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Pinning only a set of vouchers

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  • Crystal Boyd
    Hi, Bee Monitor-ers. Do you have any guidelines for what subset of bee specimens to voucher? For example, would you recommend 2
    Message 1 of 9 , Feb 12, 2014
      Hi, Bee Monitor-ers. Do you have any guidelines for what subset of bee specimens to voucher? For example, would you recommend 2 specimens/gender/species/site/collection date? (whew!)

      I’m hoping to use your expertise to estimate the number of specimens we should process for a monitoring program that could include up to 90 sites in Minnesota's prairie province.

      Looking forward to your suggestions,
      Crystal

    • Cane, Jim
      Crystal- I agree with you implied sentiment that it is more ethical to not collect bees to excess when not needed. On the flip side, there will be groups that
      Message 2 of 9 , Feb 12, 2014

        Crystal- I agree with you implied sentiment that it is more ethical to not collect bees to excess when not needed.  On the flip side, there will be groups that you can’t recognize past genus in the field for which you don’t know how many species you might have, although you will recognize some obvious differences in the field (Osmia and Megachile come to mind from my own work).  Hence, it partly depends on your objective.  If it is an exhaustive list of all the species present, I’d worry that you would miss some look-alikes by only taking a few of what you think is a single species but really is several.  I have made this mistake on occasion, again with Osmia.  On the other hand, if you are documenting the more abundant species in floral guilds from a pollination perspective, because usually the rare visitors in a guild can’t contribute much to pollination, then you need representatives of everything that is more common in each guild.  If you have done so already, it would be worth working through literature and collections to anticipate what the more common genera are going to be, then review the species to see whether you have a dizzying diversity of look-alikes or just a few players that you can learn to distinguish.

         

        No rules here, just suggestions that you can weigh against other peoples inputs.  Especially for specimens with reliable floral records, good pinned material almost always has value, especially for collections that are databased.

         

        yours

         

        Jim





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      • Crystal Boyd
        Thanks for the great response so far. This list-serv is so wonderful. I should mention that we re planning to run one transect of 24 bowls per site (3 each of
        Message 3 of 9 , Feb 12, 2014
          Thanks for the great response so far. This list-serv is so wonderful.

          I should mention that we're planning to run one transect of 24 bowls per site (3 each of blue, yellow, and white). We will also place blue vane traps and hand-net when we can, but the focus is mainly on pan traps.

          The problem is that pan traps can collect many specimens of the same species, and it's impractical to pin them all. For example, one transect might result in 20 Agapostemon virescens, but it's time-consuming to pin them all. How many would you pin?
          -Crystal


          On Wed, Feb 12, 2014 at 10:13 AM, Crystal Boyd <Crystal.Boyd@...> wrote:
          Hi, Bee Monitor-ers. Do you have any guidelines for what subset of bee specimens to voucher? For example, would you recommend 2 specimens/gender/species/site/collection date? (whew!)

          I’m hoping to use your expertise to estimate the number of specimens we should process for a monitoring program that could include up to 90 sites in Minnesota's prairie province.

          Looking forward to your suggestions,
          Crystal


        • Crystal Boyd
          Thanks again for the great responses. Many people are suggesting that I pin them all, but I m concerned that it s just not feasible. For example: 2 specimens *
          Message 4 of 9 , Feb 12, 2014
            Thanks again for the great responses. Many people are suggesting that I pin them all, but I'm concerned that it's just not feasible. For example:


            2 specimens * 2 genders (male & female) * .3 specimens/pan trap (from previous MN studies) * 24 pan traps/transect * 1 transect/site * 90 sites (maximum) * 12 collecting dates (biweekly April through October) = 31,104 specimens per season.

            If we increase the number of bees collected per pan trap to 3 (which is possible), then the number of bees collected is quite large: 311,040 per season.

            Thoughts?


            On Wed, Feb 12, 2014 at 10:34 AM, Crystal Boyd <Crystal.Boyd@...> wrote:
            Thanks for the great response so far. This list-serv is so wonderful.

            I should mention that we're planning to run one transect of 24 bowls per site (3 each of blue, yellow, and white). We will also place blue vane traps and hand-net when we can, but the focus is mainly on pan traps.

            The problem is that pan traps can collect many specimens of the same species, and it's impractical to pin them all. For example, one transect might result in 20 Agapostemon virescens, but it's time-consuming to pin them all. How many would you pin?
            -Crystal


            On Wed, Feb 12, 2014 at 10:13 AM, Crystal Boyd <Crystal.Boyd@...> wrote:
            Hi, Bee Monitor-ers. Do you have any guidelines for what subset of bee specimens to voucher? For example, would you recommend 2 specimens/gender/species/site/collection date? (whew!)

            I’m hoping to use your expertise to estimate the number of specimens we should process for a monitoring program that could include up to 90 sites in Minnesota's prairie province.

