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Gershon Galil's DRAWING of the Qeiyafa ostracon (was: READING)

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  • funhistory
    I sent a new drawing to the moderators for upload to the Biblicalist library, which y all should have access to soon. I thought it might be helpful for people
    Message 1 of 9 , Jan 8, 2010
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      I sent a new drawing to the moderators for upload to the Biblicalist library, which y'all should have access to soon. I thought it might be helpful for people to see the main differences between the original drawing by Misgav & the new/modified one by Galil.

      The most noticeable ones are:

      1) the addition by Misgav of strokes to form a bunch of Vau (Y-shaped) letters (I count 6)

      2) an additional section in the top-right corner forming a new word written in a different direction

      3) 2 hypothetical letters (apparently a Tau & a Mem) in the top-right corner & in another place along the top row

      4) the change of one Dalet in the bottom line (4th in from the right) removing a stroke to form a Gimel.

      G.M. Grena
      www.LMLK.org
    • Jack Kilmon
      I think that the association between Israel and the ostracon is a matter for more debate. I don t know what Hebrew was in the 10th century BCE but I am just
      Message 2 of 9 , Jan 8, 2010
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        I think that the association between Israel and the ostracon is a matter for
        more debate. I don't know what "Hebrew" was in the 10th century BCE but I
        am just pleased, after reading Professor Galil's translation that there were
        Democrats in the Elah Valley during the time of David. It would have been
        nice if the DMLK at line 4 would have been followed by a DWD. :)

        Jack

        --------------------------------------------------
        From: "George F Somsel" <gfsomsel@...>
        Sent: Friday, January 08, 2010 1:54 AM
        To: <biblicalist@yahoogroups.com>
        Subject: Re: Gershon Galil's reading of the Qeiyafa ostracon (was Re:
        [biblicalist] 10th Century Israel)

