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RE: [beemonitoring] Chelostoma philadelpi and the plant genus Philadelphus

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  • Cane, Jim
    Sam- yes, that s a useful observation about Chelostoma philadelphi not making it west in the US where native likely floral hosts occur. Possibly it is because
    Message 1 of 11 , Sep 24, 2008
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      Sam- yes, that’s a useful observation about Chelostoma philadelphi not making it west in the US where native likely floral hosts occur.  Possibly it is because that floral host is not used ornamentally much, so that chances for nest transport are not likely to plop the bee down where it’s host plant occurs (e.g. cities, towns, farms).  Indeed, most of our native cavity-nesters do not seem to have been broadly moved out of their native ranges by inadvertent human transport…can you think of any?  And then there is Megachile rotundata which spanned the continent in a decade or two (we think) without intentional help.  Interesting to mull on.

       

      jim

       

      ===============================

      James H. Cane

      USDA-ARS Bee Biology and Systematics Lab

      Utah State University , Logan , UT 84322 USA

      tel: 435-797-3879   FAX: 435-797-0461

      email: Jim.Cane@... 

      web page: www.ars.usda.gov/npa/beelab

       

      "Embrace entropy"

       

    • Sam Droege
      Jim: I like your thinking.... How about this: I found Robertson s article on Heterotropic Bees (Ecology 6: 412-436) in which he states under a paragraph
      Message 2 of 11 , Sep 24, 2008
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        Jim:

        I like your thinking.... How about this:

        I found Robertson's article on Heterotropic Bees (Ecology 6: 412-436) in which he states under a paragraph entitled "Near Oligoleges":

        "Prochelstoma philadelphi collects in abundance, but not exclusively, pollen of Philadelphus grandiflorus, a cultivated plant.  If the bee has an important relation to this plant, it must have been introduced with it.  "

        So Robertson implies it may be an introduced species, but as far as I can tell no one has since then.

        In Sedivy et al.'s new paper, they couldn't determine if the pollen was from Philadelphus when they examined 21 pollen loads from museum specimens from 11 localities, but they were all in the Hydrangeaceae group.  In the eastern U.S. members of the Hydrangeaceae group are either absent or extremely rare, particularly in the north.  So one must suspect that the pollen comes from the introduced Mock Orange.

        Interestingly in both phylogenetic and morphometric analyses C. philadelphi is very closely related to C. lamellum which lives in China and is also likely an oligoleg on Philadelphus!  Both these species are quite distant from other species of Chelostoma.

        Given the habit of nesting in small holes in wood and the inadvertent introduction of 2 other Chelostoma species into North America, I am willing to bet that Robertson's supposition was right and that C. philadelphi is actually an introduced species.

        sam

        Sam Droege  sdroege@...                      
        w 301-497-5840 h 301-390-7759 fax 301-497-5624
        USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center
        BARC-EAST, BLDG 308, RM 124 10300 Balt. Ave., Beltsville, MD  20705
        Http://www.pwrc.usgs.gov


        Nature makes the locust with an appetite for crops; man
        would have made him with an appetite for sand- I mean
        a man with the least little bit of common sense.
         - Mark Twain



        P Please don't print this e-mail unless really needed.


        "Cane, Jim" <Jim.Cane@...>
        Sent by: beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com

        09/24/2008 12:41 PM

        Please respond to
        beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com

        To
        <beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com>
        cc
        Subject
        RE: [beemonitoring] Chelostoma philadelpi and the plant genus Philadelphus





        Sam- yes, that’s a useful observation about Chelostoma philadelphi not making it west in the US where native likely floral hosts occur.  Possibly it is because that floral host is not used ornamentally much, so that chances for nest transport are not likely to plop the bee down where it’s host plant occurs (e.g. cities, towns, farms).  Indeed, most of our native cavity-nesters do not seem to have been broadly moved out of their native ranges by inadvertent human transport…can you think of any?  And then there is Megachile rotundata which spanned the continent in a decade or two (we think) without intentional help.  Interesting to mull on.

