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A draft annotated list of Established Introduced and Alien Bee Species for North America

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  • Sam Droege
    All: If any of you have additions, corrections, or comments on the species listed below, I would love to incorporate them. If not then I will add this list to
    Message 1 of 5 , Apr 14 8:56 AM
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      All:

      If any of you have additions, corrections, or comments on the species listed below, I would love to incorporate them.  If not then I will add this list to the Handy Bee Manual as a reference point.

      Thanks.

      Sam
      ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------
      North American (North of Mexico) Established Introduced and Alien Bee Species

      Information on distributions come from the literature, active North American collectors, online collection data available via the global mapper on www.discoverlife.org, and John Ascher’s compilation of distributional data.   Thanks for the contributions from Mike Arduser, John Ascher, Rob Jean, and Jack Neff.

      April 2008

      Account Layout:  Genus, Species, Decade of Establishment, Probably Source Population, Current Status in North America north of Mexico

      Apidae

      Apis mellifera  1620.   Europe, Mediterranean region.  Feral colonies present throughout North America north to???  Colony numbers and persistence recently have declined following the introduction of parasitic mites in the 1980s and 1990s.  
      Anthophora plumipes  1980.  Europe and southern China.  Introduced at the USDA Beltsville, MD Honey Bee Laboratory.  Numbers were initially low, but now found commonly in early spring throughout the Washington D.C. metropolitan area where it nests in the ground under porches and frequents planted azaleas.  Has the potential to spread throughout North America.
      Ceratina cobaltina 1970. Mexico. While it is possible this is simply a disjunct Texas population, specimens for this distinctive Mexican species were only recently discovered in Travis and Hidalgo counties
      Ceratina dallatoreana 1940. Mediterranean region.  Central California.
      Centris nitida 2000.  Southwestern U.S., Texas, Mexico, Central America and Northwestern South America.   Recently discovered in southern Florida.  Not expected to spread outside of Florida.
      Euglossa viridissima 2000. Mexico and Central America.   Recently discovered in southern Florida.  Currently found only on the eastern side of the state. Expected to spread to the western side but not invade much further north.
      Xylocopa tabaniformis parkinsoniae Recent.  South Texas.  Recently left its historical haunts along the Rio Grande and now found commonly in urban areas of Central Texas, perhaps translocated there via firewood, but possibly colonized naturally.

      Andrenidae

      Andrena wilkella 1900s.  Europe and northern Asia.  Common throughout the north central and northeastern U.S. and southern Canada.

      Colletidae
       
      Hylaeus leptocephalus 1900.  Europe.  Found throughout the U.S. and southern Canada.  Particularly associated with gardens, urban and disturbed sites.  Often found on Melilotus.
      Hylaeus hyalinatus 1990. Europe.  Currently found in urban areas from New York City and southern Ontario.  Has potential to spread throughout North America.
      Hylaeus punctatus 1980.  Europe.  Currently found in central California, southern South America, New York City, and Washington D.C.  Has potential to spread throughout North America
       
      Halictidae

      Lasioglossum eleutherense 1990.  Bahamas and Cuba.  Four individuals found in the University of Miami Arboretum.  Current status unknown.  Not expected to spread out of Florida.
      Lasioglossum leucozonium 1900s.  Europe and northern China.  Despite its extensive range in Europe and Asia it is limited to the northern areas of central and eastern U.S. and southern Canada.
      Halictus tectus 2000.  Southern Europe to Mongolia.  Known from 2 sites in downtown Philadelphia, PA and Beltsville, MD.  Appears to prefer highly disturbed sites with European weeds.

