Loading ...
Sorry, an error occurred while loading the content.

RE: [beemonitoring] On the use of the word "metallic" in descriptions of bees

Expand Messages
  • Crumbling.Deana@epamail.epa.gov
    Perhaps we just need better explanations of terms such as those, along with easily accessible, good pictures of the features. Deana Crumbling, M.S.
    Message 1 of 10 , Nov 5, 2009
    Perhaps we just need better explanations of terms such as those, along
    with easily accessible, good pictures of the features.


    Deana Crumbling, M.S.
    Environmental Scientist | Technology Innovation Program
    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
    MC 5203P | 1200 Pennsylvania Ave, NW | Washington, DC 20460
    Phone: 703-603-0643  | Fax: 703-603-9135



    |------------>
    | From: |
    |------------>
    >------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------|
    |Wedge_Watkins@... |
    >------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------|
    |------------>
    | To: |
    |------------>
    >------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------|
    |<barbara.abraham@...> |
    >------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------|
    |------------>
    | Cc: |
    |------------>
    >------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------|
    |beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com, sdroege@... |
    >------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------|
    |------------>
    | Date: |
    |------------>
    >------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------|
    |11/05/2009 09:02 AM |
    >------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------|
    |------------>
    | Subject: |
    |------------>
    >------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------|
    |RE: [beemonitoring] On the use of the word "metallic" in descriptions of bees |
    >------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------|








    Since I would have to look up terms like tessellated, imbricate and
    rugose, I prefer shiny metallic or dull metallic.


    Wedge Watkins
    Refuge Biologist
    Big Muddy NFWR
    U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
    4200 New Haven Road
    Columbia, MO 65201

    Phone: 573-441-2788
    Fax: 573-876-1839

    "Any river is the summation of the whole valley. To think of it as
    nothing but water, is to ignore the greater part" - Hal Borland


    (Embedded image moved to file: pic29045.gif)Inactive hide details for
    <barbara.abraham@...><barbara.abraham@...>


    <barbara.
    abraham@h
    amptonu.e
    du> (Embedded image moved to file:
    Sent by: pic24435.gif)
    beemonito To
    ring@yaho (Embedded image moved to
    ogroups.c file: pic07492.gif)
    om <sdroege@...>,
    <beemonitoring@yahoogroups
    .com>
    11/05/200 (Embedded image moved to file:
    9 07:22 pic05732.gif)
    AM cc
    (Embedded image moved to
    file: pic30076.gif)
    (Embedded image moved to file:
    pic04667.gif)
    Subject
    (Embedded image moved to
    file: pic00403.gif)
    RE: [beemonitoring] On the
    use of the word "metallic"
    in descriptions of bees


    (Embedded image moved to file:
    pic18367.gif)
    (Embedded image moved to
    file: pic18899.gif)







    Sam,


    Personally I have never had any trouble telling “metallic” from
    “non-metallic” in general, but I have not used the keys excessively yet
    for bees. My only comment is that we should stick to a one word
    description instead of a six-seven word description, when the one word
    is clear to most users. Keys are already complicated enough.


    I will be interested in what other members of the list say on this
    topic!


    Barb


    Barbara J. Abraham, Ph.D.


    Associate Professor


    SEEDS Ecology Chapter Advisor


    Department of Biological Sciences


    Hampton University


    Hampton, VA 23668


    757-727-5283


    barbara.abraham@...


    From: beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com [
    mailto:beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of Sam Droege
    Sent: Thursday, November 05, 2009 6:47 AM
    To: beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com
    Subject: [beemonitoring] On the use of the word "metallic" in
    descriptions of bees



    All:

    In the revisions, books, and keys relating to bees the term "metallic"
    is often used as a descriptor for the integument (skin) of bees.
    Metallic can be used to describe the whole bee: "metallic green bee" is
    a common phrase or it can be that a bee has "metallic reflections."
    Entire groups of bees are often referred to as "metallic" even though
    some have glossy integuments and are highly reflective and others are so
    dulled by microscopic lines that they reflect no light. We have also
    propagated this term in a similar loose way and it can be found
    throughout our online guides (
    http://www.discoverlife.org/20/q?search=Apoidea#Identification). We have
    had complaints from students that they are confused by the term and
    wonder when something should be considered "metallic" and "nonmetalic."
    After ignoring those comments for a long-time we have begun to wonder
    ourselves if the term is really that useful.

