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Re: [beemonitoring] Draft Everyman's Guide to Xylocopa

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  • Sean Prager
    Hey Sam, Most of the info here is pretty solid. I filled in some details below, a few contradict what you have, so you can adjust as necessary. If you need to
    Message 1 of 6 , Nov 21, 2008
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      Hey Sam,
      Most of the info here is pretty solid. I filled in some details
      below, a few contradict what you have, so you can adjust as necessary.
      If you need to know anything else, feel free to ask.

      Sean

      Quoting Peter Bernhardt <bernhap2@...>:

      > On Fri, Nov 21, 2008 at 5:41 AM, Sam Droege <sdroege@...> wrote:
      >
      >>
      >> *All:
      >> *
      >> *Jim Cane and I have put together a draft Everyman Guide to Carpenter Bees
      >> in North America. We had a few questions that some of you may be able to
      >> answer and would also tender any additions or changes. Thanks.*
      >>
      >> *sam*
      >>
      >> *
      >> Sam Droege sdroege@...
      >> w 301-497-5840 h 301-390-7759 fax 301-497-5624
      >> USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center
      >> BARC-EAST, BLDG 308, RM 124 10300 Balt. Ave., Beltsville, MD 20705
      >> Http://www.pwrc.usgs.gov*
      >>
      >> *The bookful blockhead, ignorantly read,
      >> With loads of learned lumber in his head.
      >> -Alexander Pope*
      >>
      >>
      >> *Everyman's Guide to The Common Groups of Bees*
      >>
      >>
      >> *Scientific Name:* *Xylocopa* (zile-low-COPE-uh)
      >>
      >> *Common Name:* Carpenter Bee
      >>
      >> *Approximate Number of Species in Canada: *1
      >>
      >> *Approximate Number of Species East of the Rockies:* 2
      >>
      >> *Approximate Number of Species West of the Rockies:* 7
      >>
      >> *Approximate Number of Species in Mexico:* 25
      >>
      >
      >
      >
      >>
      >> APPROXIMATE NUMBER OF SPECIES IN HAWAII: 1 (PROBABLY INTRODUCED)
      >> *General Abundance in Eastern Gardens*: Common north to Southern
      >> Ontario-CAN BE FOUND COLLECTIOS NORTH TO HAMILTON, is readily found
      >> in Toronto, one specimen has been found in Southern Maine

      GAPS AND
      >> GALLERIES IN MOIST-TEMPERATE FORESTS AND WOODLANDS, REMAINS OF TALL-GRASS
      >> PRAIRIE THROUGH THE MID-WEST APPEARING AS EARLY AS MID-MAY (KANSAS,
      >> MISSOURI, ILLINOIS). OFTEN SEEN VISITING MASS DISPLAYS OF BEDDING PLANTS
      >> (UNUSUALLY FOND OF ORNAMENTAL NICOTIANA) IN BOTANICAL GARDENS AND ARBORETA
      >> (PROVIDED ANNAUL PLANTS ARE GROWN IN FULL SUN). ESPECIALLY COMMON THROUGH
      >> LATE SUMMER AND EARLY AUTUMN.
      >>
      >
      >
      >> IN HAWAII (ESPECIALLY ON KAUI), THEY ARE COMMON IN WARM, LOWLAND GARDENS
      >> AND ON "WEEDY TREES" OF ROADSIDE VEGETATION VISITING ORNAMENTAL CORAL TREES
      >> (ERYTHRINA) AND NATIVE-INTRODUCED MEMBERS OF THE HIBISCUS FAMILY
      >> (MALVACEAE).
      >>
      >> *General Abundance in Western Gardens:* ?Common in warm deserts,
      >> *Time of Year:* All season but with peaks of activity in the late
      >> spring/early summer; in SE, peak began with redbud bloom.
      >>
      >> *General Look and Feel:* Large, the size of bumblebees and some species
      >> as large as the largest bumblebee; most of the time the largest bee around;
      >> told from the similar looking bumblebees by the combination of all black
      >> abdomen (most bumblebees have some yellow or red hairs present) and that
      >> those hairs on the abdomen are sparse enough to clearly see the shining
      >> integument (skin) below; most males with a white spot on their face; when
      >> resting, Xylocopa hold their wings splayed some to the sides (resembling
      >> swept-backjet fighter wings), not neatly overlapped down the back like
      >> bumblebees.
      >>
      >>
      >> *Stinging:* FEMALES ARE VERY PASSIVE. STINGS are relatively
      >> painless-much less than a honey bee or bumble bee. I frequently
      >> mistake being stung with getting a splinter. I have never had a
      >> truly painful sting in maybe 30 stings.