       Megachilidae

      Anthidium manicatum 1960.  Europe, North Africa, Near East, South Central and South Eastern South America.  Currently found predominantly in northeastern U.S. and southern Canada, however, individuals have shown up in the central states and on the West Coast.  Likely to spread throughout North America.  Associated with large urban and suburban gardens, particularly planted with Stachys.
      Anthidium oblongatum 1990.  Europe and the Near East.  Currently common in northeastern U.S. and southern Canada and moving into the central states and provinces.  Found in most open habitats.  Has potential to spread throughout North America.
      Chelostoma campanularum 1960.  Europe and the Near East.  Found in Upstate New York, Connecticut, and southern Ontario. Has potential to spread throughout North America.
      Chelostoma rapunculi 1960.  Europe and the Near East.  Found in Upstate New York and southern Ontario. Has potential to spread throughout North America.
      Coelioxys coturnix 2000.  Southwestern Europe, North Africa, India.  Currently found in the Baltimore-Washington D.C. corridor.  Has potential to spread throughout the range of Megachile rotundata (its presumed host).
      Hoplitis anthocopoides 1960.  Europe.  Found from West Virginia to southern Ontario.  Potential spread perhaps limited to the range of its reported preferred pollen source, Viper’s Bugloss (Echium vulgare).
      Lithurgus chrysurus 1970.  Europe, Near East, North Africa. Found only in Phillipsburg, New Jersey and Lehigh Gap, Pennsylvania.  Until 2007 there were no recent records, but perhaps due to nobody making an effort to look. Apparently oligolectic on Spotted Knapweed (Centaurea maculosa) and burrows into wood to make a nest.  This species has the potential to be much more destructive than Xylocopa virginica.
      Megachile apicalis 1930.  Europe, North Africa, Near and Middle East.  Western and eastern U.S.   Relatively few records in the East but widespread in the West.
      Megachile concinna 1940.  Africa.  West Indies, Mexico, throughout the U.S. except for the upper Midwest.
      Megachile lanata 1700-1800.  India and China.  Introduced into the West Indies and northern South America where it possibly made its way secondarily to Florida.  Found throughout much of Florida but not likely to spread farther unless it is brought to the southwestern deserts.
      Megachile rotundata 1920-1940.  Europe to China.  Throughout North America to northern Mexico.
      Megachile sculpturalis 1990.  Far eastern China, Korea, Japan.   Eastern and central U.S. and southern Canada.  May move throughout the portion of the continent as they use widely planted, introduced summer blooming leguminous trees and shrubs.
      Osmia caerulescens 1800s.  Europe, North Africa. Near East, India.  Northeastern and Northcentral U.S. and southern Canada. Appears to be less common than it once was, at least towards the south.  No recent records for the mid-Atlantic area despite a great deal of collecting, but still common in upstate New York.
      Osmia cornifrons 1960.  Eastern China, Korea, and Japan.  Introduced to pollinate tree fruit crops.  Feral populations established in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern U.S.  
      Osmia cornuta 1980.  Europe, North Africa, Near East.  Introduced as a pollinator of tree fruit crops, but its establishment has not been documented.
      Osmia taurus 2000.  Eastern China, Japan.  Mid-Atlantic area and Appalachian Mountains.  Appears to be rapidly spreading and often abundant.  

    • T'ai Roulston
      Sam: That is a very useful set of information on alien bees. One thing that would be good to include is whether the introductions were intentional, accidental
      Message 2 of 5 , Apr 14 11:08 AM
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        Sam:

        That is a very useful set of information on alien bees. One thing that would be good to include is whether the introductions were intentional, accidental or unknown, since it frames our perspective on the inevitability (or not) of species movements.

        T'ai
        On Apr 14, 2008, at 11:56 AM, Sam Droege wrote:


        All: 

        If any of you have additions, corrections, or comments on the species listed below, I would love to incorporate them.  If not then I will add this list to the Handy Bee Manual as a reference point. 

        Thanks. 

        Sam 
        ------------ --------- --------- --------- --------- --------- --------- --------- ------ 
        North American (North of Mexico) Established Introduced and Alien Bee Species 

        Information on distributions come from the literature, active North American collectors, online collection data available via the global mapper on www.discoverlife. org, and John Ascher’s compilation of distributional data.   Thanks for the contributions from Mike Arduser, John Ascher, Rob Jean, and Jack Neff. 

