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Orchid Mimics Honey Bee Alarm Pheromone in Order to Attract Hornets for Pollination

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  • Peter Bernhardt
    If you want to be pollinated by a predatory wasp you must smell like an agitated honeybee (see below). Now I ve heard everything! Peter ... From: Neal Smith
    Message 1 of 3 , Aug 26 6:41 AM
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      If you want to be pollinated by a predatory wasp you must smell like an agitated honeybee (see below).  Now I've heard everything!

      Peter

      ---------- Forwarded message ----------
      From: Neal Smith <smithn@...>
      Date: Tue, Aug 25, 2009 at 6:30 PM
      Subject: Orchid Mimics Honey Bee Alarm Pheromone in Order to Attract Hornets for Pollination
      To: Neal Smith <smithn@...>


      NOTA BENE: I can not provide the PDF of this rather novel paper!!!!
       
      Orchid Mimics Honey Bee Alarm Pheromone in Order to Attract Hornets for Pollination

       


      Jennifer Brodmann1, Robert Twele2, Wittko Francke2, Luo Yi-bo3, Song Xi-qiang4 and Manfred Ayasse1, Corresponding Author Contact Information, E-mail The Corresponding Author

      1Institute of Experimental Ecology, University of Ulm, 89069 Ulm, Germany

      2Institute of Organic Chemistry, University of Hamburg, 20146 Hamburg, Germany

      3State Key Laboratory of Systematic and Evolutionary Botany, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093, China

      4Key Laboratory of Tropical Horticultural Plant Resources and Genetic Improvement, Hainan University, Haikou 570228, China


      Received 7 May 2009; 
      revised 12 June 2009; 
      accepted 16 June 2009. 
      Published online: August 6, 2009. 
      Available online 6 August 2009.

      Summary

      Approximately one-third of the world's estimated 30,000 orchid species are deceptive and do not reward their pollinators with nectar or pollen [1]. Most of these deceptive orchids imitate the scent of rewarding flowers or potential mates [2] and [3]. In this study, we investigated the floral scent involved in pollinator attraction to the rewardless orchid Dendrobium sinense, a species endemic to the Chinese island Hainan that is pollinated by the hornet Vespa bicolor. Via chemical analyses and electrophysiological methods, we demonstrate that the flowers of D. sinense produce (Z)-11-eicosen-1-ol and that the pollinator can smell this compound. This is a major compound in the alarm pheromones of both Asian (Apis cerana) and European (Apis mellifera) honey bees [4] and [5] and is also exploited by the European beewolf (Philanthus triangulum) to locate its prey [6]. This is the first time that (Z)-11-eicosen-1-ol has been identified as a floral volatile. In behavioral experiments, we demonstrate that the floral scent of D. sinense and synthetic (Z)-11-eicosen-1-ol are both attractive to hornets. Because hornets frequently capture honey bees to feed to their larvae, we suggest that the flowers of D. sinense mimic the alarm pheromone of honey bees in order to attract prey-hunting hornets for pollination.

      Author Keywords: EVO_ECOL


    • David_r_smith@fws.gov
      Hi All, Sam Droege wanted me to pass this on to you: New Pan Trap Design for Arid, Low Humid Regions As part of a native pollinator inventory, I have been
      Message 2 of 3 , Sep 14, 2009

      Hi All,

      Sam Droege wanted me to pass this on to you:

      New Pan Trap Design for Arid, Low Humid Regions

      As part of a native pollinator inventory, I have been looking for a reliable pan trap method.  I initially used two-ounce painted Solo cups with soapy water at five sites along an elevational gradient north of Flagstaff, Arizona.  In order to increase the opportunity to sample a higher diversity of species, I decided to leave the traps out for a week. I substituted recreational vehicle antifreeze-grade propylene glycol in 12 ounce plastic bowls since it was obvious soapy water would not last long enough.  Unfortunately, summer temperatures and low humidity caused the bowls to dry up and blow away before a week had expired (I can make someone a killer deal on a couple thousand 12 ounce plastic bowls).