         

        jim

         

        ===============================

        James H. Cane

        USDA-ARS Bee Biology and Systematics Lab

        Utah State University, Logan, UT 84322 USA

        tel: 435-797-3879   FAX: 435-797-0461

        email: Jim.Cane@...  

        web page: www.ars.usda.gov/npa/beelab

         

        "Embrace entropy"

         


      • Jack Neff
        Sam: Your speculation that Chelostoma philadelphi is introduced is intriguing. However, China -Eastern North America is a classic pattern for Miocene plant
        Message 3 of 11 , Sep 24, 2008
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          Sam: Your speculation that Chelostoma philadelphi is introduced is intriguing. However, China -Eastern North America is a classic pattern for Miocene plant (and other organismal) disjunctions. Chelostoma is a the base of the Osmiini (Praz et al, 2008, Molec. Phylog. Evol 49: 185-197) so presumably is old enough. C. philadelphi could be what was once a somewhat geographically restricted relict of a Miocene disjunction which greatly expanded its range with the widespread planting of an appropriate host plant (introduced mock orange). Many other bees have recently expanded their ranges with horticultural or weedy range expansions of their host plants.

          best

          Jack

          John L. Neff
          Central Texas Melittological Institute
          7307 Running Rope
          Austin,TX 78731 USA
          512-345-7219
        • Sam Droege
          Jack: That sounds resonable, but wouldn t you expect there to be several species in that subgenus in North America, not just one? Particularly since the split
          Message 4 of 11 , Sep 24, 2008
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            Jack:

            That sounds resonable, but wouldn't you expect there to be several species in that subgenus in North America, not just one?  Particularly since the split would have occurred long ago?  Also since most of the Philadelphus species are western, one would suppose the subgenus would be in a number of places in the West (or maybe we need to do more collecting off of Philadelphus in the West!), particularly since at least one species of Philadelphus appears to be common there..

            But then on the other hand, why hasen't anyone found C. philadelphi in China if that's where it originated or in Southern Europe where apparently the Mock Orange that is most often used as an ornamental originated from?

            I think a world-wide collecting trip of Mock Oranges is in order here!

            sam

            Sam Droege  sdroege@...                      
            w 301-497-5840 h 301-390-7759 fax 301-497-5624
            USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center
            BARC-EAST, BLDG 308, RM 124 10300 Balt. Ave., Beltsville, MD  20705
            Http://www.pwrc.usgs.gov


            To the Fringed Gentian

            Thou blossom bright with autumn dew,
            And colored with the heaven's own blue,
            that openest when the quiet light
            Succeeds the keen and frosty night -


            Thou comest not when violets lean
            O'er wandering brooks and springs unseen,
            Or columbines, in purple dressed,
            Nod o'er the ground-bird's hidden nest.


            Thou waitest late and com'st alone,
            When woods are bare and birds are flown,
            and frosts and shortening days portend
            The aged year is near his end.


            Then doth thy sweet and quiet eye
            Look through its fringes to the sky,
            Blue-blue-as if that sky let fall
            A flower from its cerulean wall.


            I would that thus, when I shall see
            the hour of death draw near to me,
            Hope, blossoming within my heart,
            May look to heaven as I depart.
                 -William Cullen Bryant


            P Please don't print this e-mail unless really needed.


            Jack Neff <jlnatctmi@...>
            Sent by: beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com

            09/24/2008 02:14 PM

            Please respond to
            beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com

            To
            beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com
            cc
            Subject
            Re: [beemonitoring] Is Chelostoma philadelpi an introduced species?





            Sam: Your speculation that Chelostoma philadelphi is introduced is intriguing. However, China -Eastern North America is a classic pattern for Miocene plant (and other organismal) disjunctions. Chelostoma is a the base of the Osmiini (Praz et al, 2008, Molec. Phylog. Evol 49: 185-197) so presumably is old enough. C. philadelphi could be what was once a somewhat geographically restricted relict of a Miocene disjunction which greatly expanded its range with the widespread planting of an appropriate host plant (introduced mock orange). Many other bees have recently expanded their ranges with horticultural or weedy range expansions of their host plants.

            best

            Jack

            John L. Neff
            Central Texas Melittological Institute
            7307 Running Rope
            Austin,TX 78731 USA
            512-345-7219


          • Jack Neff
            Sam: Failure to speciate (or extinction rate = speciation rate) is reasonable for relicts. Also, in E. Asia - North American disjuncts, multiple
            Message 5 of 11 , Sep 24, 2008
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              Sam: Failure to speciate (or extinction rate = speciation rate) is reasonable for relicts. Also, in E. Asia - North American disjuncts, multiple introductions are common and it is not unusual to find that the eastern and western American taxa are not closely related and each group may be more closely related to an OW clade. It would be interesting to see a phylogeny of Philedelphus. Also, putting a clock on the Chelostoma phylogeny might shed some light.