    Here is what Merriam-Webster says regarding its use in descriptions:

    3 : resembling metal: as a : having iridescent and reflective properties
    <metallic paint>

    In other words an adjective referring to reflectance of the surface.

    Because of the confusion and overly broad use of how metallic has been
    applied, its many connotations in the English language, the images it
    brings to our minds, and the loose way it has been deployed in
    descriptions (ours included and perhaps in particular) what we are
    thinking now is that in our online guides we will strike the term
    "metallic" from the guides and replace it with a more nuanced approach,
    separating color from reflectance.

    Proposed changes then would be:

    1. Colors will simply be referred to by their common names. For example
    the color of Augochlorella aurata would be simply "green" not "metallic
    green." While the color of Halictus confusus would be along the lines of
    "dark green often with gold-yellow overtones."

    2. For surface reflectance any number of terms will be useful from
    shiny, mirror-like, glossy but when the surface is dull and reflective,
    the cause for the dulling should be mentioned (tessellated, imbricate,
    microscopic lines, rugose, beaded etc).

    3. For the situation in which reflectance and color are more
    complicated, then usually it can be described as an "iridescence." This
    would be particularly true for situations when a species is black or
    nearly black but has multicolored, reflective overtones similar to that
    of a light film of oil on water. So a description of many of the
    abdomens of Lasioglossum (Dialictus) would include the basic color
    (black, dark brown, very dark brown with dark red highlights) and the
    presence of iridescent dark blue or green reflectance on certain
    portions of the tergites. Similarly, many members of Augochloropsis
    would be green with blue iridescent overtones.

    I am sure that others have thought through and come to similar or better
    conclusions about this in the past, but before we starting changing the
    1500 or so characters we have written for bees in these guides we
    thought we would post this for comments and suggestions.

    By the way, we are in a general process of updating and consolidating
    the wording and terms throughout the guides. Suggestions are helpful as
    well as complaints about any guide wording. Complainers are our best
    friends. We are also putting together a generically worded blank guide
    that would have a set of characters to score that could be used as a
    starting place for anyone putting together a guide to a country or
    region's bees.

    Thanks

    sam



    Sam Droege sdroege@...
    w 301-497-5840 h 301-390-7759 fax 301-497-5624
    USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center
    BARC-EAST, BLDG 308, RM 124 10300 Balt. Ave., Beltsville, MD 20705
    Http://www.pwrc.usgs.gov

    Autumn

    Lord: it is time. The huge summer has gone by.
    Now overlap the sundials with your shadows,
    and on the meadows let the wind go free.

    Command the fruits to swell on tree and vine;
    grant them a few more warm transparent days,
    urge them on to fulfillment then, and press
    the final sweetness into the heavy wine.

    Whoever has no house now, will never have one.
    Whoever is alone will stay alone,
    will sit, read, write long letters through the evening,
    and wander along the boulevards, up and down,
    restlessly, while the dry leaves are blowing.

    - Rainer Maria Rilke



    P Bees are not optional.


    The information contained in this message is intended only for the
    recipient, and may otherwise be privileged and confidential. If the
    reader of this message is not the intended recipient, or an employee or
    agent responsible for delivering this message to the intended recipient,
    please be aware that any dissemination or copying of this communication
    is strictly prohibited. If you have received this communication in
    error, please immediately notify us by replying to the message and
    deleting it from your computer. This footnote also confirms that this
    email has been scanned for all viruses by the Hampton University Center
    for Information Technology Enterprise Systems service.





    [attachment "pic03035.gif" deleted by Deana
    Crumbling/DC/USEPA/US] [attachment "3A444585.gif" deleted by Deana
    Crumbling/DC/USEPA/US] [attachment "3A920390.gif" deleted by Deana
    Crumbling/DC/USEPA/US]
  • Doug Yanega
    ... Don t second-guess. The term is useful, and if students are having trouble with it, then examples should do the trick. The distinction is pretty much the
    Message 2 of 10 , Nov 5, 2009
    • 0 Attachment
      >We have had complaints from students that they are confused by the
      >term and wonder when something should be considered "metallic" and
      >"nonmetalic." After ignoring those comments for a long-time we have
      >begun to wonder ourselves if the term is really that useful.