      I changed from 12 ounce bowls to 12 ounce heavy plastic “stadium cups”.  These ar ethe cups you see given to kids off the kids menu at many resturants.  Each cup, painted either fluorescent blue or yellow, or left white is attached to one-half inch PVC pipe with a five-inch hoop cut from a plastic culvert pipe (see photo).  The stadium cups are very sturdy and are likely to hold up for a long season or two (or three) of sampling. The hoop is attached to the PVC pipe with a bolt and lock nut.  The pipe slips over a piece of rebar set into the ground.  The hoop is set high enough so the cup rests about three inches above the ground. If desired, a trap number can be written on the white plastic hoop.  In order not to confuse the issue by having insects attracted to the white PVC end up in the blue or yellow cup, I painted the tops of holders the appropriate color for the cup it would hold.  The top of the pipe is plugged to prevent bees from crawling down inside and getting trapped. The cups, filled halfway with the 50% industrial grade propylene glycol (50 Water:50 propylene glycol) easily lasts for a week.  The cups do not sit on the hot ground (air passes under them) and deeper cup lip and deeper fluid level slows down evaporation.  I remove the cup from the hoop and dump the sample into a sieve.  Leftover propylene glycol is collected in a bucket when the sample is poured through the sieve. The sieve is dumped into a plastic jar with alcohol.  I use a funnel used when you add oil to your car (the opening is large enough not to get clogged with the sample, I get a lot of big Tachinids) to dump the sample finally into a labeled Whirl-Pak.  Funnels with wide opening can be found at Auto Parts Stores. I also find that collecting samples goes much faster if the labels are pre-cut and placed in the Whirl-Pak beforehand.

      Dave Smith
      U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
      323 N. Leroux St., Suite 101
      Flagstaff, AZ  86001
      (928) 226-0614 x 109
      "Field data is the best cure for a precarious prediction"  Dave Rosgen

    • karen@sevilleta.unm.edu
      I have been using Buchmann s design for funnel traps in New Mexico. I leave mine out for two weeks at a time and they do great! There are a few others using
      Message 3 of 3 , Sep 15, 2009
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        I have been using Buchmann's design for funnel traps in New Mexico. I
        leave mine out for two weeks at a time and they do great! There are a few
        others using this style trap. The funnels are spray painted (the tips cut
        off to allow larger bees) and rest in a one pint paint can. If you keep
        the lid, you can just reuse the same antifreeze over and over until it
        gets watered down by rain. I'm not sure how the two methods would
        compare. Have you tried the funnel traps? Cheers, karen

        > Hi All,
        >
        > Sam Droege wanted me to pass this on to you:
        >
        > New Pan Trap Design for Arid, Low Humid Regions
        >
        > As part of a native pollinator inventory, I have been looking for a
        > reliable pan trap method. I initially used two-ounce painted Solo cups
        > with soapy water at five sites along an elevational gradient north of
        > Flagstaff, Arizona. In order to increase the opportunity to sample a
        > higher diversity of species, I decided to leave the traps out for a week.
        > I substituted recreational vehicle antifreeze-grade propylene glycol in 12
        > ounce plastic bowls since it was obvious soapy water would not last long
        > enough. Unfortunately, summer temperatures and low humidity caused the
        > bowls to dry up and blow away before a week had expired (I can make
        > someone a killer deal on a couple thousand 12 ounce plastic bowls).
        > I changed from 12 ounce bowls to 12 ounce heavy plastic “stadium
        > cups”.
        > These ar ethe cups you see given to kids off the kids menu at many
        > resturants. Each cup, painted either fluorescent blue or yellow, or left
        > white is attached to one-half inch PVC pipe with a five-inch hoop cut from
        > a plastic culvert pipe (see photo). The stadium cups are very sturdy and
        > are likely to hold up for a long season or two (or three) of sampling. The
        > hoop is attached to the PVC pipe with a bolt and lock nut. The pipe slips
        > over a piece of rebar set into the ground. The hoop is set high enough so
        > the cup rests about three inches above the ground. If desired, a trap
        > number can be written on the white plastic hoop. In order not to confuse
        > the issue by having insects attracted to the white PVC end up in the blue
        > or yellow cup, I painted the tops of holders the appropriate color for the
        > cup it would hold. The top of the pipe is plugged to prevent bees from
        > crawling down inside and getting trapped. The cups, filled halfway with
        > the 50% industrial grade propylene glycol (50 Water:50 propylene glycol)
        > easily lasts for a week. The cups do not sit on the hot ground (air
        > passes under them) and deeper cup lip and deeper fluid level slows down
        > evaporation. I remove the cup from the hoop and dump the sample into a
        > sieve. Leftover propylene glycol is collected in a bucket when the sample
        > is poured through the sieve. The sieve is dumped into a plastic jar with
        > alcohol. I use a funnel used when you add oil to your car (the opening is
        > large enough not to get clogged with the sample, I get a lot of big
        > Tachinids) to dump the sample finally into a labeled Whirl-Pak. Funnels
        > with wide opening can be found at Auto Parts Stores. I also find that
        > collecting samples goes much faster if the labels are pre-cut and placed
        > in the Whirl-Pak beforehand.
        >
        >
        > Dave Smith
        > U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
        > 323 N. Leroux St., Suite 101
        > Flagstaff, AZ 86001
        > (928) 226-0614 x 109
        > "Field data is the best cure for a precarious prediction" Dave Rosgen
        >
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