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New Guide to Sphecidae East of the Mississippi Available

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  • Sam Droege
    All: The talented Erika Tucker from our lab has just finished up a guide to the 40 Sphecid wasps east of the Mississippi River.
    Message 1 of 6 , Dec 3, 2009
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      All:

      The talented Erika Tucker from our lab has just finished up a guide to the 40 Sphecid wasps east of the Mississippi River.

      http://www.discoverlife.org/mp/20q?guide=Sphecidae

      We borrowed heavily from the marvelous works and text of both Menke and Bohart and were able to look at specimens for all the species except for Sphex flavitarsis, which we are going to hunt down soon.

      As always feel free to comment, send corrections and distribute to anyone interested.

      Thanks

      sam

                                                     
      Sam Droege  sdroege@...                      
      w 301-497-5840 h 301-390-7759 fax 301-497-5624
      USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center
      BARC-EAST, BLDG 308, RM 124 10300 Balt. Ave., Beltsville, MD  20705
      Http://www.pwrc.usgs.gov

      The Shapes of Leaves

      Ginkgo, cottonwood, pin oak, sweet gum, tulip tree:
      our emotions resemble leaves and alive
      to their shapes we are nourished.


      Have you felt the expanse and contours of grief
      along the edges of a big Norway maple?
      Have you winced at the orange flare


      searing the curves of a curling dogwood?
      I have seen from the air logged islands,
      each with a network of branching gravel roads,


      and felt a moment of pure anger, aspen gold.
      I have seen sandhill cranes moving in an open field,
      a single white whooping crane in the flock.


      And I have traveled along the contours
      of leaves that have no name. Here
      where the air is wet and the light is cool,


      I feel what others are thinking and do not speak,
      I know pleasure in the veins of a sugar maple,
      I am living at the edge of a new leaf.



      - Arthur Sze

      P Bees are not optional.
    • Linda Newstrom
      Hi Everyone: Does anyone know someone who has experience in analysing the nutritional composition of pollen grains for honey bee and other bees? We are in
      Message 2 of 6 , Dec 3, 2009
      • 0 Attachment
        Hi Everyone:
        Does anyone know someone who has experience in analysing the nutritional composition of pollen grains for honey bee and other bees?  We are in contact with Doug Somerville who wrote Fat Bees Skinny Bees for Australia but we would like to know if anyone else has done this?  Is it feasible to collect pollen directly from the flowers rather than pollen off the bees?  We are proposing a project to assess the protein content of New Zealand native trees and shrubs and it is probably not possible to collect from the bees.
        Thanks
        Linda Newstrom-Lloyd

        From: beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com [beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of Sam Droege [sdroege@...]
        Sent: Friday, 4 December 2009 6:49 a.m.
        To: beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com
        Subject: [beemonitoring] New Guide to Sphecidae East of the Mississippi Available

         


        All:

        The talented Erika Tucker from our lab has just finished up a guide to the 40 Sphecid wasps east of the Mississippi River.

        http://www.discover life.org/ mp/20q?guide= Sphecidae

        We borrowed heavily from the marvelous works and text of both Menke and Bohart and were able to look at specimens for all the species except for Sphex flavitarsis, which we are going to hunt down soon.

        As always feel free to comment, send corrections and distribute to anyone interested.

        Thanks

        sam


                                                       
        Sam Droege  sdroege@usgs. gov                      
        w 301-497-5840 h 301-390-7759 fax 301-497-5624
        USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center
        BARC-EAST, BLDG 308, RM 124 10300 Balt. Ave., Beltsville, MD  20705
        Http://www.pwrc. usgs.gov

        The Shapes of Leaves

        Ginkgo, cottonwood, pin oak, sweet gum, tulip tree:
        our emotions resemble leaves and alive
        to their shapes we are nourished.


        Have you felt the expanse and contours of grief
        along the edges of a big Norway maple?
        Have you winced at the orange flare


        searing the curves of a curling dogwood?
        I have seen from the air logged islands,
        each with a network of branching gravel roads,


        and felt a moment of pure anger, aspen gold.
        I have seen sandhill cranes moving in an open field,
        a single white whooping crane in the flock.