      Note that males are territorial and will hover in front of you if
      >> you are near a nesting area, but they cannot sting (males of all bees have
      >> no stingers) and the females do not defend their nests and are not often
      >> seen unless they are nesting in your house! FEMALES WILL ATTEMPT TO BITE
      >> (AND IT HURTS) AS YOU REMOVE THEM FROM A BUTTERFLY NET.
      >>
      >> *Nesting Site:* In nature, the female excavates nesting tunnels in the
      >> dead wood of standing trees or, in some western species, in yucca and agave
      >> flower stalks. In the eastern and central regions the Eastern Carpenter Bee
      >> (*Xylocopa virginica*) nests commonly in exposed lumber of houses, decks,
      >> and outdoor wooden furniture.
      >>
      >> *Overwintering Site:* Groups of adult males and females overwinter in
      >> their nest sites.
      >>
      >> *Favorite Flowers:* Will visit a wide variety of flowers; often slits the
      >> base of tubular or narrow flowers such as blueberry which are too small to
      >> fit into and too long for their short tongues; often conspicuous on
      >> leguminous flowers such as Lupines, Wisteria, ERYTHRINA and Locust in the
      >> spring. CARPENTER BEES DO NOT POLLINATE FLOWERS WITH LONG TUBES OR BELLS.
      >> THEY ARE MOST FREQUENTLY OBSERVED CRAWLING DOWN TO WHERE THE FLORAL TUBE
      >> CONNECTS TO THE BASE OF THE STALK. THE BEE BITES A HOLE AT THE BASE AND
      >> STEALS NECTAR. LOOK FOR "DRACULA" BITES AT BASES OF GARDEN FLOWERS. LARGE
      >> PEA OR BEAN FLOWERS ARE VISITED LEGITIMATELY.

      -ALSO VERY COMMON ON SMALL OPEN FLOWERS SUCH AS GOLDENROD AND ASTERS.
      MOST OF MY FIELD COLLECTIONS ARE FROM GOLDENROD.

      >>
      >> *Interesting Xylocopa Factoids:*
      >> - Most are largest of North American bees (other than some queen
      >> bumblebees)
      >> - Males are territorial and defend their nests unlike most other
      >> groups of bees, have much larger eyes than females, and are one of the few
      >> bees that hover.
      --->THIS IS A MISNOMER. THE MALES GUARD FEMALES NOT NESTS. JUST SO
      HAPPENS THAT THE FEMALES ARE IN THE NESTS.



      >> -Unlike most species of bees which live for less than a year,
      >> adults of some species live up to 3 years.
      >> - Species that live in deserts will line their nest cavities with
      >> wax-like substances to retain moisture in their nests.
      >> - Has the largest insect egg in the world (0.6 inches, 15mm).
      >> - The tunnels of the Eastern Carpenter Bee are reused each year
      >> with new side chambers created each season; their tunnels, while at times
      >> extensive, never intersect nor accidentally run outside of the branch or
      >> board or even wooden tool handle they are nesting in.
      --->THIS IS ALSO A BIT OVERSTATED. THEY EVENTUALLY ABANDON THE NESTS.
      BUT MORE IMPORTANT THEY DO NOT ALWAYS ADD TUNNELS, AND MANY TIMES
      WHEN THEY DO, IT IS BECAUSE THEY HAVE STOPPED USING ANOTHER ONE OF THE
      TUNNELS IN THE NEST. ALSO, ON RARE OCCASIONS TUNNELS WILL INTERSECT
      AND USUALLY THIS RESULTS IN ONE OR BOTH BEING ABANDONED.


