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Re: [beemonitoring] robbing

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  • nancy lee adamson
    Michael and other potential collaborators, I think it would be wonderful if we could try to standardize a methodology, but this is just my second summer, and I
    Message 1 of 16 , May 30 10:20 AM
      Michael and other potential collaborators,

      I think it would be wonderful if we could try to standardize a methodology, but this is just my second summer, and I realize that the work I'm patterning my research on is based on many years of study and experience that I don't yet have.  I hope I've understood  the methodology well and apologize if  I'm misrepresenting it below.

      For monitoring visitation this year, I've been using a methodology patterned on Rachael Winfree's work, with 45 second visual counts of flowers open and visitors at open flowers each meter along a 40 meter transect.  I distinguish honey bees, bumblebees, carpenter bees (and now hope to see if I have something besides Xylocopa virginica here) and have grouped the rest into medium and small bees, plus, large, medium and small wasps, ants, Lepidoptera (noting species, if possible).  This is followed with netting at flower for 30 minutes for identification later to species.  For apples and blueberries, I tried to sample in the a.m. and the p.m. (Winfree used three sampling periods, I believe), though temperatures and weather didn't always permit this at my sites.  I also used bowl traps each day on site, recognizing that these trap a lot of non-pollinator species.  For squash, I expect to sample twice, but once very early and once later in the morning).

      I welcome suggestions, as I will be working on some vegetable crops and brambles later this summer, and could adjust the methodology. 

      Nancy

      On Fri, May 30, 2008 at 11:43 AM, Wilson, Michael E <mwilso14@...> wrote:

      Quote


      "Did you inquire earlier about trap nests? Have you incorporated that into your project?"

      Yes we did, but no use as of yet. My lab partner found another southeastern study where
      only wasps used trap nests. I don't know how effective they may be in the southeast.

      Anyone have any luck with trap nests in the southeast?

      One site has Osmia nesting in fences, but not utilizing the trap nests. I've seen some
      Osmia on blueberries where I put a trap nest, but no use there either. We have 10 of them
      out and will increase that substantially next year, depending on $&time.

      Sounds like a very different scenario at your locations too. Nearly all the bumble bees I saw,
      which where few, were queens. I would be willing to cooperate standardization of data collection
      if you, and others in nearby regions, would be interested in working together on that.

      -Michael Wilson


      -----Original Message-----
      From: beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com on behalf of nancy lee adamson
      Sent: Fri 5/30/2008 10:40 AM
      To: beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com
      Subject: Re: [beemonitoring] robbing

      Hi, Michael,

      Thank you very much!! I sent separate thanks to Dr. Mangum, but will reply
      to your questions to the whole group.

      I am not sure that robbing only occurs after peak bloom, but last year
      noticed that carpenter robbers and honey bee robber followers were more
      abundant once the bumblebees generally seemed to have moved elsewhere (I
      don't know where). That was at one site last year. At another site this
      year, on my first visit, carpenter bees were not robbing, but in subsequent
      visits, they were (and like the other site, there were fewer pollinators
      generally by that time). These were highbush blueberries.

      I only have one site that has rabbiteye blueberry and it is not a large
      planting. When I visited that, there were primarily worker bumblebees
      pollinating. Honey bees were pollinating and robbing, but the number of
      robber holes seemed lower than in highbush blueberries, and I only saw/heard
      a couple carpenter bees. Earlier, on highbush blueberries, I found a large
      number of andrenid bees (never robbing), but by the time I monitored
      rabbiteye, it was quite a bit later (more than a week), I did not find many
      andrenids at all. I don't know if they are gone for the season or visiting
      other plants with higher amounts of nectar.

      I do think visiting several times is helpful (early in the bloom season to
      later), since a change was very noticeable at sites I visited. I did find
      that at one site, honey bees were much more abundant compared to 2 other
      sites, both located in wooded mountains.

      Did you inquire earlier about trap nests? Have you incorporated that into
      your project?