              Jack

              John L. Neff
              Central Texas Melittological Institute
              7307 Running Rope
              Austin,TX 78731 USA
              512-345-7219


              --- On Wed, 9/24/08, Sam Droege <sdroege@...> wrote:

              > From: Sam Droege <sdroege@...>
              > Subject: Re: [beemonitoring] Is Chelostoma philadelpi an introduced species?
              > To: beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com
              > Cc: beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com
              > Date: Wednesday, September 24, 2008, 4:00 PM
              > Jack:
              >
              > That sounds resonable, but wouldn't you expect there to
              > be several species
              > in that subgenus in North America, not just one?
              > Particularly since the
              > split would have occurred long ago? Also since most of the
              > Philadelphus
              > species are western, one would suppose the subgenus would
              > be in a number
              > of places in the West (or maybe we need to do more
              > collecting off of
              > Philadelphus in the West!), particularly since at least one
              > species of
              > Philadelphus appears to be common there..
              >
              > But then on the other hand, why hasen't anyone found C.
              > philadelphi in
              > China if that's where it originated or in Southern
              > Europe where apparently
              > the Mock Orange that is most often used as an ornamental
              > originated from?
              >
              > I think a world-wide collecting trip of Mock Oranges is in
              > order here!
              >
              > sam
              >
              > Sam Droege sdroege@...
              > w 301-497-5840 h 301-390-7759 fax 301-497-5624
              > USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center
              > BARC-EAST, BLDG 308, RM 124 10300 Balt. Ave., Beltsville,
              > MD 20705
              > Http://www.pwrc.usgs.gov
              >
              > To the Fringed Gentian
              >
              > Thou blossom bright with autumn dew,
              > And colored with the heaven's own blue,
              > that openest when the quiet light
              > Succeeds the keen and frosty night -
              >
              > Thou comest not when violets lean
              > O'er wandering brooks and springs unseen,
              > Or columbines, in purple dressed,
              > Nod o'er the ground-bird's hidden nest.
              >
              > Thou waitest late and com'st alone,
              > When woods are bare and birds are flown,
              > and frosts and shortening days portend
              > The aged year is near his end.
              >
              > Then doth thy sweet and quiet eye
              > Look through its fringes to the sky,
              > Blue-blue-as if that sky let fall
              > A flower from its cerulean wall.
              >
              > I would that thus, when I shall see
              > the hour of death draw near to me,
              > Hope, blossoming within my heart,
              > May look to heaven as I depart.
              > -William Cullen Bryant
              >
              > P Please don't print this e-mail unless really needed.
              >
              >
              >
              > Jack Neff <jlnatctmi@...>
              > Sent by: beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com
              > 09/24/2008 02:14 PM
              > Please respond to
              > beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com
              >
              >
              > To
              > beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com
              > cc
              >
              > Subject
              > Re: [beemonitoring] Is Chelostoma philadelpi an introduced
              > species?
              >
              >
              >
              >
              >
              >
              > Sam: Your speculation that Chelostoma philadelphi is
              > introduced is
              > intriguing. However, China -Eastern North America is a
              > classic pattern for
              > Miocene plant (and other organismal) disjunctions.
              > Chelostoma is a the
              > base of the Osmiini (Praz et al, 2008, Molec. Phylog. Evol
              > 49: 185-197) so
              > presumably is old enough. C. philadelphi could be what was
              > once a somewhat
              > geographically restricted relict of a Miocene disjunction
              > which greatly
              > expanded its range with the widespread planting of an
              > appropriate host
              > plant (introduced mock orange). Many other bees have
              > recently expanded
              > their ranges with horticultural or weedy range expansions
              > of their host
              > plants.
              >
              > best
              >
              > Jack
              >
              > John L. Neff
              > Central Texas Melittological Institute
              > 7307 Running Rope
              > Austin,TX 78731 USA
              > 512-345-7219
            • Sam Droege
              Jack: You have me convinced. I am swinging back to it not be an introduced species,,,meerly a very intriguing one that (as usual) would very interesting to
              Message 6 of 11 , Sep 24, 2008
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                Jack:

                You have me convinced.  I am swinging back to it not be an introduced species,,,meerly a very intriguing one that (as usual) would very interesting to look into further.

