yahoogroups.com
                                Subject: RE: [biochar] RE: STORY OF PHOSPHORUS

                                Hi Erich,
                                Are you asserting that AMF will bloom without the presence of root hairs that they can “infect”? Could be; but it seems contrary to what I understand. What symbiosis would the AMF have with char? Nature is economical!
                                Best, Mark

                                From: biochar@yahoogroups.com [mailto:biochar@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of Erich Knight
                                Sent: Friday, July 23, 2010 11:39 PM
                                To: biochar@yahoogroups.com
                                Subject: Re: [biochar] RE: STORY OF PHOSPHORUS



                                Hi Mark,
                                Hence the plants "buy P with sugar." from the "char-fungal complex",
                                My point is that we know MYC / AMF have an affinity with char

                                From the link I gave;

                                Utilization of Indigenous Amf by the Application of Charcoal

                                The idea that the application of charcoal stimulates indigenous AMF in soil and thus promotes plant growth is relatively well-known in Japan, although the actual application of charcoal is limited due to its high cost. The concept originated in the work of M. Ogawa, a former soil microbiologist in the Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute in Tsukuba. He and his colleagues applied charcoal around the roots of pine trees growing by the seashore, and found that Japanese truffles became plentiful. He also tested the application of charcoal to soybean with a small quantity of applied fertilizer, and demonstrated the stimulation of plant growth and nodule formation (Ogawa 1983). His findings with regard to legumes were taken up for further study by the National Grassland Research Institute (Nishio and Okano 1991).
                                And


                                Mechanism Whereby Charcoal Stimulates the Growth of Amf

                                Charcoal may stimulate the growth of AMF by the following mechanism. Charcoal particles have a large number of continuous pores with a diameter of more than 100µm. They do not contain any organic nutrients, because of the carbonization process. The large pores in the charcoal may offer a new microhabitat to the AMF, which can obtain organic nutrients through mycelia extended from roots. This may enable the AMF to extend their mycelia far out from the roots, thus collecting a larger amount of available phosphate.
                                http://www.agnet.org/library/eb/430/

                                Cheers,
                                Erich

                                On Sat, Jul 24, 2010 at 1:57 AM, Mark Ludlow <mark@...<mailto:mark@...>> wrote:

                                Dear Erich,
                                It is my impression that arbuscular mycorrhyzal fungi only grow in the presence of root systems, with which they are symbiotic. I doubt that soil char alone would cause a bloom of these structures.
                                Best, Mark

                                From: biochar@yahoogroups.com<mailto:biochar@yahoogroups.com> [mailto:biochar@yahoogroups.com<mailto:biochar@yahoogroups.com>] On Behalf Of Erich Knight
                                Sent: Friday, July 23, 2010 8:29 PM
                                To: biochar@yahoogroups.com<mailto:biochar@yahoogroups.com>
                                Subject: Re: [biochar] RE: STORY OF PHOSPHORUS


                                Hi List,
                                The passage below from Michinori Nishio, National Institute of Agro-Environmental Sciences, http://www.agnet.org/library/eb/430/ clearly show the process for microbes , AMF and solubilization of bound phosphate
                                Of course Folke G. said the same thing in one paragraph;
                                "P is only weakly bound (or not at all) to char. But when there is a developed (arbuscular mycorrhyzal) fungal growth in and around the char surfaces, the P will stitch to the char-fungal complex, and will thus stay in the soil complex for longer periods of time, and can then be delivered to plants as they 'buy' it with sugar." "Probably most of the action of making P available to the plants is done by the mycorrhiza fungi."
                                - Folke G.



                                Cheers,
                                Erich

                                Utilization of Phosphate Solubilizing Microorganisms

                                Japan has only very small amounts of rock phosphate, and most of its soils immobilize phosphate ions into unavailable forms. Rock phosphate which can be mined by current technology is predicted to become exhausted in about 100 years' time. Therefore, there is a strong interest in developing alternative sources of phosphate fertilizer. Many countries are studying the direct utilization of rock phosphate. Australia has developed "biosuper", i.e. pellets composed of rock phosphate, sulfur and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. Japanese scientists are very interested in the solubilization of bound phosphate in soil which has accumulated phosphate from repeated, heavy applications of phosphate fertilizer.

                                While more than 70% of total phosphate is present in organic forms, such as inositol phosphate in volcanic ash soils, there are very few indigenous microorganisms with a strong ability to decompose inositol phosphate in the soil. On the contrary, Japanese soils contain many indigenous heterotrophic microorganisms which solubilize mineral bound phosphates by the excretion of chelating organic acids. In grassland soils, phosphate solubilizing microorganisms made up 1% of bacterial populations and 10% of fungal populations (Nishio 1985). Tinker (1980) raised doubts on the utilization of heterorophic phosphate solubilizing microorganisms, because they need a large amount of organic matter before they can excrete organic acids. Even if phosphate is solubilized, phosphate ions are incorporated into the microbial biomass, so roots cannot absorb enough of them. Thus, we adopted the following strategy: a) The addition of a large amount of organic matter makes phosphate solubilizing (PS) microorganisms proliferate and these solubilize bound phosphate. b) Solubilized phosphates are incorporated into the microbial biomass during other microbial multiplication, using organic matter. c) Once the organic matter becomes exhausted, the microbial biomass decreases and releases phosphate into the soil. d) The death of the microbial biomass can be accelerated by various soil treatments, including tillage, drying, liming and sterilization. e) Plants can absorb phosphate after microbial proliferation has ceased. f) The absorption of phosphate by plants can be accelerated by inoculation with AMF.

                                Experimental Evidence

                                Each step described above has been experimentally confirmed (Kimura and Nishio 1989). Fig. 4<http://www.agnet.org/library/eb/430/#picf4> shows the difference in biomass P (P retained in biomass) between the soils with and without compound phosphate. When the soil was incubated for 7 days by adding sucrose and ammonium sulfate, the biomass P significantly increased, utilizing Ca-, Al-, and Fe-phosphates and low-quality rock phosphate. However, no significant increase was observed with varicite (crystallized aluminum phosphate) over this short period. This indicates that insoluble phosphates which are not crystallized can be solubilized by indigenous microorganisms when abundant carbon sources are supplied.

                                The rate of increase in soil biomass P fell, and available phosphate increased, after the depletion of carbon sources, or after soil treatments such as chloropicrin fumigation, air-drying or grinding (Fig. 5<http://www.agnet.org/library/eb/430/#picf5>). This indicates that after the exhaustion of organic matter, microbial biomass falls, releasing phosphate into the soil, and that the release of available phosphate can be accelerated by soil treatments.

                                To demonstrate the stimulatory effect of AMF on plant absorption of phosphate released from soil biomass, an experiment was conducted using dry yeast as an alternative to dead soil biomass. Fig. 6<http://www.agnet.org/library/eb/430/#picf6> shows that the simultaneous addition of dry yeast and AMF had a marked effect on both the growth of alfalfa and phosphate absorption by the plant.

                                Implications

                                Although this experimental evidence merely shows the principles underlying the technology, this is very useful when we attempt to utilize heterotrophic phosphate-solubilizing (PS) microorganisms in soil. It indicates that

                                * PS microorganisms need the addition of a large amount of organic matter as a substrate (excretes from roots are not sufficient);
                                * Phosphate solubilized by PS micro-organisms is seldom absorbed directly by the plant as long as a large amount of organic matter remains, because other heterotrophs incorporate phosphate into biomass; thus,
                                * Growth retardation of the plant may be a possibility just after the application of organic matter.
                                * To avoid growth retardation, seeding or transplanting should be delayed.
                                * If rock phosphate, basic sludge or other low-grade phosphate is added, pre-solubilization of bound phosphate in the compost is one way of avoiding growth retardation.

                                On Fri, Jul 23, 2010 at 10:04 PM, Barry Husk <husk@...<mailto:husk@...>> wrote:

                                [cid:image001.jpg@01CB2AC6.228342F0]


                                One of our biochar research field trials begun this summer in Eastern Canada, in collaboration with McGill University, will be looking specifically at the fate of phosphorus in soil with biochar.

                                Barry


                                Barry Husk
                                President
                                BlueLeaf Inc.
                                T (819) 472-9525
                                F (819) 477-1857
                                bhusk@...<mailto:bhusk@...>
                                www.blue-leaf.ca<http://www.blue-leaf.ca>
                                [cid:image002.jpg@01CB2AC6.228342F0]



                                From: biochar@yahoogroups.com<mailto:biochar@yahoogroups.com> [mailto:biochar@yahoogroups.com<mailto:biochar@yahoogroups.com>] On Behalf Of Lloyd Helferty
                                Sent: Friday, July 23, 2010 4:48 PM
                                To: biochar@yahoogroups.com<mailto:biochar@yahoogroups.com>
                                Cc: Richard Haard
                                Subject: Re: [biochar] Re: Fwd: STORY OF PHOSPHORUS



                                Richard,

                                These are extremely important questions that I do not have the answer to, and this is exactly why we need to start soon to start this type of research. This could potentially fall under the umbrella of the type of research that could be done by a Biochar Research Centre, but more likely it would simply fall under normal "soil science" research departments... (possibly with Biochar thrown in as part of the mix of technologies that might help with finding ways to "enhance biological processes that convert surface adsorbed p and complex organic p to soluble forms in a timely way when the plants need it"...)