        And I have traveled along the contours
        of leaves that have no name. Here
        where the air is wet and the light is cool,


        I feel what others are thinking and do not speak,
        I know pleasure in the veins of a sugar maple,
        I am living at the edge of a new leaf.



        - Arthur Sze

        P Bees are not optional.



        Please consider the environment before printing this email
        Warning: This electronic message together with any attachments is confidential. If you receive it in error: (i) you must not read, use, disclose, copy or retain it; (ii) please contact the sender immediately by reply email and then delete the emails.
        The views expressed in this email may not be those of Landcare Research New Zealand Limited. http://www.landcareresearch.co.nz
      • Linda Newstrom
        sorry I forgot to put the subject header on so I am sending this a second time. ________________________________ From: Linda Newstrom Sent: Friday, 4 December
        Message 3 of 6 , Dec 3, 2009
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          sorry I forgot to put the subject header on so I am sending this a second time.

          From: Linda Newstrom
          Sent: Friday, 4 December 2009 8:09 a.m.
          To: Sam Droege; beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com
          Cc: ropert@...; Marco Gonzalez (GonzalezM@...)
          Subject: RE: [beemonitoring] Nutritional compositon of pollen grains for bees

          Hi Everyone:
          Does anyone know someone who has experience in analysing the nutritional composition of pollen grains for honey bee and other bees?  We are in contact with Doug Somerville who wrote Fat Bees Skinny Bees for Australia but we would like to know if anyone else has done this?  Is it feasible to collect pollen directly from the flowers rather than pollen off the bees?  We are proposing a project to assess the protein content of New Zealand native trees and shrubs and it is probably not possible to collect from the bees.
          Thanks
          Linda Newstrom-Lloyd

          From: beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com [beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of Sam Droege [sdroege@...]
          Sent: Friday, 4 December 2009 6:49 a.m.
          To: beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com
          Subject: [beemonitoring] New Guide to Sphecidae East of the Mississippi Available

           


          All:

          The talented Erika Tucker from our lab has just finished up a guide to the 40 Sphecid wasps east of the Mississippi River.

          http://www.discover life.org/ mp/20q?guide= Sphecidae

          We borrowed heavily from the marvelous works and text of both Menke and Bohart and were able to look at specimens for all the species except for Sphex flavitarsis, which we are going to hunt down soon.

          As always feel free to comment, send corrections and distribute to anyone interested.

          Thanks

          sam


                                                         
          Sam Droege  sdroege@usgs. gov                      
          w 301-497-5840 h 301-390-7759 fax 301-497-5624
          USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center
          BARC-EAST, BLDG 308, RM 124 10300 Balt. Ave., Beltsville, MD  20705
          Http://www.pwrc. usgs.gov

          The Shapes of Leaves

          Ginkgo, cottonwood, pin oak, sweet gum, tulip tree:
          our emotions resemble leaves and alive
          to their shapes we are nourished.


          Have you felt the expanse and contours of grief
          along the edges of a big Norway maple?
          Have you winced at the orange flare


          searing the curves of a curling dogwood?
          I have seen from the air logged islands,
          each with a network of branching gravel roads,


          and felt a moment of pure anger, aspen gold.
          I have seen sandhill cranes moving in an open field,
          a single white whooping crane in the flock.


          And I have traveled along the contours
          of leaves that have no name. Here
          where the air is wet and the light is cool,


          I feel what others are thinking and do not speak,
          I know pleasure in the veins of a sugar maple,
          I am living at the edge of a new leaf.



          - Arthur Sze

          P Bees are not optional.