      >> - It takes many years for carpenter bees to cause significant
      >> structural damage; damage can be minimized by sealing nesting holes (1/2"
      >> lengths of wood dowel fit X. virginica tunnels tightly), using smooth
      >> painted wood, and providing alternative nesting sites in cedar (their
      >> preferred nesting materials in the East).
      PAINT IS ONLY A MINIMAL DETERRENT. I HAVE COLLECTED PROBABLY 30% OF
      MY NESTS IN PAINTED OR STAINED MATERIAL. THEY DO NOT CARE AT ALL
      ABOUT PRESSURE TREATING. CEDAR IS BY FAR THE FAVORITE MATERIAL. IT
      IS ALSO EFFECTIVE TO FILL THE NESTS WITH EXPANDING WINDOW CALK.
      HOWEVER, ALL PLUGGING (IN EITHER CASE) NEEDS TO BE DONE IN THE FALL
      WINTER. IF YOU LEAVE BEES IN THE NEST, THEY WILL SIMPLY BURROW A NEW
      ENTRANCE.

      >>
      >>
      >> *Web Sites and Technical ID Guides:*
      >> http://www.discoverlife.org/mp/20q?guide=Xylocopa
      >> *http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carpenter_bee*
      >>
      >> http://www.fs.fed.us/wildflowers/pollinators/pollinator-of-the-month/carpenter_bees.shtml
      >>
      >> *How to Attract:* Some species will nest in wooden timbers (softwoods
      >> such as cedar and pine often preferred) in which one half inch holes have
      >> been drilled. A diverse and season long assemblage of blooming plants will
      >> attract Xylocopa.
      >>
      >> P *Please don't print this e-mail unless really needed**.*
      >>
      >>
      >>
      >
    • leifrichardson
      Sam, I ve been collecting carpenter bees--and other people s records of them-- in Vermont. They seem to reach the northern edge of their range in several towns
      Message 2 of 6 , Nov 21, 2008
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        Sam,
        I've been collecting carpenter bees--and other people's records of
        them-- in Vermont. They seem to reach the northern edge of their range
        in several towns along the Massachusetts border (e.g. Bennington,
        Brattleboro, Vernon). They apparently don't come farther north than
        this (yet). I can send you specimen data if you want.

