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Re: [beemonitoring] Duration of Pollen Viability in a beehive

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  • David Inouye
    Aylor, D. E. (2004). Survival of maize ( Zea mays ) pollen exposed in the atmosphere. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 123 (3-4): 125-133. The ability of
    Message 1 of 10 , Feb 7, 2010
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      Aylor, D. E. (2004). "Survival of maize (Zea mays) pollen exposed in the atmosphere." Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 123(3-4): 125-133.
               The ability of maize pollen to remain viable during exposure in the atmosphere can potentially have an overriding effect on outcrossing distances in maize. The survival of maize pollen was determined for various lengths of exposure to atmospheric conditions outdoors. Maize pollen was freshly collected from dehiscing anthers of maize plants and immediately exposed to direct sunlight and to the air. Pollen viability was assessed using in vitro germination tests. The length of exposure time required for pollen germination to be reduced by 50% ranged from 60 to 240 min, depending on environmental conditions. Pollen viability was found to be relatively insensitive to solar radiation and was affected most by loss of moisture, which depended on the energy input from the sun and on the vapor pressure deficit of the ambient air. Maize pollen germination was described well for a wide range of environmental conditions by the integral over time of the vapor pressure deficit of the air. These findings were combined with previously determined values for the water vapor conductance of pollen walls and with a relationship for pollen germination as a function of pollen relative water content to arrive at an equation for predicting the dynamics of pollen survival as a function of exposure to the environment. This model successfully predicted germination percentage over at least a two-decade range for maize pollen freshly collected from anthers.


      Ramsey, M. and G. Vaughton (1991). "Self-incompatibility, protandry, pollen production and pollen longevity in Banksia menziesii." Australian Journal of Botany 39: 497-504.
               Controlled self- and cross-pollination indicated that a natural population of Banksia menziesii (Proteaceae) was self-incompatible. Flowers were protandrous. Deposition of pollen into the stigmatic cavity was regulated by opening of the stigmatic groove. Stigmatic grooves opened 24-48 h after the flowers opened. Pollen production was high and the pollen:ovule ratio was approximately 10000. Over 90% of pollen grains were viable when flowers first opened. Viability decreased rapidly with time and most pollen was inviable within 24 h. These results indicate that B. menziesii requires pollen vectors to produce seed and suggest that pollinators may have influenced the evolution of the reproductive traits that were examined.

      Wang, Z. Y., Y. X. Ge, et al. (2004). "Viability and longevity of pollen from transgenic and nontransgenic tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) (Poaceae) plants." American Journal of Botany 91(4): 523-530.
               Pollen is an important vector of gene flow in plants, particularly for outcrossing species like tall fescue. Several aspects of pollination biology were investigated using pollen from transgenic and nontransgenic plants of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.), the most important forage species worldwide of the Festuca genus. To effectively assess in vitro pollen viability in tall fescue, an optimized germination medium (0.8 mol/L sucrose, 1.28 mmol/L boric acid and 1.27 mmol/L calcium nitrate) was developed. Treatment with relatively high temperatures (36and 40 and high doses of UV-B irradiation (900cm2) reduced pollen viability, while relative humidity did not significantly influence pollen viability. Viability of pollen from transgenic progenies (T1 and T2) was similar to that from seed-derived control plants. Pollen from primary transgenics (T0) and primary regenerants (R0) had various levels of viability. Hand pollination using the primary regenerants and transgenics revealed that no seed set could be obtained when pollen viability was lower than 5%. Pollen from transgenic progenies and nontransgenic control plants could survive up to 22 h under controlled conditions in growth chamber. However, under sunny atmospheric conditions, viability of transgenic and nontransgenic pollen reduced to 5% in 30 min, with a complete loss of viability in 90 min. Under cloudy atmospheric conditions, pollen remained viable up to 240 min, with about 5% viability after 150 min. This report is the first on pollen viability and longevity in transgenic forage grasses and could be useful for risk assessment of transgenic plants.



      At 10:06 PM 2/7/2010, you wrote:
       

      Hi everyone

      Can anybody lead me to people or literature on the topic of how long pollen on bees will remain viable?

      That is, if a beekeeper moved the hives from one farm to another would the pollen on the bees still be able to contaminate the crop in the new location (e.g., GM crops or seed certification issues)?

      Thanks

      Linda

       

      Linda Newstrom-Lloyd

       

      Phone DD +64 3 321 9853

      Phone Home +64 383 4047

      Mobile 021 385 953

       

      From: beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com [ mailto:beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of Sam Droege
      Sent: Saturday, 6 February 2010 11:11 a.m.
      To: beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com
      Subject: RE: [beemonitoring] Measuring Osmia Phenology as a Measure of Climate Change - Feedback

       

       


      Jim:

      Actually you are right it is useful for documenting phenologies, which one would think would be known, but you are right I can't think of any off the top of my head.  However, some of the aggregate nesting bees must have had someone plot out the general ebb and flow of numbers in some paper....

      Yes, it should be a nice correlate with the plant data...and a good test into some of the notions that people have that plant and bee phenologies may go out of sync in some climate change scenarios.

      Since my long-term monitoring hat is usually the one I wear I didn't thing about the basic science idea that you had...it would actually be a very good first entree into the system.  Since funding groups generally like open-ended monitoring programs (sigh) your idea would actually be more fundable than a Climate Change one, but would easily morph into a CC as the year's progressed.

      I am actually more afraid of too many participants than too few, given that there I was going to do project in my spare time....however, if we could send western nests to you...that would allow a great deal of expansion.  Once the system is in place for uploading the pictures...there is little penalty for adding more people...its the nest processing that will add up.

      So, bottomline, yes, we should go for it, but would need to make sure we have the ability to open and run nests later this year.  I am going to be looking at a bunch of Wayne's nests in a week or so, to get a sense of how that works.

      There is also the need to come up with a good trap nest design...(that can be built at home...without a drill!)

      sam


                                                    
      Sam Droege  sdroege@...                     
      w 301-497-5840 h 301-390-7759 fax 301-497-5624
      USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center
      BARC-EAST, BLDG 308, RM 124 10300 Balt. Ave., Beltsville, MD  20705
      Http://www.pwrc.usgs.gov

       Further in Summer than the Birds
      Pathetic from the Grass
      A minor Nation celebrates
      Its unobtrusive Mass.

