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Re: [beemonitoring] robbing

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  • Wyatt Mangum
    Dear Nancy, Dr. Delaplane has work with this. His contact address is Dr. Keith S. Delaplane Professor of Entomology 463C Biological Sciences Building
    Message 1 of 16 , May 30, 2008
      Dear Nancy,

      Dr. Delaplane has work with this. His contact address is

      Dr. Keith S. Delaplane
      Professor of Entomology
      463C Biological Sciences Building
      University of Georgia
      Athens, GA 30602 USA
      voice (706) 542-1765
      lab 706-769-1736
      fax (706) 542-3872
      ksd@...



      Kind Regards,

      Dr. Wyatt A. Mangum
      Editor-in-Chief of Apiacta (digital version)
      American Bee Journal Columnist on Honey Bee Biology
      Mathematics Department
      University of Mary Washington
      1301 College Avenue
      Fredericksburg, VA 22401 USA
      Email: wmangum@...


      >>> "nancy lee adamson" <nladamson@...> 05/30/08 9:14 AM >>>
      I am monitoring bees on various crops, taking visitation counts. On
      blueberries, after peak flowering, carpenter bees cut holes into the flowers
      and rob nectar. These holes are then used by honey bees, as well. I have
      been including these in monitoring counts, but realized I should probably
      remove them. Any thoughts from you all on this? Does anyone know if the
      robbers still improve pollination on self- fertile flowers? Thanks for your
      thoughts. Nancy

      --
      Nancy Adamson
      Graduate Student in Entomology at Virginia Tech
      tel: 540- 231- 6498
    • Wilson, Michael E
      Hi Nancy, sounds like we are doing the same thing. Dr. Sampson also has an article on this. Sampson, B. J., Kanka, R. G., Stringer, S. J. (2004). Nectar
      Message 2 of 16 , May 30, 2008
        Hi Nancy, sounds like we are doing the same thing. Dr. Sampson also has an article on this.

        Sampson, B. J., Kanka, R. G., Stringer, S. J. (2004). Nectar robbery by bees Xylocopa virginica and Apis mellifera contributes to the pollination of Rabbiteye Blueberry. Journal of Economic Entomology 97(3): 735-740.

        here's the article I have for Dr. Delaplane

        Dedej, S. and Delaplane K. S. (2004). Nectar-robbing carpenter bees reduce seed-setting capability of honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in Rabbiteye blueberry, Vaccinium ashei, 'Climax'. Environmental Entomology 33(1): 100-106.


        I'm noting if each visitor is 'legitimate visit' or 'robbing' and will use that in determining
        the most significant pollinators. At two of my three sites honey bees provided zero pollination that
        I could tell. Carpenter bees over all seemed to be 'pretty good' pollinators even though some robbed. The bloom
        is over here, but I think I figured out what I need to do next year. I certainly need more locations
        as very different things where happening at each location.

        I'm interested in what you said about robbing occurring after peak bloom. Are you pretty confident
        that it starts after peak bloom? My plans for the 2009 bloom was to visit 7 locations 2 times. I wonder
        if I need to increase the per farm visits to get before, during, and after peak bloom observations per farm?
        One farm I visited never really had a peak bloom though, it was just
        kind of a slow, steady, modest bloom, they trimmed heavily the previous year due to the frost, and I think
        that must have affected their bloom this year. They had robbing the entire time.

        -Thanks,
        Michael Wilson (UTK grad student)


        -----Original Message-----
        From: beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com on behalf of Wyatt Mangum
        Sent: Fri 5/30/2008 9:25 AM
        To: beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com
        Subject: Re: [beemonitoring] robbing

        Dear Nancy,

        Dr. Delaplane has work with this. His contact address is

        Dr. Keith S. Delaplane
        Professor of Entomology
        463C Biological Sciences Building
        University of Georgia
        Athens, GA 30602 USA
        voice (706) 542-1765
        lab 706-769-1736
        fax (706) 542-3872
        ksd@...



        Kind Regards,

        Dr. Wyatt A. Mangum
        Editor-in-Chief of Apiacta (digital version)
        American Bee Journal Columnist on Honey Bee Biology
        Mathematics Department
        University of Mary Washington
        1301 College Avenue
        Fredericksburg, VA 22401 USA
        Email: wmangum@...


        >>> "nancy lee adamson" <nladamson@...> 05/30/08 9:14 AM >>>
        I am monitoring bees on various crops, taking visitation counts. On
        blueberries, after peak flowering, carpenter bees cut holes into the flowers
        and rob nectar. These holes are then used by honey bees, as well. I have
        been including these in monitoring counts, but realized I should probably
        remove them. Any thoughts from you all on this? Does anyone know if the
        robbers still improve pollination on self- fertile flowers? Thanks for your
        thoughts. Nancy

        --
        Nancy Adamson
        Graduate Student in Entomology at Virginia Tech
        tel: 540- 231- 6498
      • nancy lee adamson
        Hi, Michael, Thank you very much!! I sent separate thanks to Dr. Mangum, but will reply to your questions to the whole group. I am not sure that robbing only
        Message 3 of 16 , May 30, 2008
          Hi, Michael,

          Thank you very much!! I sent separate thanks to Dr. Mangum, but will reply to your questions to the whole group. 

          I am not sure that robbing only occurs after peak bloom, but last year noticed that carpenter robbers and honey bee robber followers were more abundant once the bumblebees generally seemed to have moved elsewhere (I don't know where).  That was at one site last year.  At another site this year, on my first visit, carpenter bees were not robbing, but in subsequent visits, they were (and like the other site, there were fewer pollinators generally by that time).  These were highbush blueberries.

          I only have one site that has rabbiteye blueberry and it is not a large planting.  When I visited that, there were primarily worker bumblebees pollinating.  Honey bees were pollinating and robbing, but the number of robber holes seemed lower than in highbush blueberries, and I only saw/heard a couple carpenter bees.  Earlier, on highbush blueberries, I found a large number of andrenid bees (never robbing), but by the time I monitored rabbiteye, it was quite a bit later (more than a week), I did not find many andrenids at all.  I don't know if they are gone for the season or visiting other plants with higher amounts of nectar.

          I do think visiting several times is helpful (early in the bloom season to later), since a change was very noticeable at sites I visited.  I did find that at one site, honey bees were much more abundant compared to 2 other sites, both located in wooded mountains.

          Did you inquire earlier about trap nests?  Have you incorporated that into your project?

          Nancy

          On Fri, May 30, 2008 at 10:18 AM, Wilson, Michael E <mwilso14@...> wrote:

          Hi Nancy, sounds like we are doing the same thing. Dr. Sampson also has an article on this.

          Sampson, B. J., Kanka, R. G., Stringer, S. J. (2004). Nectar robbery by bees Xylocopa virginica and Apis mellifera contributes to the pollination of Rabbiteye Blueberry. Journal of Economic Entomology 97(3): 735-740.

          here's the article I have for Dr. Delaplane

          Dedej, S. and Delaplane K. S. (2004). Nectar-robbing carpenter bees reduce seed-setting capability of honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in Rabbiteye blueberry, Vaccinium ashei, 'Climax'. Environmental Entomology 33(1): 100-106.

          I'm noting if each visitor is 'legitimate visit' or 'robbing' and will use that in determining
          the most significant pollinators. At two of my three sites honey bees provided zero pollination that
          I could tell. Carpenter bees over all seemed to be 'pretty good' pollinators even though some robbed. The bloom
          is over here, but I think I figured out what I need to do next year. I certainly need more locations
          as very different things where happening at each location.