        April 2008 

        Account Layout:  Genus, Species, Decade of Establishment, Probably Source Population, Current Status in North America north of Mexico 

        Apidae 

        Apis mellifera  1620.   Europe, Mediterranean region.  Feral colonies present throughout North America north to???  Colony numbers and persistence recently have declined following the introduction of parasitic mites in the 1980s and 1990s.   
        Anthophora plumipes  1980.  Europe and southern China.  Introduced at the USDA Beltsville, MD Honey Bee Laboratory.  Numbers were initially low, but now found commonly in early spring throughout the Washington D.C. metropolitan area where it nests in the ground under porches and frequents planted azaleas.  Has the potential to spread throughout North America. 
        Ceratina cobaltina 1970. Mexico. While it is possible this is simply a disjunct Texas population, specimens for this distinctive Mexican species were only recently discovered in Travis and Hidalgo counties 
        Ceratina dallatoreana 1940. Mediterranean region.  Central California. 
        Centris nitida 2000.  Southwestern U.S., Texas, Mexico, Central America and Northwestern South America.   Recently discovered in southern Florida.  Not expected to spread outside of Florida. 
        Euglossa viridissima 2000. Mexico and Central America.   Recently discovered in southern Florida.  Currently found only on the eastern side of the state. Expected to spread to the western side but not invade much further north. 
        Xylocopa tabaniformis parkinsoniae Recent.  South Texas.  Recently left its historical haunts along the Rio Grande and now found commonly in urban areas of Central Texas, perhaps translocated there via firewood, but possibly colonized naturally. 

        Andrenidae 

        Andrena wilkella 1900s.  Europe and northern Asia.  Common throughout the north central and northeastern U.S. and southern Canada. 

        Colletidae 
          
        Hylaeus leptocephalus 1900.  Europe.  Found throughout the U.S. and southern Canada.  Particularly associated with gardens, urban and disturbed sites.  Often found on Melilotus. 
        Hylaeus hyalinatus 1990. Europe.  Currently found in urban areas from New York City and southern Ontario.  Has potential to spread throughout North America. 
        Hylaeus punctatus 1980.  Europe.  Currently found in central California, southern South America, New York City, and Washington D.C.  Has potential to spread throughout North America 
          
        Halictidae 

        Lasioglossum eleutherense 1990.  Bahamas and Cuba.  Four individuals found in the University of Miami Arboretum.  Current status unknown.  Not expected to spread out of Florida. 
        Lasioglossum leucozonium 1900s.  Europe and northern China.  Despite its extensive range in Europe and Asia it is limited to the northern areas of central and eastern U.S. and southern Canada. 
        Halictus tectus 2000.  Southern Europe to Mongolia.  Known from 2 sites in downtown Philadelphia, PA and Beltsville, MD.  Appears to prefer highly disturbed sites with European weeds. 

