Loading ...
Sorry, an error occurred while loading the content.

RE: [beemonitoring] Chelostoma philadelpi and the plant genus Philadelphus

Expand Messages
  • Cane, Jim
    Sam- regarding that adventive Chelostoma, there is the following article: Eickwort, G. C. 1980. Two European species of Chelostoma established in New York
    Message 1 of 11 , Sep 23, 2008
    • 0 Attachment

      Sam- regarding that adventive Chelostoma, there is the following article:

       

      Eickwort, G. C. 1980. Two European species of Chelostoma established in New York State (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae). Psyche (Camb. Mass. ) 87:315-323.

       

      but I have not read it since the late Tertiary (grad school).

       

      You are right, out here in the northern Rockies there are several widespread Philadelphus.

       

      Yours,

       

      Jim Cane

       

    • Joe Metzger
      Sam, Although widely planted (at least formerly), there aren t any native Mock Oranges in Maryland, but I checked a couple of my flora and found they are a
      Message 2 of 11 , Sep 24, 2008
      • 0 Attachment
        Sam,
         
                  Although widely planted (at least formerly), there aren't any native Mock Oranges in Maryland, but I checked a couple of my flora and found they are a couple native to places as far north as Virginia, Philadelphus inodorus and P. hirsutus. P. inodorus is apparently relatively common where P. hirsutus is rare. Gray's by Fernald (1950) adds river-banks to the habitat and says they are spreading from cultivation northward. The VA Atlas 3 shows most of the plants are found in the middle of the state, north to south, for P. inodorus. That doesn't make much sense and these may be plants in cultivation. It lists P. hirsutus in a cluster of counties in the southwest part of the state which makes more sense for a natural range. Gray's also lists a third native species (the second one you list), P. pubescens, which by there state listing appears to be one of those other side of the Appalachian species. If I'm interpreting the states right, it is found in the Ohio and Tennessee Valleys and possibly south.
         
                  Flora of the Carolinas by Radford, et al, lists P. inodorus as a plant of rich woods in the piedmont and mountains. P. hirsutus is listed as a rare species of the mountains.
         
                  Depending on your definition of "East", there appear to relatively common species from the gulf to southern VA on this side of the mountains and up to the Ohio Valley on the other side. The genus isn't listed at all in the Flora of WV by Strasbaugh and Core.
         
                                                                              Joe

         


        To: beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com
        From: sdroege@...
        Date: Tue, 23 Sep 2008 18:06:27 -0400
        Subject: [beemonitoring] Chelostoma philadelpi and the plant genus Philadelphus



        All:

        A recent paper by Claudio Sedivy et al.  PATTERNS OF HOST-PLANT CHOICE IN BEES OF THE GENUS CHELOSTOMA: THE CONSTRAINT HYPOTHESIS OF HOST-RANGE EVOLUTION IN BEES coming out in Evolution at some point (perhaps already out) listed Chelostoma philadelpi as an oligoleg (specialist) on Philadelphus (mock orange).  Presumably Robertson, when he named the species in 1891, noted its affinity to the plant genus and Michner in his Bees of the World  lists this species as an oligoleg.  However, Mitchell notes flower records for: Ilex, Philadelphus and Rubus. and states that:  Robertson (1929) records this species on the following additional genera: Capsella, Crataegus, Ellisia, Geranium and Hydrophyllum.

        This got me thinking because I am aware of the introduced mock orange but not any natives.   It turns out there are number of native species in this plant genus:

        http://plants. usda.gov/ java/profile? symbol=PHILA

        Most of which appear to be western or uncommon:

        Two species  have widespread eastern ranges:

        Philadelphus pubescens
        http://plants. usda.gov/ java/profile? symbol=PHPU4

        Philadelphus inodorus
        http://plants. usda.gov/ java/profile? symbol=PHIN5

        But Gleason and Cronquist list these species as having limited ranges (cliffs, barren areas) largely in rocky and mountain areas and despite getting around to many areas I can't recall ever seeing any native mock oranges in my travels.

        So the interesting thing is the the C. philadelphi is found throughout the East in areas that don't seem to have any native Mock Oranges.

        Check out the distribution and records at:
        http://www.discover life.org/ mp/20q?guide= Chelostoma

        So I wonder if they have adapted to the planted Mock Oranges or perhaps they are not so oligolectic as we might think.

        Does anyone have any experience with this species or know of other sources of information?