          I'm interested in what you said about robbing occurring after peak bloom. Are you pretty confident
          that it starts after peak bloom? My plans for the 2009 bloom was to visit 7 locations 2 times. I wonder
          if I need to increase the per farm visits to get before, during, and after peak bloom observations per farm?
          One farm I visited never really had a peak bloom though, it was just
          kind of a slow, steady, modest bloom, they trimmed heavily the previous year due to the frost, and I think
          that must have affected their bloom this year. They had robbing the entire time.

          -Thanks,
          Michael Wilson (UTK grad student)



          -----Original Message-----
          From: beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com on behalf of Wyatt Mangum
          Sent: Fri 5/30/2008 9:25 AM
          To: beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com
          Subject: Re: [beemonitoring] robbing

          Dear Nancy,

          Dr. Delaplane has work with this. His contact address is

          Dr. Keith S. Delaplane
          Professor of Entomology
          463C Biological Sciences Building
          University of Georgia
          Athens, GA 30602 USA
          voice (706) 542-1765
          lab 706-769-1736
          fax (706) 542-3872
          ksd@...

          Kind Regards,

          Dr. Wyatt A. Mangum
          Editor-in-Chief of Apiacta (digital version)
          American Bee Journal Columnist on Honey Bee Biology
          Mathematics Department
          University of Mary Washington
          1301 College Avenue
          Fredericksburg, VA 22401 USA
          Email: wmangum@...


          >>> "nancy lee adamson" <nladamson@...> 05/30/08 9:14 AM >>>
          I am monitoring bees on various crops, taking visitation counts. On
          blueberries, after peak flowering, carpenter bees cut holes into the flowers
          and rob nectar. These holes are then used by honey bees, as well. I have
          been including these in monitoring counts, but realized I should probably
          remove them. Any thoughts from you all on this? Does anyone know if the
          robbers still improve pollination on self- fertile flowers? Thanks for your
          thoughts. Nancy

          --
          Nancy Adamson
          Graduate Student in Entomology at Virginia Tech
          tel: 540- 231- 6498




          --
          Nancy Adamson
          Graduate Student in Entomology at Virginia Tech
          tel: 540-231-6498
        • David Inouye
          Nancy - I don t know about blueberries in particular, but in some species nectar robbers can effect pollination. See this paper: Maloof, J. E. and D. W.
          Message 4 of 16 , May 30, 2008
            Nancy - I don't know about blueberries in particular, but in some
            species nectar robbers can effect pollination. See this paper:

            Maloof, J. E. and D. W. Inouye. 2000. Are nectar robbers cheaters or
            mutualists? Ecology 81:2651-2661.


            At 09:14 AM 5/30/2008, you wrote:

            >I am monitoring bees on various crops, taking visitation counts. On
            >blueberries, after peak flowering, carpenter bees cut holes into the
            >flowers and rob nectar. These holes are then used by honey bees, as
            >well. I have been including these in monitoring counts, but
            >realized I should probably remove them. Any thoughts from you all
            >on this? Does anyone know if the robbers still improve pollination
            >on self-fertile flowers? Thanks for your thoughts. Nancy
            >
            >--
            >Nancy Adamson
            >Graduate Student in Entomology at Virginia Tech
            >tel: 540-231-6498
            >
          • Wilson, Michael E
            Quote Did you inquire earlier about trap nests? Have you incorporated that into your project? Yes we did, but no use as of yet. My lab partner found another
            Message 5 of 16 , May 30, 2008
              Quote
              "Did you inquire earlier about trap nests? Have you incorporated that into your project?"

              Yes we did, but no use as of yet. My lab partner found another southeastern study where
              only wasps used trap nests. I don't know how effective they may be in the southeast.

              Anyone have any luck with trap nests in the southeast?

              One site has Osmia nesting in fences, but not utilizing the trap nests. I've seen some
              Osmia on blueberries where I put a trap nest, but no use there either. We have 10 of them
              out and will increase that substantially next year, depending on $&time.

              Sounds like a very different scenario at your locations too. Nearly all the bumble bees I saw,
              which where few, were queens. I would be willing to cooperate standardization of data collection
              if you, and others in nearby regions, would be interested in working together on that.

              -Michael Wilson



              -----Original Message-----
              From: beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com on behalf of nancy lee adamson
              Sent: Fri 5/30/2008 10:40 AM
              To: beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com
              Subject: Re: [beemonitoring] robbing

              Hi, Michael,

              Thank you very much!! I sent separate thanks to Dr. Mangum, but will reply
              to your questions to the whole group.

              I am not sure that robbing only occurs after peak bloom, but last year
              noticed that carpenter robbers and honey bee robber followers were more
              abundant once the bumblebees generally seemed to have moved elsewhere (I
              don't know where). That was at one site last year. At another site this
              year, on my first visit, carpenter bees were not robbing, but in subsequent
              visits, they were (and like the other site, there were fewer pollinators
              generally by that time). These were highbush blueberries.

              I only have one site that has rabbiteye blueberry and it is not a large
              planting. When I visited that, there were primarily worker bumblebees
              pollinating. Honey bees were pollinating and robbing, but the number of
              robber holes seemed lower than in highbush blueberries, and I only saw/heard
              a couple carpenter bees. Earlier, on highbush blueberries, I found a large
              number of andrenid bees (never robbing), but by the time I monitored
              rabbiteye, it was quite a bit later (more than a week), I did not find many
              andrenids at all. I don't know if they are gone for the season or visiting
              other plants with higher amounts of nectar.

              I do think visiting several times is helpful (early in the bloom season to
              later), since a change was very noticeable at sites I visited. I did find
              that at one site, honey bees were much more abundant compared to 2 other
              sites, both located in wooded mountains.

              Did you inquire earlier about trap nests? Have you incorporated that into
              your project?

              Nancy

              On Fri, May 30, 2008 at 10:18 AM, Wilson, Michael E <mwilso14@...>
              wrote:

              > Hi Nancy, sounds like we are doing the same thing. Dr. Sampson also has
              > an article on this.
              >
              > Sampson, B. J., Kanka, R. G., Stringer, S. J. (2004). Nectar robbery by
              > bees Xylocopa virginica and Apis mellifera contributes to the pollination of
              > Rabbiteye Blueberry. Journal of Economic Entomology 97(3): 735-740.
              >
              > here's the article I have for Dr. Delaplane
              >
              > Dedej, S. and Delaplane K. S. (2004). Nectar-robbing carpenter bees reduce
              > seed-setting capability of honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in Rabbiteye
              > blueberry, Vaccinium ashei, 'Climax'. Environmental Entomology 33(1):
              > 100-106.
              >
              > I'm noting if each visitor is 'legitimate visit' or 'robbing' and will use
              > that in determining
              > the most significant pollinators. At two of my three sites honey bees
              > provided zero pollination that
              > I could tell. Carpenter bees over all seemed to be 'pretty good'
              > pollinators even though some robbed. The bloom
              > is over here, but I think I figured out what I need to do next year. I
              > certainly need more locations
              > as very different things where happening at each location.
              >
              > I'm interested in what you said about robbing occurring after peak bloom.
              > Are you pretty confident
              > that it starts after peak bloom? My plans for the 2009 bloom was to visit 7
              > locations 2 times. I wonder
              > if I need to increase the per farm visits to get before, during, and after
              > peak bloom observations per farm?
              > One farm I visited never really had a peak bloom though, it was just
              > kind of a slow, steady, modest bloom, they trimmed heavily the previous
              > year due to the frost, and I think
              > that must have affected their bloom this year. They had robbing the entire
              > time.
              >
              > -Thanks,
              > Michael Wilson (UTK grad student)
              >
              >
              > -----Original Message-----
              > From: beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com <beemonitoring%40yahoogroups.com> on
              > behalf of Wyatt Mangum
              > Sent: Fri 5/30/2008 9:25 AM
              > To: beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com <beemonitoring%40yahoogroups.com>
              > Subject: Re: [beemonitoring] robbing
              >
              > Dear Nancy,
              >
              > Dr. Delaplane has work with this. His contact address is
              >
              > Dr. Keith S. Delaplane
              > Professor of Entomology
              > 463C Biological Sciences Building
              > University of Georgia
              > Athens, GA 30602 USA
              > voice (706) 542-1765
              > lab 706-769-1736
              > fax (706) 542-3872
              > ksd@... <ksd%40uga.edu>
              >
              > Kind Regards,
              >
              > Dr. Wyatt A. Mangum
              > Editor-in-Chief of Apiacta (digital version)
              > American Bee Journal Columnist on Honey Bee Biology
              > Mathematics Department
              > University of Mary Washington
              > 1301 College Avenue
              > Fredericksburg, VA 22401 USA
              > Email: wmangum@... <wmangum%40umw.edu>
              >
              >
              > >>> "nancy lee adamson" <nladamson@... <nladamson%40gmail.com>>
              > 05/30/08 9:14 AM >>>
              > I am monitoring bees on various crops, taking visitation counts. On
              > blueberries, after peak flowering, carpenter bees cut holes into the
              > flowers
              > and rob nectar. These holes are then used by honey bees, as well. I have
              > been including these in monitoring counts, but realized I should probably
              > remove them. Any thoughts from you all on this? Does anyone know if the
              > robbers still improve pollination on self- fertile flowers? Thanks for your
              > thoughts. Nancy
              >
              > --
              > Nancy Adamson
              > Graduate Student in Entomology at Virginia Tech
              > tel: 540- 231- 6498
              >
              >
              >



              --
              Nancy Adamson
              Graduate Student in Entomology at Virginia Tech
              tel: 540-231-6498
            • Hendrix, Stephen D
              I ve been conducting some trap nest experiments around Iowa City (east-central IA) for the past two summers. We ve tried out wood blocks with holes drilled
              Message 6 of 16 , May 30, 2008
                I've been conducting some trap nest experiments around Iowa City (east-central IA) for the past two summers. We've tried out wood blocks with holes drilled of various sizes and sets of bamboo tubes. We've placed these in small prairie remnants. We get some bees (not identified yet to species-definitely Megachilidae and probably Ceratina) and lots of wasps. Double occupancy is common with bees and wasps in the same tube - maybe sequentially over the summer.

                Cheers,
                Steve Hendrix



                -----Original Message-----
                From: beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com [mailto:beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of Wilson, Michael E
                Sent: Friday, May 30, 2008 10:44 AM
                To: beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com
                Subject: RE: [beemonitoring] robbing

                Quote
                "Did you inquire earlier about trap nests? Have you incorporated that into your project?"

                Yes we did, but no use as of yet. My lab partner found another southeastern study where
                only wasps used trap nests. I don't know how effective they may be in the southeast.

                Anyone have any luck with trap nests in the southeast?

                One site has Osmia nesting in fences, but not utilizing the trap nests. I've seen some
                Osmia on blueberries where I put a trap nest, but no use there either. We have 10 of them
                out and will increase that substantially next year, depending on $&time.

                Sounds like a very different scenario at your locations too. Nearly all the bumble bees I saw,
                which where few, were queens. I would be willing to cooperate standardization of data collection
                if you, and others in nearby regions, would be interested in working together on that.

                -Michael Wilson



                -----Original Message-----
                From: beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com on behalf of nancy lee adamson
                Sent: Fri 5/30/2008 10:40 AM
                To: beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com
                Subject: Re: [beemonitoring] robbing

                Hi, Michael,

                Thank you very much!! I sent separate thanks to Dr. Mangum, but will reply
                to your questions to the whole group.

                I am not sure that robbing only occurs after peak bloom, but last year
                noticed that carpenter robbers and honey bee robber followers were more
                abundant once the bumblebees generally seemed to have moved elsewhere (I
                don't know where). That was at one site last year. At another site this
                year, on my first visit, carpenter bees were not robbing, but in subsequent
                visits, they were (and like the other site, there were fewer pollinators
                generally by that time). These were highbush blueberries.

                I only have one site that has rabbiteye blueberry and it is not a large
                planting. When I visited that, there were primarily worker bumblebees
                pollinating. Honey bees were pollinating and robbing, but the number of
                robber holes seemed lower than in highbush blueberries, and I only saw/heard
                a couple carpenter bees. Earlier, on highbush blueberries, I found a large
                number of andrenid bees (never robbing), but by the time I monitored
                rabbiteye, it was quite a bit later (more than a week), I did not find many
                andrenids at all. I don't know if they are gone for the season or visiting
                other plants with higher amounts of nectar.

                I do think visiting several times is helpful (early in the bloom season to
                later), since a change was very noticeable at sites I visited. I did find
                that at one site, honey bees were much more abundant compared to 2 other
                sites, both located in wooded mountains.

                Did you inquire earlier about trap nests? Have you incorporated that into
                your project?

                Nancy

                On Fri, May 30, 2008 at 10:18 AM, Wilson, Michael E <mwilso14@...>
                wrote:

                > Hi Nancy, sounds like we are doing the same thing. Dr. Sampson also has
                > an article on this.
                >
                > Sampson, B. J., Kanka, R. G., Stringer, S. J. (2004). Nectar robbery by
                > bees Xylocopa virginica and Apis mellifera contributes to the pollination of
                > Rabbiteye Blueberry. Journal of Economic Entomology 97(3): 735-740.
                >
                > here's the article I have for Dr. Delaplane
                >
                > Dedej, S. and Delaplane K. S. (2004). Nectar-robbing carpenter bees reduce
                > seed-setting capability of honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in Rabbiteye
                > blueberry, Vaccinium ashei, 'Climax'. Environmental Entomology 33(1):
                > 100-106.
                >
                > I'm noting if each visitor is 'legitimate visit' or 'robbing' and will use
                > that in determining
                > the most significant pollinators. At two of my three sites honey bees
                > provided zero pollination that
                > I could tell. Carpenter bees over all seemed to be 'pretty good'
                > pollinators even though some robbed. The bloom
                > is over here, but I think I figured out what I need to do next year. I
                > certainly need more locations
                > as very different things where happening at each location.
                >
                > I'm interested in what you said about robbing occurring after peak bloom.
                > Are you pretty confident
                > that it starts after peak bloom? My plans for the 2009 bloom was to visit 7
                > locations 2 times. I wonder
                > if I need to increase the per farm visits to get before, during, and after
                > peak bloom observations per farm?
                > One farm I visited never really had a peak bloom though, it was just
                > kind of a slow, steady, modest bloom, they trimmed heavily the previous
                > year due to the frost, and I think
                > that must have affected their bloom this year. They had robbing the entire
                > time.
                >
                > -Thanks,
                > Michael Wilson (UTK grad student)
                >
                >
                > -----Original Message-----
                > From: beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com <beemonitoring%40yahoogroups.com> on
                > behalf of Wyatt Mangum
                > Sent: Fri 5/30/2008 9:25 AM
                > To: beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com <beemonitoring%40yahoogroups.com>
                > Subject: Re: [beemonitoring] robbing
                >
                > Dear Nancy,
                >
                > Dr. Delaplane has work with this. His contact address is
                >
                > Dr. Keith S. Delaplane
                > Professor of Entomology
                > 463C Biological Sciences Building
                > University of Georgia
                > Athens, GA 30602 USA
                > voice (706) 542-1765
                > lab 706-769-1736
                > fax (706) 542-3872
                > ksd@... <ksd%40uga.edu>
                >
                > Kind Regards,
                >
                > Dr. Wyatt A. Mangum
                > Editor-in-Chief of Apiacta (digital version)
                > American Bee Journal Columnist on Honey Bee Biology
                > Mathematics Department
                > University of Mary Washington
                > 1301 College Avenue
                > Fredericksburg, VA 22401 USA
                > Email: wmangum@... <wmangum%40umw.edu>
                >
                >
                > >>> "nancy lee adamson" <nladamson@... <nladamson%40gmail.com>>
                > 05/30/08 9:14 AM >>>
                > I am monitoring bees on various crops, taking visitation counts. On
                > blueberries, after peak flowering, carpenter bees cut holes into the
                > flowers
                > and rob nectar. These holes are then used by honey bees, as well. I have
                > been including these in monitoring counts, but realized I should probably
                > remove them. Any thoughts from you all on this? Does anyone know if the
                > robbers still improve pollination on self- fertile flowers? Thanks for your
                > thoughts. Nancy
                >
                > --
                > Nancy Adamson
                > Graduate Student in Entomology at Virginia Tech
                > tel: 540- 231- 6498
                >
                >
                >