         Megachilidae 

        Anthidium manicatum 1960.  Europe, North Africa, Near East, South Central and South Eastern South America.  Currently found predominantly in northeastern U.S. and southern Canada, however, individuals have shown up in the central states and on the West Coast.  Likely to spread throughout North America.  Associated with large urban and suburban gardens, particularly planted with Stachys. 
        Anthidium oblongatum 1990.  Europe and the Near East.  Currently common in northeastern U.S. and southern Canada and moving into the central states and provinces.  Found in most open habitats.  Has potential to spread throughout North America. 
        Chelostoma campanularum 1960.  Europe and the Near East.  Found in Upstate New York, Connecticut, and southern Ontario. Has potential to spread throughout North America. 
        Chelostoma rapunculi 1960.  Europe and the Near East.  Found in Upstate New York and southern Ontario. Has potential to spread throughout North America. 
        Coelioxys coturnix 2000.  Southwestern Europe, North Africa, India.  Currently found in the Baltimore-Washingto n D.C. corridor.  Has potential to spread throughout the range of Megachile rotundata (its presumed host). 
        Hoplitis anthocopoides 1960.  Europe.  Found from West Virginia to southern Ontario.  Potential spread perhaps limited to the range of its reported preferred pollen source, Viper’s Bugloss (Echium vulgare). 
        Lithurgus chrysurus 1970.  Europe, Near East, North Africa. Found only in Phillipsburg, New Jersey and Lehigh Gap, Pennsylvania.  Until 2007 there were no recent records, but perhaps due to nobody making an effort to look. Apparently oligolectic on Spotted Knapweed (Centaurea maculosa) and burrows into wood to make a nest.  This species has the potential to be much more destructive than Xylocopa virginica. 
        Megachile apicalis 1930.  Europe, North Africa, Near and Middle East.  Western and eastern U.S.   Relatively few records in the East but widespread in the West. 
        Megachile concinna 1940.  Africa.  West Indies, Mexico, throughout the U.S. except for the upper Midwest. 
        Megachile lanata 1700-1800.  India and China.  Introduced into the West Indies and northern South America where it possibly made its way secondarily to Florida.  Found throughout much of Florida but not likely to spread farther unless it is brought to the southwestern deserts. 
        Megachile rotundata 1920-1940.  Europe to China.  Throughout North America to northern Mexico. 
        Megachile sculpturalis 1990.  Far eastern China, Korea, Japan.   Eastern and central U.S. and southern Canada.  May move throughout the portion of the continent as they use widely planted, introduced summer blooming leguminous trees and shrubs. 
        Osmia caerulescens 1800s.  Europe, North Africa. Near East, India.  Northeastern and Northcentral U.S. and southern Canada. Appears to be less common than it once was, at least towards the south.  No recent records for the mid-Atlantic area despite a great deal of collecting, but still common in upstate New York. 
        Osmia cornifrons 1960.  Eastern China, Korea, and Japan.  Introduced to pollinate tree fruit crops.  Feral populations established in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern U.S.   
        Osmia cornuta 1980.  Europe, North Africa, Near East.  Introduced as a pollinator of tree fruit crops, but its establishment has not been documented. 
        Osmia taurus 2000.  Eastern China, Japan.  Mid-Atlantic area and Appalachian Mountains.  Appears to be rapidly spreading and often abundant.   


        T'ai Roulston
        Associate Director, Blandy Experimental Farm
        Research Assoc. Professor, Dept Envi Sci. University of Virginia
        400 Blandy Farm Lane
        Boyce, VA 22620

      • Sam Droege
        T ai, Good idea regarding the avenue of bee introductions. Below is the list again. I have added an I in front of the name if I believe it intentionally
        Message 3 of 5 , Apr 14 11:50 AM
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          T'ai,  Good idea regarding the avenue of bee introductions.

          Below is the list again.  I have added an I in front of the name if I believe it intentionally introduced, an A if accidental or possibly natural, or a ? if I am not sure.  Its unclear if some of the Megachile were intentionally introduced or not.

          sam

          I Apis mellifera
          I Anthophora plumipes

          A Ceratina cobaltina

          A Ceratina dallatoreana

          A Centris nitida

          A Euglossa viridissima
           
          A Xylocopa tabaniformis parkinsoniae


          Andrenidae


          A Andrena wilkella


          Colletidae

           
          A Hylaeus leptocephalus

          A Hylaeus hyalinatus

          A Hylaeus punctatus

           
          Halictidae


          A Lasioglossum eleutherense

          A Lasioglossum leucozonium

          A Halictus tectus


          Megachilidae


          A Anthidium manicatum
           
          A Anthidium oblongatum
          A Chelostoma campanularum
          A Chelostoma rapunculi