      Don't second-guess. The term is useful, and if students are having
      trouble with it, then examples should do the trick. The distinction
      is pretty much the same as "reflective", but "reflective" is a MORE
      ambiguous term than "metallic."

      Consider the tail of a Sphecodes: it is polished, and bright red. But
      it is not *metallic*, because the color is a property of the
      integument itself, and not of the light reflected *from* the
      integument. Distinguishing that from, say, the abdomen of a chrysidid
      in the genus Omalus, which might be the same color red, and just as
      polished, but *metallic*, requires the use of the term "metallic", I
      think, because calling one "reflective" and the other
      "non-reflective" is simply not going to be an improvement.
      Iridescence and highlights are similar properties, and the
      distinction between them is pretty subtle and maybe even
      arbitrary...I tend to think of iridescence as just one end of the
      continuum of "highlights" (if a blue highlight on a green bee is
      intense enough, for example, then one calls it "blue iridescence"); a
      "highlight" is weak iridescence, and "iridescence" is an intense
      highlight.

      It would be easier, certainly, if the English language had actual
      names for metallic colors throughout the spectrum; consider the term
      "silver", for example - realistically, it is simply a surface that
      reflects all light, so it is effectively a white reflective surface -
      yet we don't call it "white"! If I said a bee was silver (shining
      silver or dull silver), no one would have any trouble imagining it,
      and adding the adjective "metallic" would be redundant. A few other
      related terms exist, but are a little more ambiguous ("brassy",
      "bronze", "copper") because of lack of familiarity, and there are a
      few (e.g."gold"), for which a non-metallic version of the color could
      also be implied (although it's hard to imagine anyone using the
      phrase "metallic yellow"). It's just a limitation of our language.

      Peace,
      --

      Doug Yanega Dept. of Entomology Entomology Research Museum
      Univ. of California, Riverside, CA 92521-0314 skype: dyanega
      phone: (951) 827-4315 (standard disclaimer: opinions are mine, not UCR's)
      http://cache.ucr.edu/~heraty/yanega.html
      "There are some enterprises in which a careful disorderliness
      is the true method" - Herman Melville, Moby Dick, Chap. 82
    • Anita M Collins, Ph.D.
      Sam, I tend to agree with Barb, that the simpler the terms the better. However, applying metllic to a group, when some are not clearly so, is probably not a
      Message 3 of 10 , Nov 5, 2009
      • 0 Attachment
        Sam,
         
        I tend to agree with Barb, that the simpler the terms the better.  However, applying metllic to a group, when some are not clearly so, is probably not a good use of the descriptor, and one of your suggestions would be better.  Something with a broader meaning??
        Anita
        If we knew what we were doing, it wouldn't be called research.
        -Albert Einstein





        Nov 5, 2009 07:23:06 AM, barbara.abraham@... wrote:
         

        Sam,

         

        Personally I have never had any trouble telling “metallic” from “non-metallic” in general, but I have not used the keys excessively yet for bees.  My only comment is that we should stick to a one word description instead of a six-seven  word description, when the one word is clear to most users.  Keys are already complicated enough.

         

        I will be interested in what other members of the list say on this topic!

         

        Barb

         

         

        Barbara J. Abraham, Ph.D.

        Associate Professor

        SEEDS Ecology Chapter Advisor

        Department of Biological Sciences

        Hampton University

        Hampton, VA  23668

        757-727-5283

        barbara.abraham@...