                --
                Nancy Adamson
                Graduate Student in Entomology at Virginia Tech
                tel: 540-231-6498
              • Riddle,T Charles
                I have two of the earliest highbush licensed from the University of Florida. In these varieties in the panhandle of Florida I have noticed the robbing occur
                Message 7 of 16 , May 30, 2008
                  I have two of the earliest highbush licensed from the University of Florida. In these varieties in the panhandle of Florida I have noticed the robbing occur at first bloom which is very early here (March). There were no honey bees at that time. The bees were the larger of our two carpenter bee species.

                  -----Original Message-----
                  From: beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com [mailto:beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of Wilson, Michael E
                  Sent: Friday, May 30, 2008 11:44 AM
                  To: beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com
                  Subject: RE: [beemonitoring] robbing

                  Quote
                  "Did you inquire earlier about trap nests? Have you incorporated that into your project?"

                  Yes we did, but no use as of yet. My lab partner found another southeastern study where
                  only wasps used trap nests. I don't know how effective they may be in the southeast.

                  Anyone have any luck with trap nests in the southeast?

                  One site has Osmia nesting in fences, but not utilizing the trap nests. I've seen some
                  Osmia on blueberries where I put a trap nest, but no use there either. We have 10 of them
                  out and will increase that substantially next year, depending on $&time.

                  Sounds like a very different scenario at your locations too. Nearly all the bumble bees I saw,
                  which where few, were queens. I would be willing to cooperate standardization of data collection
                  if you, and others in nearby regions, would be interested in working together on that.

                  -Michael Wilson



                  -----Original Message-----
                  From: beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com on behalf of nancy lee adamson
                  Sent: Fri 5/30/2008 10:40 AM
                  To: beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com
                  Subject: Re: [beemonitoring] robbing

                  Hi, Michael,

                  Thank you very much!! I sent separate thanks to Dr. Mangum, but will reply
                  to your questions to the whole group.

                  I am not sure that robbing only occurs after peak bloom, but last year
                  noticed that carpenter robbers and honey bee robber followers were more
                  abundant once the bumblebees generally seemed to have moved elsewhere (I
                  don't know where). That was at one site last year. At another site this
                  year, on my first visit, carpenter bees were not robbing, but in subsequent
                  visits, they were (and like the other site, there were fewer pollinators
                  generally by that time). These were highbush blueberries.

                  I only have one site that has rabbiteye blueberry and it is not a large
                  planting. When I visited that, there were primarily worker bumblebees
                  pollinating. Honey bees were pollinating and robbing, but the number of
                  robber holes seemed lower than in highbush blueberries, and I only saw/heard
                  a couple carpenter bees. Earlier, on highbush blueberries, I found a large
                  number of andrenid bees (never robbing), but by the time I monitored
                  rabbiteye, it was quite a bit later (more than a week), I did not find many
                  andrenids at all. I don't know if they are gone for the season or visiting
                  other plants with higher amounts of nectar.

                  I do think visiting several times is helpful (early in the bloom season to
                  later), since a change was very noticeable at sites I visited. I did find
                  that at one site, honey bees were much more abundant compared to 2 other
                  sites, both located in wooded mountains.

                  Did you inquire earlier about trap nests? Have you incorporated that into
                  your project?

                  Nancy

                  On Fri, May 30, 2008 at 10:18 AM, Wilson, Michael E <mwilso14@...>
                  wrote:

                  > Hi Nancy, sounds like we are doing the same thing. Dr. Sampson also has
                  > an article on this.
                  >
                  > Sampson, B. J., Kanka, R. G., Stringer, S. J. (2004). Nectar robbery by
                  > bees Xylocopa virginica and Apis mellifera contributes to the pollination of
                  > Rabbiteye Blueberry. Journal of Economic Entomology 97(3): 735-740.
                  >
                  > here's the article I have for Dr. Delaplane
                  >
                  > Dedej, S. and Delaplane K. S. (2004). Nectar-robbing carpenter bees reduce
                  > seed-setting capability of honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in Rabbiteye
                  > blueberry, Vaccinium ashei, 'Climax'. Environmental Entomology 33(1):
                  > 100-106.
                  >
                  > I'm noting if each visitor is 'legitimate visit' or 'robbing' and will use
                  > that in determining
                  > the most significant pollinators. At two of my three sites honey bees
                  > provided zero pollination that
                  > I could tell. Carpenter bees over all seemed to be 'pretty good'
                  > pollinators even though some robbed. The bloom
                  > is over here, but I think I figured out what I need to do next year. I
                  > certainly need more locations
                  > as very different things where happening at each location.
                  >
                  > I'm interested in what you said about robbing occurring after peak bloom.
                  > Are you pretty confident
                  > that it starts after peak bloom? My plans for the 2009 bloom was to visit 7
                  > locations 2 times. I wonder
                  > if I need to increase the per farm visits to get before, during, and after
                  > peak bloom observations per farm?
                  > One farm I visited never really had a peak bloom though, it was just
                  > kind of a slow, steady, modest bloom, they trimmed heavily the previous
                  > year due to the frost, and I think
                  > that must have affected their bloom this year. They had robbing the entire
                  > time.
                  >
                  > -Thanks,
                  > Michael Wilson (UTK grad student)
                  >
                  >
                  > -----Original Message-----
                  > From: beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com <beemonitoring%40yahoogroups.com> on
                  > behalf of Wyatt Mangum
                  > Sent: Fri 5/30/2008 9:25 AM
                  > To: beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com <beemonitoring%40yahoogroups.com>
                  > Subject: Re: [beemonitoring] robbing
                  >
                  > Dear Nancy,
                  >
                  > Dr. Delaplane has work with this. His contact address is
                  >
                  > Dr. Keith S. Delaplane
                  > Professor of Entomology
                  > 463C Biological Sciences Building
                  > University of Georgia
                  > Athens, GA 30602 USA
                  > voice (706) 542-1765
                  > lab 706-769-1736
                  > fax (706) 542-3872
                  > ksd@... <ksd%40uga.edu>
                  >
                  > Kind Regards,
                  >
                  > Dr. Wyatt A. Mangum
                  > Editor-in-Chief of Apiacta (digital version)
                  > American Bee Journal Columnist on Honey Bee Biology
                  > Mathematics Department
                  > University of Mary Washington
                  > 1301 College Avenue
                  > Fredericksburg, VA 22401 USA
                  > Email: wmangum@... <wmangum%40umw.edu>
                  >
                  >
                  > >>> "nancy lee adamson" <nladamson@... <nladamson%40gmail.com>>
                  > 05/30/08 9:14 AM >>>
                  > I am monitoring bees on various crops, taking visitation counts. On
                  > blueberries, after peak flowering, carpenter bees cut holes into the
                  > flowers
                  > and rob nectar. These holes are then used by honey bees, as well. I have
                  > been including these in monitoring counts, but realized I should probably
                  > remove them. Any thoughts from you all on this? Does anyone know if the
                  > robbers still improve pollination on self- fertile flowers? Thanks for your
                  > thoughts. Nancy
                  >
                  > --
                  > Nancy Adamson
                  > Graduate Student in Entomology at Virginia Tech
                  > tel: 540- 231- 6498
                  >
                  >
                  >



