ToC: Journal of Historical Geography
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JOURNAL OF HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY ISSN 0305-7488 (Elsevier)
Editors: F. Driver, G. Wynn
Impact Factor, IF=1,119
ToC: Journal of Historical Geography, Volume 37, Issue 1, January 2011
O. Karatay. On the Origins of the Name for the `Black Sea' (p. 1)
The name `Black Sea' is widely attributed to the Anatolian Turks, due to their habit of referring to the South as `white' and North as `black'. However, the appellation first appeared in a Hungarian document and later in sources originating further to the North, including Icelandic sagas and other Nordic narratives. The Turks themselves have a small and secondary role in using and spreading the name. Some scholars have suggested that the Cumans, a Turkic people once occupying regions to the North of the Black Sea, are the likely source. However, in medieval times Khazarian traditions seem to have used the term `Black Sea' as well as `Great Sea', though the relationships between the two terms require clarification. This essay seeks to reconcile these two traditions, and offers a conjectural Bulgar source for the Black Sea denomination.
J. Wu, R. Mohamed, Z. Wang. Agent-based Simulation of the Spatial Evolution of the Historical Population in China (p. 12)
This paper presents an agent-based simulation (ABS) and cellular automata (CA) coupled model to simulate the spatial evolution of the population of China over the past 2000 years. In the model, agents are used to simulate individuals who live in a geographic environment represented by the CA. The choice to migrate is influenced by climate change, potential agricultural productivity change, and waves of mass migrations. Using the simulation, we can observe the spatial evolution of the population, as well as the shift of the population center of gravity, and we can analyze the driving forces of these changing spatial patterns.
B.M. Tomaszewski, M.E. Smith. Polities, Territory and Historical Change in Postclassic Matlatzinco (Toluca Valley, Central Mexico) (p. 22)
Historical interpretation of political dynamics in pre-conquest central Mexico from indigenous records is fraught with difficulties. Beyond the basic challenges involved in interpreting fragmentary evidence is the fact that the majority of evidence comes from the dominant imperial polity (Tenochtitlan) and paints a biased and overly generalized view of political and social dynamics in provincial areas. We present a reconstruction of the political geography of the Toluca Valley of central Mexico in Aztec times that avoids these biases by focusing not on the events described in native histories, but on the individual towns and their spatial locations. We find that a theoretical perspective that defines political entities by networks and relations among people more adequately captures the historical situation than traditional models that define polities based on territory and boundaries.
W. Hasty. Piracy and the Production of Knowledge in the Travels of William Dampier, c.16791688 (p. 40)
Despite its centrality to the production of knowledge in the early modern period, the ship remains a rather marginal site in the work of historians of science. Accounts of `floating universities' and `laboratories at sea' abound, but little is said of the countless other ships, and their crews, involved in the production of knowledge through maritime exploration and travel. The central concern of the paper is the life and work of William Dampier (16511715), a seventeenth-century mariner who sailed as a pirate and authored genre-defining and well received scientific travel narratives. The thesis presented here is that the `way of life' encouraged among the crews of the pirate ships aboard which Dampier travelled rendered him well-placed to gather the `useful' knowledge and experiences which made his scientific name. Understanding this juxtaposition requires a focus which moves beyond the materiality of the ship, and which ultimately brings into view some of the social and epistemic geographies which took shape in and beyond the ship.
S.D. Smith. Volcanic Hazard in a Slave Society: The 1812 Eruption of Mount Soufriere in St Vincent (p. 55)
This study analyses the impact of Mount Soufriere's 1812 eruption on St Vincent: a British West India colony with an economy based on plantation slavery. Output losses are estimated at 14% of island GDP and infrastructure damage at 7% of physical capital invested in sugar estates. In contrast, casualty rates during the eruption and its aftermath proved minimal. Losses were concentrated in two northern coastal regions lying closest to the volcano: firstly, long-established plantations and estates on the Leeward side; secondly, recently-established estates on the Windward side. Leeward cultivators recovered only three-quarters of their pre-disaster output level during the 5 years after 1812. In contrast, Windward producers nearly doubled their output. The role of public authorities in disaster response was confined to securing emergency food relief from overseas and collating loss estimates for use in securing imperial assistance from Britain. Parliamentary grants and loans aided Windward planters in their reconstruction efforts, leading to a rise in slave numbers inhabiting the most hazardous zone. Contemporary descriptions of 1812 portray events as a calamity which no human effort could avert. This depiction, while effective lobby material and an inspiration to artist J.M.W. Turner, exaggerates the extent of destruction, downplays the role of human agency, and obscures the connections between colonisation and the conceptualisation of events as a disaster.