       No Ordinance be seen
      So gradual the Grace
      A pensive Custom it becomes
      Enlarging Loneliness.

       Antiquest felt at Noon
      When August burning low
      Arise this spectral Canticle
      Repose to typify

       Remit as yet no Grace
      No Furrow on the Glow
      Yet a Druidic Difference
      Enhances Nature now

                       -- Emily Dickinson








      From:

      "Cane, Jim" <Jim.Cane@...>

      To:

      <beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com>

      Date:

      02/05/2010 02:41 PM

      Subject:

      RE: [beemonitoring] Measuring Osmia Phenology as a Measure of Climate Change - Feedback

      Sent by:

      beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com

       




       

      Sam and others- first, let me say that this is a great concept!  But before jumping to the Holy Grail,  finding a response to climate _change_, it will be useful (very!) to even measure, map and predict the range of their phenologies across the continent, which won’t require such long time series data.  I don’t believe that such exists for any solitary bee, does it? For this bee, we know that timely emergence involves first the satisfaction of accumulated chill hours, followed by some moderate amount of heat unit accumulation.  Importantly, I think that it would also be grand to link the proposed measures to lilac bloom phenology, using the National Phenology Network, for then it would also allow for interpolation between points where we would have no Osmia lignaria data but where we do have lilac phenology data (and their powerful modeling abilities to boot).  I’ve found the lilac monitoring to be pretty painless provided you have them growing where you can check every day or two just during bloom (mine are on my bike ride home and at my house and our lab, one set right next to the campus NOAA weather station).  Read about it at:

       

      http://www.usanpn.org/

       

      Besides lilac, I think that the other really dandy relevant plant whose bloom is being monitored nation-wide is forsythia,

      http://www.usanpn.org/?q=Forsythia_spp

       I recollect that its bloom precedes fruit tree bloom by a little bit, and so O. lignaria.  Imagine being able to advise someone in some distant and unfamiliar state that x days after forsythia blooms where they live (and many people recognize forsythia), they should deploy their O. lignaria, or look for first nesting, or whatever.  We can’t do they very well right now.

       

      If one wanted to document climate change, last year and this year would make for a great comparison in the Intermountain West, as last year the cool spring delayed O. lignaria emergence by 3 weeks across the region.  This year they are more likely to be on time, so a 3-week jump in emergence!  I am saying this in jest, but to make a point that the noise from inter-seasonal variation will greatly confound any subtle background trend, or make for false early interpretations.  Conversely, learning if bee emergence can be tied to or predicted by any other tracked phenological event (such as lilac bloom) continent-wide would be a huge leap in understanding, and might be achieved in a few years of monitoring.  Imagine if we knew that a degree day accumulation map, or a Hardiness Zone map, accurately predicted emergence, or knew how to calculate specifically how to adjust predicted emergence dates from those mapped values!

       

      None of this is to throw cold water on the idea, but rather refocus a little to make very best use of the effort for fantastic shorter term insights that we currently lack for any and all bees.  I’d certainly be keen on participating, or maybe even making it work.  If we can formalize the protocol, I do believe that I could convince folks that I know at USANPN in Tucson to add this as a module if we wanted.

       

      Yerz

       

      jim

       

      ===============================

      James H. Cane

      USDA-ARS Bee Biology and Systematics Lab

      Utah State University, Logan, UT 84322 USA

      tel: 435-797-3879   FAX: 435-797-0461

      email: Jim.Cane@...  

      http://www.ars.usda.gov/npa/logan/beelab

      http://www.biology.usu.edu/people/facultyinfo.asp?username=jcane

      Gardening for Native Bees: http://extension.usu.edu/files/publications/factsheet/plants-pollinators09.pdf

       

      "The obscure takes time to see,

      but the obvious takes longer"
      Edward R. Murrow

       

       



      Please consider the environment before printing this email
      Warning: This electronic message together with any attachments is confidential. If you receive it in error: (i) you must not read, use, disclose, copy or retain it; (ii) please contact the sender immediately by reply email and then delete the emails.
      The views expressed in this email may not be those of Landcare Research New Zealand Limited. http://www.landcareresearch.co.nz
    • Peter Bernhardt
      Dear Linda: Let s make something abundantly clear. The viability of pollen on a bee is not the same thing as the survival of pollen in the air.
      Message 2 of 10 , Feb 8, 2010
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        Dear Linda:

        Let's make something abundantly clear.  The viability of pollen on a bee is not the same thing as the survival of pollen in the air.  Unfortunately, there's nothing conclusive about pollen viability on a pollinator.  There was excellent research on pollen viability on nectar-stealing ants.  We should consider contacting recently retired, Dr. Andrew Beattie <abeattie@...> and his wife, Christine. 

        Hymenoptera excrete molecules that kill pollen grains just as these antibiotics ultimately kill some spores of bacteria and fungi.  Back in the early '80's Dr. J. Kenrick and I performed some tests (unpublished) comparing the viability of Leptospermum grains removed from the corbiculae of halictids and Apis mellifera around Melbourne (Australia).  The viablity of grains on either groups of insects was always lower than the viability of fresh grains removed from anthers but Apis mellifera seemed to kill grains of  the Australian shrub faster than the bodies of native bees.  I suspect this is due to the fact that honeybees add nectar to their pollen loads starting the hydration process. This is all a most worthy subject for future research but we have no hard answers unless someone can direct me to publications I've obviously missed.  Then there's the problem of which tests you use to record pollen viability.  Most of them suck and if you still get positive results with pollen taken from an old herbarium sheet you are using the wrong test. Personally, I only trust the fluorescein diacetate test as it records whether the plasmalema in a pollen grain binds with a sucrose molecule after it hydrates.  THis technique was put on the web by the journal "Plant Talk" but it may no longer be available as the journal is defunct.  