         

        From: beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com [mailto:beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of Sam Droege
        Sent: Thursday, November 05, 2009 6:47 AM
        To: beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com
        Subject: [beemonitoring] On the use of the word "metallic" in descriptions of bees

         


        All:

        In the revisions, books, and keys relating to bees the term "metallic" is often used as a descriptor for the integument (skin) of bees.  Metallic can be used to describe the whole bee:  "metallic green bee" is a common phrase or it can be that a bee has "metallic reflections."   Entire groups of bees are often referred to as "metallic" even though some have glossy integuments and are highly reflective and others are so dulled by microscopic lines that they reflect no light.  We have also propagated this term in a similar loose way and it can be found throughout our online guides (http://www.discoverlife.org/20/q?search=Apoidea#Identification).  We have had complaints from students that they are confused by the term and wonder when something should be considered "metallic" and "nonmetalic."  After ignoring those comments for a long-time we have begun to wonder ourselves if the term is really that useful.  

        Here is what Merriam-Webster says regarding its use in descriptions:

        3 : resembling metal: as a : having iridescent and reflective properties

        In other words an adjective referring to reflectance of the surface.

        Because of the confusion and overly broad use of how metallic has been applied, its many connotations in the English language, the images it brings to our minds,  and the loose way it has been deployed in descriptions (ours included and perhaps in particular) what we are  thinking now is that in our online guides we will strike the term "metallic" from the guides and replace it with a more nuanced approach, separating color from reflectance.

        Proposed changes then would be:

        1.  Colors will simply be referred to by their common names.  For example the color of Augochlorella  aurata would be simply "green" not "metallic green."  While the color of Halictus confusus would be along the lines of "dark green often with gold-yellow overtones."  

        2.  For surface reflectance any number of terms will be useful from shiny, mirror-like, glossy but when the surface is dull and reflective, the cause for the dulling should be mentioned (tessellated, imbricate, microscopic lines, rugose, beaded etc).

        3.  For the situation in which reflectance and color are more complicated, then usually it can be described as an "iridescence."   This would be particularly true for situations when a species is black or nearly black but has multicolored, reflective overtones similar to that of a light film of oil on water.  So a description of many of the abdomens of Lasioglossum (Dialictus) would include the basic color (black, dark brown, very dark brown with dark red highlights) and the presence of iridescent dark blue or green reflectance on certain portions of the tergites.   Similarly, many members of Augochloropsis would be green with blue iridescent overtones.

        I am sure that others have thought through and come to similar or better conclusions about this in the past, but before we starting changing the 1500 or so characters we have written for bees in these guides we thought we would post this for comments and suggestions.

        By the way, we are in a general process of updating and consolidating the wording and terms throughout the guides.  Suggestions are helpful as well as complaints about any guide wording.  Complainers are our best friends.  We are also putting together a generically worded blank guide that would have a set of characters to score that could be used as a starting place for anyone putting together a guide to a country or region's bees.

        Thanks

        sam


        Sam Droege  sdroege@...                      
        w 301-497-5840 h 301-390-7759 fax 301-497-5624
        USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center
        BARC-EAST, BLDG 308, RM 124 10300 Balt. Ave., Beltsville, MD  20705
        Http://www.pwrc.usgs.gov


        Autumn

        Lord: it is time. The huge summer has gone by.
        Now overlap the sundials with your shadows,
        and on the meadows let the wind go free.


        Command the fruits to swell on tree and vine;
        grant them a few more warm transparent days,
        urge them on to fulfillment then, and press
        the final sweetness into the heavy wine.


        Whoever has no house now, will never have one.
        Whoever is alone will stay alone,
        will sit, read, write long letters through the evening,
        and wander along the boulevards, up and down,
        restlessly, while the dry leaves are blowing.


                     - Rainer Maria Rilke


         
        P Bees are not optional.

        The information contained in this message is intended only for the recipient, and may otherwise be privileged and confidential. If the reader of this message is not the intended recipient, or an employee or agent responsible for delivering this message to the intended recipient, please be aware that any dissemination or copying of this communication is strictly prohibited. If you have received this communication in error, please immediately notify us by replying to the message and deleting it from your computer. This footnote also confirms that this email has been scanned for all viruses by the Hampton University Center for Information Technology Enterprise Systems service.

