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Separating Male Andrena species with basal teeth in Eastern North America

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  • Droege, Sam
    All I have just updated the diagnostics on this formerly irritating group of very similar male species. They are now active in the male Andrena Discoverlife
    Message 1 of 1 , Jan 4, 2013
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      All

      I have just updated the diagnostics on this formerly irritating group of very similar male species. They are now active in the male Andrena Discoverlife guide.



      A. cornelli, A. macoupinensis, A. mandibularis, A. milwaukeensis, A. rufosignata, A. tridens - eastern species with a dark face and basal tooth on mandible

      A. cornelli - Head, face, hairs entirely pale - Head, malar space 1- 2 times wider than the eye margin - Head, first flagellomere about 1.5 - 1.75 as long as second and longer than third, this is the primary way of distinguishing it from A. mandibularis - Abdomen, S6, flat or only slightly upturned, long hairs present, but not as in A. macoupinensis   

       A. macoupinensis - Head, face hairs entirely pale - Head, malar space, 1-1.5 times the eye margin - Head, first flagellomere about 1.25-1.50 times as long as second and slightly longer as third - Abdomen, S6, the elevated, prow-like apex is covered with a UNIQUE DENSE tuft of hairs that curve over the end of the end of S6 and looks like a small, blond, teased, hairsprayed hairdo    

      A. mandibularis - Head, face hairs entirely pale - Head, malar space 1-1.5 times the width of the eye margin - Head, first flagellomere equal or slightly longer than second and about as long as third - Abdomen, S6, flat or only slightly upturned, long hairs present, but not as in A. macoupinensis    

      A. milwaukeensis - Head, face, usually with a small set of dark hairs that run along the inside of the compound eye from above the antennae to just above the top of the compound eye , but sometimes these dark hairs are absent - Head, malar space 2 or more times greater than the eye margin - Head, first flagellomere approximately 1.5 times as long as second and longer than third - Abdomen, S6, prowlike and slightly elevated, long hairs present, but not as in  A. macoupinensis - Abdomen, T3-5 and S3-5 UNIQUELY covered in SHORT DARK HAIRS, the other species have only pale hairs    

      A. rufosignata - Head, face, usually with a small set of dark hairs that run along the inside of the compound eye the start varying from the level of the clypeus to above the antennae to just above the top of the compound eye - Head, malar space distinctly longer than twice eye margin - Head, first flagellomere about equal or slightly longer than second and about as long as third - Sternum 6 apex without dense tuft of hairs - Abdomen, S6, flat or only slightly upturned, long hairs present, but not as in A. macoupinensis    

      A. tridens - Head, face, usually with a small set of dark hairs that run along the inside of the compound eye the start varying from the level of the clypeus to above the antennae to just above the top of the compound eye - Head, malar space 1-2 times the eye margin - Head, first flagellomere about 1.25 - 1.5 times as long as second - Abdomen, S6, UNIQUE in that the apex is strongly reflexed or bent at nearly 90 degress like a piece of sheet metal the center is strongly concave leaving the sides projecting as two rounded, dog ear like lobes, long hairs present, but not as in A. macoupinensis 
      --
      Bees are Not Optional

      sam

                                                    
      Sam Droege  sdroege@...                     
      w 301-497-5840 h 301-390-7759 fax 301-497-5624
      USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center
      BARC-EAST, BLDG 308, RM 124 10300 Balt. Ave., Beltsville, MD  20705
      Http://www.pwrc.usgs.gov

      Yellow Jackets

      The social wasps swarm in September
      searching out sugar, discarded sodas,
      following a woman’s fruity perfume;

      they are careless in their hunger,
      falling into paint cans, entering cars,

      driven to consume, to sip and sample,
      and often, hungry, angry, to sting.

      The queens have already flown and mated
      and abandoned the colonies that raised them.

      The queens have found shelter
      and will survive the winter,

      the long nights without food,
      the freeze that kills

      every worker, every wasp, every yellow jacket
      in every nest. Only the queens survive.

      The social wasps are very much like bees,
      colonial, matriarchal, single-minded, venomous,

             like irritable makeshift wild bees, forced out
             to build honeycombs out of scrap wax and sawdust

             or the victims of the robber bees, come home
             to find the hive overturned, drones slaughtered,

             and the scent of the queen just fading
             as if traced in paraffin and burning away.

      Sweat bees trade honey for safety,
      live domesticated in boxy pastures.

      But wasps make no concessions.

      Hornets, ferocious, hostile, bear no insults
      but return each provocation with brutal assault;
      mud-daubers are solitary but fierce, deceptively
      slender, precise and cool inside adobe walls.

      The yellow jackets seem benign in comparison,
      awkwardly climbing inside grapefruit rinds, watching
      beside hummingbird feeders for the last drop of syrup,
      or trailing wistfully behind a child carrying candy.
      Only two or three will appear on the screendoor

             never the great swarms that smother their victims,
             stinging behind the eye, inside the throat, settling
             like a blanket on unfortunate postmen, pursuing
             the ambulance as it speeds away, a patient swelling
             with serum, breathing on a ventilator, in shock
             or cardiac arrest, already dead, still screaming.

      Their territory is the trailer, the trashcan, the drive-thru window,
      they hunt in small groups, buzzing like flies, in complete disorder.
      You can laugh at a yellow jacket and brush it off your sleeve.

      But think how implacable a destiny. Each autumn, apocalypse.
      The entire colony, save one, annihilated.

      What dreams that queen must have, all winter,
      bloated on the sweet lives of a thousand thousand sisters.

      She sleeps curled in her refuge, fertile, well fed
      resting from the arduous mating flight, groomed by
      the workers whose bodies now drift like dried leaves
      from the place where the cold night took them.

      How can she bear the months of isolation?
      Her dreams recount a population sacrificed
      for the continuity of her kind. The wings beating
      inside her head must drive her mad.

      When she wakes, alone, near starved,
      the world of yellow jackets will start over.
      The new colony will be ruled by her scent,
      her dispensation, her sharp covenant;

      young queens, all but one, will be
      stung to death before they can hatch.

      The new queen will be tended by her infertile sisters;
      she will be fed with the history of her waspish race
      and grow large on tales of disaster, of plague and fire,
      a generation dropping suddenly from the sky, frozen

      and lost forever. She will understand her mission
      to be the preservation of a culture already frantic
      with the nearness of the last days, gorging

      on the last sugar they will ever taste, such sweetness
      in the face of catastrophe that any yellow jacket
      will fling itself into certain death for just a mouthful,

      a grain of sugar to take back to the nest,
      sugar for the queen, for all her sisters,
      a morsel of sweet life, of a future, anything at all.

           -Patti White


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