                  --
                  Nancy Adamson
                  Graduate Student in Entomology at Virginia Tech
                  tel: 540-231-6498
                • Cane, Jim
                  Nancy- from my dozen or so years with rabbiteye blueberry pollination and pollinators, it was clear that Xylocopa virginica was only visiting the flowers to
                  Message 8 of 16 , May 30, 2008

                    Nancy- from my dozen or so years with rabbiteye blueberry pollination and pollinators, it was clear that Xylocopa virginica was only visiting the flowers to rob for nectar, year in, year out, throughout the season.  Once they were doing this, it did not take long for honeybees to learn to use the holes and then they two only robbed the flowers.  Where an early cultivar (like ‘Climax’) preceded carpenter bee flight in a given year, or where carpenter bees were scarce, honey bees would visit legitimately.  Where other pollinators (esp. Habropoda laboriosa) were abundant, honey bee pollination efficacy was awful (I think because they could remove little pollen from flowers with their weak ability to shake the anthers).  I’ll add a few citations of mine for you below.

                     

                    If Xylocopa micans has made it as far north as you (it was increasing in central Alabama as I was leaving…in past decades, it was a far south bee), it made me refine my generalizations, as I found several audibly sonicating rabbiteye blueberry flowers for pollen, something I never heard from thousands of X. virginica.  One year, to my surprise, I also found honeybees vainly probing my little black Sharpie marks on rabbiteye corollas, as though they were holes.  Naturally, I set up an experiment for this the following year and failed to elicit the response.  I still think it could be a cool behavioral experiment to study the early individual learning of floral robbery.

                     

                    So my short answer is that no robbing honey bee or carpenter bee should be counted as a potential pollinator, and it may be the majority of them in many contexts.

                     

                    Yours,

                     

                    Jim

                     

                     

                    Cane, J. H. and J. A. Payne. 1990.  Native bee pollinates rabbiteye blueberry. Highlights of Agricultural Research 37:4.

                    Cane, J. H. and J. A. Payne. 1993.  Regional, annual and seasonal variation in pollinator guilds: intrinsic traits of bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) underlie their patterns of abundance at Vaccinium ashei ( Eric aceae). Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 86:577-588.

                    Cane, J. H. 1997. Lifetime monetary value of individual pollinators: the bee Habropoda laboriosa at rabbiteye blueberry (Vaccinium ashei Reade). Acta Horticulturae 446:67-70.

                    Sampson, B. J. and J. H. Cane. 2000. Pollination efficiencies of three bee (Hymenoptera : Apoidea) species visiting rabbiteye blueberry. J. Econ. Entomol. 93:1726-1731.

                     

                     

                    ===============================

                    James H. Cane

                    USDA-ARS Bee Biology and Systematics Lab

                    Utah State University , Logan , UT 84322 USA

                    tel: 435-797-3879   FAX: 435-797-0461

                    email: Jim.Cane@... 

                    web page: www.ars.usda.gov/npa/beelab

                     

                    "Embrace entropy"

                     

                  • nancy lee adamson
                    Michael and other potential collaborators, I think it would be wonderful if we could try to standardize a methodology, but this is just my second summer, and I
                    Message 9 of 16 , May 30, 2008
                      Michael and other potential collaborators,

                      I think it would be wonderful if we could try to standardize a methodology, but this is just my second summer, and I realize that the work I'm patterning my research on is based on many years of study and experience that I don't yet have.  I hope I've understood  the methodology well and apologize if  I'm misrepresenting it below.

                      For monitoring visitation this year, I've been using a methodology patterned on Rachael Winfree's work, with 45 second visual counts of flowers open and visitors at open flowers each meter along a 40 meter transect.  I distinguish honey bees, bumblebees, carpenter bees (and now hope to see if I have something besides Xylocopa virginica here) and have grouped the rest into medium and small bees, plus, large, medium and small wasps, ants, Lepidoptera (noting species, if possible).  This is followed with netting at flower for 30 minutes for identification later to species.  For apples and blueberries, I tried to sample in the a.m. and the p.m. (Winfree used three sampling periods, I believe), though temperatures and weather didn't always permit this at my sites.  I also used bowl traps each day on site, recognizing that these trap a lot of non-pollinator species.  For squash, I expect to sample twice, but once very early and once later in the morning).

                      I welcome suggestions, as I will be working on some vegetable crops and brambles later this summer, and could adjust the methodology. 

                      Nancy

                      On Fri, May 30, 2008 at 11:43 AM, Wilson, Michael E <mwilso14@...> wrote:

                      Quote


                      "Did you inquire earlier about trap nests? Have you incorporated that into your project?"

                      Yes we did, but no use as of yet. My lab partner found another southeastern study where
                      only wasps used trap nests. I don't know how effective they may be in the southeast.

                      Anyone have any luck with trap nests in the southeast?

                      One site has Osmia nesting in fences, but not utilizing the trap nests. I've seen some
                      Osmia on blueberries where I put a trap nest, but no use there either. We have 10 of them
                      out and will increase that substantially next year, depending on $&time.

                      Sounds like a very different scenario at your locations too. Nearly all the bumble bees I saw,
                      which where few, were queens. I would be willing to cooperate standardization of data collection
                      if you, and others in nearby regions, would be interested in working together on that.

                      -Michael Wilson


                      -----Original Message-----
                      From: beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com on behalf of nancy lee adamson
                      Sent: Fri 5/30/2008 10:40 AM
                      To: beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com
                      Subject: Re: [beemonitoring] robbing

                      Hi, Michael,

                      Thank you very much!! I sent separate thanks to Dr. Mangum, but will reply
                      to your questions to the whole group.

                      I am not sure that robbing only occurs after peak bloom, but last year
                      noticed that carpenter robbers and honey bee robber followers were more
                      abundant once the bumblebees generally seemed to have moved elsewhere (I
                      don't know where). That was at one site last year. At another site this
                      year, on my first visit, carpenter bees were not robbing, but in subsequent
                      visits, they were (and like the other site, there were fewer pollinators
                      generally by that time). These were highbush blueberries.

                      I only have one site that has rabbiteye blueberry and it is not a large
                      planting. When I visited that, there were primarily worker bumblebees
                      pollinating. Honey bees were pollinating and robbing, but the number of
                      robber holes seemed lower than in highbush blueberries, and I only saw/heard
                      a couple carpenter bees. Earlier, on highbush blueberries, I found a large
                      number of andrenid bees (never robbing), but by the time I monitored
                      rabbiteye, it was quite a bit later (more than a week), I did not find many
                      andrenids at all. I don't know if they are gone for the season or visiting
                      other plants with higher amounts of nectar.

                      I do think visiting several times is helpful (early in the bloom season to
                      later), since a change was very noticeable at sites I visited. I did find
                      that at one site, honey bees were much more abundant compared to 2 other
                      sites, both located in wooded mountains.