      Nancy

      On Fri, May 30, 2008 at 10:18 AM, Wilson, Michael E <mwilso14@...>
      wrote:

      > Hi Nancy, sounds like we are doing the same thing. Dr. Sampson also has
      > an article on this.
      >
      > Sampson, B. J., Kanka, R. G., Stringer, S. J. (2004). Nectar robbery by
      > bees Xylocopa virginica and Apis mellifera contributes to the pollination of
      > Rabbiteye Blueberry. Journal of Economic Entomology 97(3): 735-740.
      >
      > here's the article I have for Dr. Delaplane
      >
      > Dedej, S. and Delaplane K. S. (2004). Nectar-robbing carpenter bees reduce
      > seed-setting capability of honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in Rabbiteye
      > blueberry, Vaccinium ashei, 'Climax'. Environmental Entomology 33(1):
      > 100-106.
      >
      > I'm noting if each visitor is 'legitimate visit' or 'robbing' and will use
      > that in determining
      > the most significant pollinators. At two of my three sites honey bees
      > provided zero pollination that
      > I could tell. Carpenter bees over all seemed to be 'pretty good'
      > pollinators even though some robbed. The bloom
      > is over here, but I think I figured out what I need to do next year. I
      > certainly need more locations
      > as very different things where happening at each location.
      >
      > I'm interested in what you said about robbing occurring after peak bloom.
      > Are you pretty confident
      > that it starts after peak bloom? My plans for the 2009 bloom was to visit 7
      > locations 2 times. I wonder
      > if I need to increase the per farm visits to get before, during, and after
      > peak bloom observations per farm?
      > One farm I visited never really had a peak bloom though, it was just
      > kind of a slow, steady, modest bloom, they trimmed heavily the previous
      > year due to the frost, and I think
      > that must have affected their bloom this year. They had robbing the entire
      > time.
      >
      > -Thanks,
      > Michael Wilson (UTK grad student)
      >
      >
      > -----Original Message-----
      > From: beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com <beemonitoring%40yahoogroups.com> on
      > behalf of Wyatt Mangum
      > Sent: Fri 5/30/2008 9:25 AM
      > To: beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com <beemonitoring%40yahoogroups.com>
      > Subject: Re: [beemonitoring] robbing
      >
      > Dear Nancy,
      >
      > Dr. Delaplane has work with this. His contact address is
      >
      > Dr. Keith S. Delaplane
      > Professor of Entomology
      > 463C Biological Sciences Building
      > University of Georgia
      > Athens, GA 30602 USA
      > voice (706) 542-1765
      > lab 706-769-1736
      > fax (706) 542-3872
      > ksd@... <ksd%40uga.edu>

      >
      > Kind Regards,
      >
      > Dr. Wyatt A. Mangum
      > Editor-in-Chief of Apiacta (digital version)
      > American Bee Journal Columnist on Honey Bee Biology
      > Mathematics Department
      > University of Mary Washington
      > 1301 College Avenue
      > Fredericksburg, VA 22401 USA
      > Email: wmangum@... <wmangum%40umw.edu>
      >
      >
      > >>> "nancy lee adamson" <nladamson@... <nladamson%40gmail.com>>

      > 05/30/08 9:14 AM >>>
      > I am monitoring bees on various crops, taking visitation counts. On
      > blueberries, after peak flowering, carpenter bees cut holes into the
      > flowers
      > and rob nectar. These holes are then used by honey bees, as well. I have
      > been including these in monitoring counts, but realized I should probably
      > remove them. Any thoughts from you all on this? Does anyone know if the
      > robbers still improve pollination on self- fertile flowers? Thanks for your
      > thoughts. Nancy
      >
      > --
      > Nancy Adamson
      > Graduate Student in Entomology at Virginia Tech
      > tel: 540- 231- 6498
      >
      >
      >

      --
      Nancy Adamson
      Graduate Student in Entomology at Virginia Tech
      tel: 540-231-6498




      --
      Nancy Adamson
      Graduate Student in Entomology at Virginia Tech
      tel: 540-231-6498
    • frozenbeedoc@cs.com
      Dear Nancy, Bob Danka, at the ARS honey bee lab in Baton Rouge, LA did a bunch of work on rabbit-eye blueberry pollination some years ago. His e-mail is
      Message 2 of 16 , Jun 2, 2008
        Dear Nancy,

        Bob Danka, at the ARS honey bee lab in Baton Rouge, LA did a bunch of work on rabbit-eye blueberry pollination some years ago.  His e-mail is rdanka@....  They also have a Web page reached through www.usda.gov.