                                Lloyd Helferty,
                                Error! Filename not specified.
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                              • Mark Ludlow
                                Hi Wayne, Thanks for your thoughtful reply. However, it has been demonstrated that AMF/plant interactivity is directly related to signaling pathways between
                                Message 15 of 20 , Jul 24, 2010
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                                  Hi Wayne,
                                  Thanks for your thoughtful reply. However, it has been demonstrated that
                                  AMF/plant interactivity is directly related to signaling pathways between
                                  the two organisms (citations not immediately available). Char proximate to
                                  the root zone may have a positive effect but this is speculative. AMF are
                                  most (only) productive when they are conjugate with the host organism. Do
                                  you have another explanation?
                                  Best, Mark

                                  -----Original Message-----
                                  From: biochar@yahoogroups.com [mailto:biochar@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of
                                  Teel, Wayne
                                  Sent: Saturday, July 24, 2010 4:16 AM
                                  To: biochar@yahoogroups.com
                                  Subject: RE: [biochar] RE: STORY OF PHOSPHORUS

                                  Mark and Erich,

                                  Perhaps it is best to see the biochar role in the AMF/plant mutualism as a
                                  kind of catalyst. Generally a catalyst is unchanged by a reaction,
                                  functioning to lower the activation energy. In this case we can see biochar
                                  as the site for the interaction, with the additional role of warehousing
                                  nutrients and water. Mastering the details of the interaction between the
                                  biotic and abiotic actors in this system will take scientists sometimes to
                                  sort out (if we ever do) but the encouraging results of plant productivity
                                  make the effort worthwhile.

                                  Wayne

                                  ________________________________________
                                  From: biochar@yahoogroups.com [biochar@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of Mark
                                  Ludlow [mark@...]
                                  Sent: Saturday, July 24, 2010 3:21 AM
                                  To: biochar@yahoogroups.com
                                  Subject: RE: [biochar] RE: STORY OF PHOSPHORUS

                                  Hi Erich,
                                  Are you asserting that AMF will bloom without the presence of root hairs
                                  that they can “infect”? Could be; but it seems contrary to what I
                                  understand. What symbiosis would the AMF have with char? Nature is
                                  economical!
                                  Best, Mark

                                  From: biochar@yahoogroups.com [mailto:biochar@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of
                                  Erich Knight
                                  Sent: Friday, July 23, 2010 11:39 PM
                                  To: biochar@yahoogroups.com
                                  Subject: Re: [biochar] RE: STORY OF PHOSPHORUS



                                  Hi Mark,
                                  Hence the plants "buy P with sugar." from the "char-fungal complex",
                                  My point is that we know MYC / AMF have an affinity with char

                                  From the link I gave;

                                  Utilization of Indigenous Amf by the Application of Charcoal

                                  The idea that the application of charcoal stimulates indigenous AMF in soil
                                  and thus promotes plant growth is relatively well-known in Japan, although
                                  the actual application of charcoal is limited due to its high cost. The
                                  concept originated in the work of M. Ogawa, a former soil microbiologist in
                                  the Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute in Tsukuba. He and his
                                  colleagues applied charcoal around the roots of pine trees growing by the
                                  seashore, and found that Japanese truffles became plentiful. He also tested
                                  the application of charcoal to soybean with a small quantity of applied
                                  fertilizer, and demonstrated the stimulation of plant growth and nodule
                                  formation (Ogawa 1983). His findings with regard to legumes were taken up
                                  for further study by the National Grassland Research Institute (Nishio and
                                  Okano 1991).
                                  And


                                  Mechanism Whereby Charcoal Stimulates the Growth of Amf

                                  Charcoal may stimulate the growth of AMF by the following mechanism.
                                  Charcoal particles have a large number of continuous pores with a diameter
                                  of more than 100µm. They do not contain any organic nutrients, because of
                                  the carbonization process. The large pores in the charcoal may offer a new
                                  microhabitat to the AMF, which can obtain organic nutrients through mycelia
                                  extended from roots. This may enable the AMF to extend their mycelia far out
                                  from the roots, thus collecting a larger amount of available phosphate.
                                  http://www.agnet.org/library/eb/430/

                                  Cheers,
                                  Erich

                                  On Sat, Jul 24, 2010 at 1:57 AM, Mark Ludlow
                                  <mark@...<mailto:mark@...>> wrote:

                                  Dear Erich,
                                  It is my impression that arbuscular mycorrhyzal fungi only grow in the
                                  presence of root systems, with which they are symbiotic. I doubt that soil
                                  char alone would cause a bloom of these structures.
                                  Best, Mark

                                  From: biochar@yahoogroups.com<mailto:biochar@yahoogroups.com>
                                  [mailto:biochar@yahoogroups.com<mailto:biochar@yahoogroups.com>] On Behalf
                                  Of Erich Knight
                                  Sent: Friday, July 23, 2010 8:29 PM
                                  To: biochar@yahoogroups.com<mailto:biochar@yahoogroups.com>
                                  Subject: Re: [biochar] RE: STORY OF PHOSPHORUS


                                  Hi List,
                                  The passage below from Michinori Nishio, National Institute of
                                  Agro-Environmental Sciences, http://www.agnet.org/library/eb/430/ clearly
                                  show the process for microbes , AMF and solubilization of bound phosphate
                                  Of course Folke G. said the same thing in one paragraph;
                                  "P is only weakly bound (or not at all) to char. But when there is a
                                  developed (arbuscular mycorrhyzal) fungal growth in and around the char
                                  surfaces, the P will stitch to the char-fungal complex, and will thus stay
                                  in the soil complex for longer periods of time, and can then be delivered to
                                  plants as they 'buy' it with sugar." "Probably most of the action of making
                                  P available to the plants is done by the mycorrhiza fungi."
                                  - Folke G.



                                  Cheers,
                                  Erich

                                  Utilization of Phosphate Solubilizing Microorganisms

                                  Japan has only very small amounts of rock phosphate, and most of its soils
                                  immobilize phosphate ions into unavailable forms. Rock phosphate which can
                                  be mined by current technology is predicted to become exhausted in about 100
                                  years' time. Therefore, there is a strong interest in developing alternative
                                  sources of phosphate fertilizer. Many countries are studying the direct
                                  utilization of rock phosphate. Australia has developed "biosuper", i.e.
                                  pellets composed of rock phosphate, sulfur and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria.
                                  Japanese scientists are very interested in the solubilization of bound
                                  phosphate in soil which has accumulated phosphate from repeated, heavy
                                  applications of phosphate fertilizer.

                                  While more than 70% of total phosphate is present in organic forms, such as
                                  inositol phosphate in volcanic ash soils, there are very few indigenous
                                  microorganisms with a strong ability to decompose inositol phosphate in the
                                  soil. On the contrary, Japanese soils contain many indigenous heterotrophic
                                  microorganisms which solubilize mineral bound phosphates by the excretion of
                                  chelating organic acids. In grassland soils, phosphate solubilizing
                                  microorganisms made up 1% of bacterial populations and 10% of fungal
                                  populations (Nishio 1985). Tinker (1980) raised doubts on the utilization of
                                  heterorophic phosphate solubilizing microorganisms, because they need a
                                  large amount of organic matter before they can excrete organic acids. Even
                                  if phosphate is solubilized, phosphate ions are incorporated into the
                                  microbial biomass, so roots cannot absorb enough of them. Thus, we adopted
                                  the following strategy: a) The addition of a large amount of organic matter
                                  makes phosphate solubilizing (PS) microorganisms proliferate and these
                                  solubilize bound phosphate. b) Solubilized phosphates are incorporated into
                                  the microbial biomass during other microbial multiplication, using organic
                                  matter. c) Once the organic matter becomes exhausted, the microbial biomass
                                  decreases and releases phosphate into the soil. d) The death of the
                                  microbial biomass can be accelerated by various soil treatments, including
                                  tillage, drying, liming and sterilization. e) Plants can absorb phosphate
                                  after microbial proliferation has ceased. f) The absorption of phosphate by
                                  plants can be accelerated by inoculation with AMF.

                                  Experimental Evidence

                                  Each step described above has been experimentally confirmed (Kimura and
                                  Nishio 1989). Fig. 4<http://www.agnet.org/library/eb/430/#picf4> shows the
                                  difference in biomass P (P retained in biomass) between the soils with and
                                  without compound phosphate. When the soil was incubated for 7 days by adding
                                  sucrose and ammonium sulfate, the biomass P significantly increased,
                                  utilizing Ca-, Al-, and Fe-phosphates and low-quality rock phosphate.
                                  However, no significant increase was observed with varicite (crystallized
                                  aluminum phosphate) over this short period. This indicates that insoluble
                                  phosphates which are not crystallized can be solubilized by indigenous
                                  microorganisms when abundant carbon sources are supplied.

                                  The rate of increase in soil biomass P fell, and available phosphate
                                  increased, after the depletion of carbon sources, or after soil treatments
                                  such as chloropicrin fumigation, air-drying or grinding (Fig.
                                  5<http://www.agnet.org/library/eb/430/#picf5>). This indicates that after
                                  the exhaustion of organic matter, microbial biomass falls, releasing
                                  phosphate into the soil, and that the release of available phosphate can be
                                  accelerated by soil treatments.

                                  To demonstrate the stimulatory effect of AMF on plant absorption of
                                  phosphate released from soil biomass, an experiment was conducted using dry
                                  yeast as an alternative to dead soil biomass. Fig.
                                  6<http://www.agnet.org/library/eb/430/#picf6> shows that the simultaneous
                                  addition of dry yeast and AMF had a marked effect on both the growth of
                                  alfalfa and phosphate absorption by the plant.

