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What Plants are ONLY pollinated by native bees and not by honeybees?

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  • Droege, Sam
    All: I have been working with the National Zoo here in Washington D.C. as a bee adviser. As part of their new outdoor bee and pollinator exhibit they would
    Message 1 of 11 , Jan 3, 2013
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      All:

      I have been working with the National Zoo here in Washington D.C. as a bee adviser.   As part of their new outdoor bee and pollinator exhibit they would like to have a set of plants that are only pollinated by native bees and would not be pollinated by honeybees.  

      I can think of plants that are inefficiently pollinated by honeybees, but because of my weakness in pollination biology am not sure of what plants are ONLY pollinated by native bee species. 

      Perhaps some of the orchids?  Super tiny flowers?  Native Wisterias?  I am grasping here....so help me out.

      Are any flowers actually always avoided by honeybees because of the composition of nectar/pollen as opposed to simply the flower's physical characteristics?

      I have copied Elaine Soulanille from the zoo this email so go ahead and copy her on replies.

      Thanks

      sam

      Sam Droege  sdroege@...                      
      w 301-497-5840 h 301-390-7759 fax 301-497-5624
      USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center
      BARC-EAST, BLDG 308, RM 124 10300 Balt. Ave., Beltsville, MD  20705
      Http://www.pwrc.usgs.gov
                                             
      I sink back upon the ground, expecting to die. A voice speaks out of my ear, You are not
      going to die, you are being changed into a zebra. You will have black and white stripes
      up and down your back and you will love people as you do not now. That is why you
      will be changed into a zebra that people will tame and exhibit in a zoo. You will be a
      favorite among children and you will love the children in return whom you do not love
      now. Zoo keepers will make a pet of you because of your round, sad eyes and musical
      bray, and you will love your keeper as you do not now. All is well, then, I tell myself
      silently, listening to the voice in my ear speak to me of my future. And what will happen
      to you, voice in my ear, I ask silently, and the answer comes at once: I will be your
      gentle, musical bray that will help you as a zebra all your days. I will mediate between
      the world and you, and I will learn to love you as a zebra whom I did not love as a
      human being. 

          - David Ignatow



      --
      Bees are Not Optional
    • Cane, Jim
      Sam and all- my first choice would be buzz-pollinated plants other than the Ericaceae (whose nectar attracts honey bees). Thus, Cassia, Chamaecrista, and
      Message 2 of 11 , Jan 3, 2013
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        Sam and all- my first choice would be buzz-pollinated plants other than the Ericaceae (whose nectar attracts honey bees).  Thus, Cassia, Chamaecrista,  and Solanum, for instance.  Some oil flowers might work too, notably Lysimachia or Krameria in the temperate zone (but then you would need Macropis or Centris), though honey bees may seek their pollen.  These two sets won’t attract all native bees, but should attract some esp. Bombus in the first group. Third option is to plant something co-flowering that honey bees adore to draw them away from flowers that they consider marginal.  Otherwise, honey bees are the touchstone for any complete list of flowers that at least some bees will visit.

         

        Yours,

         

        Jim

         

        ===============================

        James H. Cane

        USDA-ARS Bee Biology and Systematics Lab

        Utah State University, Logan, UT 84322 USA

        tel: 435-797-3879   FAX: 435-797-0461

        email: Jim.Cane@... 

        web page: www.ars.usda.gov/npa/beelab

        publications: http://digitalcommons.usu.edu/piru/

         





        This electronic message contains information generated by the USDA solely for the intended recipients. Any unauthorized interception of this message or the use or disclosure of the information it contains may violate the law and subject the violator to civil or criminal penalties. If you believe you have received this message in error, please notify the sender and delete the email immediately.
      • ahworkerb@aol.com
        A question about the plants ONLY pollinated by native bees -- are you including bumble bees in the natives? (By the way honey bee is two words like bumble
        Message 3 of 11 , Jan 3, 2013
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          A question about the plants ONLY pollinated by native bees -- are you including bumble bees in the natives? (By the way honey bee is two words like bumble bee.) Honey bees will visit the most profitable source so some plants will not be visited because something else more profitable is in bloom at the same time. One example of this is Rhododendron -- it is visited in other parts of the world (a toxic honey for us to eat) by honey bees but in the US temperate climate area (the Zoo) the honey bees pass it up because other more profitable plants are in bloom. Honey bees can work very tiny flowers -- again depending on what the blossoms are offering. 