        Thanks

        sam

                                                     
        Sam Droege  sdroege@usgs. gov                      
        w 301-497-5840 h 301-390-7759 fax 301-497-5624
        USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center
        BARC-EAST, BLDG 308, RM 124 10300 Balt. Ave., Beltsville, MD  20705
        Http://www.pwrc. usgs.gov


        BOOK OF THE RISING FIELD

        Chapter 1: The Planting
               "Cultivation: nothing gained but arrowheads"
               "The planter's elegant swipes"
               "Something like a weaving or a web"
               "A marked absence of horses"
               "Scholia on silence: somewhere in the distance"
        Chapter 2: The Ordered Meadow
               "Soybeans: a dance field snake green"
               "Corn: the emerald expanding"
               "Grass: the existence of wilderness affects us all"
        Chapter 3: A Question of Horizon
               "The neighbors are disappearing"
               "Time and space undifferentiated"
               "Corn and wind: a dissonant song
               "It grows more every day"
               "Because of the song the corn rises"
        Chapter 4: The Burning Meadow
               "Husks paper thin as if singed"
               "A welcome frailty"
               "Harvest: dust as smoke in a fire storm"
               "The neighbors reappearing"
               "We all tally the bounty"
               "The arrowheads are cast aside"


        Andrew Grace
        P Please don't print this e-mail unless really needed.




        Stay up to date on your PC, the Web, and your mobile phone with Windows Live. See Now
      • Sam Droege
        Thanks Jim: I do have that paper and it doesn t discuss the C. philadelphi in it (It was considered in the genus Prochelostoma at that point). Interesting to
        Message 3 of 11 , Sep 24, 2008
        • 0 Attachment

          Thanks Jim:

          I do have that paper and it doesn't discuss the C. philadelphi in it (It was considered in the genus Prochelostoma at that point).

          Interesting to see that C. philadelphi doesn't occur in the West....despite its possible pollen host.

          sam

          Sam Droege  sdroege@...                      
          w 301-497-5840 h 301-390-7759 fax 301-497-5624
          USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center
          BARC-EAST, BLDG 308, RM 124 10300 Balt. Ave., Beltsville, MD  20705
          Http://www.pwrc.usgs.gov


          In nature's infinite book of secrecy
          A little I can read
          Antony and Cleopatra - Shakespeare


          P Please don't print this e-mail unless really needed.


          "Cane, Jim" <Jim.Cane@...>
          Sent by: beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com

          09/23/2008 06:53 PM

          Please respond to
          beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com

          To
          <beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com>
          cc
          Subject
          RE: [beemonitoring] Chelostoma philadelpi and the plant genus Philadelphus





          Sam- regarding that adventive Chelostoma, there is the following article:

           

          Eickwort, G. C. 1980. Two European species of Chelostoma established in New York State (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae). Psyche (Camb. Mass. ) 87:315-323.

           

          but I have not read it since the late Tertiary (grad school).

           

          You are right, out here in the northern Rockies there are several widespread Philadelphus.

           

          Yours,

           

          Jim Cane

           


        • Cane, Jim
          Sam- yes, that s a useful observation about Chelostoma philadelphi not making it west in the US where native likely floral hosts occur. Possibly it is because
          Message 4 of 11 , Sep 24, 2008
          • 0 Attachment

            Sam- yes, that’s a useful observation about Chelostoma philadelphi not making it west in the US where native likely floral hosts occur.  Possibly it is because that floral host is not used ornamentally much, so that chances for nest transport are not likely to plop the bee down where it’s host plant occurs (e.g. cities, towns, farms).  Indeed, most of our native cavity-nesters do not seem to have been broadly moved out of their native ranges by inadvertent human transport…can you think of any?  And then there is Megachile rotundata which spanned the continent in a decade or two (we think) without intentional help.  Interesting to mull on.