          Please consider the environment before printing this email
          Warning: This electronic message together with any attachments is confidential. If you receive it in error: (i) you must not read, use, disclose, copy or retain it; (ii) please contact the sender immediately by reply email and then delete the emails.
          The views expressed in this email may not be those of Landcare Research New Zealand Limited. http://www.landcareresearch.co.nz
        • Stoner, Kimberly
          Linda: I have not measured nutritional composition, but I currently have a project measuring pesticide residues in pollen. I would strongly recommend using
          Message 4 of 6 , Dec 3, 2009
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            Linda:

             

            I have not measured nutritional composition, but I currently have a project measuring pesticide residues in pollen.

             

            I would strongly recommend using pollen traps on honey bee hives as a way of collecting pollen. It is much easier than collecting directly from the flowers or from the bodies of bees.  You can sort the pollen pellets collected by color and then have a palynologist work with you on identifying the pollen grains and quantifying the extent to which the pollen pellets are from mixed plant species for a particular color of pellet at a particular time and location.

             

            I have collected pollen directly from crop plants, such as squash and pumpkins. It can be done for these plants grown in abundance, flowering together, and with large flowers and abundant pollen.  My colleagues trying to do the same with blueberry and cranberry pollen have had a hard time getting enough to analyze well.

             

            Kimberly Stoner

            Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station

            P.O. Box 1106

            New Haven, CT 06504

            203-974-8480

            Kimberly.Stoner@...

             


            From: beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com [mailto:beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of Linda Newstrom
            Sent: Thursday, December 03, 2009 2:20 PM
            To: Linda Newstrom; Sam Droege; beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com
            Cc: ropert@...; Marco Gonzalez (GonzalezM@...)
            Subject: RE: [beemonitoring] Nutritional compositon of pollen grains for bees

             

             

            sorry I forgot to put the subject header on so I am sending this a second time.


            From: Linda Newstrom
            Sent: Friday, 4 December 2009 8:09 a.m.
            To: Sam Droege; beemonitoring@ yahoogroups. com
            Cc: ropert@asurequality .com; Marco Gonzalez (GonzalezM@asurequa lity.com)
            Subject: RE: [beemonitoring] Nutritional compositon of pollen grains for bees

            Hi Everyone:

            Does anyone know someone who has experience in analysing the nutritional composition of pollen grains for honey bee and other bees?  We are in contact with Doug Somerville who wrote Fat Bees Skinny Bees for Australia but we would like to know if anyone else has done this?  Is it feasible to collect pollen directly from the flowers rather than pollen off the bees?  We are proposing a project to assess the protein content of New Zealand native trees and shrubs and it is probably not possible to collect from the bees.

            Thanks

            Linda Newstrom-Lloyd


            From: beemonitoring@ yahoogroups. com [beemonitoring@ yahoogroups. com] On Behalf Of Sam Droege [ sdroege@usgs. gov ]
            Sent: Friday, 4 December 2009 6:49 a.m.
            To: beemonitoring@ yahoogroups. com
            Subject: [beemonitoring] New Guide to Sphecidae East of the Mississippi Available

             


            All:

            The talented Erika Tucker from our lab has just finished up a guide to the 40 Sphecid wasps east of the Mississippi River .

            http://www.discover life.org/ mp/20q?guide= Sphecidae

            We borrowed heavily from the marvelous works and text of both Menke and Bohart and were able to look at specimens for all the species except for Sphex flavitarsis, which we are going to hunt down soon.

            As always feel free to comment, send corrections and distribute to anyone interested.

            Thanks

            sam


                                                           
            Sam Droege   sdroege@usgs. gov                      
            w 301-497-5840 h 301-390-7759 fax 301-497-5624
            USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center
            BARC-EAST, BLDG 308, RM 124 10300 Balt. Ave., Beltsville , MD   20705
            Http://www.pwrc. usgs.gov

            The Shapes of Leaves

            Ginkgo, cottonwood, pin oak, sweet gum, tulip tree:
            our emotions resemble leaves and alive
            to their shapes we are nourished.


            Have you felt the expanse and contours of grief
            along the edges of a big Norway maple?
            Have you winced at the orange flare


            searing the curves of a curling dogwood?
            I have seen from the air logged islands,
            each with a network of branching gravel roads,


            and felt a moment of pure anger, aspen gold.
            I have seen sandhill cranes moving in an open field,
            a single white whooping crane in the flock.