          It's going to be tough.

          Jim Cane is right -- plant something very desirable (behind a large rock so nobody sees them) to lure the honey bees away.

          Cheers,
          Ann Harman

          It is impossible to enjoy idling thoroughly unless one has plenty of work to do. There is no fun in doing nothing when you have nothing to do. 
          Jerome K. Jerome, humorist 


          -----Original Message-----
          From: Droege, Sam <sdroege@...>
          To: Bee United <beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com>; Soulanille, Elaine <SoulanilleE@...>
          Sent: Thu, Jan 3, 2013 11:03 am
          Subject: [beemonitoring] What Plants are ONLY pollinated by native bees and not by honeybees?

           

          All:

          I have been working with the National Zoo here in Washington D.C. as a bee adviser.   As part of their new outdoor bee and pollinator exhibit they would like to have a set of plants that are only pollinated by native bees and would not be pollinated by honeybees.  

          I can think of plants that are inefficiently pollinated by honeybees, but because of my weakness in pollination biology am not sure of what plants are ONLY pollinated by native bee species. 

          Perhaps some of the orchids?  Super tiny flowers?  Native Wisterias?  I am grasping here....so help me out.

          Are any flowers actually always avoided by honeybees because of the composition of nectar/pollen as opposed to simply the flower's physical characteristics?

          I have copied Elaine Soulanille from the zoo this email so go ahead and copy her on replies.

          Thanks

          sam

          Sam Droege  sdroege@...                      
          w 301-497-5840 h 301-390-7759 fax 301-497-5624
          USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center
          BARC-EAST, BLDG 308, RM 124 10300 Balt. Ave., Beltsville, MD  20705
          Http://www.pwrc.usgs.gov
                                                 
          I sink back upon the ground, expecting to die. A voice speaks out of my ear, You are not
          going to die, you are being changed into a zebra. You will have black and white stripes
          up and down your back and you will love people as you do not now. That is why you
          will be changed into a zebra that people will tame and exhibit in a zoo. You will be a
          favorite among children and you will love the children in return whom you do not love
          now. Zoo keepers will make a pet of you because of your round, sad eyes and musical
          bray, and you will love your keeper as you do not now. All is well, then, I tell myself
          silently, listening to the voice in my ear speak to me of my future. And what will happen
          to you, voice in my ear, I ask silently, and the answer comes at once: I will be your
          gentle, musical bray that will help you as a zebra all your days. I will mediate between
          the world and you, and I will learn to love you as a zebra whom I did not love as a
          human being. 

              - David Ignatow



          --
          Bees are Not Optional
        • Droege, Sam
          Thanks Ann.... Rhododendrons ...that would be interesting....I also don t see honey bees on azaleas that often, but am not sure home complete that segregation
          Message 4 of 11 , Jan 3, 2013
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            Thanks Ann....
            Rhododendrons ...that would be interesting....I also don't see honey bees on azaleas that often, but am not sure home complete that segregation would be on our native pinxters...


            On Thu, Jan 3, 2013 at 11:18 AM, ahworkerb@... <ahworkerb@...> wrote:
            A question about the plants ONLY pollinated by native bees -- are you including bumble bees in the natives? (By the way honey bee is two words like bumble bee.) Honey bees will visit the most profitable source so some plants will not be visited because something else more profitable is in bloom at the same time. One example of this is Rhododendron -- it is visited in other parts of the world (a toxic honey for us to eat) by honey bees but in the US temperate climate area (the Zoo) the honey bees pass it up because other more profitable plants are in bloom. Honey bees can work very tiny flowers -- again depending on what the blossoms are offering. 

            It's going to be tough.

            Jim Cane is right -- plant something very desirable (behind a large rock so nobody sees them) to lure the honey bees away.