                Thanks for the insights.

                sam

                Sam Droege  sdroege@...                      
                w 301-497-5840 h 301-390-7759 fax 301-497-5624
                USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center
                BARC-EAST, BLDG 308, RM 124 10300 Balt. Ave., Beltsville, MD  20705
                Http://www.pwrc.usgs.gov


                The Plover and the Clover can be told
                    apart with ease,
                By paying close attention to the
                    habits of the Bees,
                For ento-molo-gists aver, the Bee
                    can be in clover,
                While ety-molo-gists concur, there
                    is no B in Plover.
                   -Robert Williams Wood - The Clover and the Plover


                P Please don't print this e-mail unless really needed.


                Jack Neff <jlnatctmi@...>
                Sent by: beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com

                09/24/2008 05:26 PM

                Please respond to
                beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com

                To
                beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com
                cc
                Subject
                Re: [beemonitoring] Is Chelostoma philadelpi an introduced species?





                Sam: Failure to speciate (or extinction rate = speciation rate) is reasonable for relicts. Also, in E. Asia - North American disjuncts, multiple introductions are common and it is not unusual to find that the eastern and western American taxa are not closely related and each group may be more closely related to an OW clade. It would be interesting to see a phylogeny of Philedelphus. Also, putting a clock on the Chelostoma phylogeny might shed some light.

                Jack

                John L. Neff
                Central Texas Melittological Institute
                7307 Running Rope
                Austin,TX 78731 USA
                512-345-7219

                --- On Wed, 9/24/08, Sam Droege <
                sdroege@...> wrote:

                > From: Sam Droege <
                sdroege@...>
                > Subject: Re: [beemonitoring] Is Chelostoma philadelpi an introduced species?
                > To:
                beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com
                > Cc:
                beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com
                > Date: Wednesday, September 24, 2008, 4:00 PM
                > Jack:
                >
                > That sounds resonable, but wouldn't you expect there to
                > be several species
                > in that subgenus in North America, not just one?
                > Particularly since the
                > split would have occurred long ago? Also since most of the
                > Philadelphus
                > species are western, one would suppose the subgenus would
                > be in a number
                > of places in the West (or maybe we need to do more
                > collecting off of
                > Philadelphus in the West!), particularly since at least one
                > species of
                > Philadelphus appears to be common there..
                >
                > But then on the other hand, why hasen't anyone found C.
                > philadelphi in
                > China if that's where it originated or in Southern
                > Europe where apparently
                > the Mock Orange that is most often used as an ornamental
                > originated from?
                >
                > I think a world-wide collecting trip of Mock Oranges is in
                > order here!
                >
                > sam
                >
                > Sam Droege
                sdroege@...
                > w 301-497-5840 h 301-390-7759 fax 301-497-5624
                > USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center
                > BARC-EAST, BLDG 308, RM 124 10300 Balt. Ave., Beltsville,
                > MD 20705
                >
                Http://www.pwrc.usgs.gov
                >
                > To the Fringed Gentian
                >
                > Thou blossom bright with autumn dew,
                > And colored with the heaven's own blue,
                > that openest when the quiet light
                > Succeeds the keen and frosty night -
                >
                > Thou comest not when violets lean
                > O'er wandering brooks and springs unseen,
                > Or columbines, in purple dressed,
                > Nod o'er the ground-bird's hidden nest.
                >
                > Thou waitest late and com'st alone,
                > When woods are bare and birds are flown,
                > and frosts and shortening days portend
                > The aged year is near his end.
                >
                > Then doth thy sweet and quiet eye
                > Look through its fringes to the sky,
                > Blue-blue-as if that sky let fall
                > A flower from its cerulean wall.
                >
                > I would that thus, when I shall see
                > the hour of death draw near to me,
                > Hope, blossoming within my heart,
                > May look to heaven as I depart.
                > -William Cullen Bryant
                >
                > P Please don't print this e-mail unless really needed.
                >
                >
                >
                > Jack Neff <
                jlnatctmi@...>
                > Sent by:
                beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com
                > 09/24/2008 02:14 PM
                > Please respond to
                >
                beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com
                >
                >
                > To
                >
                beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com
                > cc
                >
                > Subject
                > Re: [beemonitoring] Is Chelostoma philadelpi an introduced
                > species?
                >
                >
                >
                >
                >
                >
                > Sam: Your speculation that Chelostoma philadelphi is
                > introduced is
                > intriguing. However, China -Eastern North America is a
                > classic pattern for
                > Miocene plant (and other organismal) disjunctions.
                > Chelostoma is a the
                > base of the Osmiini (Praz et al, 2008, Molec. Phylog. Evol
                > 49: 185-197) so
                > presumably is old enough. C. philadelphi could be what was
                > once a somewhat
                > geographically restricted relict of a Miocene disjunction
                > which greatly
                > expanded its range with the widespread planting of an
                > appropriate host
                > plant (introduced mock orange). Many other bees have
                > recently expanded
                > their ranges with horticultural or weedy range expansions
                > of their host
                > plants.
                >
                > best
                >
                > Jack
                >
                > John L. Neff
                > Central Texas Melittological Institute
                > 7307 Running Rope
                > Austin,TX 78731 USA
                > 512-345-7219