            Looking forward to your suggestions,
            Crystal



          • Doug Yanega
            ... Bearing in mind the comments Jim has already made, if there is a rule of thumb , it would work like this: the number of vouchers is inversely proportional
            Message 5 of 9 , Feb 12, 2014
              On 2/12/14 8:34 AM, Crystal Boyd wrote:
               
              The problem is that pan traps can collect many specimens of the same species, and it's impractical to pin them all. For example, one transect might result in 20 Agapostemon virescens, but it's time-consuming to pin them all. How many would you pin?
              Bearing in mind the comments Jim has already made, if there is a "rule of thumb", it would work like this: the number of vouchers is inversely proportional to the certainty of the ID. Thus, one Apis mellifera is plenty, but I might keep every single Dialictus until they have been examined by an expert. For other absolutely certain IDs, one of each sex will be fine, assuming the species in question is common (anything rare should not be culled). Since you mention hand-collecting, I'll also emphasize one of Jim's comments in this respect: any female specimens (other than Apis) with floral records should be kept, though that could possibly be whittled down to one female per recorded host. Floral records are too valuable to not have them vouchered. I specify females because I don't place any faith in the biological relevance of male visitation records*; my impression (from reading the Krombein et al. catalog) is that the literature is already overfull of records that imply that bee species X is a pollinator of A, B, and C, when in fact they don't pollinate B or C at all, and the misleading records are exclusively from males, with females only visiting (and pollinating) A.

              *[Yes, I know that it is possible for male bees to accomplish pollination, but when we are talking about a comparison such as "Females of this species are responsible for 80% of the seed set in plant species A, while males are responsible for 4% of the seed set in species B and C", I don't consider the male contribution to be worth mentioning. If there was an endangered species petition under review for a certain plant, and you were contracted to do the pollination study, and your field data showed that (1) 90% of the pollination was from bee species X, and (2) males of bee species Y and Z occasionally visited it, but their females pollinated other plants growing nearby, would you insist that bee species Y and Z should be considered for listing, as well? This is a can of worms, and I'm sure others will disagree, but I prefer signal to noise, and to me, outside of Euglossines, genuine male bee pollination (i.e., measurable effects on seed set) is mostly noise in the ecological sense.]

              Peace,
              -- 
              Doug Yanega      Dept. of Entomology       Entomology Research Museum
              Univ. of California, Riverside, CA 92521-0314     skype: dyanega
              phone: (951) 827-4315 (disclaimer: opinions are mine, not UCR's)
                           http://cache.ucr.edu/~heraty/yanega.html
                "There are some enterprises in which a careful disorderliness
                      is the true method" - Herman Melville, Moby Dick, Chap. 82
            • FLECKENSTEIN, JOHN (DNR)
              Crystal, You ve talked about pinning . What will you do with the remaining specimens? If you will be keeping them unpinned, separated to the level possible,
              Message 6 of 9 , Feb 12, 2014

                Crystal,

                You’ve talked about “pinning”. What will you do with the remaining specimens? If you will be keeping them unpinned, separated to the level possible, in your collection that might simplify the situation. Or are unpinned specimens in this size of a survey as good as discarded?

                 

                 

                John Fleckenstein, zoologist

                Natural Heritage Program

                Department of Natural Resources

                360-902-1674

                John.Fleckenstein at dnr.wa.gov

                 

                 

                 

                 

                From: beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com [mailto:beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of Crystal Boyd
                Sent: Wednesday, February 12, 2014 9:22 AM
                To: Bee monitoring Group
                Subject: [beemonitoring] Re: Pinning only a set of vouchers

                 

                 

                Thanks again for the great responses. Many people are suggesting that I pin them all, but I'm concerned that it's just not feasible. For example:

                2 specimens * 2 genders (male & female) * .3 specimens/pan trap (from previous MN studies) * 24 pan traps/transect * 1 transect/site * 90 sites (maximum) * 12 collecting dates (biweekly April through October) = 31,104 specimens per season.

                If we increase the number of bees collected per pan trap to 3 (which is possible), then the number of bees collected is quite large: 311,040 per season.

                Thoughts?

                 

                On Wed, Feb 12, 2014 at 10:34 AM, Crystal Boyd <Crystal.Boyd@...> wrote:

                Thanks for the great response so far. This list-serv is so wonderful.

                I should mention that we're planning to run one transect of 24 bowls per site (3 each of blue, yellow, and white). We will also place blue vane traps and hand-net when we can, but the focus is mainly on pan traps.

                The problem is that pan traps can collect many specimens of the same species, and it's impractical to pin them all. For example, one transect might result in 20 Agapostemon virescens, but it's time-consuming to pin them all. How many would you pin?
                -Crystal

                 

                On Wed, Feb 12, 2014 at 10:13 AM, Crystal Boyd <Crystal.Boyd@...> wrote:

                Hi, Bee Monitor-ers. Do you have any guidelines for what subset of bee specimens to voucher? For example, would you recommend 2 specimens/gender/species/site/collection date? (whew!)