                      Did you inquire earlier about trap nests? Have you incorporated that into
                      your project?

                      Nancy

                      On Fri, May 30, 2008 at 10:18 AM, Wilson, Michael E <mwilso14@...>
                      wrote:

                      > Hi Nancy, sounds like we are doing the same thing. Dr. Sampson also has
                      > an article on this.
                      >
                      > Sampson, B. J., Kanka, R. G., Stringer, S. J. (2004). Nectar robbery by
                      > bees Xylocopa virginica and Apis mellifera contributes to the pollination of
                      > Rabbiteye Blueberry. Journal of Economic Entomology 97(3): 735-740.
                      >
                      > here's the article I have for Dr. Delaplane
                      >
                      > Dedej, S. and Delaplane K. S. (2004). Nectar-robbing carpenter bees reduce
                      > seed-setting capability of honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in Rabbiteye
                      > blueberry, Vaccinium ashei, 'Climax'. Environmental Entomology 33(1):
                      > 100-106.
                      >
                      > I'm noting if each visitor is 'legitimate visit' or 'robbing' and will use
                      > that in determining
                      > the most significant pollinators. At two of my three sites honey bees
                      > provided zero pollination that
                      > I could tell. Carpenter bees over all seemed to be 'pretty good'
                      > pollinators even though some robbed. The bloom
                      > is over here, but I think I figured out what I need to do next year. I
                      > certainly need more locations
                      > as very different things where happening at each location.
                      >
                      > I'm interested in what you said about robbing occurring after peak bloom.
                      > Are you pretty confident
                      > that it starts after peak bloom? My plans for the 2009 bloom was to visit 7
                      > locations 2 times. I wonder
                      > if I need to increase the per farm visits to get before, during, and after
                      > peak bloom observations per farm?
                      > One farm I visited never really had a peak bloom though, it was just
                      > kind of a slow, steady, modest bloom, they trimmed heavily the previous
                      > year due to the frost, and I think
                      > that must have affected their bloom this year. They had robbing the entire
                      > time.
                      >
                      > -Thanks,
                      > Michael Wilson (UTK grad student)
                      >
                      >
                      > -----Original Message-----
                      > From: beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com <beemonitoring%40yahoogroups.com> on
                      > behalf of Wyatt Mangum
                      > Sent: Fri 5/30/2008 9:25 AM
                      > To: beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com <beemonitoring%40yahoogroups.com>
                      > Subject: Re: [beemonitoring] robbing
                      >
                      > Dear Nancy,
                      >
                      > Dr. Delaplane has work with this. His contact address is
                      >
                      > Dr. Keith S. Delaplane
                      > Professor of Entomology
                      > 463C Biological Sciences Building
                      > University of Georgia
                      > Athens, GA 30602 USA
                      > voice (706) 542-1765
                      > lab 706-769-1736
                      > fax (706) 542-3872
                      > ksd@... <ksd%40uga.edu>

                      >
                      > Kind Regards,
                      >
                      > Dr. Wyatt A. Mangum
                      > Editor-in-Chief of Apiacta (digital version)
                      > American Bee Journal Columnist on Honey Bee Biology
                      > Mathematics Department
                      > University of Mary Washington
                      > 1301 College Avenue
                      > Fredericksburg, VA 22401 USA
                      > Email: wmangum@... <wmangum%40umw.edu>
                      >
                      >
                      > >>> "nancy lee adamson" <nladamson@... <nladamson%40gmail.com>>

                      > 05/30/08 9:14 AM >>>
                      > I am monitoring bees on various crops, taking visitation counts. On
                      > blueberries, after peak flowering, carpenter bees cut holes into the
                      > flowers
                      > and rob nectar. These holes are then used by honey bees, as well. I have
                      > been including these in monitoring counts, but realized I should probably
                      > remove them. Any thoughts from you all on this? Does anyone know if the
                      > robbers still improve pollination on self- fertile flowers? Thanks for your
                      > thoughts. Nancy
                      >
                      > --
                      > Nancy Adamson
                      > Graduate Student in Entomology at Virginia Tech
                      > tel: 540- 231- 6498
                      >
                      >
                      >

                      --
                      Nancy Adamson
                      Graduate Student in Entomology at Virginia Tech
                      tel: 540-231-6498




                      --
                      Nancy Adamson
                      Graduate Student in Entomology at Virginia Tech
                      tel: 540-231-6498
                    • frozenbeedoc@cs.com
                      Dear Nancy, Bob Danka, at the ARS honey bee lab in Baton Rouge, LA did a bunch of work on rabbit-eye blueberry pollination some years ago. His e-mail is
                      Message 10 of 16 , Jun 2, 2008
                        Dear Nancy,

                        Bob Danka, at the ARS honey bee lab in Baton Rouge, LA did a bunch of work on rabbit-eye blueberry pollination some years ago.  His e-mail is rdanka@....  They also have a Web page reached through www.usda.gov.

                        Sincerely,
                        Anita Collins
                      • Wilson, Michael E
                        Jim or others. Can you make sure what I m calling a legitamite pollinator visitor on blueberry is correct? When the bee enters through the end of the flower to
                        Message 11 of 16 , Jun 4, 2008
                          Jim or others. Can you make sure what I'm calling a legitamite pollinator visitor on blueberry
                          is correct? When the bee enters through the end of the flower to access the reward, I'm calling
                          that legitamite, and only ID a visit as robbing when they get the reward from the side of the flower.
                          Am I missing anything that I should be watching for like sonication?

                          I noticed that the legitamite visit bees usually had pollen on them while robbers never did. I saw
                          many Xylocopa virginica legitamitely visiting flowers, as defined by my above assumptions. They usually
                          had pollen on them.

                          Thanks,
                          Michael

                          ________________________________

                          From: beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com on behalf of Cane, Jim
                          Sent: Fri 5/30/2008 12:33 PM
                          To: beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com
                          Subject: RE: [beemonitoring] robbing



                          Nancy- from my dozen or so years with rabbiteye blueberry pollination and pollinators, it was clear that Xylocopa virginica was only visiting the flowers to rob for nectar, year in, year out, throughout the season. Once they were doing this, it did not take long for honeybees to learn to use the holes and then they two only robbed the flowers. Where an early cultivar (like 'Climax') preceded carpenter bee flight in a given year, or where carpenter bees were scarce, honey bees would visit legitimately. Where other pollinators (esp. Habropoda laboriosa) were abundant, honey bee pollination efficacy was awful (I think because they could remove little pollen from flowers with their weak ability to shake the anthers). I'll add a few citations of mine for you below.



                          If Xylocopa micans has made it as far north as you (it was increasing in central Alabama as I was leaving...in past decades, it was a far south bee), it made me refine my generalizations, as I found several audibly sonicating rabbiteye blueberry flowers for pollen, something I never heard from thousands of X. virginica. One year, to my surprise, I also found honeybees vainly probing my little black Sharpie marks on rabbiteye corollas, as though they were holes. Naturally, I set up an experiment for this the following year and failed to elicit the response. I still think it could be a cool behavioral experiment to study the early individual learning of floral robbery.



                          So my short answer is that no robbing honey bee or carpenter bee should be counted as a potential pollinator, and it may be the majority of them in many contexts.



                          Yours,



                          Jim





                          Cane, J. H. and J. A. Payne. 1990. Native bee pollinates rabbiteye blueberry. Highlights of Agricultural Research 37:4.

                          Cane, J. H. and J. A. Payne. 1993. Regional, annual and seasonal variation in pollinator guilds: intrinsic traits of bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) underlie their patterns of abundance at Vaccinium ashei (Ericaceae). Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 86:577-588.