        Furthermore, pollen of wind-pollinated (corn) species is built quite differently from animal pollinated species as it has little lipid and amino acid in the cytoplasm.  However, when released into the air any wind-pollinated grain must still deal with UV rays, temperature flucuations and ambient water vapor.  Consider the size of the environment into which it has been launched and the size of receptive stigmas.  What are the odds that a GM grain will be blown onto a a stigma a km away?  In fact, the longer a grain remains in the air the more likely it will continue to rise in elevation.  Frankly, what my former PhD advisor and boss, the late Bruce Knox, wrote on pollen aerobiology is still pertinent.  See chapter 5 of his little book for British high school students, "Pollen and Allergy," The Institute of Biology's Studies in Biology no. 107: Edward Arnold Publishers, London (1979).

        Peter Bernhardt




        On Sun, Feb 7, 2010 at 9:06 PM, Linda Newstrom <newstroml@...> wrote:
         

        Hi everyone

        Can anybody lead me to people or literature on the topic of how long pollen on bees will remain viable?

        That is, if a beekeeper moved the hives from one farm to another would the pollen on the bees still be able to contaminate the crop in the new location (e.g., GM crops or seed certification issues)?

        Thanks

        Linda

         

        Linda Newstrom-Lloyd

         

        Phone DD +64 3 321 9853

        Phone Home +64 383 4047

        Mobile 021 385 953

         

        From: beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com [mailto:beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of Sam Droege
        Sent: Saturday, 6 February 2010 11:11 a.m.
        To: beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com
        Subject: RE: [beemonitoring] Measuring Osmia Phenology as a Measure of Climate Change - Feedback

         

         


        Jim:

        Actually you are right it is useful for documenting phenologies, which one would think would be known, but you are right I can't think of any off the top of my head.  However, some of the aggregate nesting bees must have had someone plot out the general ebb and flow of numbers in some paper....

        Yes, it should be a nice correlate with the plant data...and a good test into some of the notions that people have that plant and bee phenologies may go out of sync in some climate change scenarios.

        Since my long-term monitoring hat is usually the one I wear I didn't thing about the basic science idea that you had...it would actually be a very good first entree into the system.  Since funding groups generally like open-ended monitoring programs (sigh) your idea would actually be more fundable than a Climate Change one, but would easily morph into a CC as the year's progressed.

        I am actually more afraid of too many participants than too few, given that there I was going to do project in my spare time....however, if we could send western nests to you...that would allow a great deal of expansion.  Once the system is in place for uploading the pictures...there is little penalty for adding more people...its the nest processing that will add up.

        So, bottomline, yes, we should go for it, but would need to make sure we have the ability to open and run nests later this year.  I am going to be looking at a bunch of Wayne's nests in a week or so, to get a sense of how that works.

        There is also the need to come up with a good trap nest design...(that can be built at home...without a drill!)

        sam


                                                       
        Sam Droege  sdroege@...                      
        w 301-497-5840 h 301-390-7759 fax 301-497-5624
        USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center
        BARC-EAST, BLDG 308, RM 124 10300 Balt. Ave., Beltsville, MD  20705
        Http://www.pwrc.usgs.gov

         Further in Summer than the Birds
        Pathetic from the Grass
        A minor Nation celebrates
        Its unobtrusive Mass.


         No Ordinance be seen
        So gradual the Grace
        A pensive Custom it becomes
        Enlarging Loneliness.


         Antiquest felt at Noon
        When August burning low
        Arise this spectral Canticle
        Repose to typify


         Remit as yet no Grace
        No Furrow on the Glow
        Yet a Druidic Difference
        Enhances Nature now


                         -- Emily Dickinson








        From:

        "Cane, Jim" <Jim.Cane@...>

        To:

        <beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com>

        Date:

        02/05/2010 02:41 PM

        Subject:

        RE: [beemonitoring] Measuring Osmia Phenology as a Measure of Climate Change - Feedback

        Sent by:

        beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com

         





         

        Sam and others- first, let me say that this is a great concept!  But before jumping to the Holy Grail,  finding a response to climate _change_, it will be useful (very!) to even measure, map and predict the range of their phenologies across the continent, which won’t require such long time series data.  I don’t believe that such exists for any solitary bee, does it? For this bee, we know that timely emergence involves first the satisfaction of accumulated chill hours, followed by some moderate amount of heat unit accumulation.  Importantly, I think that it would also be grand to link the proposed measures to lilac bloom phenology, using the National Phenology Network, for then it would also allow for interpolation between points where we would have no Osmia lignaria data but where we do have lilac phenology data (and their powerful modeling abilities to boot).  I’ve found the lilac monitoring to be pretty painless provided you have them growing where you can check every day or two just during bloom (mine are on my bike ride home and at my house and our lab, one set right next to the campus NOAA weather station).  Read about it at:

         

        http://www.usanpn.org/

         

        Besides lilac, I think that the other really dandy relevant plant whose bloom is being monitored nation-wide is forsythia,

        http://www.usanpn.org/?q=Forsythia_spp

         I recollect that its bloom precedes fruit tree bloom by a little bit, and so O. lignaria.  Imagine being able to advise someone in some distant and unfamiliar state that x days after forsythia blooms where they live (and many people recognize forsythia), they should deploy their O. lignaria, or look for first nesting, or whatever.  We can’t do they very well right now.

         

        If one wanted to document climate change, last year and this year would make for a great comparison in the Intermountain West, as last year the cool spring delayed O. lignaria emergence by 3 weeks across the region.  This year they are more likely to be on time, so a 3-week jump in emergence!  I am saying this in jest, but to make a point that the noise from inter-seasonal variation will greatly confound any subtle background trend, or make for false early interpretations.  Conversely, learning if bee emergence can be tied to or predicted by any other tracked phenological event (such as lilac bloom) continent-wide would be a huge leap in understanding, and might be achieved in a few years of monitoring.  Imagine if we knew that a degree day accumulation map, or a Hardiness Zone map, accurately predicted emergence, or knew how to calculate specifically how to adjust predicted emergence dates from those mapped values!

         

        None of this is to throw cold water on the idea, but rather refocus a little to make very best use of the effort for fantastic shorter term insights that we currently lack for any and all bees.  I’d certainly be keen on participating, or maybe even making it work.  If we can formalize the protocol, I do believe that I could convince folks that I know at USANPN in Tucson to add this as a module if we wanted.