             

            jim

             

            ===============================

            James H. Cane

            USDA-ARS Bee Biology and Systematics Lab

            Utah State University , Logan , UT 84322 USA

            tel: 435-797-3879   FAX: 435-797-0461

            email: Jim.Cane@... 

            web page: www.ars.usda.gov/npa/beelab

             

            "Embrace entropy"

             

          • Sam Droege
            Jim: I like your thinking.... How about this: I found Robertson s article on Heterotropic Bees (Ecology 6: 412-436) in which he states under a paragraph
            Message 5 of 11 , Sep 24, 2008
            • 0 Attachment

              Jim:

              I like your thinking.... How about this:

              I found Robertson's article on Heterotropic Bees (Ecology 6: 412-436) in which he states under a paragraph entitled "Near Oligoleges":

              "Prochelstoma philadelphi collects in abundance, but not exclusively, pollen of Philadelphus grandiflorus, a cultivated plant.  If the bee has an important relation to this plant, it must have been introduced with it.  "

              So Robertson implies it may be an introduced species, but as far as I can tell no one has since then.

              In Sedivy et al.'s new paper, they couldn't determine if the pollen was from Philadelphus when they examined 21 pollen loads from museum specimens from 11 localities, but they were all in the Hydrangeaceae group.  In the eastern U.S. members of the Hydrangeaceae group are either absent or extremely rare, particularly in the north.  So one must suspect that the pollen comes from the introduced Mock Orange.

              Interestingly in both phylogenetic and morphometric analyses C. philadelphi is very closely related to C. lamellum which lives in China and is also likely an oligoleg on Philadelphus!  Both these species are quite distant from other species of Chelostoma.

              Given the habit of nesting in small holes in wood and the inadvertent introduction of 2 other Chelostoma species into North America, I am willing to bet that Robertson's supposition was right and that C. philadelphi is actually an introduced species.

              sam

              Sam Droege  sdroege@...                      
              w 301-497-5840 h 301-390-7759 fax 301-497-5624
              USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center
              BARC-EAST, BLDG 308, RM 124 10300 Balt. Ave., Beltsville, MD  20705
              Http://www.pwrc.usgs.gov


              Nature makes the locust with an appetite for crops; man
              would have made him with an appetite for sand- I mean
              a man with the least little bit of common sense.
               - Mark Twain



              P Please don't print this e-mail unless really needed.


              "Cane, Jim" <Jim.Cane@...>
              Sent by: beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com

              09/24/2008 12:41 PM

              Please respond to
              beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com

              To
              <beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com>
              cc
              Subject
              RE: [beemonitoring] Chelostoma philadelpi and the plant genus Philadelphus





              Sam- yes, that’s a useful observation about Chelostoma philadelphi not making it west in the US where native likely floral hosts occur.  Possibly it is because that floral host is not used ornamentally much, so that chances for nest transport are not likely to plop the bee down where it’s host plant occurs (e.g. cities, towns, farms).  Indeed, most of our native cavity-nesters do not seem to have been broadly moved out of their native ranges by inadvertent human transport…can you think of any?  And then there is Megachile rotundata which spanned the continent in a decade or two (we think) without intentional help.  Interesting to mull on.

               

              jim

               

              ===============================

              James H. Cane

              USDA-ARS Bee Biology and Systematics Lab

              Utah State University, Logan, UT 84322 USA

              tel: 435-797-3879   FAX: 435-797-0461

              email: Jim.Cane@...  

              web page: www.ars.usda.gov/npa/beelab

               

              "Embrace entropy"

               


            • Jack Neff
              Sam: Your speculation that Chelostoma philadelphi is introduced is intriguing. However, China -Eastern North America is a classic pattern for Miocene plant
              Message 6 of 11 , Sep 24, 2008
              • 0 Attachment
                Sam: Your speculation that Chelostoma philadelphi is introduced is intriguing. However, China -Eastern North America is a classic pattern for Miocene plant (and other organismal) disjunctions. Chelostoma is a the base of the Osmiini (Praz et al, 2008, Molec. Phylog. Evol 49: 185-197) so presumably is old enough. C. philadelphi could be what was once a somewhat geographically restricted relict of a Miocene disjunction which greatly expanded its range with the widespread planting of an appropriate host plant (introduced mock orange). Many other bees have recently expanded their ranges with horticultural or weedy range expansions of their host plants.

                best

                Jack

                John L. Neff
                Central Texas Melittological Institute
                7307 Running Rope
                Austin,TX 78731 USA
                512-345-7219
              • Sam Droege
                Jack: That sounds resonable, but wouldn t you expect there to be several species in that subgenus in North America, not just one? Particularly since the split
                Message 7 of 11 , Sep 24, 2008
                • 0 Attachment

                  Jack:

                  That sounds resonable, but wouldn't you expect there to be several species in that subgenus in North America, not just one?  Particularly since the split would have occurred long ago?  Also since most of the Philadelphus species are western, one would suppose the subgenus would be in a number of places in the West (or maybe we need to do more collecting off of Philadelphus in the West!), particularly since at least one species of Philadelphus appears to be common there..