      • Anita M Collins, Ph.D.
        Sam, I tend to agree with Barb, that the simpler the terms the better. However, applying metllic to a group, when some are not clearly so, is probably not a
        Message 4 of 10 , Nov 5, 2009
        • 0 Attachment

          Sam, I tend to agree with Barb, that the simpler the terms the better.  However, applying metllic to a group, when some are not clearly so, is probably not a good use of the descriptor, and one of your suggestions would be better.  Something with a broader meaning??Anita
          If we knew what we were doing, it wouldn't be called research.
          -Albert Einstein





          Nov 5, 2009 07:23:06 AM, barbara.abraham@... wrote:
           

          Sam,

           

          Personally I have never had any trouble telling “metallic” from “non-metallic” in general, but I have not used the keys excessively yet for bees.  My only comment is that we should stick to a one word description instead of a six-seven  word description, when the one word is clear to most users.  Keys are already complicated enough.

           

          I will be interested in what other members of the list say on this topic!

           

          Barb

           

           

          Barbara J. Abraham, Ph.D.

          Associate Professor

          SEEDS Ecology Chapter Advisor

          Department of Biological Sciences

          Hampton University

          Hampton, VA  23668

          757-727-5283

          barbara.abraham@...

           

          From: beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com [mailto:beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of Sam Droege
          Sent: Thursday, November 05, 2009 6:47 AM
          To: beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com
          Subject: [beemonitoring] On the use of the word "metallic" in descriptions of bees

           




          All:

          In the revisions, books, and keys relating to bees the term "metallic" is often used as a descriptor for the integument (skin) of bees.  Metallic can be used to describe the whole bee:  "metallic green bee" is a common phrase or it can be that a bee has "metallic reflections."   Entire groups of bees are often referred to as "metallic" even though some have glossy integuments and are highly reflective and others are so dulled by microscopic lines that they reflect no light.  We have also propagated this term in a similar loose way and it can be found throughout our online guides (http://www.discoverlife.org/20/q?search=Apoidea#Identification).  We have had complaints from students that they are confused by the term and wonder when something should be considered "metallic" and "nonmetalic."  After ignoring those comments for a long-time we have begun to wonder ourselves if the term is really that useful.  

          Here is what Merriam-Webster says regarding its use in descriptions:

          3 : resembling metal: as a : having iridescent and reflective properties

          In other words an adjective referring to reflectance of the surface.

          Because of the confusion and overly broad use of how metallic has been applied, its many connotations in the English language, the images it brings to our minds,  and the loose way it has been deployed in descriptions (ours included and perhaps in particular) what we are  thinking now is that in our online guides we will strike the term "metallic" from the guides and replace it with a more nuanced approach, separating color from reflectance.

          Proposed changes then would be:

          1.  Colors will simply be referred to by their common names.  For example the color of Augochlorella  aurata would be simply "green" not "metallic green."  While the color of Halictus confusus would be along the lines of "dark green often with gold-yellow overtones."  

          2.  For surface reflectance any number of terms will be useful from shiny, mirror-like, glossy but when the surface is dull and reflective, the cause for the dulling should be mentioned (tessellated, imbricate, microscopic lines, rugose, beaded etc).

          3.  For the situation in which reflectance and color are more complicated, then usually it can be described as an "iridescence."   This would be particularly true for situations when a species is black or nearly black but has multicolored, reflective overtones similar to that of a light film of oil on water.  So a description of many of the abdomens of Lasioglossum (Dialictus) would include the basic color (black, dark brown, very dark brown with dark red highlights) and the presence of iridescent dark blue or green reflectance on certain portions of the tergites.   Similarly, many members of Augochloropsis would be green with blue iridescent overtones.

          I am sure that others have thought through and come to similar or better conclusions about this in the past, but before we starting changing the 1500 or so characters we have written for bees in these guides we thought we would post this for comments and suggestions.

          By the way, we are in a general process of updating and consolidating the wording and terms throughout the guides.  Suggestions are helpful as well as complaints about any guide wording.  Complainers are our best friends.  We are also putting together a generically worded blank guide that would have a set of characters to score that could be used as a starting place for anyone putting together a guide to a country or region's bees.

