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RE: [beemonitoring] robbing

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  • Wilson, Michael E
    Jim or others. Can you make sure what I m calling a legitamite pollinator visitor on blueberry is correct? When the bee enters through the end of the flower to
    Message 1 of 16 , Jun 4, 2008
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      Jim or others. Can you make sure what I'm calling a legitamite pollinator visitor on blueberry
      is correct? When the bee enters through the end of the flower to access the reward, I'm calling
      that legitamite, and only ID a visit as robbing when they get the reward from the side of the flower.
      Am I missing anything that I should be watching for like sonication?

      I noticed that the legitamite visit bees usually had pollen on them while robbers never did. I saw
      many Xylocopa virginica legitamitely visiting flowers, as defined by my above assumptions. They usually
      had pollen on them.

      Thanks,
      Michael

      ________________________________

      From: beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com on behalf of Cane, Jim
      Sent: Fri 5/30/2008 12:33 PM
      To: beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com
      Subject: RE: [beemonitoring] robbing



      Nancy- from my dozen or so years with rabbiteye blueberry pollination and pollinators, it was clear that Xylocopa virginica was only visiting the flowers to rob for nectar, year in, year out, throughout the season. Once they were doing this, it did not take long for honeybees to learn to use the holes and then they two only robbed the flowers. Where an early cultivar (like 'Climax') preceded carpenter bee flight in a given year, or where carpenter bees were scarce, honey bees would visit legitimately. Where other pollinators (esp. Habropoda laboriosa) were abundant, honey bee pollination efficacy was awful (I think because they could remove little pollen from flowers with their weak ability to shake the anthers). I'll add a few citations of mine for you below.



      If Xylocopa micans has made it as far north as you (it was increasing in central Alabama as I was leaving...in past decades, it was a far south bee), it made me refine my generalizations, as I found several audibly sonicating rabbiteye blueberry flowers for pollen, something I never heard from thousands of X. virginica. One year, to my surprise, I also found honeybees vainly probing my little black Sharpie marks on rabbiteye corollas, as though they were holes. Naturally, I set up an experiment for this the following year and failed to elicit the response. I still think it could be a cool behavioral experiment to study the early individual learning of floral robbery.



      So my short answer is that no robbing honey bee or carpenter bee should be counted as a potential pollinator, and it may be the majority of them in many contexts.



      Yours,



      Jim





      Cane, J. H. and J. A. Payne. 1990. Native bee pollinates rabbiteye blueberry. Highlights of Agricultural Research 37:4.

      Cane, J. H. and J. A. Payne. 1993. Regional, annual and seasonal variation in pollinator guilds: intrinsic traits of bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) underlie their patterns of abundance at Vaccinium ashei (Ericaceae). Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 86:577-588.

      Cane, J. H. 1997. Lifetime monetary value of individual pollinators: the bee Habropoda laboriosa at rabbiteye blueberry (Vaccinium ashei Reade). Acta Horticulturae 446:67-70.

      Sampson, B. J. and J. H. Cane. 2000. Pollination efficiencies of three bee (Hymenoptera : Apoidea) species visiting rabbiteye blueberry. J. Econ. Entomol. 93:1726-1731.





      ===============================

      James H. Cane

      USDA-ARS Bee Biology and Systematics Lab

      Utah State University, Logan, UT 84322 USA

      tel: 435-797-3879 FAX: 435-797-0461

      email: Jim.Cane@...

      web page: www.ars.usda.gov/npa/beelab



      "Embrace entropy"
    • Cane, Jim
      Michael- I agree with your interpretation of behaviors and positioning on flowers that constitutes robbing or not. I wouldn t think you d have Xylocopa micans
      Message 2 of 16 , Jun 4, 2008
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        Michael- I agree with your interpretation of behaviors and positioning on flowers that constitutes robbing or not.  I wouldn’t think you’d have Xylocopa micans (yet) as far north as Knoxville .  You could easily check those pollen loads (I presume you are talking about Vaccinium), as the pollen tetrads are distinctive relative to most anything you’d see there outside of the Ericaceae, I think.  If you have legit pollen foraging and pollination by X. virginica in blueberries, well, you’re opening a revised chapter in the story that will require some explanatory thought!