                                  Implications

                                  Although this experimental evidence merely shows the principles underlying
                                  the technology, this is very useful when we attempt to utilize heterotrophic
                                  phosphate-solubilizing (PS) microorganisms in soil. It indicates that

                                  * PS microorganisms need the addition of a large amount of organic matter
                                  as a substrate (excretes from roots are not sufficient);
                                  * Phosphate solubilized by PS micro-organisms is seldom absorbed directly
                                  by the plant as long as a large amount of organic matter remains, because
                                  other heterotrophs incorporate phosphate into biomass; thus,
                                  * Growth retardation of the plant may be a possibility just after the
                                  application of organic matter.
                                  * To avoid growth retardation, seeding or transplanting should be
                                  delayed.
                                  * If rock phosphate, basic sludge or other low-grade phosphate is added,
                                  pre-solubilization of bound phosphate in the compost is one way of avoiding
                                  growth retardation.

                                  On Fri, Jul 23, 2010 at 10:04 PM, Barry Husk
                                  <husk@...<mailto:husk@...>> wrote:

                                  [cid:image001.jpg@01CB2AC6.228342F0]


                                  One of our biochar research field trials begun this summer in Eastern
                                  Canada, in collaboration with McGill University, will be looking
                                  specifically at the fate of phosphorus in soil with biochar.

                                  Barry


                                  Barry Husk
                                  President
                                  BlueLeaf Inc.
                                  T (819) 472-9525
                                  F (819) 477-1857
                                  bhusk@...<mailto:bhusk@...>
                                  www.blue-leaf.ca<http://www.blue-leaf.ca>
                                  [cid:image002.jpg@01CB2AC6.228342F0]



                                  From: biochar@yahoogroups.com<mailto:biochar@yahoogroups.com>
                                  [mailto:biochar@yahoogroups.com<mailto:biochar@yahoogroups.com>] On Behalf
                                  Of Lloyd Helferty
                                  Sent: Friday, July 23, 2010 4:48 PM
                                  To: biochar@yahoogroups.com<mailto:biochar@yahoogroups.com>
                                  Cc: Richard Haard
                                  Subject: Re: [biochar] Re: Fwd: STORY OF PHOSPHORUS



                                  Richard,

                                  These are extremely important questions that I do not have the answer to,
                                  and this is exactly why we need to start soon to start this type of
                                  research. This could potentially fall under the umbrella of the type of
                                  research that could be done by a Biochar Research Centre, but more likely it
                                  would simply fall under normal "soil science" research departments...
                                  (possibly with Biochar thrown in as part of the mix of technologies that
                                  might help with finding ways to "enhance biological processes that convert
                                  surface adsorbed p and complex organic p to soluble forms in a timely way
                                  when the plants need it"...)

                                  Lloyd Helferty,
                                  Error! Filename not specified.
                                  Error! Filename not
                                  specified.<http://groups.yahoo.com/;_ylc=X3oDMTJlbjNtcjR0BF9TAzk3NDc2NTkwBGd
                                  ycElkAzIyNDM4MDUyBGdycHNwSWQDMTcwNzQxODYxMgRzZWMDZnRyBHNsawNnZnAEc3RpbWUDMTI
                                  3OTkzNzkyNQ-->
                                  Switch to:
                                  Text-Only<mailto:biochar-traditional@yahoogroups.com?subject=Change+Delivery
                                  +Format:+Traditional>, Daily
                                  Digest<mailto:biochar-digest@yahoogroups.com?subject=Email+Delivery:+Digest>
                                  •
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                                  ------------------------------------

                                  Yahoo! Groups Links
                                • Tom Miles
                                  So what is the bioavailability of P in the parent material and in the various forms of biochar? How do these processes change the availability of P from the
                                  Message 16 of 20 , Jul 24, 2010
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                                    So what is the bioavailability of P in the parent material and in the
                                    various forms of biochar? How do these processes change the availability of
                                    P from the parent material?

                                    Several researchers have measured the bioavailability of P and other
                                    nutrients in biochars, especially poultry litter. We have not, however,
                                    adequately characterized the forms of nutrients like P that exist in the
                                    biochar, or in the parent material, the transformation that may occur in
                                    each of the processes of pyrolysis, gasification and combustion, and the
                                    utility of the nutrient in each form to the plant either directly or
                                    indirectly, e.g. through microbes.

                                    As far as I know there has been little research documenting the changes in
                                    inorganic components of the ash during pyrolysis but pyrolysis may impart
                                    important qualities. Jeff Novak, for example, found that in field trials the
                                    500C pyrolyzed switchgrass char was significantly better for water holding
                                    capacity than other chars tested.
                                    http://www.biorenew.iastate.edu/events/biochar2010/conference-agenda/agenda-
                                    overview/breakout-session-3/agriculture-forestry-soil-science-and-environmen
                                    t.html
                                    This may have been due to the transformation (dehydration) of the silica
                                    during pyrolysis. SWG chars have high ash contents and silicon forms a large
                                    fraction of the ash in grasses.(It was interesting to note that PL char did
                                    nothing for Jeff's applications.)



                                    Tom
                                  • bhaskarmvin
                                    We have a nano silica based micronutrient powder. When this is used along with phosphate fertilizer the amount of P required decreases. Silica can substitute
                                    Message 17 of 20 , Jul 25, 2010
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                                      We have a nano silica based micronutrient powder.
                                      When this is used along with phosphate fertilizer the amount of P required decreases.

                                      Silica can substitute phosphorus in agriculture to a certain extent.

                                      We are also working on a nano phosphorus foliar spray.
                                      This would reduce the amount of phosphorus used in agriculture.

                                      best regards

                                      Bhaskar
                                      www.kadambari.net
                                    • Teel, Wayne
                                      Mark, I have no disagreement with any of your statements. The AMF/plant interactions are direct and do not require biochar. They happen and both organisms
                                      Message 18 of 20 , Jul 25, 2010
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                                        Mark,

                                        I have no disagreement with any of your statements. The AMF/plant interactions are direct and do not require biochar. They happen and both organisms benefit from the relationship - the definition of mutualism in biology. Adding biochar to the system does a number of things, some of which are documented in literature, others are under study as hypotheses based on observation of soil systems, and still others are speculations, again based on observational differences between controls and field test of biochar additions. The key actions of biochar that are documented are increased moisture holding capacity, increased nutrient holding capacity, and better soil structure. These alone can improve the soil ecosystem for the plant/AMF interactions. The structure of biochar is such that microorganisms thrive on and inside them. This, too, is well-documented. Read "Biochar for Environmental Management" to get a feel for the breadth of literature already available on this. (If you join IBI you can get access to the book electronically as well.) Beyond this we get into the realm of "under study" and speculation, but based on observations. Who knows, maybe the signaling mechanisms between the plant and AMF are enhanced with the presence of biochar? This is a speculative question that can turn into a hypothesis for testing (and may be under study already). What we do know is enough to keep us excited to study these systems even more - and to encourage their adoption - even if we don't know everything about exactly how it works.

                                        Wayne

                                        E-mail: teelws@...
                                        ________________________________________
                                        From: biochar@yahoogroups.com [biochar@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of Mark Ludlow [mark@...]
                                        Sent: Saturday, July 24, 2010 2:39 PM
                                        To: biochar@yahoogroups.com
                                        Subject: RE: [biochar] RE: STORY OF PHOSPHORUS

                                        Hi Wayne,
                                        Thanks for your thoughtful reply. However, it has been demonstrated that
                                        AMF/plant interactivity is directly related to signaling pathways between
                                        the two organisms (citations not immediately available). Char proximate to
                                        the root zone may have a positive effect but this is speculative. AMF are
                                        most (only) productive when they are conjugate with the host organism. Do
                                        you have another explanation?
                                        Best, Mark

                                        -----Original Message-----
                                        From: biochar@yahoogroups.com<mailto:biochar%40yahoogroups.com> [mailto:biochar@yahoogroups.com<mailto:biochar%40yahoogroups.com>] On Behalf Of
                                        Teel, Wayne
                                        Sent: Saturday, July 24, 2010 4:16 AM
                                        To: biochar@yahoogroups.com<mailto:biochar%40yahoogroups.com>
                                        Subject: RE: [biochar] RE: STORY OF PHOSPHORUS

                                        Mark and Erich,

                                        Perhaps it is best to see the biochar role in the AMF/plant mutualism as a
                                        kind of catalyst. Generally a catalyst is unchanged by a reaction,
                                        functioning to lower the activation energy. In this case we can see biochar
                                        as the site for the interaction, with the additional role of warehousing
                                        nutrients and water. Mastering the details of the interaction between the
                                        biotic and abiotic actors in this system will take scientists sometimes to
                                        sort out (if we ever do) but the encouraging results of plant productivity
                                        make the effort worthwhile.