                  But then on the other hand, why hasen't anyone found C. philadelphi in China if that's where it originated or in Southern Europe where apparently the Mock Orange that is most often used as an ornamental originated from?

                  I think a world-wide collecting trip of Mock Oranges is in order here!

                  sam

                  Sam Droege  sdroege@...                      
                  w 301-497-5840 h 301-390-7759 fax 301-497-5624
                  USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center
                  BARC-EAST, BLDG 308, RM 124 10300 Balt. Ave., Beltsville, MD  20705
                  Http://www.pwrc.usgs.gov


                  To the Fringed Gentian

                  Thou blossom bright with autumn dew,
                  And colored with the heaven's own blue,
                  that openest when the quiet light
                  Succeeds the keen and frosty night -


                  Thou comest not when violets lean
                  O'er wandering brooks and springs unseen,
                  Or columbines, in purple dressed,
                  Nod o'er the ground-bird's hidden nest.


                  Thou waitest late and com'st alone,
                  When woods are bare and birds are flown,
                  and frosts and shortening days portend
                  The aged year is near his end.


                  Then doth thy sweet and quiet eye
                  Look through its fringes to the sky,
                  Blue-blue-as if that sky let fall
                  A flower from its cerulean wall.


                  I would that thus, when I shall see
                  the hour of death draw near to me,
                  Hope, blossoming within my heart,
                  May look to heaven as I depart.
                       -William Cullen Bryant


                  P Please don't print this e-mail unless really needed.


                  Jack Neff <jlnatctmi@...>
                  Sent by: beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com

                  09/24/2008 02:14 PM

                  Please respond to
                  beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com

                  To
                  beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com
                  cc
                  Subject
                  Re: [beemonitoring] Is Chelostoma philadelpi an introduced species?





                  Sam: Your speculation that Chelostoma philadelphi is introduced is intriguing. However, China -Eastern North America is a classic pattern for Miocene plant (and other organismal) disjunctions. Chelostoma is a the base of the Osmiini (Praz et al, 2008, Molec. Phylog. Evol 49: 185-197) so presumably is old enough. C. philadelphi could be what was once a somewhat geographically restricted relict of a Miocene disjunction which greatly expanded its range with the widespread planting of an appropriate host plant (introduced mock orange). Many other bees have recently expanded their ranges with horticultural or weedy range expansions of their host plants.

                  best

                  Jack

                  John L. Neff
                  Central Texas Melittological Institute
                  7307 Running Rope
                  Austin,TX 78731 USA
                  512-345-7219


                • Jack Neff
                  Sam: Failure to speciate (or extinction rate = speciation rate) is reasonable for relicts. Also, in E. Asia - North American disjuncts, multiple
                  Message 8 of 11 , Sep 24, 2008
                  • 0 Attachment
                    Sam: Failure to speciate (or extinction rate = speciation rate) is reasonable for relicts. Also, in E. Asia - North American disjuncts, multiple introductions are common and it is not unusual to find that the eastern and western American taxa are not closely related and each group may be more closely related to an OW clade. It would be interesting to see a phylogeny of Philedelphus. Also, putting a clock on the Chelostoma phylogeny might shed some light.

                    Jack

                    John L. Neff
                    Central Texas Melittological Institute
                    7307 Running Rope
                    Austin,TX 78731 USA
                    512-345-7219


                    --- On Wed, 9/24/08, Sam Droege <sdroege@...> wrote:

                    > From: Sam Droege <sdroege@...>
                    > Subject: Re: [beemonitoring] Is Chelostoma philadelpi an introduced species?
                    > To: beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com
                    > Cc: beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com
                    > Date: Wednesday, September 24, 2008, 4:00 PM
                    > Jack:
                    >
                    > That sounds resonable, but wouldn't you expect there to
                    > be several species
                    > in that subgenus in North America, not just one?
                    > Particularly since the
                    > split would have occurred long ago? Also since most of the
                    > Philadelphus
                    > species are western, one would suppose the subgenus would
                    > be in a number
                    > of places in the West (or maybe we need to do more
                    > collecting off of
                    > Philadelphus in the West!), particularly since at least one
                    > species of
                    > Philadelphus appears to be common there..
                    >
                    > But then on the other hand, why hasen't anyone found C.
                    > philadelphi in
                    > China if that's where it originated or in Southern
                    > Europe where apparently
                    > the Mock Orange that is most often used as an ornamental
                    > originated from?
                    >
                    > I think a world-wide collecting trip of Mock Oranges is in
                    > order here!
                    >
                    > sam
                    >
                    > Sam Droege sdroege@...
                    > w 301-497-5840 h 301-390-7759 fax 301-497-5624
                    > USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center
                    > BARC-EAST, BLDG 308, RM 124 10300 Balt. Ave., Beltsville,
                    > MD 20705
                    > Http://www.pwrc.usgs.gov
                    >
                    > To the Fringed Gentian
                    >
                    > Thou blossom bright with autumn dew,
                    > And colored with the heaven's own blue,
                    > that openest when the quiet light
                    > Succeeds the keen and frosty night -
                    >
                    > Thou comest not when violets lean
                    > O'er wandering brooks and springs unseen,
                    > Or columbines, in purple dressed,
                    > Nod o'er the ground-bird's hidden nest.
                    >
                    > Thou waitest late and com'st alone,
                    > When woods are bare and birds are flown,
                    > and frosts and shortening days portend
                    > The aged year is near his end.
                    >
                    > Then doth thy sweet and quiet eye
                    > Look through its fringes to the sky,
                    > Blue-blue-as if that sky let fall
                    > A flower from its cerulean wall.
                    >
                    > I would that thus, when I shall see
                    > the hour of death draw near to me,
                    > Hope, blossoming within my heart,
                    > May look to heaven as I depart.
                    > -William Cullen Bryant
                    >
                    > P Please don't print this e-mail unless really needed.
                    >
                    >
                    >
                    > Jack Neff <jlnatctmi@...>
                    > Sent by: beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com
                    > 09/24/2008 02:14 PM
                    > Please respond to
                    > beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com
                    >
                    >
                    > To
                    > beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com
                    > cc
                    >
                    > Subject
                    > Re: [beemonitoring] Is Chelostoma philadelpi an introduced
                    > species?
                    >
                    >
                    >
                    >
                    >
                    >
                    > Sam: Your speculation that Chelostoma philadelphi is
                    > introduced is
                    > intriguing. However, China -Eastern North America is a
                    > classic pattern for
                    > Miocene plant (and other organismal) disjunctions.
                    > Chelostoma is a the
                    > base of the Osmiini (Praz et al, 2008, Molec. Phylog. Evol
                    > 49: 185-197) so
                    > presumably is old enough. C. philadelphi could be what was
                    > once a somewhat
                    > geographically restricted relict of a Miocene disjunction
                    > which greatly
                    > expanded its range with the widespread planting of an
                    > appropriate host
                    > plant (introduced mock orange). Many other bees have
                    > recently expanded
                    > their ranges with horticultural or weedy range expansions
                    > of their host
                    > plants.
                    >
                    > best
                    >
                    > Jack
                    >
                    > John L. Neff
                    > Central Texas Melittological Institute
                    > 7307 Running Rope
                    > Austin,TX 78731 USA
                    > 512-345-7219
                  • Sam Droege
                    Jack: You have me convinced. I am swinging back to it not be an introduced species,,,meerly a very intriguing one that (as usual) would very interesting to
                    Message 9 of 11 , Sep 24, 2008
                    • 0 Attachment
                      Jack:

                      You have me convinced.  I am swinging back to it not be an introduced species,,,meerly a very intriguing one that (as usual) would very interesting to look into further.

                      Thanks for the insights.

                      sam

                      Sam Droege  sdroege@...                      
                      w 301-497-5840 h 301-390-7759 fax 301-497-5624
                      USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center
                      BARC-EAST, BLDG 308, RM 124 10300 Balt. Ave., Beltsville, MD  20705
                      Http://www.pwrc.usgs.gov


                      The Plover and the Clover can be told
                          apart with ease,
                      By paying close attention to the
                          habits of the Bees,
                      For ento-molo-gists aver, the Bee
                          can be in clover,
                      While ety-molo-gists concur, there
                          is no B in Plover.
                         -Robert Williams Wood - The Clover and the Plover


                      P Please don't print this e-mail unless really needed.