         

        Yours,

         

        jim

         

        ===============================

        James H. Cane

        USDA-ARS Bee Biology and Systematics Lab

        Utah State University , Logan , UT 84322 USA

        tel: 435-797-3879   FAX: 435-797-0461

        email: Jim.Cane@... 

        web page: www.ars.usda.gov/npa/beelab

         

        "Embrace entropy"

         

      • nancy lee adamson
        Thank you, Anita. Nancy ... -- Nancy Adamson Graduate Student in Entomology at Virginia Tech tel: 540-231-6498
        Message 3 of 16 , Jun 4, 2008
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          Thank you, Anita.  Nancy

          On Mon, Jun 2, 2008 at 9:45 PM, <frozenbeedoc@...> wrote:

          Dear Nancy,

          Bob Danka, at the ARS honey bee lab in Baton Rouge, LA did a bunch of work on rabbit-eye blueberry pollination some years ago.  His e-mail is rdanka@....  They also have a Web page reached through www.usda.gov.

          Sincerely,
          Anita Collins




          --
          Nancy Adamson
          Graduate Student in Entomology at Virginia Tech
          tel: 540-231-6498
        • nancy lee adamson
          Hi, Michael, I would like to hear more details about the methods you are using. I didn t hear back much since I wrote about Winfree s approach. I am
          Message 4 of 16 , Jun 10, 2008
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            Hi, Michael,

            I would like to hear more details about the methods you are using.  I didn't hear back much since I wrote about Winfree's approach.  I am floundering a bit, so would love to hear what has been working well for you.

            Thanks.  Nancy



            On Fri, May 30, 2008 at 10:18 AM, Wilson, Michael E <mwilso14@...> wrote:

            Hi Nancy, sounds like we are doing the same thing. Dr. Sampson also has an article on this.

            Sampson, B. J., Kanka, R. G., Stringer, S. J. (2004). Nectar robbery by bees Xylocopa virginica and Apis mellifera contributes to the pollination of Rabbiteye Blueberry. Journal of Economic Entomology 97(3): 735-740.

            here's the article I have for Dr. Delaplane

            Dedej, S. and Delaplane K. S. (2004). Nectar-robbing carpenter bees reduce seed-setting capability of honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in Rabbiteye blueberry, Vaccinium ashei, 'Climax'. Environmental Entomology 33(1): 100-106.

            I'm noting if each visitor is 'legitimate visit' or 'robbing' and will use that in determining
            the most significant pollinators. At two of my three sites honey bees provided zero pollination that
            I could tell. Carpenter bees over all seemed to be 'pretty good' pollinators even though some robbed. The bloom
            is over here, but I think I figured out what I need to do next year. I certainly need more locations
            as very different things where happening at each location.

            I'm interested in what you said about robbing occurring after peak bloom. Are you pretty confident
            that it starts after peak bloom? My plans for the 2009 bloom was to visit 7 locations 2 times. I wonder
            if I need to increase the per farm visits to get before, during, and after peak bloom observations per farm?
            One farm I visited never really had a peak bloom though, it was just
            kind of a slow, steady, modest bloom, they trimmed heavily the previous year due to the frost, and I think
            that must have affected their bloom this year. They had robbing the entire time.

            -Thanks,
            Michael Wilson (UTK grad student)



            -----Original Message-----
            From: beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com on behalf of Wyatt Mangum
            Sent: Fri 5/30/2008 9:25 AM
            To: beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com
            Subject: Re: [beemonitoring] robbing

            Dear Nancy,

            Dr. Delaplane has work with this. His contact address is

            Dr. Keith S. Delaplane
            Professor of Entomology
            463C Biological Sciences Building
            University of Georgia
            Athens, GA 30602 USA
            voice (706) 542-1765
            lab 706-769-1736
            fax (706) 542-3872
            ksd@...

            Kind Regards,

            Dr. Wyatt A. Mangum
            Editor-in-Chief of Apiacta (digital version)
            American Bee Journal Columnist on Honey Bee Biology
            Mathematics Department
            University of Mary Washington
            1301 College Avenue
            Fredericksburg, VA 22401 USA
            Email: wmangum@...