          A Coelioxys coturnix
          A Hoplitis anthocopoides
          A Lithurgus chrysurus

          ? Megachile apicalis

          ? Megachile concinna
          A Megachile lanata
          ? Megachile rotundata

          A Megachile sculpturalis
          A Osmia caerulescens

          I Osmia cornifrons
          I Osmia cornuta

          A Osmia taurus


                                                         
          Sam Droege  Sam_Droege@...                      
          w 301-497-5840 h 301-390-7759 fax 301-497-5624
          USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center
          BARC-EAST, BLDG 308, RM 124 10300 Balt. Ave., Beltsville, MD  20705
          Http://www.pwrc.usgs.gov


          THE BLUE-EYED EXTERMINATOR

          The exterminator has arrived. He has not intruded. He was summoned.
          At the most fruitless spot, a regiment
          of the tiniest of ants, obviously deluded,
          have a jetty ferment of undisclosed intent.


          The blue-eyed exterminator is friendly and fair;
          one can tell he knows exactly what he is about.
          He is young as the day that makes the buds puff out,
          grass go rampant, big bees ride the air;


          it seems the spring could drown him in its flood.
          But though he appears modest as what he was summoned for,
          he will prove himself more potent than grass or bud,
          being a scion of the greatest emperor.


          His success is total: no jet platoon on the wall.
          At the door he calls good-bye and hitches his thumb.
          For an invisible flick, grass halts, buds cramp, bees stall
          in air. He has called, and what has been called has come.



          Josephine Jacobsen

        • Sam Droege
          Hi Sam and All, Great to see this list of alien bees in the US! I have been have great fun working on two recently naturalized bees, Euglossa viridissima and
          Message 4 of 5 , Apr 14 1:04 PM
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            Hi Sam and All,

            Great to see this list of alien bees in the US!

            I have been have great fun working on two recently naturalized bees,
            Euglossa viridissima and Centris nitida, in Florida. Sam, by the
            way, found the first C. nitida in Florida. These bees are really
            fascinating and have lots interesting interactions. As you see, much
            of this work as been with post doc Hong Liu, who has just become an
            assistant professor of Biology in the Department of Enviromental
            Sciences at Florida International University in Miami. We will post
            additional papers of these bees as they come out.

            thanks,

            Bob Pemberton

            USDA-ARS Invasive Plant Research Laboratory, Ft. Lauderdale, FL
            Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden, Coral Cables, FL

            Here are some published papers on them and some others that are in
            press.

            Pemberton, R.W. and H. Liu. 2008. The naturalization of an oil
            collecting bee Centris nitida in Florida and the eastern United
            States, with notes on the Centris species native to Florida. Florida
            Entomologist 91: 101-109. Florida Entomologist articles can be down
            loaded on line at no charge

            Pemberton, R.W. 2007. An orchid bee naturalizes in Florida;
            implications for orchids and other plants. Orchids (magazine of the
            American Orchid Society) 76: 446-448.

            Pemberton, R.W. 2007. Invasive orchid bee, Euglossa viridissima,
            pollinates the ornamental orchid (Guarianthe skinneri) in Florida.
            Lankesteriana 7: 461-468.

            Pemberton, R.W. and G.S. Wheeler. 2006. Orchid bees don't need
            orchids, evidence from the naturalization of an orchid bee in
            Florida. Ecology 87: 1995-2001.