          Thanks

          sam


          Sam Droege  sdroege@...                      
          w 301-497-5840 h 301-390-7759 fax 301-497-5624
          USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center
          BARC-EAST, BLDG 308, RM 124 10300 Balt. Ave., Beltsville, MD  20705
          Http://www.pwrc.usgs.gov

          Autumn

          Lord: it is time. The huge summer has gone by.
          Now overlap the sundials with your shadows,
          and on the meadows let the wind go free.

          Command the fruits to swell on tree and vine;
          grant them a few more warm transparent days,
          urge them on to fulfillment then, and press
          the final sweetness into the heavy wine.

          Whoever has no house now, will never have one.
          Whoever is alone will stay alone,
          will sit, read, write long letters through the evening,
          and wander along the boulevards, up and down,
          restlessly, while the dry leaves are blowing.

                       - Rainer Maria Rilke


           
          P Bees are not optional.


          The information contained in this message is intended only for the recipient, and may otherwise be privileged and confidential. If the reader of this message is not the intended recipient, or an employee or agent responsible for delivering this message to the intended recipient, please be aware that any dissemination or copying of this communication is strictly prohibited. If you have received this communication in error, please immediately notify us by replying to the message and deleting it from your computer. This footnote also confirms that this email has been scanned for all viruses by the Hampton University Center for Information Technology Enterprise Systems service.


        • Matthias Buck
          Hi Sam, I never found a problem with the term metallic. It seems pretty intuitive to me. I would rather keep it simple. More detailed explanations could be
          Message 5 of 10 , Nov 5, 2009
          • 0 Attachment
            Hi Sam,

            I never found a problem with the term metallic. It seems pretty intuitive to me. I would rather keep it simple. More detailed explanations could be given in a glossary.

            Cheers,

                      Matthias


            From: beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com [mailto:beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of Sam Droege
            Sent: Thursday, November 05, 2009 6:47 AM
            To: beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com
            Subject: [beemonitoring] On the use of the word "metallic" in descriptions of bees

             




            All:

            In the revisions, books, and keys relating to bees the term "metallic" is often used as a descriptor for the integument (skin) of bees.  Metallic can be used to describe the whole bee:  "metallic green bee" is a common phrase or it can be that a bee has "metallic reflections."   Entire groups of bees are often referred to as "metallic" even though some have glossy integuments and are highly reflective and others are so dulled by microscopic lines that they reflect no light.  We have also propagated this term in a similar loose way and it can be found throughout our online guides (http://www.discoverlife.org/20/q?search=Apoidea#Identification).  We have had complaints from students that they are confused by the term and wonder when something should be considered "metallic" and "nonmetalic."  After ignoring those comments for a long-time we have begun to wonder ourselves if the term is really that useful.  

            Here is what Merriam-Webster says regarding its use in descriptions:

            3 : resembling metal: as a : having iridescent and reflective properties

            In other words an adjective referring to reflectance of the surface.

            Because of the confusion and overly broad use of how metallic has been applied, its many connotations in the English language, the images it brings to our minds,  and the loose way it has been deployed in descriptions (ours included and perhaps in particular) what we are  thinking now is that in our online guides we will strike the term "metallic" from the guides and replace it with a more nuanced approach, separating color from reflectance.

            Proposed changes then would be:

            1.  Colors will simply be referred to by their common names.  For example the color of Augochlorella  aurata would be simply "green" not "metallic green."  While the color of Halictus confusus would be along the lines of "dark green often with gold-yellow overtones."  

            2.  For surface reflectance any number of terms will be useful from shiny, mirror-like, glossy but when the surface is dull and reflective, the cause for the dulling should be mentioned (tessellated, imbricate, microscopic lines, rugose, beaded etc).

            3.  For the situation in which reflectance and color are more complicated, then usually it can be described as an "iridescence."   This would be particularly true for situations when a species is black or nearly black but has multicolored, reflective overtones similar to that of a light film of oil on water.  So a description of many of the abdomens of Lasioglossum (Dialictus) would include the basic color (black, dark brown, very dark brown with dark red highlights) and the presence of iridescent dark blue or green reflectance on certain portions of the tergites.   Similarly, many members of Augochloropsis would be green with blue iridescent overtones.

            I am sure that others have thought through and come to similar or better conclusions about this in the past, but before we starting changing the 1500 or so characters we have written for bees in these guides we thought we would post this for comments and suggestions.