        Sincerely,
        Anita Collins
      • Wilson, Michael E
        Jim or others. Can you make sure what I m calling a legitamite pollinator visitor on blueberry is correct? When the bee enters through the end of the flower to
        Message 3 of 16 , Jun 4, 2008
          Jim or others. Can you make sure what I'm calling a legitamite pollinator visitor on blueberry
          is correct? When the bee enters through the end of the flower to access the reward, I'm calling
          that legitamite, and only ID a visit as robbing when they get the reward from the side of the flower.
          Am I missing anything that I should be watching for like sonication?

          I noticed that the legitamite visit bees usually had pollen on them while robbers never did. I saw
          many Xylocopa virginica legitamitely visiting flowers, as defined by my above assumptions. They usually
          had pollen on them.

          Thanks,
          Michael

          ________________________________

          From: beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com on behalf of Cane, Jim
          Sent: Fri 5/30/2008 12:33 PM
          To: beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com
          Subject: RE: [beemonitoring] robbing



          Nancy- from my dozen or so years with rabbiteye blueberry pollination and pollinators, it was clear that Xylocopa virginica was only visiting the flowers to rob for nectar, year in, year out, throughout the season. Once they were doing this, it did not take long for honeybees to learn to use the holes and then they two only robbed the flowers. Where an early cultivar (like 'Climax') preceded carpenter bee flight in a given year, or where carpenter bees were scarce, honey bees would visit legitimately. Where other pollinators (esp. Habropoda laboriosa) were abundant, honey bee pollination efficacy was awful (I think because they could remove little pollen from flowers with their weak ability to shake the anthers). I'll add a few citations of mine for you below.



          If Xylocopa micans has made it as far north as you (it was increasing in central Alabama as I was leaving...in past decades, it was a far south bee), it made me refine my generalizations, as I found several audibly sonicating rabbiteye blueberry flowers for pollen, something I never heard from thousands of X. virginica. One year, to my surprise, I also found honeybees vainly probing my little black Sharpie marks on rabbiteye corollas, as though they were holes. Naturally, I set up an experiment for this the following year and failed to elicit the response. I still think it could be a cool behavioral experiment to study the early individual learning of floral robbery.



          So my short answer is that no robbing honey bee or carpenter bee should be counted as a potential pollinator, and it may be the majority of them in many contexts.



          Yours,



          Jim





          Cane, J. H. and J. A. Payne. 1990. Native bee pollinates rabbiteye blueberry. Highlights of Agricultural Research 37:4.

          Cane, J. H. and J. A. Payne. 1993. Regional, annual and seasonal variation in pollinator guilds: intrinsic traits of bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) underlie their patterns of abundance at Vaccinium ashei (Ericaceae). Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 86:577-588.

          Cane, J. H. 1997. Lifetime monetary value of individual pollinators: the bee Habropoda laboriosa at rabbiteye blueberry (Vaccinium ashei Reade). Acta Horticulturae 446:67-70.

          Sampson, B. J. and J. H. Cane. 2000. Pollination efficiencies of three bee (Hymenoptera : Apoidea) species visiting rabbiteye blueberry. J. Econ. Entomol. 93:1726-1731.





          ===============================

          James H. Cane

          USDA-ARS Bee Biology and Systematics Lab

          Utah State University, Logan, UT 84322 USA

          tel: 435-797-3879 FAX: 435-797-0461

          email: Jim.Cane@...

          web page: www.ars.usda.gov/npa/beelab



          "Embrace entropy"
        • Cane, Jim
          Michael- I agree with your interpretation of behaviors and positioning on flowers that constitutes robbing or not. I wouldn t think you d have Xylocopa micans
          Message 4 of 16 , Jun 4, 2008

            Michael- I agree with your interpretation of behaviors and positioning on flowers that constitutes robbing or not.  I wouldn’t think you’d have Xylocopa micans (yet) as far north as Knoxville .  You could easily check those pollen loads (I presume you are talking about Vaccinium), as the pollen tetrads are distinctive relative to most anything you’d see there outside of the Ericaceae, I think.  If you have legit pollen foraging and pollination by X. virginica in blueberries, well, you’re opening a revised chapter in the story that will require some explanatory thought!