            >>> "nancy lee adamson" <nladamson@...> 05/30/08 9:14 AM >>>
            I am monitoring bees on various crops, taking visitation counts. On
            blueberries, after peak flowering, carpenter bees cut holes into the flowers
            and rob nectar. These holes are then used by honey bees, as well. I have
            been including these in monitoring counts, but realized I should probably
            remove them. Any thoughts from you all on this? Does anyone know if the
            robbers still improve pollination on self- fertile flowers? Thanks for your
            thoughts. Nancy

            --
            Nancy Adamson
            Graduate Student in Entomology at Virginia Tech
            tel: 540- 231- 6498




            --
            Nancy Adamson
            Graduate Student in Entomology at Virginia Tech
            tel: 540-231-6498
          • Wilson, Michael E
            Nancy, I had missed your previous ‘methods’ email, but I found it on the list. I have been out of town for a class, but am back now. My direct email is
            Message 5 of 16 , Jun 11, 2008
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              Nancy, I had missed your previous ‘methods’ email, but I found it on the list. I have been out of town for a class, but am back now. My direct email is mwilso14@... if you want to discuss directly.

              I’ll describe my methods but keep in mind at two summers experience, you have one more year experience then I.

              I’m looking at blueberries and cucurbits, but have a different method for each since I’m interested in different questions for those. It could be an advantage to have the same method for squash and blueberries though. A 40 meter transect would be larger than one of my locations. I decided against a bee per flower variable for blueberries due to the many number of flowers per bush. Many flowers are not quite open, but look open at a glance. So I instead went with bees per bush. I’m using % flowering per bush, which is rather subjective but I think its sufficient for my needs, and number of plants per location to check for flowering strength effect on bee numbers per bush. If this seems off, someone feel free to interject. Below is the basics of the blueberry method:

              For blueberries, the response variable will be visitation rate per bush by species group. Ten random blueberry bushes at each location (minimum 7 locations) will be observed on at least 2 separate occasions per location (I may increase to 3 if time allows, or decrease location #). Each blueberry bush, will be observed for 5 minutes. Bushes will be rated by percentage flowering to determine if flowering strength effects pollinator number. Pollinators will be counted and organized by species groups of honey bees, bumble bees, carpenter bees, bright green bees, Osmia bees, Habropoda laboriosa, Diptera, Lepidoptera, and other Hymenoptera. Robbing or legitimate visits will be noted to determine if the insect is actually pollinating the flower, or instead, robbing nectar and bypassing pollination. Sex will be noted for carpenter bees to determine if males significantly rob more then females. My preliminary data indicates this.

              I am also noting specific families of bees, Lepidoptera, etc. not on the above list if I can distinguish them in the field, like the hummingbird moth, syrphids, etc.

              My main questions with blueberries are;

              What are the primary and minor pollinators of blueberry?
              What contribution do unmanaged bees provide toward pollination of blueberry compared to honey bees?
              What contribution do carpenter bees provide towards pollination?
              What factors influence carpenter bee robbing, such as nesting females (whom would need pollen) or other factors (planting size, etc.)?

              I should also note I did not see a single Habropoda at 5 of the above observation periods in East TN. A farmer co-operator in southern, middle TN whom is also doing the protocol saw one Habropoda (determined by his observation and a not so great photo) among 4 observation periods.

              For Cucurbits (watermelon, yellow squash, and pumpkin), I’m using 100 flower transects to get the bee per flower variable. I’ll be following the protocol in:

              Willis D. S. and Kevan, P. G. (1995). Foraging dynamics of Peponapis pruinosa (Hymenoptera: Anthophoridae) on pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo) in Southern Ontario. The Candadian Entomologist 127: 167.

              and

              Shuler, R.E., Roulston, T. H., Farris, G.E. (2005). Farming practicies influence wild pollinator populations on squash and pumpkin. Journal of Economic Entomology 98(3): 790-795.

              I will also provide data for/compatible to Jim Cane’s Squash Pollinators of the Americas Survey.

              During 2009 I would like to do some bagging experiments and data analysis like in:

              Winfree, R., Williams, N. M., Dushoff, J., and Kremen, C. (2007). Native bees provide insurance against ongoing honey bee losses. Ecology Letters 10: 1105-1113.

              But time and money is an unknown at this point. I would continue to use the 100 flower transect, but use methods in Winfree for pollen deposition and data analysis.

              Squash questions will be typical of Shuler et al and Winfree et al.

              Suggestions/comments welcome!