            By the way, we are in a general process of updating and consolidating the wording and terms throughout the guides.  Suggestions are helpful as well as complaints about any guide wording.  Complainers are our best friends.  We are also putting together a generically worded blank guide that would have a set of characters to score that could be used as a starting place for anyone putting together a guide to a country or region's bees.

            Thanks

            sam


            Sam Droege  sdroege@...                      
            w 301-497-5840 h 301-390-7759 fax 301-497-5624
            USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center
            BARC-EAST, BLDG 308, RM 124 10300 Balt. Ave., Beltsville, MD  20705
            Http://www.pwrc.usgs.gov

            Autumn

            Lord: it is time. The huge summer has gone by.
            Now overlap the sundials with your shadows,
            and on the meadows let the wind go free.

            Command the fruits to swell on tree and vine;
            grant them a few more warm transparent days,
            urge them on to fulfillment then, and press
            the final sweetness into the heavy wine.

            Whoever has no house now, will never have one.
            Whoever is alone will stay alone,
            will sit, read, write long letters through the evening,
            and wander along the boulevards, up and down,
            restlessly, while the dry leaves are blowing.

                         - Rainer Maria Rilke


             
            P Bees are not optional.


            The information contained in this message is intended only for the recipient, and may otherwise be privileged and confidential. If the reader of this message is not the intended recipient, or an employee or agent responsible for delivering this message to the intended recipient, please be aware that any dissemination or copying of this communication is strictly prohibited. If you have received this communication in error, please immediately notify us by replying to the message and deleting it from your computer. This footnote also confirms that this email has been scanned for all viruses by the Hampton University Center for Information Technology Enterprise Systems service.






            --
            Dr. Matthias Buck
            Invertebrate Zoology
            Royal Alberta Museum
            12845-102nd Avenue
            Edmonton, Alberta
            Canada, T5N 0M6
            Phone: (780) 453-9122
            www.royalalbertamuseum.ca
          • Julio A. Genaro
            I AGREED WITH MATTHIAS. UNTIL I KNOW FOR US, PEOPLE DESCRIBING NEW BEE SPECIES, WRITTING KEYS OF REDESCRIBING OTHER, IT IS INTUITIVE!!! CHEERS JULIO Hi Sam, I
            Message 6 of 10 , Nov 5, 2009
            • 0 Attachment
              I AGREED WITH MATTHIAS. UNTIL I KNOW FOR US, PEOPLE DESCRIBING NEW BEE SPECIES, WRITTING KEYS OF REDESCRIBING OTHER, IT IS INTUITIVE!!!
               
              CHEERS
              JULIO 
               
               
               
              Hi Sam,

              I never found a problem with the term metallic. It seems pretty intuitive to me. I would rather keep it simple. More detailed explanations could be given in a glossary.

              Cheers,

                        Matthias


              Windows Live: Friends get your Flickr, Yelp, and Digg updates when they e-mail you.
            • Jack Neff
              Sam:  I have no problem with the term metallic .  As with some others, it seems fairly intutitive to me and I have no problem with it in keys or
              Message 7 of 10 , Nov 5, 2009
              • 0 Attachment
                Sam:  I have no problem with the term "metallic".  As with some others, it seems fairly intutitive to me and I have no problem with it in keys or descriptions.  It may be that some of your guides use it in an overly broad sense (using metallic as a general descriptor for both Augochloropsis and Dialictus without modifiers is highly dubious).
                   I have a  bigger problem with some of the other terms which regularly show up in Discoverlife Keys.  The first abdominal segment is fused with the thorax In the "higher" Hymenoptera, so the first tergite of the apparent abdomen is really the second abdominal tergite. While I assume the people who write these things know the difference, I fear many of the novices do not will not appreciate the difference between thorax and mesosoma and abdomen and metasoma.  Calling it the first abdominal segment may make it easier for novices but it is bad anatomy and bad biology.   Using the terms mesosoma (for the apparent thorax) and metasoma (for the apparent abdomen) allows one to start counting with metasomal tergite one without fomenting more anatomical ignorance. 