            Cheers,
            Ann Harman

            It is impossible to enjoy idling thoroughly unless one has plenty of work to do. There is no fun in doing nothing when you have nothing to do. 
            Jerome K. Jerome, humorist 


            -----Original Message-----
            From: Droege, Sam <sdroege@...>
            To: Bee United <beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com>; Soulanille, Elaine <SoulanilleE@...>
            Sent: Thu, Jan 3, 2013 11:03 am
            Subject: [beemonitoring] What Plants are ONLY pollinated by native bees and not by honeybees?

             

            All:

            I have been working with the National Zoo here in Washington D.C. as a bee adviser.   As part of their new outdoor bee and pollinator exhibit they would like to have a set of plants that are only pollinated by native bees and would not be pollinated by honeybees.  

            I can think of plants that are inefficiently pollinated by honeybees, but because of my weakness in pollination biology am not sure of what plants are ONLY pollinated by native bee species. 

            Perhaps some of the orchids?  Super tiny flowers?  Native Wisterias?  I am grasping here....so help me out.

            Are any flowers actually always avoided by honeybees because of the composition of nectar/pollen as opposed to simply the flower's physical characteristics?

            I have copied Elaine Soulanille from the zoo this email so go ahead and copy her on replies.

            Thanks

            sam

            Sam Droege  sdroege@...                      
            w 301-497-5840 h 301-390-7759 fax 301-497-5624
            USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center
            BARC-EAST, BLDG 308, RM 124 10300 Balt. Ave., Beltsville, MD  20705
            Http://www.pwrc.usgs.gov
                                                   
            I sink back upon the ground, expecting to die. A voice speaks out of my ear, You are not
            going to die, you are being changed into a zebra. You will have black and white stripes
            up and down your back and you will love people as you do not now. That is why you
            will be changed into a zebra that people will tame and exhibit in a zoo. You will be a
            favorite among children and you will love the children in return whom you do not love
            now. Zoo keepers will make a pet of you because of your round, sad eyes and musical
            bray, and you will love your keeper as you do not now. All is well, then, I tell myself
            silently, listening to the voice in my ear speak to me of my future. And what will happen
            to you, voice in my ear, I ask silently, and the answer comes at once: I will be your
            gentle, musical bray that will help you as a zebra all your days. I will mediate between
            the world and you, and I will learn to love you as a zebra whom I did not love as a
            human being. 

                - David Ignatow



            --
            Bees are Not Optional



            --
            Bees are Not Optional
          • Jack Neff
            Sam:  I think if you look beyond the obvious suspects (nectar less flowers with poricidal anthers and nectar less oil producers -both classes which are
            Message 5 of 11 , Jan 3, 2013
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              Sam:  I think if you look beyond the obvious suspects (nectar less flowers with poricidal anthers and nectar less oil producers -both classes which are occasionally visited by errant honey bees) you would find a long list of things that are unattractive to honeybees (most orchids, including all the ones with odd pollination systems such as those with the euglossine scent system and the sexual deception systems) and the multitude of flowers which are morphologically inaccessible to honey bees (including many specialized moth and butterfly systems or plants with brood system pollination systems (Ficus, Yucca, Hydnora, Prosopanche et cet).  Seek and ye shall find.

              best

              Jack
               
              John L. Neff
              Central Texas Melittological Institute
              7307 Running Rope
              Austin,TX 78731 USA
              512-345-7219

              From: "Droege, Sam" <sdroege@...>
              To: Bee United <beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com>; "Soulanille, Elaine" <SoulanilleE@...>
              Sent: Thursday, January 3, 2013 10:03 AM
              Subject: [beemonitoring] What Plants are ONLY pollinated by native bees and not by honeybees?

               

              All:

              I have been working with the National Zoo here in Washington D.C. as a bee adviser.   As part of their new outdoor bee and pollinator exhibit they would like to have a set of plants that are only pollinated by native bees and would not be pollinated by honeybees.  

              I can think of plants that are inefficiently pollinated by honeybees, but because of my weakness in pollination biology am not sure of what plants are ONLY pollinated by native bee species. 