        Leif

        in --- In beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com, Sam Droege <sdroege@...>
        wrote:
        >
        > All:
        >
        > Jim Cane and I have put together a draft Everyman Guide to Carpenter
        Bees
        > in North America. We had a few questions that some of you may be
        able to
        > answer and would also tender any additions or changes. Thanks.
        >
        > sam
        >
        >
        > Sam Droege sdroege@...
        > w 301-497-5840 h 301-390-7759 fax 301-497-5624
        > USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center
        > BARC-EAST, BLDG 308, RM 124 10300 Balt. Ave., Beltsville, MD 20705
        > Http://www.pwrc.usgs.gov
        >
        > The bookful blockhead, ignorantly read,
        > With loads of learned lumber in his head.
        > -Alexander Pope
        >
        >
        > Everyman?s Guide to The Common Groups of Bees
        >
        >
        > Scientific Name: Xylocopa (zile-low-COPE-uh)
        >
        > Common Name: Carpenter Bee
        >
        > Approximate Number of Species in Canada: 1
        >
        > Approximate Number of Species East of the Rockies: 2
        >
        > Approximate Number of Species West of the Rockies: 7
        >
        > Approximate Number of Species in Mexico: 25
        >
        > General Abundance in Eastern Gardens: Common north to??
        >
        > General Abundance in Western Gardens: ?Common in warm deserts and??
        ?
        >
        > Time of Year: All season but with peaks of activity in the late
        > spring/early summer; in SE, peak began with redbud bloom.
        >
        > General Look and Feel: Large, the size of bumblebees and some
        species as
        > large as the largest bumblebee; most of the time the largest bee
        around;
        > told from the similar looking bumblebees by the combination of all
        black
        > abdomen (most bumblebees have some yellow or red hairs present) and
        that
        > those hairs on the abdomen are sparse enough to clearly see the
        shining
        > integument (skin) below; most males with a white spot on their face;
        when
        > resting, Xylocopa hold their wings splayed some to the sides
        (resembling
        > swept-backjet fighter wings), not neatly overlapped down the back
        like
        > bumblebees.
        >
        >
        > Stinging: (Anyone with direct experience of Xylocopa stings?)?low
        to no
        > concern. Note that males are territorial and will hover in front of
        you
        > if you are near a nesting area, but they cannot sting (males of all
        bees
        > have no stingers) and the females do not defend their nests and are
        not
        > often seen unless they are nesting in your house!
        >
        > Nesting Site: In nature, the female excavates nesting tunnels in
        the dead
        > wood of standing trees or, in some western species, in yucca and
        agave
        > flower stalks. In the eastern and central regions the Eastern
        Carpenter
        > Bee (Xylocopa virginica) nests commonly in exposed lumber of houses,
        > decks, and outdoor wooden furniture.
        >
        > Overwintering Site: Groups of adult males and females overwinter in
        their
        > nest sites.
        >
        > Favorite Flowers: Will visit a wide variety of flowers; often slits
        the
        > base of tubular or narrow flowers such as blueberry which are too
        small to
        > fit into and too long for their short tongues; often conspicuous on
        > leguminous flowers such as Lupines, Wisteria, and Locust in the
        spring.
        >
        > Interesting Xylocopa Factoids:
        > - Most are largest of North American bees (other than some
        queen
        > bumblebees)
        > - Males are territorial and defend their nests unlike most
        other
        > groups of bees, have much larger eyes than females, and are one of
        the few
        > bees that hover.
        > - Unlike most species of bees which live for less than a year,
        > adults of some species live up to 3 years.
        > - Species that live in deserts will line their nest cavities
        with
        > wax-like substances to retain moisture in their nests.
        > - Has the largest insect egg in the world (0.6 inches, 15mm).
        > - The tunnels of the Eastern Carpenter Bee are reused each
        year with
        > new side chambers created each season; their tunnels, while at times
        > extensive, never intersect nor accidentally run outside of the
        branch or
        > board or even wooden tool handle they are nesting in.
        > - It takes many years for carpenter bees to cause significant
        > structural damage; damage can be minimized by sealing nesting holes
        (1/2?
        > lengths of wood dowel fit X. virginica tunnels tightly), using
        smooth
        > painted wood, and providing alternative nesting sites in cedar
        (their
        > preferred nesting materials in the East).
        >
        >
        > Web Sites and Technical ID Guides:
        > http://www.discoverlife.org/mp/20q?guide=Xylocopa
        > http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carpenter_bee
        > http://www.fs.fed.us/wildflowers/pollinators/pollinator-of-the-
        month/carpenter_bees.shtml
        >
        > How to Attract: Some species will nest in wooden timbers (softwoods
        such
        > as cedar and pine often preferred) in which one half inch holes have
        been
        > drilled. A diverse and season long assemblage of blooming plants
        will
        > attract Xylocopa.
        >
        > P Please don't print this e-mail unless really needed.
        >
      • Jack Neff
        Sam  Currently in Argentina so my database isn}t handy but I believe there are 5 species of carpenter bees in Texas, which is usually considered E of the
        Message 3 of 6 , Nov 22, 2008
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          Sam  Currently in Argentina so my database isn}t handy but I believe there are 5 species of carpenter bees in Texas, which is usually considered E of the Rockies.
           