            And I have traveled along the contours
            of leaves that have no name. Here
            where the air is wet and the light is cool,


            I feel what others are thinking and do not speak,
            I know pleasure in the veins of a sugar maple,
            I am living at the edge of a new leaf.



            - Arthur Sze

            P Bees are not optional.

             


            Please consider the environment before printing this email
            Warning: This electronic message together with any attachments is confidential. If you receive it in error: (i) you must not read, use, disclose, copy or retain it; (ii) please contact the sender immediately by reply email and then delete the emails.
            The views expressed in this email may not be those of Landcare Research New Zealand Limited. http://www.landcare research. co.nz

          • T'ai Roulston
            Dear Linda: It is definitely preferable to collect pollen straight from the flowers if you are interested in knowing the nutritional values of the pollen.
            Message 5 of 6 , Dec 3, 2009
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              Dear Linda:

              It is definitely preferable to collect pollen straight from the flowers if you are interested in knowing the nutritional values of the pollen. Honey bees, and many others, mix nectar with pollen when they are transporting it, and the weight of the nectar sugar can be substantial and not easy to factor out for any calculation that would be based on an estimate of amount of a nutrient divided by weight of pollen. So hand collecting is preferable. Having said that, I need to add that for many flowers, collecting sufficient pollen by hand for analyses is challenging.

              Measuring particular constituents of pollen, such as protein, is a reasonable goal for understanding the value of different pollen for bee nutrition, but it may not easily translate into simple estimates of the best food source for bees. Even for often studied bees such as honey bees, where there are many claims for superior or inferior pollens, the relationship between the chemical composition of those pollens and bee/colony survival and productivity is very poorly known.

              Some of my work that bears on your question and lays out some techniques are listed below.

              Best regards,
              T'ai


              Roulston, T. H., J. H. Cane, and S. L. Buchmann. 2000. What governs the protein content of pollen: pollinator preferences, pollen-pistil interactions, or phylogeny? Ecological Monographs 70:617-643. 
              Roulston, T. H., and J. H. Cane. 2000. Pollen nutritional content and digestibility for animals. Plant Systematics and Evolution 222:187-209. 
              Roulston, T. H., and J. H. Cane. 2002. The effect of pollen protein concentration on body size in the sweat bee Lasioglossum zephyrum(Hymenoptera: Apiformes). Evolutionary Ecology 16:49-65. 

              On Dec 3, 2009, at 2:19 PM, Linda Newstrom wrote:


              sorry I forgot to put the subject header on so I am sending this a second time.

              From: Linda Newstrom
              Sent: Friday, 4 December 2009 8:09 a.m.
              To: Sam Droege; beemonitoring@ yahoogroups. com
              Cc: ropert@asurequality .com; Marco Gonzalez (GonzalezM@asurequa lity.com)
              Subject: RE: [beemonitoring] Nutritional compositon of pollen grains for bees

              Hi Everyone:
              Does anyone know someone who has experience in analysing the nutritional composition of pollen grains for honey bee and other bees?  We are in contact with Doug Somerville who wrote Fat Bees Skinny Bees for Australia but we would like to know if anyone else has done this?  Is it feasible to collect pollen directly from the flowers rather than pollen off the bees?  We are proposing a project to assess the protein content of New Zealand native trees and shrubs and it is probably not possible to collect from the bees.
              Thanks
              Linda Newstrom-Lloyd

              From: beemonitoring@ yahoogroups. com [beemonitoring@ yahoogroups. com] On Behalf Of Sam Droege [sdroege@usgs. gov]
              Sent: Friday, 4 December 2009 6:49 a.m.
              To: beemonitoring@ yahoogroups. com
              Subject: [beemonitoring] New Guide to Sphecidae East of the Mississippi Available

               


              All: 

              The talented Erika Tucker from our lab has just finished up a guide to the 40 Sphecid wasps east of the Mississippi River. 

              http://www.discover life.org/ mp/20q?guide= Sphecidae 

              We borrowed heavily from the marvelous works and text of both Menke and Bohart and were able to look at specimens for all the species except for Sphex flavitarsis, which we are going to hunt down soon. 