            In Press
            Pemberton, R.W. in press. Pollination of the ornamental Oncidium
            sphacelatum by the naturalized oil-collecting bee (Centris nitida)
            in Florida. Selbyana

            Pemberton, R.W. and H. Liu. A naturalized orchid bee pollinates
            resin reward flowers in southern Florida; novel and known
            mutualisms. Biotropica

            Another ms that will be in press any day is:

            Pemberton, R.W. and H. Liu. Potential of invasive and native
            solitary specialist bee pollinators to help restore the rare cowhorn
            orchid (Cyrtopodium punctatum) in Florida. Biological Conservation




            --- In beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com, Sam Droege <sdroege@...> wrote:
            >
            > All:
            >
            > If any of you have additions, corrections, or comments on the
            species
            > listed below, I would love to incorporate them.  If not then I
            will add
            > this list to the Handy Bee Manual as a reference point.
            >
            > Thanks.
            >
            > Sam
            > -------------------------------------------------------------------
            --------------
            > North American (North of Mexico) Established Introduced and Alien
            Bee
            > Species
            >
            > Information on distributions come from the literature, active
            North
            > American collectors, online collection data available via the
            global
            > mapper on www.discoverlife.org, and John Ascher?s compilation of
            > distributional data.   Thanks for the contributions from Mike
            Arduser,
            > John Ascher, Rob Jean, and Jack Neff.
            >
            > April 2008
            >
            > Account Layout:  Genus, Species, Decade of Establishment, Probably
            Source
            > Population, Current Status in North America north of Mexico
            >
            > Apidae
            >
            > Apis mellifera  1620.   Europe, Mediterranean region.  Feral
            colonies
            > present throughout North America north to???  Colony numbers and
            > persistence recently have declined following the introduction of
            parasitic
            > mites in the 1980s and 1990s.
            > Anthophora plumipes  1980.  Europe and southern China.  Introduced
            at the
            > USDA Beltsville, MD Honey Bee Laboratory.  Numbers were initially
            low, but
            > now found commonly in early spring throughout the Washington D.C.
            > metropolitan area where it nests in the ground under porches and
            frequents
            > planted azaleas.  Has the potential to spread throughout North
            America.
            > Ceratina cobaltina 1970. Mexico. While it is possible this is
            simply a
            > disjunct Texas population, specimens for this distinctive Mexican
            species
            > were only recently discovered in Travis and Hidalgo counties
            > Ceratina dallatoreana 1940. Mediterranean region.  Central
            California.
            > Centris nitida 2000.  Southwestern U.S., Texas, Mexico, Central
            America
            > and Northwestern South America.   Recently discovered in southern
            Florida.
            >  Not expected to spread outside of Florida.
            > Euglossa viridissima 2000. Mexico and Central America.   Recently
            > discovered in southern Florida.  Currently found only on the
            eastern side
            > of the state. Expected to spread to the western side but not
            invade much
            > further north.
            > Xylocopa tabaniformis parkinsoniae Recent.  South Texas.  Recently
            left
            > its historical haunts along the Rio Grande and now found commonly
            in urban
            > areas of Central Texas, perhaps translocated there via firewood,
            but
            > possibly colonized naturally.
            >
            > Andrenidae
            >
            > Andrena wilkella 1900s.  Europe and northern Asia.  Common
            throughout the
            > north central and northeastern U.S. and southern Canada.
            >
            > Colletidae
            >  
            > Hylaeus leptocephalus 1900.  Europe.  Found throughout the U.S.
            and
            > southern Canada.  Particularly associated with gardens, urban and
            > disturbed sites.  Often found on Melilotus.
            > Hylaeus hyalinatus 1990. Europe.  Currently found in urban areas
            from New
            > York City and southern Ontario.  Has potential to spread
            throughout North
            > America.
            > Hylaeus punctatus 1980.  Europe.  Currently found in central
            California,
            > southern South America, New York City, and Washington D.C.  Has
            potential
            > to spread throughout North America
            >  
            > Halictidae
            >
            > Lasioglossum eleutherense 1990.  Bahamas and Cuba.  Four
            individuals found
            > in the University of Miami Arboretum.  Current status unknown.  
            Not
            > expected to spread out of Florida.
            > Lasioglossum leucozonium 1900s.  Europe and northern China.  