          Jack

          John L. Neff
          Central Texas Melittological Institute
          7307 Running Rope
          Austin,TX 78731 USA
          512-345-7219

          --- On Fri, 11/21/08, Sam Droege <sdroege@...> wrote:
          From: Sam Droege <sdroege@...>
          Subject: [beemonitoring] Draft Everyman's Guide to Xylocopa
          To: beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com
          Date: Friday, November 21, 2008, 5:41 AM


          All:

          Jim Cane and I have put together a draft Everyman Guide to Carpenter Bees in North America.  We had a few questions that some of you may be able to answer and would also tender any additions or changes.  Thanks.

          sam

                                                         
          Sam Droege  sdroege@usgs. gov                      
          w 301-497-5840 h 301-390-7759 fax 301-497-5624
          USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center
          BARC-EAST, BLDG 308, RM 124 10300 Balt. Ave., Beltsville, MD  20705
          Http://www.pwrc. usgs.gov


          The bookful blockhead, ignorantly read,
          With loads of learned lumber in his head.
               -Alexander Pope



          Everyman’s Guide to The Common Groups of Bees


          Scientific Name:  Xylocopa (zile-low-COPE- uh)

          Common Name:  Carpenter Bee

          Approximate Number of Species in Canada:  1

          Approximate Number of Species East of the Rockies:  2

          Approximate Number of Species West of the Rockies:  7

          Approximate Number of Species in Mexico:  25

          General Abundance in Eastern Gardens:  Common north to??

          General Abundance in Western Gardens:  ?Common in warm deserts and???

          Time of Year:  All season but with peaks of activity in the late spring/early summer; in SE, peak began with redbud bloom.

          General Look and Feel:  Large, the size of bumblebees and some species as large as the largest bumblebee; most of the time the largest bee around; told from the similar looking bumblebees by the combination of all black abdomen (most bumblebees have some yellow or red hairs present) and that those hairs on the abdomen are sparse enough to clearly see the shining integument (skin) below; most males with a white spot on their face;  when resting, Xylocopa hold their wings splayed some to the sides (resembling swept-backjet fighter wings), not neatly overlapped down the back like bumblebees.


          Stinging:  (Anyone with direct experience of Xylocopa stings?)…low to no concern.  Note that males are territorial and will hover in front of you if you are near a nesting area, but they cannot sting (males of all bees have no stingers) and the females do not defend their nests and are not often seen unless they are nesting in your house!

          Nesting Site:  In nature, the female excavates nesting tunnels in the dead wood of standing trees or, in some western species, in yucca and agave flower stalks.  In the eastern and central regions the Eastern Carpenter Bee (Xylocopa virginica) nests commonly in exposed lumber of houses, decks, and outdoor wooden furniture.  

          Overwintering Site:  Groups of adult males and females overwinter in their nest sites.

          Favorite Flowers:  Will visit a wide variety of flowers; often slits the base of tubular or narrow flowers such as blueberry which are too small to fit into and too long for their short tongues; often conspicuous on leguminous flowers such as Lupines, Wisteria, and Locust in the spring.

          Interesting Xylocopa Factoids:  
          -        Most are largest of North American bees (other than some queen bumblebees)
          -        Males are territorial and defend their nests unlike most other groups of bees, have much larger eyes than females, and are one of the few bees that hover.
          -        Unlike most species of bees which live for less than a year, adults of some species live up to 3 years.
          -        Species that live in deserts will line their nest cavities with wax-like substances to retain moisture in their nests.
          -        Has the largest insect egg in the world (0.6 inches, 15mm).
          -        The tunnels of the Eastern Carpenter Bee are reused each year with new side chambers created each season; their tunnels, while at times extensive, never intersect nor accidentally run outside of the branch or board or even wooden tool handle they are nesting in.
          -        It takes many years for carpenter bees to cause significant structural damage; damage can be minimized by sealing nesting holes (1/2” lengths of wood dowel fit X. virginica tunnels tightly), using smooth painted wood, and providing alternative nesting sites in cedar (their preferred nesting materials in the East).


          Web Sites and Technical ID Guides:  
          http://www.discover life.org/ mp/20q?guide= Xylocopa
          http://en.wikipedia .org/wiki/ Carpenter_ bee
          http://www.fs. fed.us/wildflowe rs/pollinators/ pollinator- of-the-month/ carpenter_ bees.shtml

          How to Attract:  Some species will nest in wooden timbers (softwoods such as cedar and pine often preferred) in which one half inch holes have been drilled.   A diverse and season long assemblage of blooming plants will attract Xylocopa.

          P Please don't print this e-mail unless really needed.

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