              As always feel free to comment, send corrections and distribute to anyone interested. 

              Thanks 

              sam 


                                                             
              Sam Droege  sdroege@usgs. gov                      
              w 301-497-5840 h 301-390-7759 fax 301-497-5624
              USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center
              BARC-EAST, BLDG 308, RM 124 10300 Balt. Ave., Beltsville, MD  20705
              Http://www.pwrc. usgs.gov 

              The Shapes of Leaves 

              Ginkgo, cottonwood, pin oak, sweet gum, tulip tree:
              our emotions resemble leaves and alive
              to their shapes we are nourished.
               

              Have you felt the expanse and contours of grief
              along the edges of a big Norway maple?
              Have you winced at the orange flare
               

              searing the curves of a curling dogwood?
              I have seen from the air logged islands,
              each with a network of branching gravel roads,
               

              and felt a moment of pure anger, aspen gold.
              I have seen sandhill cranes moving in an open field,
              a single white whooping crane in the flock.
               

              And I have traveled along the contours
              of leaves that have no name. Here
              where the air is wet and the light is cool,
               

              I feel what others are thinking and do not speak,
              I know pleasure in the veins of a sugar maple,
              I am living at the edge of a new leaf.
               


              - Arthur Sze 

              P Bees are not optional.



              Please consider the environment before printing this email
              Warning: This electronic message together with any attachments is confidential. If you receive it in error: (i) you must not read, use, disclose, copy or retain it; (ii) please contact the sender immediately by reply email and then delete the emails.
              The views expressed in this email may not be those of Landcare Research New Zealand Limited. http://www.landcare research. co.nz


              T'ai Roulston
              Curator, State Arboretum of Virginia
              Research Assoc. Prof., Dept of Envi. Sci.
              University of Virginia



            • Cane, Jim
              Linda- I will send you a pdf of our research with this. As you can see from the citations below, T ai Roulston was the lead scientist. I feel that it is in
              Message 6 of 6 , Dec 3, 2009
              • 0 Attachment

                Linda- I will send you a pdf of our research with this.  As you can see from the citations below, T’ai Roulston was the lead scientist.  I feel that it  is in fact better to sample the pollen directly from the source plant (if enough is produced, wind-pollinated trees for instance) or steal it from bee species that carry their pollen dry.  One third or more of the weight of the moist pollen pellets that honeybees, stingless bee and bumblebees (and many others) use for transport consists of the sugars from the nectar used to moisten the pellet, making it impossible to calculate protein concentrations in the contained pollen.

                 

                 

                Roulston, T. H. and J. H. Cane. 2000. Pollen nutritional content and digestibility for animals. Plant Syst. Evol. 222:187-209.
                Abstract: This paper reviews the literature concerning digestion and nutrient content of pollen. Four topics are addressed in detail: 1) The mechanism of pollen digestion by animals; 2) The efficiency of mechanical and digestive removal of pollen content by various animals: 3) Range and taxonomic distribution of pollen nutrients, and 4) Adaptive hypotheses proposed to associate pollen chemistry with pollinator reward. Studies on the mechanism(s) of pollen digestion remain inconclusive, but suggest that differences in digestibility among pollen types may reflect differences in pollen wall porosity, thickness, and composition. Although hummingbirds reportedly digest pollen very poorly, most animals studied, including those that do not regularly consume pollen, can digest 50-100% of ingested grains. Overlooked and recent research of pollen protein content shows that pollen grains may contain over 60% protein, double the amount cited in some studies of pollen-feeding animals. Adaptive hypotheses that associate pollen starch and pollen caloric content with pollinator reward remain unsubstantiated when critically viewed through the lens of phylogeny