         

        Yerz

         

        jim

         

        ===============================

        James H. Cane

        USDA-ARS Bee Biology and Systematics Lab

        Utah State University, Logan, UT 84322 USA

        tel: 435-797-3879   FAX: 435-797-0461

        email: Jim.Cane@...  

        http://www.ars.usda.gov/npa/logan/beelab

        http://www.biology.usu.edu/people/facultyinfo.asp?username=jcane

        Gardening for Native Bees: http://extension.usu.edu/files/publications/factsheet/plants-pollinators09.pdf

         

        "The obscure takes time to see,

        but the obvious takes longer"
        Edward R. Murrow

         

         



        Please consider the environment before printing this email
        Warning: This electronic message together with any attachments is confidential. If you receive it in error: (i) you must not read, use, disclose, copy or retain it; (ii) please contact the sender immediately by reply email and then delete the emails.
        The views expressed in this email may not be those of Landcare Research New Zealand Limited. http://www.landcareresearch.co.nz


      • Mark E Kraemer
        Sam & All, Here are my thoughts on using Osmia as a monitor for climate change. I ve worked with O. lignaria in Virginia since about 2002. It is likely that
        Message 3 of 10 , Feb 8, 2010
        • 0 Attachment

          Sam & All,

           

          Here are my thoughts on using Osmia as a monitor for climate change.   I’ve worked with O. lignaria in Virginia since about 2002. 

           

          It is likely that each geographical population of bees has adapted to local climate conditions and has its own chilling and perhaps heating degree day requirements for spring emergence.   Thus, sending cohorts from one geographical region to other regions may be a problem.  For example, if bees from a colder winter climate area are sent to a warmer one and they do not get enough chilling they will have poor emergence extended over a longer period of time, similar to fruit tree bloom when not enough chill units have been accumulated.   Nest building would be extended late into the season but have nothing to do with climate change.   If bee tubes are sent out in late winter after chilling requirements are met, you still have the problem of variable and unknown temperatures during transit.  It’s best to use local bee populations if possible.  

           

          I’d use eastern red bud bloom for phenological comparisons, at least in the Eastern U.S.   I found female emergence in Virginia and North Carolina closely coincides with initial bloom of Eastern redbud.  Eastern redbud provides not just pollen but nectar early in the season when few if any other trees/shrubs are flowering.   It’s a very common forest understory tree and an ornamental found throughout most of the eastern U.S.  The vast majority of pollen (>90%) that I sampled from nest cells created in the first week was redbud (4 sites), even when the trees were not nearby the shelter boxes.   Nesting was very poor and late in one site where redbuds were not found.   I would expect first nest completions to be 7-10 days after initial redbud bloom, depending on air temps.  Some of these phenology results should appear soon in Environmental Entomology. 

           

          I’d like to know whether our observed phenological link of female emergence with Eastern redbud bloom occurs elsewhere, and the pollen composition of the early nest cells.  If this relationship is true, and because climate has changed so radically during the past few million years, I’d speculate that the bees and trees have co-evolved a very similar mechanism for coordinating their emergence/bloom through a broad range of climate change. 

           

          Mark Kraemer

          Asst. Prof - research

          (804) 524-5952

          P.O. Box 9061

          Virginia State University       

           

           

          From: beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com [mailto:beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of Sam Droege
          Sent: Friday, February 05, 2010 1:46 PM
          To: beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com
          Subject: [beemonitoring] Measuring Osmia Phenology as a Measure of Climate Change - Feedback Needed

           

           


          All:

          I have been corresponding with Wayne Esaias from NASA plus  Frank Parker and Vince Tepedino (both retired from USDA Logan Bee Lab) about expanding on some trial's Wayne ran last year in Maryland using trap nesting Osmia to measure climate related factors.

          Wayne has a nice Power Point of the results from last year that I will send it out separately in case it clogs up folks' email.

          We are talking about making some changes to what Wayne did last year and running another set of trials this year, in other parts of the country as further proof-of-concept.

          Here's the outline below... let me know what you think ... posting to the list would be fine as I think this would be of general interest.  In particular we likely need advice about developing the best system for housing nests.....see below.

          Here goes:

          Goal


          Develop a Climate Change monitoring program using a system of measured nest completion dates (phenology) using cavity nesting Osmia.


          Some notes are warranted:  Osmia are chosen both because they are spring bees (good time for detecting weather related responses from a group of plants or animals) and, more importantly, they overwinter as adults not pupae and thus don't require rearing for identification.


          Immediate Objectives


          Develop a low-cost trial and proof-of-concept using Osmia in North America.  


          Note:  No reason this would not work in Europe/Asia either.
          Note:  There is no funding currently available so it has to be very cheap and easy to accomplish...which actually is what any monitoring program needs to be.


          Nesting Structure  


          An aggregation of regularly spaced nests with removable tubes or nesting straws. This aggregation needs to be cheap to create without any tools by a homeowner and must have a way in which the individual tubes can be easily identified.


          Ideas for creating this system would be the use of Styrofoam to hold the paper tubes and 1 liter bottles to form the shelters for the tubes.

          Coverage

          We think this system would work wherever Osmia occur, which should be in most locations in North America.


          Outline of Methodology


          0. A participant installs a structure of ~ 50 nesting tubes in a convenient location in late winter.
          1.  A participant takes a digital picture of the face of the trap nests once a day using a digital camera with an appropriately set date and time function.
          2.  Photo's are uploaded to a web site (Discoverlife likely) where they are ordered and titled by locality and date.

          3.  Either the observer or someone else fills out an online form that notes which cells are capped and when (along with dates in which observations were taken)

                  Note:  Our current idea is to have a trap nest with a rectangular array of nest tubes.  Those nest tubes have  a corresponding online form with circles corresponding to each nest.  For each photo the form is completed with each circle marked (perhaps with a code indicating type of cap and whether it is untouched or is punctured by a hole) on the form if it has been capped.
          4.  A systematic subset of straws (half?) are removed (when removal occurs is a question in terms of effects of disturbance, maturity of nests, and parasitism...suggestions?), the straws ID number is written on it,  and sent somewhere for species ID and that information is also placed online.