                best

                Jack

                John L. Neff
                Central Texas Melittological Institute
                7307 Running Rope
                Austin,TX 78731 USA
                512-345-7219

                --- On Thu, 11/5/09, Sam Droege <sdroege@...> wrote:

                From: Sam Droege <sdroege@...>
                Subject: [beemonitoring] On the use of the word "metallic" in descriptions of bees
                To: beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com
                Date: Thursday, November 5, 2009, 5:47 AM

                 


                All:

                In the revisions, books, and keys relating to bees the term "metallic" is often used as a descriptor for the integument (skin) of bees.  Metallic can be used to describe the whole bee:  "metallic green bee" is a common phrase or it can be that a bee has "metallic reflections."   Entire groups of bees are often referred to as "metallic" even though some have glossy integuments and are highly reflective and others are so dulled by microscopic lines that they reflect no light.  We have also propagated this term in a similar loose way and it can be found throughout our online guides (http://www.discover life.org/ 20/q?search= Apoidea#Identifi cation).  We have had complaints from students that they are confused by the term and wonder when something should be considered "metallic" and "nonmetalic."  After ignoring those comments for a long-time we have begun to wonder ourselves if the term is really that useful.  

                Here is what Merriam-Webster says regarding its use in descriptions:

                3 : resembling metal: as a : having iridescent and reflective properties <metallic paint>

                In other words an adjective referring to reflectance of the surface.

                Because of the confusion and overly broad use of how metallic has been applied, its many connotations in the English language, the images it brings to our minds,  and the loose way it has been deployed in descriptions (ours included and perhaps in particular) what we are  thinking now is that in our online guides we will strike the term "metallic" from the guides and replace it with a more nuanced approach, separating color from reflectance.

                Proposed changes then would be:

                1.  Colors will simply be referred to by their common names.  For example the color of Augochlorella  aurata would be simply "green" not "metallic green."  While the color of Halictus confusus would be along the lines of "dark green often with gold-yellow overtones."  

                2.  For surface reflectance any number of terms will be useful from shiny, mirror-like, glossy but when the surface is dull and reflective, the cause for the dulling should be mentioned (tessellated, imbricate, microscopic lines, rugose, beaded etc).

                3.  For the situation in which reflectance and color are more complicated, then usually it can be described as an "iridescence."   This would be particularly true for situations when a species is black or nearly black but has multicolored, reflective overtones similar to that of a light film of oil on water.  So a description of many of the abdomens of Lasioglossum (Dialictus) would include the basic color (black, dark brown, very dark brown with dark red highlights) and the presence of iridescent dark blue or green reflectance on certain portions of the tergites.   Similarly, many members of Augochloropsis would be green with blue iridescent overtones.

                I am sure that others have thought through and come to similar or better conclusions about this in the past, but before we starting changing the 1500 or so characters we have written for bees in these guides we thought we would post this for comments and suggestions.

                By the way, we are in a general process of updating and consolidating the wording and terms throughout the guides.  Suggestions are helpful as well as complaints about any guide wording.  Complainers are our best friends.  We are also putting together a generically worded blank guide that would have a set of characters to score that could be used as a starting place for anyone putting together a guide to a country or region's bees.

                Thanks

                sam


                Sam Droege  sdroege@usgs. gov                      
                w 301-497-5840 h 301-390-7759 fax 301-497-5624
                USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center
                BARC-EAST, BLDG 308, RM 124 10300 Balt. Ave., Beltsville, MD  20705
                Http://www.pwrc. usgs.gov

                Autumn

                Lord: it is time. The huge summer has gone by.
                Now overlap the sundials with your shadows,
                and on the meadows let the wind go free.


                Command the fruits to swell on tree and vine;
                grant them a few more warm transparent days,
                urge them on to fulfillment then, and press
                the final sweetness into the heavy wine.


                Whoever has no house now, will never have one.
                Whoever is alone will stay alone,
                will sit, read, write long letters through the evening,
                and wander along the boulevards, up and down,
                restlessly, while the dry leaves are blowing.


                             - Rainer Maria Rilke


                 
                P Bees are not optional.

              Your message has been successfully submitted and would be delivered to recipients shortly.