              -Michael Wilson




              -----Original Message-----
              From: beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com on behalf of nancy lee adamson
              Sent: Tue 6/10/2008 10:19 AM
              To: beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com
              Subject: Re: [beemonitoring] robbing

              Hi, Michael,

              I would like to hear more details about the methods you are using. I didn't
              hear back much since I wrote about Winfree's approach. I am floundering a
              bit, so would love to hear what has been working well for you.

              Thanks. Nancy



              On Fri, May 30, 2008 at 10:18 AM, Wilson, Michael E <mwilso14@...>
              wrote:

              > Hi Nancy, sounds like we are doing the same thing. Dr. Sampson also has
              > an article on this.
              >
              > Sampson, B. J., Kanka, R. G., Stringer, S. J. (2004). Nectar robbery by
              > bees Xylocopa virginica and Apis mellifera contributes to the pollination of
              > Rabbiteye Blueberry. Journal of Economic Entomology 97(3): 735-740.
              >
              > here's the article I have for Dr. Delaplane
              >
              > Dedej, S. and Delaplane K. S. (2004). Nectar-robbing carpenter bees reduce
              > seed-setting capability of honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in Rabbiteye
              > blueberry, Vaccinium ashei, 'Climax'. Environmental Entomology 33(1):
              > 100-106.
              >
              > I'm noting if each visitor is 'legitimate visit' or 'robbing' and will use
              > that in determining
              > the most significant pollinators. At two of my three sites honey bees
              > provided zero pollination that
              > I could tell. Carpenter bees over all seemed to be 'pretty good'
              > pollinators even though some robbed. The bloom
              > is over here, but I think I figured out what I need to do next year. I
              > certainly need more locations
              > as very different things where happening at each location.
              >
              > I'm interested in what you said about robbing occurring after peak bloom.
              > Are you pretty confident
              > that it starts after peak bloom? My plans for the 2009 bloom was to visit 7
              > locations 2 times. I wonder
              > if I need to increase the per farm visits to get before, during, and after
              > peak bloom observations per farm?
              > One farm I visited never really had a peak bloom though, it was just
              > kind of a slow, steady, modest bloom, they trimmed heavily the previous
              > year due to the frost, and I think
              > that must have affected their bloom this year. They had robbing the entire
              > time.
              >
              > -Thanks,
              > Michael Wilson (UTK grad student)
              >
              >
              > -----Original Message-----
              > From: beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com <beemonitoring%40yahoogroups.com> on
              > behalf of Wyatt Mangum
              > Sent: Fri 5/30/2008 9:25 AM
              > To: beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com <beemonitoring%40yahoogroups.com>
              > Subject: Re: [beemonitoring] robbing
              >
              > Dear Nancy,
              >
              > Dr. Delaplane has work with this. His contact address is
              >
              > Dr. Keith S. Delaplane
              > Professor of Entomology
              > 463C Biological Sciences Building
              > University of Georgia
              > Athens, GA 30602 USA
              > voice (706) 542-1765
              > lab 706-769-1736
              > fax (706) 542-3872
              > ksd@... <ksd%40uga.edu>
              >
              > Kind Regards,
              >
              > Dr. Wyatt A. Mangum
              > Editor-in-Chief of Apiacta (digital version)
              > American Bee Journal Columnist on Honey Bee Biology
              > Mathematics Department
              > University of Mary Washington
              > 1301 College Avenue
              > Fredericksburg, VA 22401 USA
              > Email: wmangum@... <wmangum%40umw.edu>
              >
              >
              > >>> "nancy lee adamson" <nladamson@... <nladamson%40gmail.com>>
              > 05/30/08 9:14 AM >>>
              > I am monitoring bees on various crops, taking visitation counts. On
              > blueberries, after peak flowering, carpenter bees cut holes into the
              > flowers
              > and rob nectar. These holes are then used by honey bees, as well. I have
              > been including these in monitoring counts, but realized I should probably
              > remove them. Any thoughts from you all on this? Does anyone know if the
              > robbers still improve pollination on self- fertile flowers? Thanks for your
              > thoughts. Nancy
              >
              > --
              > Nancy Adamson
              > Graduate Student in Entomology at Virginia Tech
              > tel: 540- 231- 6498
              >
              >
              >



              --
              Nancy Adamson
              Graduate Student in Entomology at Virginia Tech
              tel: 540-231-6498
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