          5. All data would be available immediately as it was entered for anyone to use.

          Outline of Products


          Maps and Tables for the Following (in aggregation and by species):


          1.  Species Occurrence
          2.  Nest Occupancy per Array

                  3. Date of nest completion (phenology)
          4.  Number of brood cell's per Nest
          5.  Parasitism rate by host and parasite


          Phenology metrics that could be derived from these obsvations would include the beginning, end, duration of nesting completion activity and their attendant variances.

          Relationship to Climate Change


          1.  Will readily capture changes in nest completion and there are lesser possibilities of capturing range changes, fecundity, parasitism, and species composition parameters.
          2.  Will provide year-to-year change as well as long-term trends.

          3.  Will provide accurate and precise phenology data for climate modellers of an actual biological variable not just a bunch of weather variables.
          4.  Such detailed information of such precision is unlikely to be available for any other group of Hymenoptera (prove me wrong!).


          Some Ideas and Notions


          1.  Participants would all be volunteers and would be expected to have their own digital camera and pay for the shipping of their nest tubes to the processing center (and could even be asked to purchase the nest tubes)
           
          2.  A central group would coordinate and ship out tubes and set up the ID and processing of specimens and data.
          3.  Weather Stations would be a natural place to install nest arrays as people there are used to the regular taking and collecting of data and, in fact, it would likely be important to have temperature data from each site (max min thermometer, hobo temp, etc.)
          3.  A large amount of molecular grade material would be available for all sorts of interesting studies.
          4.  Lots of residual pollen would be available and could be associated with date from individual successful and unsuccessful cells for each species/location.

          5.  The development and creation of this system would be a good Master's level project for a student and I think would have reasonable attraction to funders.

          6.  This would be attractive to volunteers (They Could be Oz watchers ....), and, in fact, could be asked to subsidize the program by a fee/participant if it comes to that.

          This, of course is potentially a fair amount of work for a coordinating group...

          Costs


          We think that this is a fundable idea and costs would primarily be:


          1.  Creation of a website to handle digital data (Discoverlife would be an obvious candidate)

          2.  Nest arrays or at least nesting tubes for participants

          3.  Contracted technician time to process specimens (highly trained volunteers could do most of this except for the species determinations)


          Details


          1.  Separate regional/continental/country systems for processing would obviously have to be created to account for issues of shipping living bees and wasps across country boundaries...so participation in Canada and Mexico would be predicated on either only picture taking or that there would be a group willing to have specimens shipped to them.
          2.  We are willing to run small pilots this year with no or minimal funding
          .

          OK, fire away....its important to us to design a system that permits tracking of which INDIVIDUAL tubes have been capped...so a big clump of tubes jammed into a circular mailing tube is not useful, nor is something that requires participants to drill out holes in wood....as most folks won't be able to do that themselves.

          We are counting on you.

          Thanks

          sam


                                                       
          Sam Droege  
          sdroege@...                      
          w 301-497-5840 h 301-390-7759 fax 301-497-5624
          USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center
          BARC-EAST, BLDG 308, RM 124 10300 Balt. Ave., Beltsville, MD  20705

          Http://www.pwrc.usgs.gov

          It is easier to square a circle than to get round a
          mathematician.
                                               A. De Morgan, 1840

        • Peter Bernhardt
          Dear Liz: Yes, Andrew Beattie studied violets and other spring ephemerals but his work changed radically when he moved to Australia in the mid-1980 s. He came
          Message 4 of 10 , Feb 9, 2010
          • 0 Attachment
            Dear Liz:

            Yes, Andrew Beattie studied violets and other spring ephemerals but his work changed radically when he moved to Australia in the mid-1980's.  He came to the Plant Cell Biology Research Center (now defunct) at the U. of Melbourne and worked on pollen viability under the late Bruce Knox (my advisor).  Drs. Andrew and Christine Beattie discovered that pollen grains died quickly upon adhering to the cuticle of bulldog ants.  I believe that the Beatties later went on to show that there are antibiotics in the Dufours (?) gland that ants use to clean and cover their bodies.  Aspects of this work continue to date as the Drs Beattie carry on a most active retirement.  Bees it seems do not produce the same antibiotics, or don't produce them at the same strength.  The Beatties assumed that, as ants live in soil and rotting wood, most come in contact with bacteria and spores with great regularity.  This becomes especially dangerous when they nurse their sister larvae and pupae.  That's why they coat their immature sisters with secretions from their glands.  Bees and wasps, on the other hand, raise their sisters or offspring in individual chambers of wax, resin or paper.  The chances for contamination are lower.

            The fact remains, though, that there is no obvious selective advantage for bees brining live pollen home to the burrow.  Hydrated pollen is good for the offspring living on lipids and amino acids in the cytoplasm but, surely, you don't want pollen grains that germinate prior to consumption.  That, one presumes, is why the grains are hydrated in a sugar-saturated solution. Germinating pollen grains are empty of cytoplasm and, one presumes that important nutrients are metabolized in the pollen tube.  Who knows, this may be another reason why some flowers have shifted towards beetles, hummingbirds, honeyeater birds, tangle-vein flies, most wasps, most moths and most butterflies.  Most don't feed pollen to their offspring. 

            Sincerely, Peter

            On Mon, Feb 8, 2010 at 2:58 PM, Liz Day <lizday44@...> wrote:
            Dear Peter,

            consider contacting recently retired, Dr. Andrew Beattie <<mailto:abeattie@...>abeattie@...> and his wife, Christine.

            AH.... didn't he study pollination in violets?  Or am I confused?   I often wonder whether bumblebees were involved in his research.

            thanks,
            Liz



            ---------------------------
            Liz Day
            3221 Merrick Ln. 3B
            Indianapolis, Indiana 46222  USA
            (40 N, 86 W;  USDA zone 5b)
            317-924-0008
            ---------------------------


          • Sam Droege
            Hi Mark: Thanks for the comments. Actually we were not planning on sending out bees, just the empty tubes and were then going to see what species used the
            Message 5 of 10 , Feb 9, 2010
            • 0 Attachment

              Hi Mark:

              Thanks for the comments.  Actually we were not planning on sending out bees, just the empty tubes and were then going to see what species used the tubes later in Fall by cutting them open.