                                        Wayne

                                        ________________________________________
                                        From: biochar@yahoogroups.com<mailto:biochar%40yahoogroups.com> [biochar@yahoogroups.com<mailto:biochar%40yahoogroups.com>] On Behalf Of Mark
                                        Ludlow [mark@...<mailto:mark%40ludlow.com>]
                                        Sent: Saturday, July 24, 2010 3:21 AM
                                        To: biochar@yahoogroups.com<mailto:biochar%40yahoogroups.com>
                                        Subject: RE: [biochar] RE: STORY OF PHOSPHORUS

                                        Hi Erich,
                                        Are you asserting that AMF will bloom without the presence of root hairs
                                        that they can “infect”? Could be; but it seems contrary to what I
                                        understand. What symbiosis would the AMF have with char? Nature is
                                        economical!
                                        Best, Mark

                                        From: biochar@yahoogroups.com<mailto:biochar%40yahoogroups.com> [mailto:biochar@yahoogroups.com<mailto:biochar%40yahoogroups.com>] On Behalf Of
                                        Erich Knight
                                        Sent: Friday, July 23, 2010 11:39 PM
                                        To: biochar@yahoogroups.com<mailto:biochar%40yahoogroups.com>
                                        Subject: Re: [biochar] RE: STORY OF PHOSPHORUS

                                        Hi Mark,
                                        Hence the plants "buy P with sugar." from the "char-fungal complex",
                                        My point is that we know MYC / AMF have an affinity with char

                                        From the link I gave;

                                        Utilization of Indigenous Amf by the Application of Charcoal

                                        The idea that the application of charcoal stimulates indigenous AMF in soil
                                        and thus promotes plant growth is relatively well-known in Japan, although
                                        the actual application of charcoal is limited due to its high cost. The
                                        concept originated in the work of M. Ogawa, a former soil microbiologist in
                                        the Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute in Tsukuba. He and his
                                        colleagues applied charcoal around the roots of pine trees growing by the
                                        seashore, and found that Japanese truffles became plentiful. He also tested
                                        the application of charcoal to soybean with a small quantity of applied
                                        fertilizer, and demonstrated the stimulation of plant growth and nodule
                                        formation (Ogawa 1983). His findings with regard to legumes were taken up
                                        for further study by the National Grassland Research Institute (Nishio and
                                        Okano 1991).
                                        And

                                        Mechanism Whereby Charcoal Stimulates the Growth of Amf

                                        Charcoal may stimulate the growth of AMF by the following mechanism.
                                        Charcoal particles have a large number of continuous pores with a diameter
                                        of more than 100µm. They do not contain any organic nutrients, because of
                                        the carbonization process. The large pores in the charcoal may offer a new
                                        microhabitat to the AMF, which can obtain organic nutrients through mycelia
                                        extended from roots. This may enable the AMF to extend their mycelia far out
                                        from the roots, thus collecting a larger amount of available phosphate.
                                        http://www.agnet.org/library/eb/430/

                                        Cheers,
                                        Erich

                                        On Sat, Jul 24, 2010 at 1:57 AM, Mark Ludlow
                                        <mark@...<mailto:mark%40ludlow.com><mailto:mark@...<mailto:mark%40ludlow.com>>> wrote:

                                        Dear Erich,
                                        It is my impression that arbuscular mycorrhyzal fungi only grow in the
                                        presence of root systems, with which they are symbiotic. I doubt that soil
                                        char alone would cause a bloom of these structures.
                                        Best, Mark

                                        From: biochar@yahoogroups.com<mailto:biochar%40yahoogroups.com><mailto:biochar@yahoogroups.com<mailto:biochar%40yahoogroups.com>>
                                        [mailto:biochar@yahoogroups.com<mailto:biochar%40yahoogroups.com><mailto:biochar@yahoogroups.com<mailto:biochar%40yahoogroups.com>>] On Behalf
                                        Of Erich Knight
                                        Sent: Friday, July 23, 2010 8:29 PM
                                        To: biochar@yahoogroups.com<mailto:biochar%40yahoogroups.com><mailto:biochar@yahoogroups.com<mailto:biochar%40yahoogroups.com>>
                                        Subject: Re: [biochar] RE: STORY OF PHOSPHORUS

                                        Hi List,
                                        The passage below from Michinori Nishio, National Institute of
                                        Agro-Environmental Sciences, http://www.agnet.org/library/eb/430/ clearly
                                        show the process for microbes , AMF and solubilization of bound phosphate
                                        Of course Folke G. said the same thing in one paragraph;
                                        "P is only weakly bound (or not at all) to char. But when there is a
                                        developed (arbuscular mycorrhyzal) fungal growth in and around the char
                                        surfaces, the P will stitch to the char-fungal complex, and will thus stay
                                        in the soil complex for longer periods of time, and can then be delivered to
                                        plants as they 'buy' it with sugar." "Probably most of the action of making
                                        P available to the plants is done by the mycorrhiza fungi."
                                        - Folke G.

                                        Cheers,
                                        Erich

                                        Utilization of Phosphate Solubilizing Microorganisms

                                        Japan has only very small amounts of rock phosphate, and most of its soils
                                        immobilize phosphate ions into unavailable forms. Rock phosphate which can
                                        be mined by current technology is predicted to become exhausted in about 100
                                        years' time. Therefore, there is a strong interest in developing alternative
                                        sources of phosphate fertilizer. Many countries are studying the direct
                                        utilization of rock phosphate. Australia has developed "biosuper", i.e.
                                        pellets composed of rock phosphate, sulfur and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria.
                                        Japanese scientists are very interested in the solubilization of bound
                                        phosphate in soil which has accumulated phosphate from repeated, heavy
                                        applications of phosphate fertilizer.

                                        While more than 70% of total phosphate is present in organic forms, such as
                                        inositol phosphate in volcanic ash soils, there are very few indigenous
                                        microorganisms with a strong ability to decompose inositol phosphate in the
                                        soil. On the contrary, Japanese soils contain many indigenous heterotrophic
                                        microorganisms which solubilize mineral bound phosphates by the excretion of
                                        chelating organic acids. In grassland soils, phosphate solubilizing
                                        microorganisms made up 1% of bacterial populations and 10% of fungal
                                        populations (Nishio 1985). Tinker (1980) raised doubts on the utilization of
                                        heterorophic phosphate solubilizing microorganisms, because they need a
                                        large amount of organic matter before they can excrete organic acids. Even
                                        if phosphate is solubilized, phosphate ions are incorporated into the
                                        microbial biomass, so roots cannot absorb enough of them. Thus, we adopted
                                        the following strategy: a) The addition of a large amount of organic matter
                                        makes phosphate solubilizing (PS) microorganisms proliferate and these
                                        solubilize bound phosphate. b) Solubilized phosphates are incorporated into
                                        the microbial biomass during other microbial multiplication, using organic
                                        matter. c) Once the organic matter becomes exhausted, the microbial biomass
                                        decreases and releases phosphate into the soil. d) The death of the
                                        microbial biomass can be accelerated by various soil treatments, including
                                        tillage, drying, liming and sterilization. e) Plants can absorb phosphate
                                        after microbial proliferation has ceased. f) The absorption of phosphate by
                                        plants can be accelerated by inoculation with AMF.

                                        Experimental Evidence

                                        Each step described above has been experimentally confirmed (Kimura and
                                        Nishio 1989). Fig. 4<http://www.agnet.org/library/eb/430/#picf4> shows the
                                        difference in biomass P (P retained in biomass) between the soils with and
                                        without compound phosphate. When the soil was incubated for 7 days by adding
                                        sucrose and ammonium sulfate, the biomass P significantly increased,
                                        utilizing Ca-, Al-, and Fe-phosphates and low-quality rock phosphate.
                                        However, no significant increase was observed with varicite (crystallized
                                        aluminum phosphate) over this short period. This indicates that insoluble
                                        phosphates which are not crystallized can be solubilized by indigenous
                                        microorganisms when abundant carbon sources are supplied.

                                        The rate of increase in soil biomass P fell, and available phosphate
                                        increased, after the depletion of carbon sources, or after soil treatments
                                        such as chloropicrin fumigation, air-drying or grinding (Fig.
                                        5<http://www.agnet.org/library/eb/430/#picf5>). This indicates that after
                                        the exhaustion of organic matter, microbial biomass falls, releasing
                                        phosphate into the soil, and that the release of available phosphate can be
                                        accelerated by soil treatments.

                                        To demonstrate the stimulatory effect of AMF on plant absorption of
                                        phosphate released from soil biomass, an experiment was conducted using dry
                                        yeast as an alternative to dead soil biomass. Fig.
                                        6<http://www.agnet.org/library/eb/430/#picf6> shows that the simultaneous
                                        addition of dry yeast and AMF had a marked effect on both the growth of
                                        alfalfa and phosphate absorption by the plant.

                                        Implications

                                        Although this experimental evidence merely shows the principles underlying
                                        the technology, this is very useful when we attempt to utilize heterotrophic
                                        phosphate-solubilizing (PS) microorganisms in soil. It indicates that

                                        * PS microorganisms need the addition of a large amount of organic matter
                                        as a substrate (excretes from roots are not sufficient);
                                        * Phosphate solubilized by PS micro-organisms is seldom absorbed directly
                                        by the plant as long as a large amount of organic matter remains, because
                                        other heterotrophs incorporate phosphate into biomass; thus,
                                        * Growth retardation of the plant may be a possibility just after the
                                        application of organic matter.
                                        * To avoid growth retardation, seeding or transplanting should be
                                        delayed.
                                        * If rock phosphate, basic sludge or other low-grade phosphate is added,
                                        pre-solubilization of bound phosphate in the compost is one way of avoiding
                                        growth retardation.

                                        On Fri, Jul 23, 2010 at 10:04 PM, Barry Husk
                                        <husk@...<mailto:husk%409bit.qc.ca><mailto:husk@...<mailto:husk%409bit.qc.ca>>> wrote:

                                        [cid:image001.jpg@01CB2AC6.228342F0<mailto:image001.jpg%4001CB2AC6.228342F0>]

                                        One of our biochar research field trials begun this summer in Eastern
                                        Canada, in collaboration with McGill University, will be looking
                                        specifically at the fate of phosphorus in soil with biochar.