        > I think you are correct to be cautious regarding the word אלמן being
        > obviously Hebrew in view of Ugaritic.
        >
        >
        > 190.ulmn‘widowhood’ (52:9) || ṯkl; cf. שכול|| אלמן(Is. 47:9) almnt‘widow
        > (127:33, 46, 50; 2 Aqht:V:8; Krt:97, 185). אַלְמָנָה, ܐܱܪܡܰܠܬܼܳܐ,
        > أَرْمَلَة, almattu.
        >
        > Gordon, C. H. (1998). Ugaritic textbook grammar, texts in transliteration,
        > cuneiform selections, glossary, indices. 1955.; p. 545-547. Analecta
        > orientalia, 38 (359). Rome: Pontifical Biblical Institute.
        > george
        > gfsomsel
        >
        >
        > … search for truth, hear truth,
        > learn truth, love truth, speak the truth, hold the truth,
        > defend the truth till death.
        >
        >
        > - Jan Hus
        > _________
        >
        >
        >
        >
        > ________________________________
        > From: Yitzhak Sapir <yitzhaksapir@...>
        > To: biblicalist@yahoogroups.com
        > Sent: Thu, January 7, 2010 10:53:12 PM
        > Subject: Gershon Galil's reading of the Qeiyafa ostracon (was Re:
        > [biblicalist] 10th Century Israel)
        >
        >
        > Dr. Galil's reading is very interesting. It seems to me that he apparently
        > reads it as follows:
        >
        > אל תעש ועבד אל
        > שפט עבד ואלמנ. שפט יתם
        > וגר. רב עלל. רב דל ו
        > אלמנ. שקמ יבד מלכ
        > I can't figure out the last line completely.
        >
        > Now, in place of his first line which appears to invoke a god (El) which
        > he
        > translates as "the Lord", one can read (this is suggested in the primary
        > publication by Dr. Misgav): אל תעשק. This would be:
        >
        > אל תעשק עבד. אל ת / שפט עבד ואלמנ.
        >
        > Don't oppress the slave. Don't J / udge a slave and widow ...
        >
        > This reads much better than reading a divine invocation unrelated to the
        > rest of the social commands. However, the Taw of יתם 'orphan' is now part
        > of
        > תשפט 'judge', (where it fits much better since it's on the same line).
        > Since the
        > Mem of יתם 'orphan' is reconstructed, we're left only with the yod of יתם
        > intact, right next to the Taw. Now, Ada Yardeni reads here two Taws so
        > I guess we can read one Taw for תשפט and another for יתם which flows in
        > from the line below. But I think a better suggest might be:
        >
        > אל ית/שפט עבד ואלמנ שפט / גר.
        >
        > A slave and widow should not be judged the judgement of a stranger.
        > Further down, it seems that the word ביד "at the hand of" was misspelled
        > as יבד in Galil's reading.
        >
        > While I can't figure out the last line completely, it seems the
        > translation
        > ends one word before the end of the line. We have גר תם but only גר
        > 'stranger' appears to end the translation.
        >
        > In any case, the first four lines would then read:
        >
        > אל תעשק עבד. אל ית
        > שפט עבד ואלמן שפט
        > גר. רב עלל. רב דל. ו
        > אלמן שקם יבד מלך.
        >
        > The most out of place word in the translation is שקם 'rehabilitate' which
        > seems to use a modern Hebrew reading for the word. The word is used
        > in the Song of Deborah, but its meaning there is completely unclear. To
        > me it seems more likely the meaning there is different from modern
        > Hebrew.
        >
        > The word אלמן may point to a Canaanite language. I personally don't
        > think עשה is a good enough indicator of Hebrew. But אלמן has a lamed
        > which points to non Aramaic (Ugaritic/Hebrew) .
        >
        > Against this is the word יתשפט "shall [not] be judged (pl)" in my reading.
        > (The plural means that a long vowel at the end of the word is not present
        > in the orthography) . The use of Hitphael as passive is generally
        > identified
        > with Aramaic languages (and in particular, the passive of שפט in Hebrew is
        > Niphal, not Hithpael). Also, in Biblical Hebrew, the Hiphtael forms were
        > innovated to become Hithpael. But this process did not occur on roots
        > having Shin (and some other letters). In this language, the innovation is
        > more complete than in Hebrew.
        >
        > Taken together the language of the inscription is probably a NWS
        > language that is not Hebrew but very close to it.
        >
        > In favor of Galil's reading, I find the consistent message of social
        > justice.
        > Such a message goes well with the place where it was found -- next to
        > the gate of the city. Slaves, widows and orphans were apparently located
        > at the gate of the city, where also judgement would be rendered. In this
        > sense we read Deut 14:21, Deut 14:28-29, Deut 23:16. Dr. Faust writes
        > about this in his book Israelite Society in the Period of the Monarchy, p.
        > 116-117, suggesting that the "City Gate" is not just the rather small area
        > of the gate but a quarter of the city next to the gate where the poor
        > resided. It was apparently a poor man's "bill of rights" stele. Even if
        > the
        > poor couldn't read it, the elders of the city could and it served as a
        > sort
        > of social contract between the two classes.
        >
        > Yitzhak Sapir
        >
        >
        >
        >
        >
        >
        > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
        >
        >
        >
        > ------------------------------------
        >
        > Yahoo! Groups Links
        >
        >
        >
        >
        >



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      • Yitzhak Sapir
        Anyone coming from the Web having trouble with the Hebrew, can change the encoding on the browser to UTF-8. I m sorry for that. I ve written another post now
        Message 3 of 9 , Jan 9, 2010
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          Anyone coming from the Web having trouble with the Hebrew, can
          change the encoding on the browser to UTF-8. I'm sorry for that. I've
          written another post now on Canaanite list:

          http://groups.yahoo.com/group/canaanite/message/141

          Yitzhak Sapir
        • Kevin P. Edgecomb
          The file George mentions is available now. It s named qeiyafa-grena_3.gif, and may be found in this folder:
          Message 4 of 9 , Jan 9, 2010
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            The file George mentions is available now. It's named qeiyafa-grena_3.gif,
            and may be found in this folder:

            http://groups.yahoo.com/group/biblicalist/files/Qeiyafa%20Ostracon/

            Thank you again, George, for your work and for sharing your skills!

            Regards,
            Kevin P. Edgecomb
            Moderator
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