             

            Yours,

             

            jim

             

            ===============================

            James H. Cane

            USDA-ARS Bee Biology and Systematics Lab

            Utah State University , Logan , UT 84322 USA

            tel: 435-797-3879   FAX: 435-797-0461

            email: Jim.Cane@... 

            web page: www.ars.usda.gov/npa/beelab

             

            "Embrace entropy"

             

          • nancy lee adamson
            Thank you, Anita. Nancy ... -- Nancy Adamson Graduate Student in Entomology at Virginia Tech tel: 540-231-6498
            Message 5 of 16 , Jun 4, 2008
              Thank you, Anita.  Nancy

              On Mon, Jun 2, 2008 at 9:45 PM, <frozenbeedoc@...> wrote:

              Dear Nancy,

              Bob Danka, at the ARS honey bee lab in Baton Rouge, LA did a bunch of work on rabbit-eye blueberry pollination some years ago.  His e-mail is rdanka@....  They also have a Web page reached through www.usda.gov.

              Sincerely,
              Anita Collins




              --
              Nancy Adamson
              Graduate Student in Entomology at Virginia Tech
              tel: 540-231-6498
            • nancy lee adamson
              Hi, Michael, I would like to hear more details about the methods you are using. I didn t hear back much since I wrote about Winfree s approach. I am
              Message 6 of 16 , Jun 10, 2008
                Hi, Michael,

                I would like to hear more details about the methods you are using.  I didn't hear back much since I wrote about Winfree's approach.  I am floundering a bit, so would love to hear what has been working well for you.

                Thanks.  Nancy



                On Fri, May 30, 2008 at 10:18 AM, Wilson, Michael E <mwilso14@...> wrote:

                Hi Nancy, sounds like we are doing the same thing. Dr. Sampson also has an article on this.

                Sampson, B. J., Kanka, R. G., Stringer, S. J. (2004). Nectar robbery by bees Xylocopa virginica and Apis mellifera contributes to the pollination of Rabbiteye Blueberry. Journal of Economic Entomology 97(3): 735-740.

                here's the article I have for Dr. Delaplane

                Dedej, S. and Delaplane K. S. (2004). Nectar-robbing carpenter bees reduce seed-setting capability of honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in Rabbiteye blueberry, Vaccinium ashei, 'Climax'. Environmental Entomology 33(1): 100-106.

                I'm noting if each visitor is 'legitimate visit' or 'robbing' and will use that in determining
                the most significant pollinators. At two of my three sites honey bees provided zero pollination that
                I could tell. Carpenter bees over all seemed to be 'pretty good' pollinators even though some robbed. The bloom
                is over here, but I think I figured out what I need to do next year. I certainly need more locations
                as very different things where happening at each location.

                I'm interested in what you said about robbing occurring after peak bloom. Are you pretty confident
                that it starts after peak bloom? My plans for the 2009 bloom was to visit 7 locations 2 times. I wonder
                if I need to increase the per farm visits to get before, during, and after peak bloom observations per farm?
                One farm I visited never really had a peak bloom though, it was just
                kind of a slow, steady, modest bloom, they trimmed heavily the previous year due to the frost, and I think
                that must have affected their bloom this year. They had robbing the entire time.

                -Thanks,
                Michael Wilson (UTK grad student)



                -----Original Message-----
                From: beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com on behalf of Wyatt Mangum
                Sent: Fri 5/30/2008 9:25 AM
                To: beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com
                Subject: Re: [beemonitoring] robbing

                Dear Nancy,

                Dr. Delaplane has work with this. His contact address is

                Dr. Keith S. Delaplane
                Professor of Entomology
                463C Biological Sciences Building
                University of Georgia
                Athens, GA 30602 USA
                voice (706) 542-1765
                lab 706-769-1736
                fax (706) 542-3872
                ksd@...

                Kind Regards,

                Dr. Wyatt A. Mangum
                Editor-in-Chief of Apiacta (digital version)
                American Bee Journal Columnist on Honey Bee Biology
                Mathematics Department
                University of Mary Washington
                1301 College Avenue
                Fredericksburg, VA 22401 USA
                Email: wmangum@...