                                        Barry

                                        Barry Husk
                                        President
                                        BlueLeaf Inc.
                                        T (819) 472-9525
                                        F (819) 477-1857
                                        bhusk@...<mailto:bhusk%40blue-leaf.ca><mailto:bhusk@...<mailto:bhusk%40blue-leaf.ca>>
                                        www.blue-leaf.ca<http://www.blue-leaf.ca>
                                        [cid:image002.jpg@01CB2AC6.228342F0<mailto:image002.jpg%4001CB2AC6.228342F0>]

                                        From: biochar@yahoogroups.com<mailto:biochar%40yahoogroups.com><mailto:biochar@yahoogroups.com<mailto:biochar%40yahoogroups.com>>
                                        [mailto:biochar@yahoogroups.com<mailto:biochar%40yahoogroups.com><mailto:biochar@yahoogroups.com<mailto:biochar%40yahoogroups.com>>] On Behalf
                                        Of Lloyd Helferty
                                        Sent: Friday, July 23, 2010 4:48 PM
                                        To: biochar@yahoogroups.com<mailto:biochar%40yahoogroups.com><mailto:biochar@yahoogroups.com<mailto:biochar%40yahoogroups.com>>
                                        Cc: Richard Haard
                                        Subject: Re: [biochar] Re: Fwd: STORY OF PHOSPHORUS

                                        Richard,

                                        These are extremely important questions that I do not have the answer to,
                                        and this is exactly why we need to start soon to start this type of
                                        research. This could potentially fall under the umbrella of the type of
                                        research that could be done by a Biochar Research Centre, but more likely it
                                        would simply fall under normal "soil science" research departments...
                                        (possibly with Biochar thrown in as part of the mix of technologies that
                                        might help with finding ways to "enhance biological processes that convert
                                        surface adsorbed p and complex organic p to soluble forms in a timely way
                                        when the plants need it"...)

                                        Lloyd Helferty,
                                        Error! Filename not specified.
                                        Error! Filename not
                                        specified.<http://groups.yahoo.com/;_ylc=X3oDMTJlbjNtcjR0BF9TAzk3NDc2NTkwBGd
                                        ycElkAzIyNDM4MDUyBGdycHNwSWQDMTcwNzQxODYxMgRzZWMDZnRyBHNsawNnZnAEc3RpbWUDMTI
                                        3OTkzNzkyNQ-->
                                        Switch to:
                                        Text-Only<mailto:biochar-traditional@yahoogroups.com<mailto:biochar-traditional%40yahoogroups.com>?subject=Change+Delivery
                                        +Format:+Traditional>, Daily
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                                        ------------------------------------

                                        Yahoo! Groups Links
                                      • Mark Ludlow
                                        Thanks, Wayne, It s more or less how I see it. Infusing soil with char will not increase AMF populations. They pay no never-mind to char. In fact hyphal
                                        Message 19 of 20 , Jul 25, 2010
                                        View Source
                                        • 0 Attachment
                                          Thanks, Wayne,
                                          It's more or less how I see it. Infusing soil with char will not increase
                                          AMF populations. They pay no never-mind to char. In fact hyphal diameters
                                          are greater than all except mesoporous char inclusions, so the function of
                                          char as, for instance, a refuge for hyphae from fungal grazers may be
                                          overstated.
                                          This is a way of suggesting that char's effect as a symbiotic component in
                                          AMF ecology may be wishful and overstated.
                                          Mark

                                          -----Original Message-----
                                          From: biochar@yahoogroups.com [mailto:biochar@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of
                                          Teel, Wayne
                                          Sent: Sunday, July 25, 2010 3:46 AM
                                          To: biochar@yahoogroups.com
                                          Subject: RE: [biochar] RE: STORY OF PHOSPHORUS

                                          Mark,

                                          I have no disagreement with any of your statements. The AMF/plant
                                          interactions are direct and do not require biochar. They happen and both
                                          organisms benefit from the relationship - the definition of mutualism in
                                          biology. Adding biochar to the system does a number of things, some of
                                          which are documented in literature, others are under study as hypotheses
                                          based on observation of soil systems, and still others are speculations,
                                          again based on observational differences between controls and field test of
                                          biochar additions. The key actions of biochar that are documented are
                                          increased moisture holding capacity, increased nutrient holding capacity,
                                          and better soil structure. These alone can improve the soil ecosystem for
                                          the plant/AMF interactions. The structure of biochar is such that
                                          microorganisms thrive on and inside them. This, too, is well-documented.
                                          Read "Biochar for Environmental Management" to get a feel for the breadth of
                                          literature already available on this. (If you join IBI you can get access
                                          to the book electronically as well.) Beyond this we get into the realm of
                                          "under study" and speculation, but based on observations. Who knows, maybe
                                          the signaling mechanisms between the plant and AMF are enhanced with the
                                          presence of biochar? This is a speculative question that can turn into a
                                          hypothesis for testing (and may be under study already). What we do know is
                                          enough to keep us excited to study these systems even more - and to
                                          encourage their adoption - even if we don't know everything about exactly
                                          how it works.

                                          Wayne

                                          E-mail: teelws@...
                                          ________________________________________
                                          From: biochar@yahoogroups.com [biochar@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of Mark
                                          Ludlow [mark@...]
                                          Sent: Saturday, July 24, 2010 2:39 PM
                                          To: biochar@yahoogroups.com
                                          Subject: RE: [biochar] RE: STORY OF PHOSPHORUS

                                          Hi Wayne,
                                          Thanks for your thoughtful reply. However, it has been demonstrated that
                                          AMF/plant interactivity is directly related to signaling pathways between
                                          the two organisms (citations not immediately available). Char proximate to
                                          the root zone may have a positive effect but this is speculative. AMF are
                                          most (only) productive when they are conjugate with the host organism. Do
                                          you have another explanation?
                                          Best, Mark

                                          -----Original Message-----
                                          From: biochar@yahoogroups.com<mailto:biochar%40yahoogroups.com>
                                          [mailto:biochar@yahoogroups.com<mailto:biochar%40yahoogroups.com>] On Behalf
                                          Of
                                          Teel, Wayne
                                          Sent: Saturday, July 24, 2010 4:16 AM
                                          To: biochar@yahoogroups.com<mailto:biochar%40yahoogroups.com>
                                          Subject: RE: [biochar] RE: STORY OF PHOSPHORUS

                                          Mark and Erich,

                                          Perhaps it is best to see the biochar role in the AMF/plant mutualism as a
                                          kind of catalyst. Generally a catalyst is unchanged by a reaction,
                                          functioning to lower the activation energy. In this case we can see biochar
                                          as the site for the interaction, with the additional role of warehousing
                                          nutrients and water. Mastering the details of the interaction between the
                                          biotic and abiotic actors in this system will take scientists sometimes to
                                          sort out (if we ever do) but the encouraging results of plant productivity
                                          make the effort worthwhile.

                                          Wayne

                                          ________________________________________
                                          From: biochar@yahoogroups.com<mailto:biochar%40yahoogroups.com>
                                          [biochar@yahoogroups.com<mailto:biochar%40yahoogroups.com>] On Behalf Of
                                          Mark
                                          Ludlow [mark@...<mailto:mark%40ludlow.com>]
                                          Sent: Saturday, July 24, 2010 3:21 AM
                                          To: biochar@yahoogroups.com<mailto:biochar%40yahoogroups.com>
                                          Subject: RE: [biochar] RE: STORY OF PHOSPHORUS

                                          Hi Erich,
                                          Are you asserting that AMF will bloom without the presence of root hairs
                                          that they can “infect”? Could be; but it seems contrary to what I
                                          understand. What symbiosis would the AMF have with char? Nature is
                                          economical!
                                          Best, Mark

                                          From: biochar@yahoogroups.com<mailto:biochar%40yahoogroups.com>
                                          [mailto:biochar@yahoogroups.com<mailto:biochar%40yahoogroups.com>] On Behalf
                                          Of
                                          Erich Knight
                                          Sent: Friday, July 23, 2010 11:39 PM
                                          To: biochar@yahoogroups.com<mailto:biochar%40yahoogroups.com>
                                          Subject: Re: [biochar] RE: STORY OF PHOSPHORUS

                                          Hi Mark,
                                          Hence the plants "buy P with sugar." from the "char-fungal complex",
                                          My point is that we know MYC / AMF have an affinity with char

                                          From the link I gave;

                                          Utilization of Indigenous Amf by the Application of Charcoal

                                          The idea that the application of charcoal stimulates indigenous AMF in soil
                                          and thus promotes plant growth is relatively well-known in Japan, although
                                          the actual application of charcoal is limited due to its high cost. The
                                          concept originated in the work of M. Ogawa, a former soil microbiologist in
                                          the Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute in Tsukuba. He and his
                                          colleagues applied charcoal around the roots of pine trees growing by the
                                          seashore, and found that Japanese truffles became plentiful. He also tested
                                          the application of charcoal to soybean with a small quantity of applied
                                          fertilizer, and demonstrated the stimulation of plant growth and nodule
                                          formation (Ogawa 1983). His findings with regard to legumes were taken up
                                          for further study by the National Grassland Research Institute (Nishio and
                                          Okano 1991).
                                          And