              • John S. Ascher
                Sam and Jack: The diagnostic features of Chelostoma lamellum is illustrated in Wu s recent book on Chinese Megachilidae along with another related species, C.
                Message 7 of 11 , Sep 24, 2008
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                  Sam and Jack:

                  The diagnostic features of Chelostoma lamellum is illustrated in Wu's
                  recent book on Chinese Megachilidae along with another related species, C.
                  sublamellum. At present these are placed in subgenus Ceraheriades which
                  now includes five species. Thus C. lamellum is not even consubgeneric with
                  C. philadelphi and is clearly specifically distinct from C. philadelphi.

                  Macropis is a good example of a bee genus with centers of diversity in the
                  eastern USA and China.

                  Many bee genera have failed to speciate in the eastern USA and are absent
                  from much of the western USA, including most or all of the Rocky
                  Mountains, such as Augochlora, Melitoma, and Ptilothrix.

                  I've collected C. philadelphi primarily from planted mock orange, e.g., on
                  the Cornell U. campus. I agree with Jack's suggestion that it has greatly
                  expanded its range due to widespread planting of its host.

                  If anyone has Chelostoma specimens with pollen affixed I suggest that they
                  send these to Andreas Mueller so that he can identify the pollen source.

                  "I think a world-wide collecting trip of Mock Oranges is in
                  >> order here!"

                  I doubt that we have overlooked Prochelostoma species.