                      Jack Neff <jlnatctmi@...>
                      Sent by: beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com

                      09/24/2008 05:26 PM

                      Please respond to
                      beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com

                      To
                      beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com
                      cc
                      Subject
                      Re: [beemonitoring] Is Chelostoma philadelpi an introduced species?





                      Sam: Failure to speciate (or extinction rate = speciation rate) is reasonable for relicts. Also, in E. Asia - North American disjuncts, multiple introductions are common and it is not unusual to find that the eastern and western American taxa are not closely related and each group may be more closely related to an OW clade. It would be interesting to see a phylogeny of Philedelphus. Also, putting a clock on the Chelostoma phylogeny might shed some light.

                      Jack

                      John L. Neff
                      Central Texas Melittological Institute
                      7307 Running Rope
                      Austin,TX 78731 USA
                      512-345-7219

                      --- On Wed, 9/24/08, Sam Droege <
                      sdroege@...> wrote:

                      > From: Sam Droege <
                      sdroege@...>
                      > Subject: Re: [beemonitoring] Is Chelostoma philadelpi an introduced species?
                      > To:
                      beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com
                      > Cc:
                      beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com
                      > Date: Wednesday, September 24, 2008, 4:00 PM
                      > Jack:
                      >
                      > That sounds resonable, but wouldn't you expect there to
                      > be several species
                      > in that subgenus in North America, not just one?
                      > Particularly since the
                      > split would have occurred long ago? Also since most of the
                      > Philadelphus
                      > species are western, one would suppose the subgenus would
                      > be in a number
                      > of places in the West (or maybe we need to do more
                      > collecting off of
                      > Philadelphus in the West!), particularly since at least one
                      > species of
                      > Philadelphus appears to be common there..
                      >
                      > But then on the other hand, why hasen't anyone found C.
                      > philadelphi in
                      > China if that's where it originated or in Southern
                      > Europe where apparently
                      > the Mock Orange that is most often used as an ornamental
                      > originated from?
                      >
                      > I think a world-wide collecting trip of Mock Oranges is in
                      > order here!
                      >
                      > sam
                      >
                      > Sam Droege
                      sdroege@...
                      > w 301-497-5840 h 301-390-7759 fax 301-497-5624
                      > USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center
                      > BARC-EAST, BLDG 308, RM 124 10300 Balt. Ave., Beltsville,
                      > MD 20705
                      >
                      Http://www.pwrc.usgs.gov
                      >
                      > To the Fringed Gentian
                      >
                      > Thou blossom bright with autumn dew,
                      > And colored with the heaven's own blue,
                      > that openest when the quiet light
                      > Succeeds the keen and frosty night -
                      >
                      > Thou comest not when violets lean
                      > O'er wandering brooks and springs unseen,
                      > Or columbines, in purple dressed,
                      > Nod o'er the ground-bird's hidden nest.
                      >
                      > Thou waitest late and com'st alone,
                      > When woods are bare and birds are flown,
                      > and frosts and shortening days portend
                      > The aged year is near his end.
                      >
                      > Then doth thy sweet and quiet eye
                      > Look through its fringes to the sky,
                      > Blue-blue-as if that sky let fall
                      > A flower from its cerulean wall.
                      >
                      > I would that thus, when I shall see
                      > the hour of death draw near to me,
                      > Hope, blossoming within my heart,
                      > May look to heaven as I depart.
                      > -William Cullen Bryant
                      >
                      > P Please don't print this e-mail unless really needed.
                      >
                      >
                      >
                      > Jack Neff <
                      jlnatctmi@...>
                      > Sent by:
                      beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com
                      > 09/24/2008 02:14 PM
                      > Please respond to
                      >
                      beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com
                      >
                      >
                      > To
                      >
                      beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com
                      > cc
                      >
                      > Subject
                      > Re: [beemonitoring] Is Chelostoma philadelpi an introduced
                      > species?
                      >
                      >
                      >
                      >
                      >
                      >
                      > Sam: Your speculation that Chelostoma philadelphi is
                      > introduced is
                      > intriguing. However, China -Eastern North America is a
                      > classic pattern for
                      > Miocene plant (and other organismal) disjunctions.
                      > Chelostoma is a the
                      > base of the Osmiini (Praz et al, 2008, Molec. Phylog. Evol
                      > 49: 185-197) so
                      > presumably is old enough. C. philadelphi could be what was
                      > once a somewhat
                      > geographically restricted relict of a Miocene disjunction
                      > which greatly
                      > expanded its range with the widespread planting of an
                      > appropriate host
                      > plant (introduced mock orange). Many other bees have
                      > recently expanded
                      > their ranges with horticultural or weedy range expansions
                      > of their host
                      > plants.
                      >
                      > best
                      >
                      > Jack
                      >
                      > John L. Neff
                      > Central Texas Melittological Institute
                      > 7307 Running Rope
                      > Austin,TX 78731 USA
                      > 512-345-7219