                >>> "nancy lee adamson" <nladamson@...> 05/30/08 9:14 AM >>>
                I am monitoring bees on various crops, taking visitation counts. On
                blueberries, after peak flowering, carpenter bees cut holes into the flowers
                and rob nectar. These holes are then used by honey bees, as well. I have
                been including these in monitoring counts, but realized I should probably
                remove them. Any thoughts from you all on this? Does anyone know if the
                robbers still improve pollination on self- fertile flowers? Thanks for your
                thoughts. Nancy

                --
                Nancy Adamson
                Graduate Student in Entomology at Virginia Tech
                tel: 540- 231- 6498




                --
                Nancy Adamson
                Graduate Student in Entomology at Virginia Tech
                tel: 540-231-6498
              • Wilson, Michael E
                Nancy, I had missed your previous ‘methods’ email, but I found it on the list. I have been out of town for a class, but am back now. My direct email is
                Message 7 of 16 , Jun 11, 2008
                  Nancy, I had missed your previous ‘methods’ email, but I found it on the list. I have been out of town for a class, but am back now. My direct email is mwilso14@... if you want to discuss directly.

                  I’ll describe my methods but keep in mind at two summers experience, you have one more year experience then I.

                  I’m looking at blueberries and cucurbits, but have a different method for each since I’m interested in different questions for those. It could be an advantage to have the same method for squash and blueberries though. A 40 meter transect would be larger than one of my locations. I decided against a bee per flower variable for blueberries due to the many number of flowers per bush. Many flowers are not quite open, but look open at a glance. So I instead went with bees per bush. I’m using % flowering per bush, which is rather subjective but I think its sufficient for my needs, and number of plants per location to check for flowering strength effect on bee numbers per bush. If this seems off, someone feel free to interject. Below is the basics of the blueberry method:

                  For blueberries, the response variable will be visitation rate per bush by species group. Ten random blueberry bushes at each location (minimum 7 locations) will be observed on at least 2 separate occasions per location (I may increase to 3 if time allows, or decrease location #). Each blueberry bush, will be observed for 5 minutes. Bushes will be rated by percentage flowering to determine if flowering strength effects pollinator number. Pollinators will be counted and organized by species groups of honey bees, bumble bees, carpenter bees, bright green bees, Osmia bees, Habropoda laboriosa, Diptera, Lepidoptera, and other Hymenoptera. Robbing or legitimate visits will be noted to determine if the insect is actually pollinating the flower, or instead, robbing nectar and bypassing pollination. Sex will be noted for carpenter bees to determine if males significantly rob more then females. My preliminary data indicates this.

                  I am also noting specific families of bees, Lepidoptera, etc. not on the above list if I can distinguish them in the field, like the hummingbird moth, syrphids, etc.

                  My main questions with blueberries are;

                  What are the primary and minor pollinators of blueberry?
                  What contribution do unmanaged bees provide toward pollination of blueberry compared to honey bees?
                  What contribution do carpenter bees provide towards pollination?
                  What factors influence carpenter bee robbing, such as nesting females (whom would need pollen) or other factors (planting size, etc.)?

                  I should also note I did not see a single Habropoda at 5 of the above observation periods in East TN. A farmer co-operator in southern, middle TN whom is also doing the protocol saw one Habropoda (determined by his observation and a not so great photo) among 4 observation periods.

                  For Cucurbits (watermelon, yellow squash, and pumpkin), I’m using 100 flower transects to get the bee per flower variable. I’ll be following the protocol in:

                  Willis D. S. and Kevan, P. G. (1995). Foraging dynamics of Peponapis pruinosa (Hymenoptera: Anthophoridae) on pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo) in Southern Ontario. The Candadian Entomologist 127: 167.

                  and

                  Shuler, R.E., Roulston, T. H., Farris, G.E. (2005). Farming practicies influence wild pollinator populations on squash and pumpkin. Journal of Economic Entomology 98(3): 790-795.

                  I will also provide data for/compatible to Jim Cane’s Squash Pollinators of the Americas Survey.

                  During 2009 I would like to do some bagging experiments and data analysis like in:

                  Winfree, R., Williams, N. M., Dushoff, J., and Kremen, C. (2007). Native bees provide insurance against ongoing honey bee losses. Ecology Letters 10: 1105-1113.

                  But time and money is an unknown at this point. I would continue to use the 100 flower transect, but use methods in Winfree for pollen deposition and data analysis.

                  Squash questions will be typical of Shuler et al and Winfree et al.

                  Suggestions/comments welcome!

                  -Michael Wilson




                  -----Original Message-----
                  From: beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com on behalf of nancy lee adamson
                  Sent: Tue 6/10/2008 10:19 AM
                  To: beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com
                  Subject: Re: [beemonitoring] robbing

                  Hi, Michael,

                  I would like to hear more details about the methods you are using. I didn't
                  hear back much since I wrote about Winfree's approach. I am floundering a
                  bit, so would love to hear what has been working well for you.