                  John


                  > Jack:
                  >
                  > You have me convinced. I am swinging back to it not be an introduced
                  > species,,,meerly a very intriguing one that (as usual) would very
                  > interesting to look into further.
                  >
                  > Thanks for the insights.
                  >
                  > sam
                  >
                  > Sam Droege sdroege@...
                  > w 301-497-5840 h 301-390-7759 fax 301-497-5624
                  > USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center
                  > BARC-EAST, BLDG 308, RM 124 10300 Balt. Ave., Beltsville, MD 20705
                  > Http://www.pwrc.usgs.gov
                  >
                  > The Plover and the Clover can be told
                  > apart with ease,
                  > By paying close attention to the
                  > habits of the Bees,
                  > For ento-molo-gists aver, the Bee
                  > can be in clover,
                  > While ety-molo-gists concur, there
                  > is no B in Plover.
                  > -Robert Williams Wood - The Clover and the Plover
                  >
                  > P Please don't print this e-mail unless really needed.
                  >
                  >
                  >
                  > Jack Neff <jlnatctmi@...>
                  > Sent by: beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com
                  > 09/24/2008 05:26 PM
                  > Please respond to
                  > beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com
                  >
                  >
                  > To
                  > beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com
                  > cc
                  >
                  > Subject
                  > Re: [beemonitoring] Is Chelostoma philadelpi an introduced species?
                  >
                  >
                  >
                  >
                  >
                  >
                  > Sam: Failure to speciate (or extinction rate = speciation rate) is
                  > reasonable for relicts. Also, in E. Asia - North American disjuncts,
                  > multiple introductions are common and it is not unusual to find that the
                  > eastern and western American taxa are not closely related and each group
                  > may be more closely related to an OW clade. It would be interesting to see
                  > a phylogeny of Philedelphus. Also, putting a clock on the Chelostoma
                  > phylogeny might shed some light.
                  >
                  > Jack
                  >
                  > John L. Neff
                  > Central Texas Melittological Institute
                  > 7307 Running Rope
                  > Austin,TX 78731 USA
                  > 512-345-7219
                  >
                  > --- On Wed, 9/24/08, Sam Droege <sdroege@...> wrote:
                  >
                  >> From: Sam Droege <sdroege@...>
                  >> Subject: Re: [beemonitoring] Is Chelostoma philadelpi an introduced
                  > species?
                  >> To: beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com
                  >> Cc: beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com
                  >> Date: Wednesday, September 24, 2008, 4:00 PM
                  >> Jack:
                  >>
                  >> That sounds resonable, but wouldn't you expect there to
                  >> be several species
                  >> in that subgenus in North America, not just one?
                  >> Particularly since the
                  >> split would have occurred long ago? Also since most of the
                  >> Philadelphus
                  >> species are western, one would suppose the subgenus would
                  >> be in a number
                  >> of places in the West (or maybe we need to do more
                  >> collecting off of
                  >> Philadelphus in the West!), particularly since at least one
                  >> species of
                  >> Philadelphus appears to be common there..
                  >>
                  >> But then on the other hand, why hasen't anyone found C.
                  >> philadelphi in
                  >> China if that's where it originated or in Southern
                  >> Europe where apparently
                  >> the Mock Orange that is most often used as an ornamental
                  >> originated from?
                  >>
                  >> I think a world-wide collecting trip of Mock Oranges is in
                  >> order here!
                  >>
                  >> sam
                  >>
                  >> Sam Droege sdroege@...
                  >> w 301-497-5840 h 301-390-7759 fax 301-497-5624
                  >> USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center
                  >> BARC-EAST, BLDG 308, RM 124 10300 Balt. Ave., Beltsville,
                  >> MD 20705
                  >> Http://www.pwrc.usgs.gov
                  >>
                  >> To the Fringed Gentian
                  >>
                  >> Thou blossom bright with autumn dew,
                  >> And colored with the heaven's own blue,
                  >> that openest when the quiet light
                  >> Succeeds the keen and frosty night -
                  >>
                  >> Thou comest not when violets lean
                  >> O'er wandering brooks and springs unseen,
                  >> Or columbines, in purple dressed,
                  >> Nod o'er the ground-bird's hidden nest.
                  >>
                  >> Thou waitest late and com'st alone,
                  >> When woods are bare and birds are flown,
                  >> and frosts and shortening days portend
                  >> The aged year is near his end.
                  >>
                  >> Then doth thy sweet and quiet eye
                  >> Look through its fringes to the sky,
                  >> Blue-blue-as if that sky let fall
                  >> A flower from its cerulean wall.
                  >>
                  >> I would that thus, when I shall see
                  >> the hour of death draw near to me,
                  >> Hope, blossoming within my heart,
                  >> May look to heaven as I depart.
                  >> -William Cullen Bryant
                  >>
                  >> P Please don't print this e-mail unless really needed.
                  >>
                  >>
                  >>
                  >> Jack Neff <jlnatctmi@...>
                  >> Sent by: beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com
                  >> 09/24/2008 02:14 PM
                  >> Please respond to
                  >> beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com
                  >>
                  >>
                  >> To
                  >> beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com
                  >> cc
                  >>
                  >> Subject
                  >> Re: [beemonitoring] Is Chelostoma philadelpi an introduced
                  >> species?
                  >>
                  >>
                  >>
                  >>
                  >>
                  >>
                  >> Sam: Your speculation that Chelostoma philadelphi is
                  >> introduced is
                  >> intriguing. However, China -Eastern North America is a
                  >> classic pattern for
                  >> Miocene plant (and other organismal) disjunctions.
                  >> Chelostoma is a the
                  >> base of the Osmiini (Praz et al, 2008, Molec. Phylog. Evol
                  >> 49: 185-197) so
                  >> presumably is old enough. C. philadelphi could be what was
                  >> once a somewhat
                  >> geographically restricted relict of a Miocene disjunction
                  >> which greatly
                  >> expanded its range with the widespread planting of an
                  >> appropriate host
                  >> plant (introduced mock orange). Many other bees have
                  >> recently expanded
                  >> their ranges with horticultural or weedy range expansions
                  >> of their host
                  >> plants.
                  >>
                  >> best
                  >>
                  >> Jack
                  >>
                  >> John L. Neff
                  >> Central Texas Melittological Institute
                  >> 7307 Running Rope
                  >> Austin,TX 78731 USA
                  >> 512-345-7219
                  >
                  >
                  >


                  --
                  John S. Ascher, Ph.D.
                  Bee Database Project Manager
                  Division of Invertebrate Zoology
                  American Museum of Natural History
                  Central Park West @ 79th St.
                  New York, NY 10024-5192
                  work phone: 212-496-3447
                  mobile phone: 917-407-0378
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