              Perhaps some of the orchids?  Super tiny flowers?  Native Wisterias?  I am grasping here....so help me out.

              Are any flowers actually always avoided by honeybees because of the composition of nectar/pollen as opposed to simply the flower's physical characteristics?

              I have copied Elaine Soulanille from the zoo this email so go ahead and copy her on replies.

              Thanks

              sam

              Sam Droege  sdroege@...                      
              w 301-497-5840 h 301-390-7759 fax 301-497-5624
              USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center
              BARC-EAST, BLDG 308, RM 124 10300 Balt. Ave., Beltsville, MD  20705
              Http://www.pwrc.usgs.gov
                                                     
              I sink back upon the ground, expecting to die. A voice speaks out of my ear, You are not
              going to die, you are being changed into a zebra. You will have black and white stripes
              up and down your back and you will love people as you do not now. That is why you
              will be changed into a zebra that people will tame and exhibit in a zoo. You will be a
              favorite among children and you will love the children in return whom you do not love
              now. Zoo keepers will make a pet of you because of your round, sad eyes and musical
              bray, and you will love your keeper as you do not now. All is well, then, I tell myself
              silently, listening to the voice in my ear speak to me of my future. And what will happen
              to you, voice in my ear, I ask silently, and the answer comes at once: I will be your
              gentle, musical bray that will help you as a zebra all your days. I will mediate between
              the world and you, and I will learn to love you as a zebra whom I did not love as a
              human being. 

                  - David Ignatow



              --
              Bees are Not Optional


            • Peter Bernhardt
              Dear Sam: Here is an excellent opportunity for zoo visitors to learn the different between foraging vs. pollination. Signage should reflect this. Many bees
              Message 6 of 11 , Jan 3, 2013
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                Dear Sam:

                Here is an excellent opportunity for zoo visitors to learn the different between foraging vs. pollination.  Signage should reflect this.  Many bees visit the same flower but the big question is whether the bee contacted BOTH the receptive stigmas and dehiscent anthers while foraging.  Just because you see a honeybee on a flower doesn't mean it's pollinating anything.  The same applies to all native bees.  Lasioglossum and other halictid species have a wonderful time taking nectar from the endangered, Ascplepias meadii, here in the midwest but they NEVER withdraw the pollinarium.

                Jim Cane is right.  Stick to the native species of wild flowers and shrubs that have porose-poricidal anthers requiring thoracic vibration since honeybees can't do that.  If this little garden has a nice, shady component you can add any of our shooting stars, Dodecatheon species (some are now grown commercially and remain pretty robust in a shade garden).  Then there is the matter of "goodness of fit."  After six years of field study we can assure you that Apis mellifera can't pollinate either Cypripedium montanum or its sister species, C. parviflorum (both varieties pubescent and var. parviflorum).  Why?  Apsil mellifera is too being to escape from the orchid's sac by the rear exits (which take the bee under the receptive stigma.  What about the reluctance of Apis mellifera to forage upside-down compared to bumblebees that happily invert themselves for nectar and/or pollen.  Dutchman's breeches ( Dicentra cuccularia) are also grown commercially and can be purchased with Dodecatheon.  Check the original study by Walter Macior and I think you will find that only Bombus spp. are true pollinators.     

                Peter

                On Thu, Jan 3, 2013 at 10:03 AM, Droege, Sam <sdroege@...> wrote:
                 


                All:

                I have been working with the National Zoo here in Washington D.C. as a bee adviser.   As part of their new outdoor bee and pollinator exhibit they would like to have a set of plants that are only pollinated by native bees and would not be pollinated by honeybees.  

                I can think of plants that are inefficiently pollinated by honeybees, but because of my weakness in pollination biology am not sure of what plants are ONLY pollinated by native bee species. 

                Perhaps some of the orchids?  Super tiny flowers?  Native Wisterias?  I am grasping here....so help me out.

                Are any flowers actually always avoided by honeybees because of the composition of nectar/pollen as opposed to simply the flower's physical characteristics?

                I have copied Elaine Soulanille from the zoo this email so go ahead and copy her on replies.