                    • John S. Ascher
                      Sam and Jack: The diagnostic features of Chelostoma lamellum is illustrated in Wu s recent book on Chinese Megachilidae along with another related species, C.
                      Message 10 of 11 , Sep 24, 2008
                      • 0 Attachment
                        Sam and Jack:

                        The diagnostic features of Chelostoma lamellum is illustrated in Wu's
                        recent book on Chinese Megachilidae along with another related species, C.
                        sublamellum. At present these are placed in subgenus Ceraheriades which
                        now includes five species. Thus C. lamellum is not even consubgeneric with
                        C. philadelphi and is clearly specifically distinct from C. philadelphi.

                        Macropis is a good example of a bee genus with centers of diversity in the
                        eastern USA and China.

                        Many bee genera have failed to speciate in the eastern USA and are absent
                        from much of the western USA, including most or all of the Rocky
                        Mountains, such as Augochlora, Melitoma, and Ptilothrix.

                        I've collected C. philadelphi primarily from planted mock orange, e.g., on
                        the Cornell U. campus. I agree with Jack's suggestion that it has greatly
                        expanded its range due to widespread planting of its host.

                        If anyone has Chelostoma specimens with pollen affixed I suggest that they
                        send these to Andreas Mueller so that he can identify the pollen source.

                        "I think a world-wide collecting trip of Mock Oranges is in
                        >> order here!"

                        I doubt that we have overlooked Prochelostoma species.