                                          Mechanism Whereby Charcoal Stimulates the Growth of Amf

                                          Charcoal may stimulate the growth of AMF by the following mechanism.
                                          Charcoal particles have a large number of continuous pores with a diameter
                                          of more than 100µm. They do not contain any organic nutrients, because of
                                          the carbonization process. The large pores in the charcoal may offer a new
                                          microhabitat to the AMF, which can obtain organic nutrients through mycelia
                                          extended from roots. This may enable the AMF to extend their mycelia far out
                                          from the roots, thus collecting a larger amount of available phosphate.
                                          http://www.agnet.org/library/eb/430/

                                          Cheers,
                                          Erich

                                          On Sat, Jul 24, 2010 at 1:57 AM, Mark Ludlow
                                          <mark@...<mailto:mark%40ludlow.com><mailto:mark@...<mailto:mar
                                          k%40ludlow.com>>> wrote:

                                          Dear Erich,
                                          It is my impression that arbuscular mycorrhyzal fungi only grow in the
                                          presence of root systems, with which they are symbiotic. I doubt that soil
                                          char alone would cause a bloom of these structures.
                                          Best, Mark

                                          From:
                                          biochar@yahoogroups.com<mailto:biochar%40yahoogroups.com><mailto:biochar@yah
                                          oogroups.com<mailto:biochar%40yahoogroups.com>>
                                          [mailto:biochar@yahoogroups.com<mailto:biochar%40yahoogroups.com><mailto:bio
                                          char@yahoogroups.com<mailto:biochar%40yahoogroups.com>>] On Behalf
                                          Of Erich Knight
                                          Sent: Friday, July 23, 2010 8:29 PM
                                          To:
                                          biochar@yahoogroups.com<mailto:biochar%40yahoogroups.com><mailto:biochar@yah
                                          oogroups.com<mailto:biochar%40yahoogroups.com>>
                                          Subject: Re: [biochar] RE: STORY OF PHOSPHORUS

                                          Hi List,
                                          The passage below from Michinori Nishio, National Institute of
                                          Agro-Environmental Sciences, http://www.agnet.org/library/eb/430/ clearly
                                          show the process for microbes , AMF and solubilization of bound phosphate
                                          Of course Folke G. said the same thing in one paragraph;
                                          "P is only weakly bound (or not at all) to char. But when there is a
                                          developed (arbuscular mycorrhyzal) fungal growth in and around the char
                                          surfaces, the P will stitch to the char-fungal complex, and will thus stay
                                          in the soil complex for longer periods of time, and can then be delivered to
                                          plants as they 'buy' it with sugar." "Probably most of the action of making
                                          P available to the plants is done by the mycorrhiza fungi."
                                          - Folke G.

                                          Cheers,
                                          Erich

                                          Utilization of Phosphate Solubilizing Microorganisms

                                          Japan has only very small amounts of rock phosphate, and most of its soils
                                          immobilize phosphate ions into unavailable forms. Rock phosphate which can
                                          be mined by current technology is predicted to become exhausted in about 100
                                          years' time. Therefore, there is a strong interest in developing alternative
                                          sources of phosphate fertilizer. Many countries are studying the direct
                                          utilization of rock phosphate. Australia has developed "biosuper", i.e.
                                          pellets composed of rock phosphate, sulfur and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria.
                                          Japanese scientists are very interested in the solubilization of bound
                                          phosphate in soil which has accumulated phosphate from repeated, heavy
                                          applications of phosphate fertilizer.

                                          While more than 70% of total phosphate is present in organic forms, such as
                                          inositol phosphate in volcanic ash soils, there are very few indigenous
                                          microorganisms with a strong ability to decompose inositol phosphate in the
                                          soil. On the contrary, Japanese soils contain many indigenous heterotrophic
                                          microorganisms which solubilize mineral bound phosphates by the excretion of
                                          chelating organic acids. In grassland soils, phosphate solubilizing
                                          microorganisms made up 1% of bacterial populations and 10% of fungal
                                          populations (Nishio 1985). Tinker (1980) raised doubts on the utilization of
                                          heterorophic phosphate solubilizing microorganisms, because they need a
                                          large amount of organic matter before they can excrete organic acids. Even
                                          if phosphate is solubilized, phosphate ions are incorporated into the
                                          microbial biomass, so roots cannot absorb enough of them. Thus, we adopted
                                          the following strategy: a) The addition of a large amount of organic matter
                                          makes phosphate solubilizing (PS) microorganisms proliferate and these
                                          solubilize bound phosphate. b) Solubilized phosphates are incorporated into
                                          the microbial biomass during other microbial multiplication, using organic
                                          matter. c) Once the organic matter becomes exhausted, the microbial biomass
                                          decreases and releases phosphate into the soil. d) The death of the
                                          microbial biomass can be accelerated by various soil treatments, including
                                          tillage, drying, liming and sterilization. e) Plants can absorb phosphate
                                          after microbial proliferation has ceased. f) The absorption of phosphate by
                                          plants can be accelerated by inoculation with AMF.

                                          Experimental Evidence

                                          Each step described above has been experimentally confirmed (Kimura and
                                          Nishio 1989). Fig. 4<http://www.agnet.org/library/eb/430/#picf4> shows the
                                          difference in biomass P (P retained in biomass) between the soils with and
                                          without compound phosphate. When the soil was incubated for 7 days by adding
                                          sucrose and ammonium sulfate, the biomass P significantly increased,
                                          utilizing Ca-, Al-, and Fe-phosphates and low-quality rock phosphate.
                                          However, no significant increase was observed with varicite (crystallized
                                          aluminum phosphate) over this short period. This indicates that insoluble
                                          phosphates which are not crystallized can be solubilized by indigenous
                                          microorganisms when abundant carbon sources are supplied.

                                          The rate of increase in soil biomass P fell, and available phosphate
                                          increased, after the depletion of carbon sources, or after soil treatments
                                          such as chloropicrin fumigation, air-drying or grinding (Fig.
                                          5<http://www.agnet.org/library/eb/430/#picf5>). This indicates that after
                                          the exhaustion of organic matter, microbial biomass falls, releasing
                                          phosphate into the soil, and that the release of available phosphate can be
                                          accelerated by soil treatments.

                                          To demonstrate the stimulatory effect of AMF on plant absorption of
                                          phosphate released from soil biomass, an experiment was conducted using dry
                                          yeast as an alternative to dead soil biomass. Fig.
                                          6<http://www.agnet.org/library/eb/430/#picf6> shows that the simultaneous
                                          addition of dry yeast and AMF had a marked effect on both the growth of
                                          alfalfa and phosphate absorption by the plant.

                                          Implications

                                          Although this experimental evidence merely shows the principles underlying
                                          the technology, this is very useful when we attempt to utilize heterotrophic
                                          phosphate-solubilizing (PS) microorganisms in soil. It indicates that

                                          * PS microorganisms need the addition of a large amount of organic matter
                                          as a substrate (excretes from roots are not sufficient);
                                          * Phosphate solubilized by PS micro-organisms is seldom absorbed directly
                                          by the plant as long as a large amount of organic matter remains, because
                                          other heterotrophs incorporate phosphate into biomass; thus,
                                          * Growth retardation of the plant may be a possibility just after the
                                          application of organic matter.
                                          * To avoid growth retardation, seeding or transplanting should be
                                          delayed.
                                          * If rock phosphate, basic sludge or other low-grade phosphate is added,
                                          pre-solubilization of bound phosphate in the compost is one way of avoiding
                                          growth retardation.

                                          On Fri, Jul 23, 2010 at 10:04 PM, Barry Husk
                                          <husk@...<mailto:husk%409bit.qc.ca><mailto:husk@...<mailto:hus
                                          k%409bit.qc.ca>>> wrote:

                                          [cid:image001.jpg@01CB2AC6.228342F0<mailto:image001.jpg%4001CB2AC6.228342F0>
                                          ]

                                          One of our biochar research field trials begun this summer in Eastern
                                          Canada, in collaboration with McGill University, will be looking
                                          specifically at the fate of phosphorus in soil with biochar.

                                          Barry

                                          Barry Husk
                                          President
                                          BlueLeaf Inc.
                                          T (819) 472-9525
                                          F (819) 477-1857
                                          bhusk@...<mailto:bhusk%40blue-leaf.ca><mailto:bhusk@...<ma
                                          ilto:bhusk%40blue-leaf.ca>>
                                          www.blue-leaf.ca<http://www.blue-leaf.ca>
                                          [cid:image002.jpg@01CB2AC6.228342F0<mailto:image002.jpg%4001CB2AC6.228342F0>
                                          ]

                                          From:
                                          biochar@yahoogroups.com<mailto:biochar%40yahoogroups.com><mailto:biochar@yah
                                          oogroups.com<mailto:biochar%40yahoogroups.com>>
                                          [mailto:biochar@yahoogroups.com<mailto:biochar%40yahoogroups.com><mailto:bio
                                          char@yahoogroups.com<mailto:biochar%40yahoogroups.com>>] On Behalf
                                          Of Lloyd Helferty
                                          Sent: Friday, July 23, 2010 4:48 PM
                                          To:
                                          biochar@yahoogroups.com<mailto:biochar%40yahoogroups.com><mailto:biochar@yah
                                          oogroups.com<mailto:biochar%40yahoogroups.com>>
                                          Cc: Richard Haard
                                          Subject: Re: [biochar] Re: Fwd: STORY OF PHOSPHORUS

                                          Richard,

                                          These are extremely important questions that I do not have the answer to,
                                          and this is exactly why we need to start soon to start this type of
                                          research. This could potentially fall under the umbrella of the type of
                                          research that could be done by a Biochar Research Centre, but more likely it
                                          would simply fall under normal "soil science" research departments...
                                          (possibly with Biochar thrown in as part of the mix of technologies that
                                          might help with finding ways to "enhance biological processes that convert
                                          surface adsorbed p and complex organic p to soluble forms in a timely way
                                          when the plants need it"...)