                I’m hoping to use your expertise to estimate the number of specimens we should process for a monitoring program that could include up to 90 sites in Minnesota's prairie province.

                Looking forward to your suggestions,
                Crystal

                 

                 

              • Neil Stanley Cobb
                We use a 1 specimen/gender/site/sampling period/year formula as a general rule for our studies and for any study we target 30 total specimens per year (M &
                Message 7 of 9 , Feb 12, 2014

                  We use a 1 specimen/gender/site/sampling period/year formula as a “general rule” for our studies and for any study we target 30 total specimens per year (M & F) .  This is a general rule, if we have a highly variable taxa we might do more or a taxa that we think might be more than one species.  If you consider the cost of processing and storing it is not feasible for us to veer from this formula unless the project really needs lots of individuals.

                   

                  From: beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com [mailto:beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of Crystal Boyd
                  Sent: Wednesday, February 12, 2014 10:22 AM
                  To: Bee monitoring Group
                  Subject: [beemonitoring] Re: Pinning only a set of vouchers

                   




                  Thanks again for the great responses. Many people are suggesting that I pin them all, but I'm concerned that it's just not feasible. For example:

                  2 specimens * 2 genders (male & female) * .3 specimens/pan trap (from previous MN studies) * 24 pan traps/transect * 1 transect/site * 90 sites (maximum) * 12 collecting dates (biweekly April through October) = 31,104 specimens per season.

                  If we increase the number of bees collected per pan trap to 3 (which is possible), then the number of bees collected is quite large: 311,040 per season.

                  Thoughts?

                   

                  On Wed, Feb 12, 2014 at 10:34 AM, Crystal Boyd <Crystal.Boyd@...> wrote:

                  Thanks for the great response so far. This list-serv is so wonderful.

                  I should mention that we're planning to run one transect of 24 bowls per site (3 each of blue, yellow, and white). We will also place blue vane traps and hand-net when we can, but the focus is mainly on pan traps.

                  The problem is that pan traps can collect many specimens of the same species, and it's impractical to pin them all. For example, one transect might result in 20 Agapostemon virescens, but it's time-consuming to pin them all. How many would you pin?
                  -Crystal

                   

                  On Wed, Feb 12, 2014 at 10:13 AM, Crystal Boyd <Crystal.Boyd@...> wrote:

                  Hi, Bee Monitor-ers. Do you have any guidelines for what subset of bee specimens to voucher? For example, would you recommend 2 specimens/gender/species/site/collection date? (whew!)

                  I’m hoping to use your expertise to estimate the number of specimens we should process for a monitoring program that could include up to 90 sites in Minnesota's prairie province.

                  Looking forward to your suggestions,
                  Crystal

                   

                   




                • Droege, Sam
                  All: We often pin or glue to pins but don t label bees from projects. Bees on pins are easier to ID and handle, but making out labels for things that are not
                  Message 8 of 9 , Feb 12, 2014
                    All:

                    We often pin or glue to pins but don't label bees from projects.  Bees on pins are easier to ID and handle, but making out labels for things that are not kept adds a great deal of time.  You need to be careful about how you handle your databases, however, to make sure you have a clear system for not double counting bees and tracking what has and has not been saved.   So, for example, all our specimens are given numbers even if a label is not printed out.  

                    At some point, after your accounting and with great bless-ed assurance that everything is identified and dabased correctly you can recycle the pins to use again, printing out labels for specimens that will be kept as vouchers.  

                    I would suggest that everything stay on pins until you are completely finished...just to make sure there are no mistakes that you need to double check.  Guarenteed that you will make some mistakes on ID's or databasing that will require you to go back to the specimens that you thought you had finished with.

                    Once you are ready to recycle your pins, here is what we do.

                    1.  Push the bulk of the specimen body off the pin by roughly running your fingers down the pin while the specimens are pinned in the box, don't get anal about left over chunks on the pin.
                    2.  Dump out the dead bodies from the box.
                    3.  Pull the pins out of the bottom of the box, but leave them laying in the box
                    4.  Dump the pins into a tupperware container
                    5.  Cover pins with steaming hot water and add a big blog of dishwashing liquid.
                    6.  Put on shaker table for 20 minutes.
                    7.  Rinse out soap and remaining detritus
                    8.  Pull pins out and let dry in a clump on paper towels

                    sam

                    On Discovering a Butterfly

                    I found it and I named it, being versed
                    in taxonomic Latin; thus became
                    godfather to an insect and its first
                    describer -- and I want no other fame.

                    Wide open on its pin (though fast asleep),
                    and safe from creeping relatives and rust,
                    in the secluded stronghold where we keep
                    type specimens it will transcend its dust.