                        John


                        > Jack:
                        >
                        > You have me convinced. I am swinging back to it not be an introduced
                        > species,,,meerly a very intriguing one that (as usual) would very
                        > interesting to look into further.
                        >
                        > Thanks for the insights.
                        >
                        > sam
                        >
                        > Sam Droege sdroege@...
                        > w 301-497-5840 h 301-390-7759 fax 301-497-5624
                        > USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center
                        > BARC-EAST, BLDG 308, RM 124 10300 Balt. Ave., Beltsville, MD 20705
                        > Http://www.pwrc.usgs.gov
                        >
                        > The Plover and the Clover can be told
                        > apart with ease,
                        > By paying close attention to the
                        > habits of the Bees,
                        > For ento-molo-gists aver, the Bee
                        > can be in clover,
                        > While ety-molo-gists concur, there
                        > is no B in Plover.
                        > -Robert Williams Wood - The Clover and the Plover
                        >
                        > P Please don't print this e-mail unless really needed.
                        >
                        >
                        >
                        > Jack Neff <jlnatctmi@...>
                        > Sent by: beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com
                        > 09/24/2008 05:26 PM
                        > Please respond to
                        > beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com
                        >
                        >
                        > To
                        > beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com
                        > cc
                        >
                        > Subject
                        > Re: [beemonitoring] Is Chelostoma philadelpi an introduced species?
                        >
                        >
                        >
                        >
                        >
                        >
                        > Sam: Failure to speciate (or extinction rate = speciation rate) is
                        > reasonable for relicts. Also, in E. Asia - North American disjuncts,
                        > multiple introductions are common and it is not unusual to find that the
                        > eastern and western American taxa are not closely related and each group
                        > may be more closely related to an OW clade. It would be interesting to see
                        > a phylogeny of Philedelphus. Also, putting a clock on the Chelostoma
                        > phylogeny might shed some light.
                        >
                        > Jack
                        >
                        > John L. Neff
                        > Central Texas Melittological Institute
                        > 7307 Running Rope
                        > Austin,TX 78731 USA
                        > 512-345-7219
                        >
                        > --- On Wed, 9/24/08, Sam Droege <sdroege@...> wrote:
                        >
                        >> From: Sam Droege <sdroege@...>
                        >> Subject: Re: [beemonitoring] Is Chelostoma philadelpi an introduced
                        > species?
                        >> To: beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com
                        >> Cc: beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com
                        >> Date: Wednesday, September 24, 2008, 4:00 PM
                        >> Jack:
                        >>
                        >> That sounds resonable, but wouldn't you expect there to
                        >> be several species
                        >> in that subgenus in North America, not just one?
                        >> Particularly since the
                        >> split would have occurred long ago? Also since most of the
                        >> Philadelphus
                        >> species are western, one would suppose the subgenus would
                        >> be in a number
                        >> of places in the West (or maybe we need to do more
                        >> collecting off of
                        >> Philadelphus in the West!), particularly since at least one
                        >> species of
                        >> Philadelphus appears to be common there..
                        >>
                        >> But then on the other hand, why hasen't anyone found C.
                        >> philadelphi in
                        >> China if that's where it originated or in Southern
                        >> Europe where apparently
                        >> the Mock Orange that is most often used as an ornamental
                        >> originated from?
                        >>
                        >> I think a world-wide collecting trip of Mock Oranges is in
                        >> order here!
                        >>
                        >> sam
                        >>
                        >> Sam Droege sdroege@...
                        >> w 301-497-5840 h 301-390-7759 fax 301-497-5624
                        >> USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center
                        >> BARC-EAST, BLDG 308, RM 124 10300 Balt. Ave., Beltsville,
                        >> MD 20705
                        >> Http://www.pwrc.usgs.gov
                        >>
                        >> To the Fringed Gentian
                        >>
                        >> Thou blossom bright with autumn dew,
                        >> And colored with the heaven's own blue,
                        >> that openest when the quiet light
                        >> Succeeds the keen and frosty night -
                        >>
                        >> Thou comest not when violets lean
                        >> O'er wandering brooks and springs unseen,
                        >> Or columbines, in purple dressed,
                        >> Nod o'er the ground-bird's hidden nest.
                        >>
                        >> Thou waitest late and com'st alone,
                        >> When woods are bare and birds are flown,
                        >> and frosts and shortening days portend
                        >> The aged year is near his end.
                        >>
                        >> Then doth thy sweet and quiet eye
                        >> Look through its fringes to the sky,
                        >> Blue-blue-as if that sky let fall
                        >> A flower from its cerulean wall.
                        >>
                        >> I would that thus, when I shall see
                        >> the hour of death draw near to me,
                        >> Hope, blossoming within my heart,
                        >> May look to heaven as I depart.
                        >> -William Cullen Bryant
                        >>
                        >> P Please don't print this e-mail unless really needed.
                        >>
                        >>
                        >>
                        >> Jack Neff <jlnatctmi@...>
                        >> Sent by: beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com
                        >> 09/24/2008 02:14 PM
                        >> Please respond to
                        >> beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com
                        >>
                        >>
                        >> To
                        >> beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com
                        >> cc
                        >>
                        >> Subject
                        >> Re: [beemonitoring] Is Chelostoma philadelpi an introduced
                        >> species?
                        >>
                        >>
                        >>
                        >>
                        >>
                        >>
                        >> Sam: Your speculation that Chelostoma philadelphi is
                        >> introduced is
                        >> intriguing. However, China -Eastern North America is a
                        >> classic pattern for
                        >> Miocene plant (and other organismal) disjunctions.
                        >> Chelostoma is a the
                        >> base of the Osmiini (Praz et al, 2008, Molec. Phylog. Evol
                        >> 49: 185-197) so
                        >> presumably is old enough. C. philadelphi could be what was
                        >> once a somewhat
                        >> geographically restricted relict of a Miocene disjunction
                        >> which greatly
                        >> expanded its range with the widespread planting of an
                        >> appropriate host
                        >> plant (introduced mock orange). Many other bees have
                        >> recently expanded
                        >> their ranges with horticultural or weedy range expansions
                        >> of their host
                        >> plants.
                        >>
                        >> best
                        >>
                        >> Jack
                        >>
                        >> John L. Neff
                        >> Central Texas Melittological Institute
                        >> 7307 Running Rope
                        >> Austin,TX 78731 USA
                        >> 512-345-7219
                        >
                        >
                        >


                        --
                        John S. Ascher, Ph.D.
                        Bee Database Project Manager
                        Division of Invertebrate Zoology
                        American Museum of Natural History
                        Central Park West @ 79th St.
                        New York, NY 10024-5192
                        work phone: 212-496-3447
                        mobile phone: 917-407-0378
                      Your message has been successfully submitted and would be delivered to recipients shortly.