                  Thanks. Nancy



                  On Fri, May 30, 2008 at 10:18 AM, Wilson, Michael E <mwilso14@...>
                  wrote:

                  > Hi Nancy, sounds like we are doing the same thing. Dr. Sampson also has
                  > an article on this.
                  >
                  > Sampson, B. J., Kanka, R. G., Stringer, S. J. (2004). Nectar robbery by
                  > bees Xylocopa virginica and Apis mellifera contributes to the pollination of
                  > Rabbiteye Blueberry. Journal of Economic Entomology 97(3): 735-740.
                  >
                  > here's the article I have for Dr. Delaplane
                  >
                  > Dedej, S. and Delaplane K. S. (2004). Nectar-robbing carpenter bees reduce
                  > seed-setting capability of honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in Rabbiteye
                  > blueberry, Vaccinium ashei, 'Climax'. Environmental Entomology 33(1):
                  > 100-106.
                  >
                  > I'm noting if each visitor is 'legitimate visit' or 'robbing' and will use
                  > that in determining
                  > the most significant pollinators. At two of my three sites honey bees
                  > provided zero pollination that
                  > I could tell. Carpenter bees over all seemed to be 'pretty good'
                  > pollinators even though some robbed. The bloom
                  > is over here, but I think I figured out what I need to do next year. I
                  > certainly need more locations
                  > as very different things where happening at each location.
                  >
                  > I'm interested in what you said about robbing occurring after peak bloom.
                  > Are you pretty confident
                  > that it starts after peak bloom? My plans for the 2009 bloom was to visit 7
                  > locations 2 times. I wonder
                  > if I need to increase the per farm visits to get before, during, and after
                  > peak bloom observations per farm?
                  > One farm I visited never really had a peak bloom though, it was just
                  > kind of a slow, steady, modest bloom, they trimmed heavily the previous
                  > year due to the frost, and I think
                  > that must have affected their bloom this year. They had robbing the entire
                  > time.
                  >
                  > -Thanks,
                  > Michael Wilson (UTK grad student)
                  >
                  >
                  > -----Original Message-----
                  > From: beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com <beemonitoring%40yahoogroups.com> on
                  > behalf of Wyatt Mangum
                  > Sent: Fri 5/30/2008 9:25 AM
                  > To: beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com <beemonitoring%40yahoogroups.com>
                  > Subject: Re: [beemonitoring] robbing
                  >
                  > Dear Nancy,
                  >
                  > Dr. Delaplane has work with this. His contact address is
                  >
                  > Dr. Keith S. Delaplane
                  > Professor of Entomology
                  > 463C Biological Sciences Building
                  > University of Georgia
                  > Athens, GA 30602 USA
                  > voice (706) 542-1765
                  > lab 706-769-1736
                  > fax (706) 542-3872
                  > ksd@... <ksd%40uga.edu>
                  >
                  > Kind Regards,
                  >
                  > Dr. Wyatt A. Mangum
                  > Editor-in-Chief of Apiacta (digital version)
                  > American Bee Journal Columnist on Honey Bee Biology
                  > Mathematics Department
                  > University of Mary Washington
                  > 1301 College Avenue
                  > Fredericksburg, VA 22401 USA
                  > Email: wmangum@... <wmangum%40umw.edu>
                  >
                  >
                  > >>> "nancy lee adamson" <nladamson@... <nladamson%40gmail.com>>
                  > 05/30/08 9:14 AM >>>
                  > I am monitoring bees on various crops, taking visitation counts. On
                  > blueberries, after peak flowering, carpenter bees cut holes into the
                  > flowers
                  > and rob nectar. These holes are then used by honey bees, as well. I have
                  > been including these in monitoring counts, but realized I should probably
                  > remove them. Any thoughts from you all on this? Does anyone know if the
                  > robbers still improve pollination on self- fertile flowers? Thanks for your
                  > thoughts. Nancy
                  >
                  > --
                  > Nancy Adamson
                  > Graduate Student in Entomology at Virginia Tech
                  > tel: 540- 231- 6498
                  >
                  >
                  >



                  --
                  Nancy Adamson
                  Graduate Student in Entomology at Virginia Tech
                  tel: 540-231-6498
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