                Thanks

                sam

                Sam Droege  sdroege@...                      
                w 301-497-5840 h 301-390-7759 fax 301-497-5624
                USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center
                BARC-EAST, BLDG 308, RM 124 10300 Balt. Ave., Beltsville, MD  20705
                Http://www.pwrc.usgs.gov
                                                       
                I sink back upon the ground, expecting to die. A voice speaks out of my ear, You are not
                going to die, you are being changed into a zebra. You will have black and white stripes
                up and down your back and you will love people as you do not now. That is why you
                will be changed into a zebra that people will tame and exhibit in a zoo. You will be a
                favorite among children and you will love the children in return whom you do not love
                now. Zoo keepers will make a pet of you because of your round, sad eyes and musical
                bray, and you will love your keeper as you do not now. All is well, then, I tell myself
                silently, listening to the voice in my ear speak to me of my future. And what will happen
                to you, voice in my ear, I ask silently, and the answer comes at once: I will be your
                gentle, musical bray that will help you as a zebra all your days. I will mediate between
                the world and you, and I will learn to love you as a zebra whom I did not love as a
                human being. 

                    - David Ignatow



                --
                Bees are Not Optional


              • David Inouye
                Probably any of the flowers with corolla tubes longer than about 6 mm will be pollinated by long-tongued native bees. Honey bees tongues are about 5 mm. David
                Message 7 of 11 , Jan 3, 2013
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                  Probably any of the flowers with corolla tubes longer than about 6 mm will be pollinated by long-tongued native bees.  Honey bees' tongues are about 5 mm.

                  David

                  At 11:03 AM 1/3/2013, Droege, Sam wrote:
                   


                  All:

                  I have been working with the National Zoo here in Washington D.C. as a bee adviser.   As part of their new outdoor bee and pollinator exhibit they would like to have a set of plants that are only pollinated by native bees and would not be pollinated by honeybees. 

                  I can think of plants that are inefficiently pollinated by honeybees, but because of my weakness in pollination biology am not sure of what plants are ONLY pollinated by native bee species.

                  Perhaps some of the orchids?  Super tiny flowers?  Native Wisterias?  I am grasping here....so help me out.

                  Are any flowers actually always avoided by honeybees because of the composition of nectar/pollen as opposed to simply the flower's physical characteristics?

                  I have copied Elaine Soulanille from the zoo this email so go ahead and copy her on replies.

                  Thanks

                  sam

                  Sam Droege  sdroege@...                      
                  w 301-497-5840 h 301-390-7759 fax 301-497-5624
                  USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center
                  BARC-EAST, BLDG 308, RM 124 10300 Balt. Ave., Beltsville, MD  20705
                  Http://www.pwrc.usgs.gov
                                                        
                  I sink back upon the ground, expecting to die. A voice speaks out of my ear, You are not
                  going to die, you are being changed into a zebra. You will have black and white stripes
                  up and down your back and you will love people as you do not now. That is why you
                  will be changed into a zebra that people will tame and exhibit in a zoo. You will be a
                  favorite among children and you will love the children in return whom you do not love
                  now. Zoo keepers will make a pet of you because of your round, sad eyes and musical
                  bray, and you will love your keeper as you do not now. All is well, then, I tell myself
                  silently, listening to the voice in my ear speak to me of my future. And what will happen
                  to you, voice in my ear, I ask silently, and the answer comes at once: I will be your
                  gentle, musical bray that will help you as a zebra all your days. I will mediate between
                  the world and you, and I will learn to love you as a zebra whom I did not love as a
                  human being.

                      - David Ignatow



                  --
                  Bees are Not Optional
                • Kenneth W McCravy
                  Hi Sam, This probably doesn t help if you are focusing on North America, but you might check Roubik and Hanson s Orchid Bees of Tropical America: Biology and
                  Message 8 of 11 , Jan 3, 2013
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                    Hi Sam,

                    This probably doesn't help if you are focusing on North America, but you might check Roubik and Hanson's "Orchid Bees of Tropical America: Biology and Field Guide," particularly Chapter 3 and references therein. Sounds like many orchids are associated only with euglossines, and some only with a single species.