              Redbud would be a good tree to use as it is planted widely and the blossoms are obvious...and Osmia do love them.

              In addition to having folks track redbud bloom it was also pointed out that just because you have finished nests it doesn't necessarily mean that bees haven't been out and about for quite a while and are simply waiting for plants to bloom.  To test that I think it would be interesting to have some sites also running bowl traps each day (this would be a fair amount of work, so I don't expect very  many site to do this).  In that way we could look at first captures in bowls, plant phenology, and nest completion rates...additionally, Wayne runs a network of honeybee hives that are weighed each day and are very sensitive to general nectar resources, these could also be added along with NASA's greenup measurements.

              sam

                                                             
              Sam Droege  sdroege@...                      
              w 301-497-5840 h 301-390-7759 fax 301-497-5624
              USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center
              BARC-EAST, BLDG 308, RM 124 10300 Balt. Ave., Beltsville, MD  20705
              Http://www.pwrc.usgs.gov


              "Weather"

              Weather, n. The climate of an hour. A permanent topic of conversation among persons whom it does not interest, but who have inherited the tendency to chatter about it
              from naked arboreal ancestors whom it keenly concerned. The setting up of official weather bureaus and their maintenance in mendacity prove that even governments
              are accessible to suasion by the rude forefathers of the jungle.

                            Once I dipt into the future far as human eye could see,
                            And I saw the Chief Forecaster, dead as any one can be--
                            Dead and damned and shut in Hades as a liar from his birth,
                            With a record of unreason seldom paralleled on earth.
                            While I looked he reared him solemnly, that incandescent youth,
                            From the coals that he'd preferred to the advantages of truth.
                            He cast his eyes about him and above him; then he wrote
                            On a slab of thin asbestos what I venture here to quote--
                            For I read it in the rose-light of the everlasting glow:
                            "Cloudy; variable winds, with local showers; cooler; snow."


              Halcyon Jones.

                 - Ambrose Bierce

              P Bees are not optional.


              From:Mark E Kraemer <MKraemer@...>
              To:Sam Droege <sdroege@...>, "beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com" <beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com>
              Date:02/08/2010 03:53 PM
              Subject:RE: [beemonitoring] Measuring Osmia Phenology as a Measure of Climate Change - Feedback Needed





              Sam & All,
               
              Here are my thoughts on using Osmia as a monitor for climate change.   I’ve worked with O. lignaria in Virginia since about 2002.  
               
              It is likely that each geographical population of bees has adapted to local climate conditions and has its own chilling and perhaps heating degree day requirements for spring emergence.   Thus, sending cohorts from one geographical region to other regions may be a problem.  For example, if bees from a colder winter climate area are sent to a warmer one and they do not get enough chilling they will have poor emergence extended over a longer period of time, similar to fruit tree bloom when not enough chill units have been accumulated.   Nest building would be extended late into the season but have nothing to do with climate change.   If bee tubes are sent out in late winter after chilling requirements are met, you still have the problem of variable and unknown temperatures during transit.  It’s best to use local bee populations if possible.  
               
              I’d use eastern red bud bloom for phenological comparisons, at least in the Eastern U.S.   I found female emergence in Virginia and North Carolina closely coincides with initial bloom of Eastern redbud.  Eastern redbud provides not just pollen but nectar early in the season when few if any other trees/shrubs are flowering.   It’s a very common forest understory tree and an ornamental found throughout most of the eastern U.S.  The vast majority of pollen (>90%) that I sampled from nest cells created in the first week was redbud (4 sites), even when the trees were not nearby the shelter boxes.   Nesting was very poor and late in one site where redbuds were not found.   I would expect first nest completions to be 7-10 days after initial redbud bloom, depending on air temps.  Some of these phenology results should appear soon in Environmental Entomology.  
               
              I’d like to know whether our observed phenological link of female emergence with Eastern redbud bloom occurs elsewhere, and the pollen composition of the early nest cells.  If this relationship is true, and because climate has changed so radically during the past few million years, I’d speculate that the bees and trees have co-evolved a very similar mechanism for coordinating their emergence/bloom through a broad range of climate change.  
               
              Mark Kraemer
              Asst. Prof - research
              (804) 524-5952
              P.O. Box 9061
              Virginia State University        
               
               
              From: beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com [mailto:beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of Sam Droege
              Sent:
              Friday, February 05, 2010 1:46 PM
              To:
              beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com
              Subject:
              [beemonitoring] Measuring Osmia Phenology as a Measure of Climate Change - Feedback Needed

               
               


              All:


              I have been corresponding with Wayne Esaias from NASA plus  Frank Parker and Vince Tepedino (both retired from USDA Logan Bee Lab) about expanding on some trial's Wayne ran last year in Maryland using trap nesting Osmia to measure climate related factors.


              Wayne has a nice Power Point of the results from last year that I will send it out separately in case it clogs up folks' email.


              We are talking about making some changes to what Wayne did last year and running another set of trials this year, in other parts of the country as further proof-of-concept.


              Here's the outline below... let me know what you think ... posting to the list would be fine as I think this would be of general interest.  In particular we likely need advice about developing the best system for housing nests.....see below.


              Here goes:


              Goal


              Develop a Climate Change monitoring program using a system of measured nest completion dates (phenology) using cavity nesting Osmia.


              Some notes are warranted:  Osmia are chosen both because they are spring bees (good time for detecting weather related responses from a group of plants or animals) and, more importantly, they overwinter as adults not pupae and thus don't require rearing for identification.



              Immediate Objectives


              Develop a low-cost trial and proof-of-concept using Osmia in North America.  


              Note:  No reason this would not work in Europe/Asia either.

              Note:  There is no funding currently available so it has to be very cheap and easy to accomplish...which actually is what any monitoring program needs to be.



              Nesting Structure  


              An aggregation of regularly spaced nests with removable tubes or nesting straws. This aggregation needs to be cheap to create without any tools by a homeowner and must have a way in which the individual tubes can be easily identified.


              Ideas for creating this system would be the use of Styrofoam to hold the paper tubes and 1 liter bottles to form the shelters for the tubes.