                Roulston, T. H., J. H. Cane, and S. L. Buchmann. 2000. What governs protein content of pollen: Pollinator preferences, pollen-pistil interactions, or phylogeny? Ecological Monographs 70:617-643.
                Abstract: Pollen ranges from 2.5% to 61% protein content. Most pollen proteins are likely to be enzymes that function during pollen tube growth and subsequent fertilization, but the vast range of protein quantity may not reflect only pollen-pistil interactions. Because numerous vertebrate and invertebrate floral visitors consume pollen for protein, protein content may influence floral host choice. Additionally, many floral visitors pollinate their host plants. If protein content influences pollinator visitation, then pollinators are hypothesized to select for increased protein content of host plants. We analyzed or gleaned from the literature crude pollen protein concentrations of 377 plant species from 93 plant families. Using this database, we compared pollen protein concentration with (1) pollination mode, (2) pollen collection by bees, and (3) distance from stigma to ovule, after accounting for phylogeny through paired phylogenetic comparisons and a nested ANOVA including taxonomic rank. We found that pollen protein concentrations were highly conserved within plant genera, families, and divisions. We found that bees did not collect pollen that was unusually rich in protein, whether they pollinated or merely robbed their host plant. Plant species with vibratile pollination systems, which require visitation by pollen-collecting bees in order to transfer pollen, tended to have very protein-rich pollen, but it was not clear whether this was due to plant enhancement of pollinator rewards or to the possession of very small pollen grains. We found that zoophilous species were not statistically richer in pollen protein than anemophilous species after accounting for phylogeny, although the three most species-rich anemophilous clades surveyed were generally poor in protein. Plant genera hosting specialist pollen-collecting bees did not have particularly protein-rich pollen. Both mass of protein per pollen grain and pollen grain volume were correlated with stigma-ovule distance. We suggest that the need for growing pollen tubes probably plays a more important role in determining pollen protein content than rewarding pollinators

                Roulston, T. H. and J. H. Cane. 2002. The effect of pollen protein concentration on body size in the sweat bee Lasioglossum zephyrum (Hymenoptera : Apiformes). Evolutionary Ecology 16:49-65.
                Abstract: Adult bees and wasps provide all the food their offspring require to grow from egg to adult. For a given diet. offspring body size generally increases with an increase in the amount of food consumed as a larva, but the extent to which body size is influenced by the type of food consumed is poorly known. Pollen ranges from 2-60% protein among plant species, and bees are extremely efficient at assimilating nitrogen; therefore, it seems likely that either parent bees adjust the size of larval provisions to compensate for differences in pollen protein concentration or bee offspring attain different body size depending on the pollen type(s) consumed as a larva, We presented the generalist sweat bee Lasioglossum zephyrum with pollen diets that differed in protein content and monitored offspring body size during two experiments. In a protein supplementation experiment, diets ranged from 20-66% protein and consisted of Typha pollen amended with soy protein. On a pollen/soy diet, offspring body size increased 25% with a shift from 20-37% protein, but did not increase further at greater protein concentrations, In a multiple pollen experiment, pollen diets ranged from 20-39% protein and consisted of eight pollens that differed naturally in protein concentration. The largest offspring arose from the most protein-rich pollens, whereas much smaller bees developed on protein-poor pollens, Provision size only predicted offspring size when pollen type, and therefore protein quantity, was considered. Adult foragers did not adjust provision size to compensate for pollen protein, Therefore, offspring body size appears to result from a combination of controlled (provision size) and uncontrolled (pollen quality) factors that arise out of bee foraging decisions

                 

                 

                 

                 

                ===============================

                James H. Cane

                USDA-ARS Bee Biology and Systematics Lab

                Utah State University, Logan, UT 84322 USA

                tel: 435-797-3879   FAX: 435-797-0461

                email: Jim.Cane@... 

                http://www.ars.usda.gov/npa/logan/beelab

                http://www.biology.usu.edu/people/facultyinfo.asp?username=jcane

                Gardening for Native Bees: http://extension.usu.edu/files/publications/factsheet/plants-pollinators09.pdf

                 

                "The obscure takes time to see,

                but the obvious takes longer"
                Edward R. Murrow

                 

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