                    Good Luck!
                    Ken

                    Kenneth W. McCravy, Ph.D.
                    Professor
                    Department of Biological Sciences
                    Western Illinois University
                    1 University Circle
                    Macomb, IL 61455
                    Phone: (309) 298-2160
                    Fax: (309) 298-2270
                    Email: KW-McCravy@...

                    ----- Original Message -----
                    From: "Sam Droege" <sdroege@...>
                    To: "Bee United" <beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com>, "Elaine Soulanille" <SoulanilleE@...>
                    Sent: Thursday, January 3, 2013 10:03:02 AM
                    Subject: [beemonitoring] What Plants are ONLY pollinated by native bees and not by honeybees?

                     






                    All:


                    I have been working with the National Zoo here in Washington D.C. as a bee adviser.   As part of their new outdoor bee and pollinator exhibit they would like to have a set of plants that are only pollinated by native bees and would not be pollinated by honeybees.  


                    I can think of plants that are inefficiently pollinated by honeybees, but because of my weakness in pollination biology am not sure of what plants are ONLY pollinated by native bee species. 


                    Perhaps some of the orchids?  Super tiny flowers?  Native Wisterias?  I am grasping here....so help me out.


                    Are any flowers actually always avoided by honeybees because of the composition of nectar/pollen as opposed to simply the flower's physical characteristics?


                    I have copied Elaine Soulanille from the zoo this email so go ahead and copy her on replies.


                    Thanks


                    sam



                    Sam Droege  sdroege@...                       
                    w 301-497-5840 h 301-390-7759 fax 301-497-5624
                    USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center
                    BARC-EAST, BLDG 308, RM 124 10300 Balt. Ave., Beltsville, MD  20705
                    Http://www.pwrc.usgs.gov
                                                           
                    I sink back upon the ground, expecting to die. A voice speaks out of my ear, You are not
                    going to die, you are being changed into a zebra. You will have black and white stripes
                    up and down your back and you will love people as you do not now. That is why you
                    will be changed into a zebra that people will tame and exhibit in a zoo. You will be a
                    favorite among children and you will love the children in return whom you do not love
                    now. Zoo keepers will make a pet of you because of your round, sad eyes and musical
                    bray, and you will love your keeper as you do not now. All is well, then, I tell myself
                    silently, listening to the voice in my ear speak to me of my future. And what will happen
                    to you, voice in my ear, I ask silently, and the answer comes at once: I will be your
                    gentle, musical bray that will help you as a zebra all your days. I will mediate between
                    the world and you, and I will learn to love you as a zebra whom I did not love as a
                    human being. 

                        - David Ignatow





                    --

                    Bees are Not Optional
                  • David Inouye
                    At least one Web page from a gardener cites honey bees visiting morning glories: http://www.agardenforthehouse.com/2012/04/can-you-help-the-honey-bees/ . Not
                    Message 9 of 11 , Jan 3, 2013
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                      At least one Web page from a gardener cites honey bees visiting morning glories:  http://www.agardenforthehouse.com/2012/04/can-you-help-the-honey-bees/ .  Not clear though whether they are collecting nectar or pollen, and whether they are pollinating. 

                      At 01:15 PM 1/3/2013, you wrote:
                      Good Point David, I can envision a number of western species that fall into that category, but out East... I can think of trumpet honeysuckle (clearly geared towards hummingbirds) but am wondering if things like the native morning glories are not wide throated enough to permit honey bees to enter. I have seen plenty of Bombus, Melitoma, and Peponapis on them, but don't recall honey bees....but I may be simply discounting them.

                      thoughts?

                      sam,



                      On Thu, Jan 3, 2013 at 12:45 PM, David Inouye <inouye@...> wrote:
                       

                      Probably any of the flowers with corolla tubes longer than about 6 mm will be pollinated by long-tongued native bees.  Honey bees' tongues are about 5 mm.