            Despite its
            > extensive range in Europe and Asia it is limited to the northern
            areas of
            > central and eastern U.S. and southern Canada.
            > Halictus tectus 2000.  Southern Europe to Mongolia.  Known from 2
            sites in
            > downtown Philadelphia, PA and Beltsville, MD.  Appears to prefer
            highly
            > disturbed sites with European weeds.
            >
            >  Megachilidae
            >
            > Anthidium manicatum 1960.  Europe, North Africa, Near East, South
            Central
            > and South Eastern South America.  Currently found predominantly in
            > northeastern U.S. and southern Canada, however, individuals have
            shown up
            > in the central states and on the West Coast.  Likely to spread
            throughout
            > North America.  Associated with large urban and suburban gardens,
            > particularly planted with Stachys.
            > Anthidium oblongatum 1990.  Europe and the Near East.  Currently
            common in
            > northeastern U.S. and southern Canada and moving into the central
            states
            > and provinces.  Found in most open habitats.  Has potential to
            spread
            > throughout North America.
            > Chelostoma campanularum 1960.  Europe and the Near East.  Found in
            Upstate
            > New York, Connecticut, and southern Ontario. Has potential to
            spread
            > throughout North America.
            > Chelostoma rapunculi 1960.  Europe and the Near East.  Found in
            Upstate
            > New York and southern Ontario. Has potential to spread throughout
            North
            > America.
            > Coelioxys coturnix 2000.  Southwestern Europe, North Africa,
            India.
            > Currently found in the Baltimore-Washington D.C. corridor.  Has
            potential
            > to spread throughout the range of Megachile rotundata (its
            presumed host).
            > Hoplitis anthocopoides 1960.  Europe.  Found from West Virginia to
            > southern Ontario.  Potential spread perhaps limited to the range
            of its
            > reported preferred pollen source, Viper?s Bugloss (Echium vulgare).
            > Lithurgus chrysurus 1970.  Europe, Near East, North Africa. Found
            only in
            > Phillipsburg, New Jersey and Lehigh Gap, Pennsylvania.  Until 2007
            there
            > were no recent records, but perhaps due to nobody making an effort
            to
            > look. Apparently oligolectic on Spotted Knapweed (Centaurea
            maculosa) and
            > burrows into wood to make a nest.  This species has the potential
            to be
            > much more destructive than Xylocopa virginica.
            > Megachile apicalis 1930.  Europe, North Africa, Near and Middle
            East.
            > Western and eastern U.S.   Relatively few records in the East but
            > widespread in the West.
            > Megachile concinna 1940.  Africa.  West Indies, Mexico, throughout
            the
            > U.S. except for the upper Midwest.
            > Megachile lanata 1700-1800.  India and China.  Introduced into the
            West
            > Indies and northern South America where it possibly made its way
            > secondarily to Florida.  Found throughout much of Florida but not
            likely
            > to spread farther unless it is brought to the southwestern deserts.
            > Megachile rotundata 1920-1940.  Europe to China.  Throughout North
            America
            > to northern Mexico.
            > Megachile sculpturalis 1990.  Far eastern China, Korea, Japan.  
            Eastern
            > and central U.S. and southern Canada.  May move throughout the
            portion of
            > the continent as they use widely planted, introduced summer
            blooming
            > leguminous trees and shrubs.
            > Osmia caerulescens 1800s.  Europe, North Africa. Near East, India.
            > Northeastern and Northcentral U.S. and southern Canada. Appears to
            be less
            > common than it once was, at least towards the south.  No recent
            records
            > for the mid-Atlantic area despite a great deal of collecting, but
            still
            > common in upstate New York.
            > Osmia cornifrons 1960.  Eastern China, Korea, and Japan.  
            Introduced to
            > pollinate tree fruit crops.  Feral populations established in the
            > Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern U.S.
            > Osmia cornuta 1980.  Europe, North Africa, Near East.  Introduced
            as a
            > pollinator of tree fruit crops, but its establishment has not been
            > documented.
            > Osmia taurus 2000.  Eastern China, Japan.  Mid-Atlantic area and
            > Appalachian Mountains.  Appears to be rapidly spreading and often
            > abundant.
            >

          • Leslie Saul
            Hi Bob! Great list of papers, amazing that we are both find ourselves working on bees! I am continuing to work on the chemistry of Habropoda and Anthophora
            Message 5 of 5 , Apr 15 8:04 PM
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              Re: [beemonitoring] A draft annotated list of Established
              Hi Bob!