                          Cane, J. H. 1997. Lifetime monetary value of individual pollinators: the bee Habropoda laboriosa at rabbiteye blueberry (Vaccinium ashei Reade). Acta Horticulturae 446:67-70.

                          Sampson, B. J. and J. H. Cane. 2000. Pollination efficiencies of three bee (Hymenoptera : Apoidea) species visiting rabbiteye blueberry. J. Econ. Entomol. 93:1726-1731.





                          ===============================

                          James H. Cane

                          USDA-ARS Bee Biology and Systematics Lab

                          Utah State University, Logan, UT 84322 USA

                          tel: 435-797-3879 FAX: 435-797-0461

                          email: Jim.Cane@...

                          web page: www.ars.usda.gov/npa/beelab



                          "Embrace entropy"
                        • Cane, Jim
                          Michael- I agree with your interpretation of behaviors and positioning on flowers that constitutes robbing or not. I wouldn t think you d have Xylocopa micans
                          Message 12 of 16 , Jun 4, 2008

                            Michael- I agree with your interpretation of behaviors and positioning on flowers that constitutes robbing or not.  I wouldn’t think you’d have Xylocopa micans (yet) as far north as Knoxville .  You could easily check those pollen loads (I presume you are talking about Vaccinium), as the pollen tetrads are distinctive relative to most anything you’d see there outside of the Ericaceae, I think.  If you have legit pollen foraging and pollination by X. virginica in blueberries, well, you’re opening a revised chapter in the story that will require some explanatory thought!

                             

                            Yours,

                             

                            jim

                             

                            ===============================

                            James H. Cane

                            USDA-ARS Bee Biology and Systematics Lab

                            Utah State University , Logan , UT 84322 USA

                            tel: 435-797-3879   FAX: 435-797-0461

                            email: Jim.Cane@... 

                            web page: www.ars.usda.gov/npa/beelab

                             

                            "Embrace entropy"

                             

                          • nancy lee adamson
                            Thank you, Anita. Nancy ... -- Nancy Adamson Graduate Student in Entomology at Virginia Tech tel: 540-231-6498
                            Message 13 of 16 , Jun 4, 2008
                              Thank you, Anita.  Nancy

                              On Mon, Jun 2, 2008 at 9:45 PM, <frozenbeedoc@...> wrote:

                              Dear Nancy,

                              Bob Danka, at the ARS honey bee lab in Baton Rouge, LA did a bunch of work on rabbit-eye blueberry pollination some years ago.  His e-mail is rdanka@....  They also have a Web page reached through www.usda.gov.

                              Sincerely,
                              Anita Collins




                              --
                              Nancy Adamson
                              Graduate Student in Entomology at Virginia Tech
                              tel: 540-231-6498
                            • nancy lee adamson
                              Hi, Michael, I would like to hear more details about the methods you are using. I didn t hear back much since I wrote about Winfree s approach. I am
                              Message 14 of 16 , Jun 10, 2008
                                Hi, Michael,

                                I would like to hear more details about the methods you are using.  I didn't hear back much since I wrote about Winfree's approach.  I am floundering a bit, so would love to hear what has been working well for you.

                                Thanks.  Nancy



                                On Fri, May 30, 2008 at 10:18 AM, Wilson, Michael E <mwilso14@...> wrote:

                                Hi Nancy, sounds like we are doing the same thing. Dr. Sampson also has an article on this.

                                Sampson, B. J., Kanka, R. G., Stringer, S. J. (2004). Nectar robbery by bees Xylocopa virginica and Apis mellifera contributes to the pollination of Rabbiteye Blueberry. Journal of Economic Entomology 97(3): 735-740.

                                here's the article I have for Dr. Delaplane

                                Dedej, S. and Delaplane K. S. (2004). Nectar-robbing carpenter bees reduce seed-setting capability of honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in Rabbiteye blueberry, Vaccinium ashei, 'Climax'. Environmental Entomology 33(1): 100-106.

                                I'm noting if each visitor is 'legitimate visit' or 'robbing' and will use that in determining
                                the most significant pollinators. At two of my three sites honey bees provided zero pollination that
                                I could tell. Carpenter bees over all seemed to be 'pretty good' pollinators even though some robbed. The bloom
                                is over here, but I think I figured out what I need to do next year. I certainly need more locations
                                as very different things where happening at each location.

                                I'm interested in what you said about robbing occurring after peak bloom. Are you pretty confident
                                that it starts after peak bloom? My plans for the 2009 bloom was to visit 7 locations 2 times. I wonder
                                if I need to increase the per farm visits to get before, during, and after peak bloom observations per farm?
                                One farm I visited never really had a peak bloom though, it was just
                                kind of a slow, steady, modest bloom, they trimmed heavily the previous year due to the frost, and I think
                                that must have affected their bloom this year. They had robbing the entire time.

                                -Thanks,
                                Michael Wilson (UTK grad student)



                                -----Original Message-----
                                From: beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com on behalf of Wyatt Mangum
                                Sent: Fri 5/30/2008 9:25 AM
                                To: beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com
                                Subject: Re: [beemonitoring] robbing

                                Dear Nancy,

                                Dr. Delaplane has work with this. His contact address is

                                Dr. Keith S. Delaplane
                                Professor of Entomology
                                463C Biological Sciences Building
                                University of Georgia
                                Athens, GA 30602 USA
                                voice (706) 542-1765
                                lab 706-769-1736
                                fax (706) 542-3872
                                ksd@...

                                Kind Regards,

                                Dr. Wyatt A. Mangum
                                Editor-in-Chief of Apiacta (digital version)
                                American Bee Journal Columnist on Honey Bee Biology
                                Mathematics Department
                                University of Mary Washington
                                1301 College Avenue
                                Fredericksburg, VA 22401 USA
                                Email: wmangum@...


                                >>> "nancy lee adamson" <nladamson@...> 05/30/08 9:14 AM >>>
                                I am monitoring bees on various crops, taking visitation counts. On
                                blueberries, after peak flowering, carpenter bees cut holes into the flowers
                                and rob nectar. These holes are then used by honey bees, as well. I have
                                been including these in monitoring counts, but realized I should probably
                                remove them. Any thoughts from you all on this? Does anyone know if the
                                robbers still improve pollination on self- fertile flowers? Thanks for your
                                thoughts. Nancy

                                --
                                Nancy Adamson
                                Graduate Student in Entomology at Virginia Tech
                                tel: 540- 231- 6498




                                --
                                Nancy Adamson
                                Graduate Student in Entomology at Virginia Tech
                                tel: 540-231-6498
                              • Wilson, Michael E
                                Nancy, I had missed your previous ‘methods’ email, but I found it on the list. I have been out of town for a class, but am back now. My direct email is
                                Message 15 of 16 , Jun 11, 2008
                                  Nancy, I had missed your previous ‘methods’ email, but I found it on the list. I have been out of town for a class, but am back now. My direct email is mwilso14@... if you want to discuss directly.

                                  I’ll describe my methods but keep in mind at two summers experience, you have one more year experience then I.