                      David


                      At 11:03 AM 1/3/2013, Droege, Sam wrote:
                       


                      All:

                      I have been working with the National Zoo here in Washington D.C. as a bee adviser.   As part of their new outdoor bee and pollinator exhibit they would like to have a set of plants that are only pollinated by native bees and would not be pollinated by honeybees. 

                      I can think of plants that are inefficiently pollinated by honeybees, but because of my weakness in pollination biology am not sure of what plants are ONLY pollinated by native bee species.

                      Perhaps some of the orchids?  Super tiny flowers?  Native Wisterias?  I am grasping here....so help me out.

                      Are any flowers actually always avoided by honeybees because of the composition of nectar/pollen as opposed to simply the flower's physical characteristics?

                      I have copied Elaine Soulanille from the zoo this email so go ahead and copy her on replies.

                      Thanks

                      sam

                      Sam Droege  sdroege@...                       
                      w 301-497-5840 h 301-390-7759 fax 301-497-5624
                      USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center
                      BARC-EAST, BLDG 308, RM 124 10300 Balt. Ave., Beltsville, MD  20705
                      Http://www.pwrc.usgs.gov
                                                            
                      I sink back upon the ground, expecting to die. A voice speaks out of my ear, You are not
                      going to die, you are being changed into a zebra. You will have black and white stripes
                      up and down your back and you will love people as you do not now. That is why you
                      will be changed into a zebra that people will tame and exhibit in a zoo. You will be a
                      favorite among children and you will love the children in return whom you do not love
                      now. Zoo keepers will make a pet of you because of your round, sad eyes and musical
                      bray, and you will love your keeper as you do not now. All is well, then, I tell myself
                      silently, listening to the voice in my ear speak to me of my future. And what will happen
                      to you, voice in my ear, I ask silently, and the answer comes at once: I will be your
                      gentle, musical bray that will help you as a zebra all your days. I will mediate between
                      the world and you, and I will learn to love you as a zebra whom I did not love as a
                      human being.

                          - David Ignatow



                      --
                      Bees are Not Optional






                      --
                      Bees are Not Optional
                    • Bruce
                      Both my honey bees and the native bees (particularly Bombus melanopygus) love the rhodos when they are in bloom. A single rhododendron plant can have up to 50
                      Message 10 of 11 , Jan 3, 2013
                      Both my honey bees and the native bees (particularly Bombus melanopygus) love the rhodos when they are in bloom. A single rhododendron plant can have up to 50 bees foraging on it at one time.
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                      -----Original Message-----
                      From:    ahworkerb@... <AHworkerB@...>
                      To:      sdroege@...; beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com; SoulanilleE@...
                      Subject: Re: [beemonitoring] What Plants are ONLY pollinated by native bees and not by honeybees?


                       

                      A question about the plants ONLY pollinated by native bees -- are you including bumble bees in the natives? (By the way honey bee is two words like bumble bee.) Honey bees will visit the most profitable source so some plants will not be visited because something else more profitable is in bloom at the same time. One example of this is Rhododendron -- it is visited in other parts of the world (a toxic honey for us to eat) by honey bees but in the US temperate climate area (the Zoo) the honey bees pass it up because other more profitable plants are in bloom. Honey bees can work very tiny flowers -- again depending on what the blossoms are offering. 

                      It's going to be tough.

                      Jim Cane is right -- plant something very desirable (behind a large rock so nobody sees them) to lure the honey bees away.

                      Cheers,
                      Ann Harman

                      It is impossible to enjoy idling thoroughly unless one has plenty of work to do. There is no fun in doing nothing when you have nothing to do. 
                      Jerome K. Jerome, humorist 


                      -----Original Message-----
                      From: Droege, Sam <sdroege@...>
                      To: Bee United <beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com>; Soulanille, Elaine <SoulanilleE@...>
                      Sent: Thu, Jan 3, 2013 11:03 am
                      Subject: [beemonitoring] What Plants are ONLY pollinated by native bees and not by honeybees?

                       

                      All:

                      I have been working with the National Zoo here in Washington D.C. as a bee adviser.   As part of their new outdoor bee and pollinator exhibit they would like to have a set of plants that are only pollinated by native bees and would not be pollinated by honeybees.  