              Great list of papers, amazing that we are both find ourselves working on bees!  I am continuing to work on the chemistry of Habropoda and Anthophora bees. It's been a long time since we ran into each other in SF.

              Saul-Gershenz, L.S., Millar, J. G. 2006. Phoretic nest parasites use sexual deception to obtain transport to their host's nest. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 103:14039-14044

              Saul-Gershenz L., Fiedler P. L., Barlow M., Rokich D. 2004. Pollinator assemblage of the endangered plant Cordylanthus palmatus at Springtown Wetlands Reserve, Livermore, California.

              Best,

              Leslie 

              Leslie Saul-Gershenz
              Director of Conservation
              SaveNature.Org (Center For Ecosystem Survival)
              699 Mississippi Street, Suite 106
              San Francisco, California  94107
              USA


              Hi Sam and All,

              Great to see this list of alien bees in the US!

              I have been have great fun working on two recently naturalized bees,
              Euglossa viridissima and Centris nitida, in Florida. Sam, by the
              way, found the first C. nitida in Florida. These bees are really
              fascinating and have lots interesting interactions. As you see, much
              of this work as been with post doc Hong Liu, who has just become an
              assistant professor of Biology in the Department of Enviromental
              Sciences at Florida International University in Miami. We will post
              additional papers of these bees as they come out.

              thanks,

              Bob Pemberton

              USDA-ARS Invasive Plant Research Laboratory, Ft. Lauderdale, FL
              Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden, Coral Cables, FL

              Here are some published papers on them and some others that are in
              press.

              Pemberton, R.W. and H. Liu. 2008. The naturalization of an oil
              collecting bee Centris nitida in Florida and the eastern United
              States, with notes on the Centris species native to Florida. Florida
              Entomologist 91: 101-109. Florida Entomologist articles can be down
              loaded on line at no charge

              Pemberton, R.W. 2007. An orchid bee naturalizes in Florida;
              implications for orchids and other plants. Orchids (magazine of the
              American Orchid Society) 76: 446-448.

              Pemberton, R.W. 2007. Invasive orchid bee, Euglossa viridissima,
              pollinates the ornamental orchid (Guarianthe skinneri) in Florida.
              Lankesteriana 7: 461-468.

              Pemberton, R.W. and G.S. Wheeler. 2006. Orchid bees don't need
              orchids, evidence from the naturalization of an orchid bee in
              Florida. Ecology 87: 1995-2001.


              In Press
              Pemberton, R.W. in press. Pollination of the ornamental Oncidium
              sphacelatum by the naturalized oil-collecting bee (Centris nitida)
              in Florida. Selbyana

              Pemberton, R.W. and H. Liu. A naturalized orchid bee pollinates
              resin reward flowers in southern Florida; novel and known
              mutualisms. Biotropica

              Another ms that will be in press any day is:

              Pemberton, R.W. and H. Liu. Potential of invasive and native
              solitary specialist bee pollinators to help restore the rare cowhorn
              orchid (Cyrtopodium punctatum) in Florida. Biological Conservation


              -- 
              
              Leslie Saul-Gershenz
              Director of Conservation
              SaveNature.Org (Center For Ecosystem Survival)
              699 Mississippi Street, Suite 106
              San Francisco, California  94107
              USA

              PH: 415.648.3390
              FX:  415.824.6526

              http://www.savenature.org

              http://www.lsaul.com
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