                    Dark pictures, thrones, the stones that pilgrims kiss,
                    poems that take a thousand years to die
                    but ape the immortality of this
                    red label on a little butterfly.

                    - Vladimir Nabokov




                    On Wed, Feb 12, 2014 at 12:51 PM, Neil Stanley Cobb <neil.cobb@...> wrote:
                     

                    We use a 1 specimen/gender/site/sampling period/year formula as a “general rule” for our studies and for any study we target 30 total specimens per year (M & F) .  This is a general rule, if we have a highly variable taxa we might do more or a taxa that we think might be more than one species.  If you consider the cost of processing and storing it is not feasible for us to veer from this formula unless the project really needs lots of individuals.

                     

                    From: beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com [mailto:beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of Crystal Boyd
                    Sent: Wednesday, February 12, 2014 10:22 AM
                    To: Bee monitoring Group
                    Subject: [beemonitoring] Re: Pinning only a set of vouchers

                     




                    Thanks again for the great responses. Many people are suggesting that I pin them all, but I'm concerned that it's just not feasible. For example:

                    2 specimens * 2 genders (male & female) * .3 specimens/pan trap (from previous MN studies) * 24 pan traps/transect * 1 transect/site * 90 sites (maximum) * 12 collecting dates (biweekly April through October) = 31,104 specimens per season.

                    If we increase the number of bees collected per pan trap to 3 (which is possible), then the number of bees collected is quite large: 311,040 per season.

                    Thoughts?

                     

                    On Wed, Feb 12, 2014 at 10:34 AM, Crystal Boyd <Crystal.Boyd@...> wrote:

                    Thanks for the great response so far. This list-serv is so wonderful.

                    I should mention that we're planning to run one transect of 24 bowls per site (3 each of blue, yellow, and white). We will also place blue vane traps and hand-net when we can, but the focus is mainly on pan traps.

                    The problem is that pan traps can collect many specimens of the same species, and it's impractical to pin them all. For example, one transect might result in 20 Agapostemon virescens, but it's time-consuming to pin them all. How many would you pin?
                    -Crystal

                     

                    On Wed, Feb 12, 2014 at 10:13 AM, Crystal Boyd <Crystal.Boyd@...> wrote:

                    Hi, Bee Monitor-ers. Do you have any guidelines for what subset of bee specimens to voucher? For example, would you recommend 2 specimens/gender/species/site/collection date? (whew!)

                    I’m hoping to use your expertise to estimate the number of specimens we should process for a monitoring program that could include up to 90 sites in Minnesota's prairie province.

                    Looking forward to your suggestions,
                    Crystal

                     

                     







                    --
                    Bees are Not Optional
                    Apes sunt et non liberum
                  • Riddle,T Charles
                    I do little pan collecting because I am more interested in the bees preference. With net collecting, over the course of a season, I have collected single
                    Message 9 of 9 , Feb 12, 2014

                      I do little pan collecting because I am more interested in the bees preference.   With net collecting, over the course of a season, I have collected single specimens of Colletes, a male Peponapis, Megachile and Svastra, I could not tell apart in the field. I kept keying the Svastra to Megachile coloradensis. After correcting the gain on the scope (everything looked orange), I took some pics and Sam led me to the right genus. I did not spread the mandibles on the Svastra and tore off the head while making the determination. I also destroyed a single Nomada I really would like to have had. If you are trying to make you own determinations, I highly recommend doing whatever needs to be done for determination of unusual specimens while they are fresh. You will save yourself a lot of time and headache.

                       

                      From: beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com [mailto:beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of Crystal Boyd
                      Sent: Wednesday, February 12, 2014 11:35 AM
                      To: Bee monitoring Group
                      Subject: [beemonitoring] Re: Pinning only a set of vouchers

                       

                       

                      Thanks for the great response so far. This list-serv is so wonderful.

                      I should mention that we're planning to run one transect of 24 bowls per site (3 each of blue, yellow, and white). We will also place blue vane traps and hand-net when we can, but the focus is mainly on pan traps.

                      The problem is that pan traps can collect many specimens of the same species, and it's impractical to pin them all. For example, one transect might result in 20 Agapostemon virescens, but it's time-consuming to pin them all. How many would you pin?
                      -Crystal

                       

                      On Wed, Feb 12, 2014 at 10:13 AM, Crystal Boyd <Crystal.Boyd@...> wrote:

                      Hi, Bee Monitor-ers. Do you have any guidelines for what subset of bee specimens to voucher? For example, would you recommend 2 specimens/gender/species/site/collection date? (whew!)

                      I’m hoping to use your expertise to estimate the number of specimens we should process for a monitoring program that could include up to 90 sites in Minnesota's prairie province.

                      Looking forward to your suggestions,
                      Crystal

                       

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