                                          Lloyd Helferty,
                                          Error! Filename not specified.
                                          Error! Filename not
                                          specified.<http://groups.yahoo.com/;_ylc=X3oDMTJlbjNtcjR0BF9TAzk3NDc2NTkwBGd
                                          ycElkAzIyNDM4MDUyBGdycHNwSWQDMTcwNzQxODYxMgRzZWMDZnRyBHNsawNnZnAEc3RpbWUDMTI
                                          3OTkzNzkyNQ-->
                                          Switch to:
                                          Text-Only<mailto:biochar-traditional@yahoogroups.com<mailto:biochar-traditio
                                          nal%40yahoogroups.com>?subject=Change+Delivery
                                          +Format:+Traditional>, Daily
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                                          oups.com>?subject=Email+Delivery:+Digest>
                                          •
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                                          .
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                                          ------------------------------------

                                          Yahoo! Groups Links





                                          ------------------------------------

                                          Yahoo! Groups Links
                                        • Edward Someus
                                          Mark, Yes, this is correct. Plant based biochar is a mic of micro-meso--maro pores but generally this the pore sizes are too small. However, and properly made
                                          Message 20 of 20 , Jul 26, 2010
                                          View Source
                                          • 0 Attachment
                                            Mark,
                                             
                                            Yes, this is correct. Plant based biochar is a mic of micro-meso--maro pores, but generally this the pore sizes are too small.
                                             
                                            However, and properly made bone char mineral is very different as it is consisting only very large macro pores, and we got great AMF results. The EU FP6 PROTECTOR project was all about this http://ec.europa.eu/research/agriculture/success_protector_en.htm including AMF, where extensive AMF RTD research works done by my Colleagues at the University of Hannover in Germany, one of Europe's AMF specialist group.
                                             
                                            
                                                                    
                                            Sincerely yours: Edward Someus (environmental engineer)
                                            EMAIL:   edward@...   or   edward.someus@...
                                            TEL:       +(36-20) 201 7557  or  +(36-20) 805 4727
                                            TEL / FAX:   +(36-1) 424 0224
                                            SKYPE:  Edward Someus
                                            Save paper and save forest - Think before you print
                                            This is always right to do the right thing, so do what you can, with what you have and wherever you are: PROTECT OUR ENVIRONMENT
                                            -------Original Message-------
                                             
                                            Date: 2010.07.26. 8:46:06
                                            Subject: RE: [biochar] RE: STORY OF PHOSPHORUS
                                             
                                             

                                            Thanks, Wayne,
                                            It's more or less how I see it. Infusing soil with char will not increase
                                            AMF populations. They pay no never-mind to char. In fact hyphal diameters
                                            are greater than all except mesoporous char inclusions, so the function of
                                            char as, for instance, a refuge for hyphae from fungal grazers may be
                                            overstated.
                                            This is a way of suggesting that char's effect as a symbiotic component in
                                            AMF ecology may be wishful and overstated.
                                            Mark

                                            -----Original Message-----
                                            From: biochar@yahoogroups.com [mailto:biochar@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of
                                            Teel, Wayne
                                            Sent: Sunday, July 25, 2010 3:46 AM
                                            To: biochar@yahoogroups.com
                                            Subject: RE: [biochar] RE: STORY OF PHOSPHORUS

                                            Mark,

                                            I have no disagreement with any of your statements. The AMF/plant
                                            interactions are direct and do not require biochar. They happen and both
                                            organisms benefit from the relationship - the definition of mutualism in
                                            biology. Adding biochar to the system does a number of things, some of
                                            which are documented in literature, others are under study as hypotheses
                                            based on observation of soil systems, and still others are speculations,
                                            again based on observational differences between controls and field test of
                                            biochar additions. The key actions of biochar that are documented are
                                            increased moisture holding capacity, increased nutrient holding capacity,
                                            and better soil structure. These alone can improve the soil ecosystem for
                                            the plant/AMF interactions. The structure of biochar is such that
                                            microorganisms thrive on and inside them. This, too, is well-documented.
                                            Read "Biochar for Environmental Management" to get a feel for the breadth of
                                            literature already available on this. (If you join IBI you can get access
                                            to the book electronically as well.) Beyond this we get into the realm of
                                            "under study" and speculation, but based on observations. Who knows, maybe
                                            the signaling mechanisms between the plant and AMF are enhanced with the
                                            presence of biochar? This is a speculative question that can turn into a
                                            hypothesis for testing (and may be under study already). What we do know is
                                            enough to keep us excited to study these systems even more - and to
                                            encourage their adoption - even if we don't know everything about exactly
                                            how it works.

                                            Wayne

                                            E-mail: teelws@...
                                            ________________________________________
                                            From: biochar@yahoogroups.com [biochar@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of Mark
                                            Ludlow [mark@...]
                                            Sent: Saturday, July 24, 2010 2:39 PM
                                            To: biochar@yahoogroups.com
                                            Subject: RE: [biochar] RE: STORY OF PHOSPHORUS

                                            Hi Wayne,
                                            Thanks for your thoughtful reply. However, it has been demonstrated that
                                            AMF/plant interactivity is directly related to signaling pathways between
                                            the two organisms (citations not immediately available). Char proximate to
                                            the root zone may have a positive effect but this is speculative. AMF are
                                            most (only) productive when they are conjugate with the host organism. Do
                                            you have another explanation?
                                            Best, Mark

                                            -----Original Message-----
                                            From: biochar@yahoogroups.com<mailto:biochar%40yahoogroups.com>
                                            [mailto:biochar@yahoogroups.com<mailto:biochar%40yahoogroups.com>] On Behalf
                                            Of
                                            Teel, Wayne
                                            Sent: Saturday, July 24, 2010 4:16 AM
                                            To: biochar@yahoogroups.com<mailto:biochar%40yahoogroups.com>
                                            Subject: RE: [biochar] RE: STORY OF PHOSPHORUS

                                            Mark and Erich,

                                            Perhaps it is best to see the biochar role in the AMF/plant mutualism as a
                                            kind of catalyst. Generally a catalyst is unchanged by a reaction,
                                            functioning to lower the activation energy. In this case we can see biochar
                                            as the site for the interaction, with the additional role of warehousing
                                            nutrients and water. Mastering the details of the interaction between the
                                            biotic and abiotic actors in this system will take scientists sometimes to
                                            sort out (if we ever do) but the encouraging results of plant productivity
                                            make the effort worthwhile.

                                            Wayne

                                            ________________________________________
                                            From: biochar@yahoogroups.com<mailto:biochar%40yahoogroups.com>
                                            [biochar@yahoogroups.com<mailto:biochar%40yahoogroups.com>] On Behalf Of
                                            Mark
                                            Ludlow [mark@...<mailto:mark%40ludlow.com>]
                                            Sent: Saturday, July 24, 2010 3:21 AM
                                            To: biochar@yahoogroups.com<mailto:biochar%40yahoogroups.com>
                                            Subject: RE: [biochar] RE: STORY OF PHOSPHORUS

                                            Hi Erich,
                                            Are you asserting that AMF will bloom without the presence of root hairs
                                            that they can “infect”? Could be; but it seems contrary to what I
                                            understand. What symbiosis would the AMF have with char? Nature is
                                            economical!
                                            Best, Mark

                                            From: biochar@yahoogroups.com<mailto:biochar%40yahoogroups.com>
                                            [mailto:biochar@yahoogroups.com<mailto:biochar%40yahoogroups.com>] On Behalf
                                            Of
                                            Erich Knight
                                            Sent: Friday, July 23, 2010 11:39 PM
                                            To: biochar@yahoogroups.com<mailto:biochar%40yahoogroups.com>
                                            Subject: Re: [biochar] RE: STORY OF PHOSPHORUS

                                            Hi Mark,
                                            Hence the plants "buy P with sugar." from the "char-fungal complex",
                                            My point is that we know MYC / AMF have an affinity with char

                                            From the link I gave;

                                            Utilization of Indigenous Amf by the Application of Charcoal

                                            The idea that the application of charcoal stimulates indigenous AMF in soil
                                            and thus promotes plant growth is relatively well-known in Japan, although
                                            the actual application of charcoal is limited due to its high cost. The
                                            concept originated in the work of M. Ogawa, a former soil microbiologist in
                                            the Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute in Tsukuba. He and his
                                            colleagues applied charcoal around the roots of pine trees growing by the
                                            seashore, and found that Japanese truffles became plentiful. He also tested
                                            the application of charcoal to soybean with a small quantity of applied
                                            fertilizer, and demonstrated the stimulation of plant growth and nodule
                                            formation (Ogawa 1983). His findings with regard to legumes were taken up
                                            for further study by the National Grassland Research Institute (Nishio and
                                            Okano 1991).
                                            And

                                            Mechanism Whereby Charcoal Stimulates the Growth of Amf

                                            Charcoal may stimulate the growth of AMF by the following mechanism.
                                            Charcoal particles have a large number of continuous pores with a diameter
                                            of more than 100µm. They do not contain any organic nutrients, because of
                                            the carbonization process. The large pores in the charcoal may offer a new
                                            microhabitat to the AMF, which can obtain organic nutrients through mycelia
                                            extended from roots. This may enable the AMF to extend their mycelia far out
                                            from the roots, thus collecting a larger amount of available phosphate.
                                            http://www.agnet.org/library/eb/430/