              Coverage


              We think this system would work wherever Osmia occur, which should be in most locations in North America.

              Outline of Methodology


              0. A participant installs a structure of ~ 50 nesting tubes in a convenient location in late winter.

              1.  A participant takes a digital picture of the face of the trap nests once a day using a digital camera with an appropriately set date and time function.
              2.  Photo's are uploaded to a web site (Discoverlife likely) where they are ordered and titled by locality and date.

              3.  Either the observer or someone else fills out an online form that notes which cells are capped and when (along with dates in which observations were taken)

                     Note:  Our current idea is to have a trap nest with a rectangular array of nest tubes.  Those nest tubes have  a corresponding online form with circles corresponding to each nest.  For each photo the form is completed with each circle marked (perhaps with a code indicating type of cap and whether it is untouched or is punctured by a hole) on the form if it has been capped.
              4.  A systematic subset of straws (half?) are removed (when removal occurs is a question in terms of effects of disturbance, maturity of nests, and parasitism...suggestions?), the straws ID number is written on it,  and sent somewhere for species ID and that information is also placed online.

              5. All data would be available immediately as it was entered for anyone to use.


              Outline of Products


              Maps and Tables for the Following (in aggregation and by species):


              1.  Species Occurrence

              2.  Nest Occupancy per Array

                     
              3. Date of nest completion (phenology)
              4.  Number of brood cell's per Nest

              5.  Parasitism rate by host and parasite


              Phenology metrics that could be derived from these obsvations would include the beginning, end, duration of nesting completion activity and their attendant variances.


              Relationship to Climate Change


              1.  Will readily capture changes in nest completion and there are lesser possibilities of capturing range changes, fecundity, parasitism, and species composition parameters.
              2.  Will provide year-to-year change as well as long-term trends.

              3.  Will provide accurate and precise phenology data for climate modellers of an actual biological variable not just a bunch of weather variables.
              4.  Such detailed information of such precision is unlikely to be available for any other group of Hymenoptera (prove me wrong!).

              Some Ideas and Notions


              1.  Participants would all be volunteers and would be expected to have their own digital camera and pay for the shipping of their nest tubes to the processing center (and could even be asked to purchase the nest tubes)
               
              2.  A central group would coordinate and ship out tubes and set up the ID and processing of specimens and data.

              3.  Weather Stations would be a natural place to install nest arrays as people there are used to the regular taking and collecting of data
              and, in fact, it would likely be important to have temperature data from each site (max min thermometer, hobo temp, etc.)
              3.  A large amount of molecular grade material would be available for all sorts of interesting studies.
              4.  Lots of residual pollen would be available and could be associated with date from individual successful and unsuccessful cells for each species/location.

              5.  The development and creation of this system would be a good Master's level project for a student and I think would have reasonable attraction to funders.

              6.  This would be attractive to volunteers (They Could be Oz watchers ....), and, in fact, could be asked to subsidize the program by a fee/participant if it comes to that.


              This, of course is potentially a fair amount of work for a coordinating group...


              Costs


              We think that this is a fundable idea and costs would primarily be:


              1.  Creation of a website to handle digital data (Discoverlife would be an obvious candidate)

              2.  Nest arrays or at least nesting tubes for participants

              3.  Contracted technician time to process specimens (highly trained volunteers could do most of this except for the species determinations)


              Details


              1.  Separate regional/continental/country systems for processing would obviously have to be created to account for issues of shipping living bees and wasps across country boundaries...so participation in Canada and Mexico would be predicated on either only picture taking or that there would be a group willing to have specimens shipped to them.
              2.  We are willing to run small pilots this year with no or minimal funding
              .

              OK, fire away....its important to us to design a system that permits tracking of which INDIVIDUAL tubes have been capped...so a big clump of tubes jammed into a circular mailing tube is not useful, nor is something that requires participants to drill out holes in wood....as most folks won't be able to do that themselves.


              We are counting on you.


              Thanks


              sam


                                                           
              Sam Droege  
              sdroege@...                      
              w 301-497-5840 h 301-390-7759 fax 301-497-5624
              USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center
              BARC-EAST, BLDG 308, RM 124 10300 Balt. Ave., Beltsville, MD  20705

              Http://www.pwrc.usgs.gov

              It is easier to square a circle than to get round a
              mathematician.
                                                  A. De Morgan, 1840



            • Jack Neff
              Linda: Have your checked Dafni & Firmage, 2000 Pollen viability and longevity: practical, ecological and evolutionary implications Plant Systematics and
              Message 6 of 10 , Feb 10, 2010
              • 0 Attachment
                Linda:  Have your checked Dafni & Firmage, 2000 "Pollen viability and longevity: practical, ecological and evolutionary implications" Plant Systematics and Evolution.  222: 113-132 or Kraal, 1962 "How long do honey-bees carry germinable pollen on them?" Euphytica 11: 53-56.  Moistened corbicular pollen has zero longevity since the added nectar causes osmotic havoc but longevity of the loose stuff will vary with the species and environmental conditions.  While some pollen can be quite long lived (i.e. some orchid pollinaria), most pollen life spans are in days or even hours.  You might also want to check DeGrandi-Hoffmann et al 1986 "Influence of honey bee in-hive pollen transfer on cross-pollination and fruit set in apple"  Environmental Entomology 15:7823-735 who propose that pollen transfer by jostling workers in the hive explains high fruit set in apple orchards where individuals workers show high constancy to particular varieties (clones).
                I believe this was later questioned because of the extent of grooming.

                best

                Jack
                 
                John L. Neff
                Central Texas Melittological Institute
                7307 Running Rope
                Austin,TX 78731 USA
                512-345-7219



                From: Linda Newstrom <newstroml@...>
                To: Sam Droege <sdroege@...>; "beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com" <beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com>
                Sent: Sun, February 7, 2010 9:06:52 PM
                Subject: [beemonitoring] Duration of Pollen Viability in a beehive

                 

                Hi everyone

                Can anybody lead me to people or literature on the topic of how long pollen on bees will remain viable?

                That is, if a beekeeper moved the hives from one farm to another would the pollen on the bees still be able to contaminate the crop in the new location (e.g., GM crops or seed certification issues)?