C. Anderson. Colonization, Kidnap and Confinement in the Andamans Penal Colony, 17711864 (p. 68)
This paper explores practices of kidnap and confinement in the Andamans penal colony, for the period 17711864. It argues that during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries indigenous captivity was key to successful colonization. The British kidnapped islanders in an effort to educate them about the supposed benefits of colonial settlement, and in the hope that they would become their cultural advocates. The paper shows also that the close observations that accompanied the confinement of islanders informed global discussions about `race' and `origin', so that the Islands were brought into a larger global frame of understanding around indigenous settler contact. The paper draws out some of the complexities and specificities of the colonial encounter in the Andamans. It argues that with respect to sexual violence, there was a significant gender dimension to colonization and confinement. Finally, it suggests that in a settlement comprising a penal colony and its associated infrastructure (and no free settlement) there were no straightforward distinctions between `colonizer' and `colonized'. Rather, there were significant overlaps between the treatment and experiences of convicts and islanders, and these expressed something of the inherent ambiguities of the penal colonization of the Andamans itself.
B. de Pater. Conflicting Images of the Zuider Zee around 1900: Nation-building and the Struggle against Water (p. 82)
In 1918, the Dutch government decided to enclose and reclaim the Zuider Zee (later called the IJsselmeer). The preceding decades had been marked by broad public debate about the utility and urgency of the project. Around 1900, its proponents constructed images of the region and of the Dutch nation in which the Zuider Zee was no longer a crossroads. They emphasized the backwardness of the area and depicted the sea as a domestic enemy, its violent storms posing a threat to the nation. Cornelis Lely's Zuider Zee proposal (1891) promised a bright future for both the region and the Netherlands as a whole. The struggle against the water would revitalize the nation (by stimulating nation-building) and modernize its international image (perceived as a picturesque but archaic country). Opponents of the project feared the high costs and developed a counter-image: the Zuider Zee region as heartland of `authentic' Dutch culture, a heritage that would be jeopardized by the project. The article concludes by highlighting the synchronicity of the non-synchronous: the Zuider Zee region was envisioned as a region living in the past, thereby constituting an `internal Other' in a country undergoing rapid modernization around 1900.
H. Clout. AlsaceLorraine/ElsassLothringen: Destruction, Revival and Reconstruction in Contested Territory, 19391960 (p. 95)
AlsaceLorraine passed from French administration to German control for half a century after 1871, and again for the duration of World War II. Widespread material damage was inflicted in this contested territory in both world wars. The first wave of destruction in 1940 was inflicted by German forces, the second was caused by Allied bombers in 1944, and the final wave surrounded bitter fighting between German occupiers and American liberators in 19441945. Using archival sources and published accounts, this article examines the complex impact of destruction, very different in chronology from the more familiar story in Lower Normandy; the desperate challenge of coping with a wide range of emergencies that faced the reinstated French regime in the early years of peace; and the prolonged process of definitive reconstruction, which combined respect for traditional design with modern building techniques in some locations, such as the viticultural villages near Colmar, whilst adopting entirely modern approaches in other parts of AlsaceLorraine.
M. Murzyn-Kupisz, K. Gwosdz. The Changing Identity of the Central European City: The Case of Katowice (p. 113)
The issue of diverse identities imprinted on the urban landscape as the result of political changes and the struggle for power between different social and ethnic groups is analysed here using the example of Katowice, the capital and largest urban centre in Upper Silesia, Poland. Basing their conclusions on systematic investigation of the most important changes and features in the cityscape in five clearly distinct historical periods, the authors explore the conditions and mechanisms of the creation of the city's symbolic landscape and its links with urban identity. They argue that Katowice represents a peculiar model of urban identity formation in Central and Eastern Europe that has to date not been researched in any depth, in which each successive historical period represents a rupture with the foregoing values and ideas and an attempt to make a new, lasting imprint on the material outlook of the city. The development of such a model of identity is the result of the complex interplay between the city's changing geopolitical context and its economic and functional development path.
T. M. Simmons. Conceptualizing the Geography of Empire (p. 127)
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