                                            Cheers,
                                            Erich

                                            On Sat, Jul 24, 2010 at 1:57 AM, Mark Ludlow
                                            <mark@...<mailto:mark%40ludlow.com><mailto:mark@...<mailto:mar
                                            k%40ludlow.com>>> wrote:

                                            Dear Erich,
                                            It is my impression that arbuscular mycorrhyzal fungi only grow in the
                                            presence of root systems, with which they are symbiotic. I doubt that soil
                                            char alone would cause a bloom of these structures.
                                            Best, Mark

                                            From:
                                            biochar@yahoogroups.com<mailto:biochar%40yahoogroups.com><mailto:biochar@yah
                                            oogroups.com<mailto:biochar%40yahoogroups.com>>
                                            [mailto:biochar@yahoogroups.com<mailto:biochar%40yahoogroups.com><mailto:bio
                                            char@yahoogroups.com<mailto:biochar%40yahoogroups.com>>] On Behalf
                                            Of Erich Knight
                                            Sent: Friday, July 23, 2010 8:29 PM
                                            To:
                                            biochar@yahoogroups.com<mailto:biochar%40yahoogroups.com><mailto:biochar@yah
                                            oogroups.com<mailto:biochar%40yahoogroups.com>>
                                            Subject: Re: [biochar] RE: STORY OF PHOSPHORUS

                                            Hi List,
                                            The passage below from Michinori Nishio, National Institute of
                                            Agro-Environmental Sciences, http://www.agnet.org/library/eb/430/ clearly
                                            show the process for microbes , AMF and solubilization of bound phosphate
                                            Of course Folke G. said the same thing in one paragraph;
                                            "P is only weakly bound (or not at all) to char. But when there is a
                                            developed (arbuscular mycorrhyzal) fungal growth in and around the char
                                            surfaces, the P will stitch to the char-fungal complex, and will thus stay
                                            in the soil complex for longer periods of time, and can then be delivered to
                                            plants as they 'buy' it with sugar." "Probably most of the action of making
                                            P available to the plants is done by the mycorrhiza fungi."
                                            - Folke G.

                                            Cheers,
                                            Erich

                                            Utilization of Phosphate Solubilizing Microorganisms

                                            Japan has only very small amounts of rock phosphate, and most of its soils
                                            immobilize phosphate ions into unavailable forms. Rock phosphate which can
                                            be mined by current technology is predicted to become exhausted in about 100
                                            years' time. Therefore, there is a strong interest in developing alternative
                                            sources of phosphate fertilizer. Many countries are studying the direct
                                            utilization of rock phosphate. Australia has developed "biosuper", i.e.
                                            pellets composed of rock phosphate, sulfur and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria.
                                            Japanese scientists are very interested in the solubilization of bound
                                            phosphate in soil which has accumulated phosphate from repeated, heavy
                                            applications of phosphate fertilizer.

                                            While more than 70% of total phosphate is present in organic forms, such as
                                            inositol phosphate in volcanic ash soils, there are very few indigenous
                                            microorganisms with a strong ability to decompose inositol phosphate in the
                                            soil. On the contrary, Japanese soils contain many indigenous heterotrophic
                                            microorganisms which solubilize mineral bound phosphates by the excretion of
                                            chelating organic acids. In grassland soils, phosphate solubilizing
                                            microorganisms made up 1% of bacterial populations and 10% of fungal
                                            populations (Nishio 1985). Tinker (1980) raised doubts on the utilization of
                                            heterorophic phosphate solubilizing microorganisms, because they need a
                                            large amount of organic matter before they can excrete organic acids. Even
                                            if phosphate is solubilized, phosphate ions are incorporated into the
                                            microbial biomass, so roots cannot absorb enough of them. Thus, we adopted
                                            the following strategy: a) The addition of a large amount of organic matter
                                            makes phosphate solubilizing (PS) microorganisms proliferate and these
                                            solubilize bound phosphate. b) Solubilized phosphates are incorporated into
                                            the microbial biomass during other microbial multiplication, using organic
                                            matter. c) Once the organic matter becomes exhausted, the microbial biomass
                                            decreases and releases phosphate into the soil. d) The death of the
                                            microbial biomass can be accelerated by various soil treatments, including
                                            tillage, drying, liming and sterilization. e) Plants can absorb phosphate
                                            after microbial proliferation has ceased. f) The absorption of phosphate by
                                            plants can be accelerated by inoculation with AMF.

                                            Experimental Evidence

                                            Each step described above has been experimentally confirmed (Kimura and
                                            Nishio 1989). Fig. 4<http://www.agnet.org/library/eb/430/#picf4> shows the
                                            difference in biomass P (P retained in biomass) between the soils with and
                                            without compound phosphate. When the soil was incubated for 7 days by adding
                                            sucrose and ammonium sulfate, the biomass P significantly increased,
                                            utilizing Ca-, Al-, and Fe-phosphates and low-quality rock phosphate.
                                            However, no significant increase was observed with varicite (crystallized
                                            aluminum phosphate) over this short period. This indicates that insoluble
                                            phosphates which are not crystallized can be solubilized by indigenous
                                            microorganisms when abundant carbon sources are supplied.

                                            The rate of increase in soil biomass P fell, and available phosphate
                                            increased, after the depletion of carbon sources, or after soil treatments
                                            such as chloropicrin fumigation, air-drying or grinding (Fig.
                                            5<http://www.agnet.org/library/eb/430/#picf5>). This indicates that after
                                            the exhaustion of organic matter, microbial biomass falls, releasing
                                            phosphate into the soil, and that the release of available phosphate can be
                                            accelerated by soil treatments.

                                            To demonstrate the stimulatory effect of AMF on plant absorption of
                                            phosphate released from soil biomass, an experiment was conducted using dry
                                            yeast as an alternative to dead soil biomass. Fig.
                                            6<http://www.agnet.org/library/eb/430/#picf6> shows that the simultaneous
                                            addition of dry yeast and AMF had a marked effect on both the growth of
                                            alfalfa and phosphate absorption by the plant.

                                            Implications

                                            Although this experimental evidence merely shows the principles underlying
                                            the technology, this is very useful when we attempt to utilize heterotrophic
                                            phosphate-solubilizing (PS) microorganisms in soil. It indicates that

                                            * PS microorganisms need the addition of a large amount of organic matter
                                            as a substrate (excretes from roots are not sufficient);
                                            * Phosphate solubilized by PS micro-organisms is seldom absorbed directly
                                            by the plant as long as a large amount of organic matter remains, because
                                            other heterotrophs incorporate phosphate into biomass; thus,
                                            * Growth retardation of the plant may be a possibility just after the
                                            application of organic matter.
                                            * To avoid growth retardation, seeding or transplanting should be
                                            delayed.
                                            * If rock phosphate, basic sludge or other low-grade phosphate is added,
                                            pre-solubilization of bound phosphate in the compost is one way of avoiding
                                            growth retardation.

                                            On Fri, Jul 23, 2010 at 10:04 PM, Barry Husk
                                            <husk@...<mailto:husk%409bit.qc.ca><mailto:husk@...<mailto:hus
                                            k%409bit.qc.ca>>> wrote:

                                            [cid:image001.jpg@01CB2AC6.228342F0<mailto:image001.jpg%4001CB2AC6.228342F0>
                                            ]

                                            One of our biochar research field trials begun this summer in Eastern
                                            Canada, in collaboration with McGill University, will be looking
                                            specifically at the fate of phosphorus in soil with biochar.

                                            Barry

                                            Barry Husk
                                            President
                                            BlueLeaf Inc.
                                            T (819) 472-9525
                                            F (819) 477-1857
                                            bhusk@...<mailto:bhusk%40blue-leaf.ca><mailto:bhusk@...<ma
                                            ilto:bhusk%40blue-leaf.ca>>
                                            www.blue-leaf.ca<http://www.blue-leaf.ca>
                                            [cid:image002.jpg@01CB2AC6.228342F0<mailto:image002.jpg%4001CB2AC6.228342F0>
                                            ]

                                            From:
                                            biochar@yahoogroups.com<mailto:biochar%40yahoogroups.com><mailto:biochar@yah
                                            oogroups.com<mailto:biochar%40yahoogroups.com>>
                                            [mailto:biochar@yahoogroups.com<mailto:biochar%40yahoogroups.com><mailto:bio
                                            char@yahoogroups.com<mailto:biochar%40yahoogroups.com>>] On Behalf
                                            Of Lloyd Helferty
                                            Sent: Friday, July 23, 2010 4:48 PM
                                            To:
                                            biochar@yahoogroups.com<mailto:biochar%40yahoogroups.com><mailto:biochar@yah
                                            oogroups.com<mailto:biochar%40yahoogroups.com>>
                                            Cc: Richard Haard
                                            Subject: Re: [biochar] Re: Fwd: STORY OF PHOSPHORUS

                                            Richard,

                                            These are extremely important questions that I do not have the answer to,
                                            and this is exactly why we need to start soon to start this type of
                                            research. This could potentially fall under the umbrella of the type of
                                            research that could be done by a Biochar Research Centre, but more likely it
                                            would simply fall under normal "soil science" research departments...
                                            (possibly with Biochar thrown in as part of the mix of technologies that
                                            might help with finding ways to "enhance biological processes that convert
                                            surface adsorbed p and complex organic p to soluble forms in a timely way
                                            when the plants need it"...)

                                            Lloyd Helferty,
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