                Thanks

                Linda

                 

                Linda Newstrom-Lloyd

                 

                Phone DD +64 3 321 9853

                Phone Home +64 383 4047

                Mobile 021 385 953

                 

                From: beemonitoring@ yahoogroups. com [mailto:beemonitori ng@yahoogroups. com] On Behalf Of Sam Droege
                Sent: Saturday, 6 February 2010 11:11 a.m.
                To: beemonitoring@ yahoogroups. com
                Subject: RE: [beemonitoring] Measuring Osmia Phenology as a Measure of Climate Change - Feedback

                 

                 


                Jim:

                Actually you are right it is useful for documenting phenologies, which one would think would be known, but you are right I can't think of any off the top of my head.  However, some of the aggregate nesting bees must have had someone plot out the general ebb and flow of numbers in some paper....

                Yes, it should be a nice correlate with the plant data...and a good test into some of the notions that people have that plant and bee phenologies may go out of sync in some climate change scenarios.

                Since my long-term monitoring hat is usually the one I wear I didn't thing about the basic science idea that you had...it would actually be a very good first entree into the system.  Since funding groups generally like open-ended monitoring programs (sigh) your idea would actually be more fundable than a Climate Change one, but would easily morph into a CC as the year's progressed.

                I am actually more afraid of too many participants than too few, given that there I was going to do project in my spare time....however, if we could send western nests to you...that would allow a great deal of expansion.  Once the system is in place for uploading the pictures...there is little penalty for adding more people...its the nest processing that will add up.

                So, bottomline, yes, we should go for it, but would need to make sure we have the ability to open and run nests later this year.  I am going to be looking at a bunch of Wayne's nests in a week or so, to get a sense of how that works.

                There is also the need to come up with a good trap nest design...(that can be built at home...without a drill!)

                sam


                                                               
                Sam Droege  sdroege@usgs. gov                      
                w 301-497-5840 h 301-390-7759 fax 301-497-5624
                USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center
                BARC-EAST, BLDG 308, RM 124 10300 Balt. Ave., Beltsville, MD  20705
                Http://www.pwrc. usgs.gov

                 Further in Summer than the Birds
                Pathetic from the Grass
                A minor Nation celebrates
                Its unobtrusive Mass.


                 No Ordinance be seen
                So gradual the Grace
                A pensive Custom it becomes
                Enlarging Loneliness.


                 Antiquest felt at Noon
                When August burning low
                Arise this spectral Canticle
                Repose to typify


                 Remit as yet no Grace
                No Furrow on the Glow
                Yet a Druidic Difference
                Enhances Nature now


                                 -- Emily Dickinson








                From:

                "Cane, Jim" <Jim.Cane@ARS. USDA.GOV>

                To:

                <beemonitoring@ yahoogroups. com>

                Date:

                02/05/2010 02:41 PM

                Subject:

                RE: [beemonitoring] Measuring Osmia Phenology as a Measure of Climate Change - Feedback

                Sent by:

                beemonitoring@ yahoogroups. com

                 





                 

                Sam and others- first, let me say that this is a great concept!  But before jumping to the Holy Grail,  finding a response to climate _change_, it will be useful (very!) to even measure, map and predict the range of their phenologies across the continent, which won’t require such long time series data.  I don’t believe that such exists for any solitary bee, does it? For this bee, we know that timely emergence involves first the satisfaction of accumulated chill hours, followed by some moderate amount of heat unit accumulation.  Importantly, I think that it would also be grand to link the proposed measures to lilac bloom phenology, using the National Phenology Network, for then it would also allow for interpolation between points where we would have no Osmia lignaria data but where we do have lilac phenology data (and their powerful modeling abilities to boot).  I’ve found the lilac monitoring to be pretty painless provided you have them growing where you can check every day or two just during bloom (mine are on my bike ride home and at my house and our lab, one set right next to the campus NOAA weather station).  Read about it at:

                 

                http://www.usanpn. org/

                 

                Besides lilac, I think that the other really dandy relevant plant whose bloom is being monitored nation-wide is forsythia,

                http://www.usanpn. org/?q=Forsythia _spp

                 I recollect that its bloom precedes fruit tree bloom by a little bit, and so O. lignaria.  Imagine being able to advise someone in some distant and unfamiliar state that x days after forsythia blooms where they live (and many people recognize forsythia), they should deploy their O. lignaria, or look for first nesting, or whatever.  We can’t do they very well right now.

                 

                If one wanted to document climate change, last year and this year would make for a great comparison in the Intermountain West, as last year the cool spring delayed O. lignaria emergence by 3 weeks across the region.  This year they are more likely to be on time, so a 3-week jump in emergence!  I am saying this in jest, but to make a point that the noise from inter-seasonal variation will greatly confound any subtle background trend, or make for false early interpretations.  Conversely, learning if bee emergence can be tied to or predicted by any other tracked phenological event (such as lilac bloom) continent-wide would be a huge leap in understanding, and might be achieved in a few years of monitoring.  Imagine if we knew that a degree day accumulation map, or a Hardiness Zone map, accurately predicted emergence, or knew how to calculate specifically how to adjust predicted emergence dates from those mapped values!

                 

                None of this is to throw cold water on the idea, but rather refocus a little to make very best use of the effort for fantastic shorter term insights that we currently lack for any and all bees.  I’d certainly be keen on participating, or maybe even making it work.  If we can formalize the protocol, I do believe that I could convince folks that I know at USANPN in Tucson to add this as a module if we wanted.

                 

                Yerz

                 

                jim

                 

                ============ ========= ========= =

                James H. Cane

                USDA-ARS Bee Biology and Systematics Lab

                Utah State University, Logan, UT 84322 USA

                tel: 435-797-3879   FAX: 435-797-0461

                email: Jim.Cane@ars. usda.gov  

                http://www.ars. usda.gov/ npa/logan/ beelab

                http://www.biology. usu.edu/people/ facultyinfo. asp?username= jcane

                Gardening for Native Bees: http://extension. usu.edu/files/ publications/ factsheet/ plants-pollinato rs09.pdf

                 

                "The obscure takes time to see,

                but the obvious takes longer"
                Edward R. Murrow

                 

                 



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