                                  I’m looking at blueberries and cucurbits, but have a different method for each since I’m interested in different questions for those. It could be an advantage to have the same method for squash and blueberries though. A 40 meter transect would be larger than one of my locations. I decided against a bee per flower variable for blueberries due to the many number of flowers per bush. Many flowers are not quite open, but look open at a glance. So I instead went with bees per bush. I’m using % flowering per bush, which is rather subjective but I think its sufficient for my needs, and number of plants per location to check for flowering strength effect on bee numbers per bush. If this seems off, someone feel free to interject. Below is the basics of the blueberry method:

                                  For blueberries, the response variable will be visitation rate per bush by species group. Ten random blueberry bushes at each location (minimum 7 locations) will be observed on at least 2 separate occasions per location (I may increase to 3 if time allows, or decrease location #). Each blueberry bush, will be observed for 5 minutes. Bushes will be rated by percentage flowering to determine if flowering strength effects pollinator number. Pollinators will be counted and organized by species groups of honey bees, bumble bees, carpenter bees, bright green bees, Osmia bees, Habropoda laboriosa, Diptera, Lepidoptera, and other Hymenoptera. Robbing or legitimate visits will be noted to determine if the insect is actually pollinating the flower, or instead, robbing nectar and bypassing pollination. Sex will be noted for carpenter bees to determine if males significantly rob more then females. My preliminary data indicates this.

                                  I am also noting specific families of bees, Lepidoptera, etc. not on the above list if I can distinguish them in the field, like the hummingbird moth, syrphids, etc.

                                  My main questions with blueberries are;

                                  What are the primary and minor pollinators of blueberry?
                                  What contribution do unmanaged bees provide toward pollination of blueberry compared to honey bees?
                                  What contribution do carpenter bees provide towards pollination?
                                  What factors influence carpenter bee robbing, such as nesting females (whom would need pollen) or other factors (planting size, etc.)?

                                  I should also note I did not see a single Habropoda at 5 of the above observation periods in East TN. A farmer co-operator in southern, middle TN whom is also doing the protocol saw one Habropoda (determined by his observation and a not so great photo) among 4 observation periods.

                                  For Cucurbits (watermelon, yellow squash, and pumpkin), I’m using 100 flower transects to get the bee per flower variable. I’ll be following the protocol in:

                                  Willis D. S. and Kevan, P. G. (1995). Foraging dynamics of Peponapis pruinosa (Hymenoptera: Anthophoridae) on pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo) in Southern Ontario. The Candadian Entomologist 127: 167.

                                  and

                                  Shuler, R.E., Roulston, T. H., Farris, G.E. (2005). Farming practicies influence wild pollinator populations on squash and pumpkin. Journal of Economic Entomology 98(3): 790-795.

                                  I will also provide data for/compatible to Jim Cane’s Squash Pollinators of the Americas Survey.

                                  During 2009 I would like to do some bagging experiments and data analysis like in:

                                  Winfree, R., Williams, N. M., Dushoff, J., and Kremen, C. (2007). Native bees provide insurance against ongoing honey bee losses. Ecology Letters 10: 1105-1113.

                                  But time and money is an unknown at this point. I would continue to use the 100 flower transect, but use methods in Winfree for pollen deposition and data analysis.

                                  Squash questions will be typical of Shuler et al and Winfree et al.

                                  Suggestions/comments welcome!

                                  -Michael Wilson




                                  -----Original Message-----
                                  From: beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com on behalf of nancy lee adamson
                                  Sent: Tue 6/10/2008 10:19 AM
                                  To: beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com
                                  Subject: Re: [beemonitoring] robbing

                                  Hi, Michael,

                                  I would like to hear more details about the methods you are using. I didn't
                                  hear back much since I wrote about Winfree's approach. I am floundering a
                                  bit, so would love to hear what has been working well for you.

                                  Thanks. Nancy



                                  On Fri, May 30, 2008 at 10:18 AM, Wilson, Michael E <mwilso14@...>
                                  wrote:

                                  > Hi Nancy, sounds like we are doing the same thing. Dr. Sampson also has
                                  > an article on this.
                                  >
                                  > Sampson, B. J., Kanka, R. G., Stringer, S. J. (2004). Nectar robbery by
                                  > bees Xylocopa virginica and Apis mellifera contributes to the pollination of
                                  > Rabbiteye Blueberry. Journal of Economic Entomology 97(3): 735-740.
                                  >
                                  > here's the article I have for Dr. Delaplane
                                  >
                                  > Dedej, S. and Delaplane K. S. (2004). Nectar-robbing carpenter bees reduce
                                  > seed-setting capability of honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in Rabbiteye
                                  > blueberry, Vaccinium ashei, 'Climax'. Environmental Entomology 33(1):
                                  > 100-106.
                                  >
                                  > I'm noting if each visitor is 'legitimate visit' or 'robbing' and will use
                                  > that in determining
                                  > the most significant pollinators. At two of my three sites honey bees
                                  > provided zero pollination that
                                  > I could tell. Carpenter bees over all seemed to be 'pretty good'
                                  > pollinators even though some robbed. The bloom
                                  > is over here, but I think I figured out what I need to do next year. I
                                  > certainly need more locations
                                  > as very different things where happening at each location.
                                  >
                                  > I'm interested in what you said about robbing occurring after peak bloom.
                                  > Are you pretty confident
                                  > that it starts after peak bloom? My plans for the 2009 bloom was to visit 7
                                  > locations 2 times. I wonder
                                  > if I need to increase the per farm visits to get before, during, and after
                                  > peak bloom observations per farm?
                                  > One farm I visited never really had a peak bloom though, it was just
                                  > kind of a slow, steady, modest bloom, they trimmed heavily the previous
                                  > year due to the frost, and I think
                                  > that must have affected their bloom this year. They had robbing the entire
                                  > time.
                                  >
                                  > -Thanks,
                                  > Michael Wilson (UTK grad student)
                                  >
                                  >
                                  > -----Original Message-----
                                  > From: beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com <beemonitoring%40yahoogroups.com> on
                                  > behalf of Wyatt Mangum
                                  > Sent: Fri 5/30/2008 9:25 AM
                                  > To: beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com <beemonitoring%40yahoogroups.com>
                                  > Subject: Re: [beemonitoring] robbing
                                  >
                                  > Dear Nancy,
                                  >
                                  > Dr. Delaplane has work with this. His contact address is
                                  >
                                  > Dr. Keith S. Delaplane
                                  > Professor of Entomology
                                  > 463C Biological Sciences Building
                                  > University of Georgia
                                  > Athens, GA 30602 USA
                                  > voice (706) 542-1765
                                  > lab 706-769-1736
                                  > fax (706) 542-3872
                                  > ksd@... <ksd%40uga.edu>
                                  >
                                  > Kind Regards,
                                  >
                                  > Dr. Wyatt A. Mangum
                                  > Editor-in-Chief of Apiacta (digital version)
                                  > American Bee Journal Columnist on Honey Bee Biology
                                  > Mathematics Department
                                  > University of Mary Washington
                                  > 1301 College Avenue
                                  > Fredericksburg, VA 22401 USA
                                  > Email: wmangum@... <wmangum%40umw.edu>
                                  >
                                  >
                                  > >>> "nancy lee adamson" <nladamson@... <nladamson%40gmail.com>>
                                  > 05/30/08 9:14 AM >>>
                                  > I am monitoring bees on various crops, taking visitation counts. On
                                  > blueberries, after peak flowering, carpenter bees cut holes into the
                                  > flowers
                                  > and rob nectar. These holes are then used by honey bees, as well. I have
                                  > been including these in monitoring counts, but realized I should probably
                                  > remove them. Any thoughts from you all on this? Does anyone know if the
                                  > robbers still improve pollination on self- fertile flowers? Thanks for your
                                  > thoughts. Nancy
                                  >
                                  > --
                                  > Nancy Adamson
                                  > Graduate Student in Entomology at Virginia Tech
                                  > tel: 540- 231- 6498
                                  >
                                  >
                                  >



                                  --
                                  Nancy Adamson
                                  Graduate Student in Entomology at Virginia Tech
                                  tel: 540-231-6498
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