                      I can think of plants that are inefficiently pollinated by honeybees, but because of my weakness in pollination biology am not sure of what plants are ONLY pollinated by native bee species. 

                      Perhaps some of the orchids?  Super tiny flowers?  Native Wisterias?  I am grasping here....so help me out.

                      Are any flowers actually always avoided by honeybees because of the composition of nectar/pollen as opposed to simply the flower's physical characteristics?

                      I have copied Elaine Soulanille from the zoo this email so go ahead and copy her on replies.

                      Thanks

                      sam

                      Sam Droege  sdroege@...                      
                      w 301-497-5840 h 301-390-7759 fax 301-497-5624
                      USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center
                      BARC-EAST, BLDG 308, RM 124 10300 Balt. Ave., Beltsville, MD  20705
                      Http://www.pwrc.usgs.gov
                                                             
                      I sink back upon the ground, expecting to die. A voice speaks out of my ear, You are not
                      going to die, you are being changed into a zebra. You will have black and white stripes
                      up and down your back and you will love people as you do not now. That is why you
                      will be changed into a zebra that people will tame and exhibit in a zoo. You will be a
                      favorite among children and you will love the children in return whom you do not love
                      now. Zoo keepers will make a pet of you because of your round, sad eyes and musical
                      bray, and you will love your keeper as you do not now. All is well, then, I tell myself
                      silently, listening to the voice in my ear speak to me of my future. And what will happen
                      to you, voice in my ear, I ask silently, and the answer comes at once: I will be your
                      gentle, musical bray that will help you as a zebra all your days. I will mediate between
                      the world and you, and I will learn to love you as a zebra whom I did not love as a
                      human being. 

                          - David Ignatow



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                      Bees are Not Optional

                    • Julie Serences
                      Interesting question, so I ask the very knowledgeable botanist for our local California Native Plant Society - Glen Holstein. I wanted to know specifically
                      Message 11 of 11 , Jan 4, 2013
                      • 0 Attachment
                        Interesting question, so I ask the very knowledgeable  botanist for our local California Native Plant Society - Glen Holstein. I wanted to know specifically what native plant species I could include as pollinated by  native bees in my general public native bee talks.  His reply maybe of interest:

                        "About 6-8% of flowers worldwide are pollinated that way, with the percentage varying by region. Australia is particularly rich in vibratory pollinated flowers.  In California that kind of pollination characterizes the families Solanaceae and Ericaceae and the genus Dodecatheon (shooting stars).  Ericaceae may have the mostCalifornia buzz-pollinated species since it includes Arctostaphylos (manzanita).  Other California genera where it’s been recorded are Lupinus, Papaver, and Pedicularis but not necessarily in their California species."


                        Contact: Glen Holstein at  "Glen Holstein" <holstein@...> for references


                        Cheers,
                        Julie

                        Julie Serences
                        Audubon  at Home Coordinator, Sacramento Audubon Society
                        Xerces Partner in Pollinator Conservation
                        Board Member Sacramento Valley CNPS

                         
                        Bees are not optional


                        On Thu, Jan 3, 2013 at 8:03 AM, Droege, Sam <sdroege@...> wrote:
                         


                        All:

                        I have been working with the National Zoo here in Washington D.C. as a bee adviser.   As part of their new outdoor bee and pollinator exhibit they would like to have a set of plants that are only pollinated by native bees and would not be pollinated by honeybees.  

                        I can think of plants that are inefficiently pollinated by honeybees, but because of my weakness in pollination biology am not sure of what plants are ONLY pollinated by native bee species. 

                        Perhaps some of the orchids?  Super tiny flowers?  Native Wisterias?  I am grasping here....so help me out.

                        Are any flowers actually always avoided by honeybees because of the composition of nectar/pollen as opposed to simply the flower's physical characteristics?

                        I have copied Elaine Soulanille from the zoo this email so go ahead and copy her on replies.

                        Thanks

                        sam

                        Sam Droege  sdroege@...                      
                        w 301-497-5840 h 301-390-7759 fax 301-497-5624
                        USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center
                        BARC-EAST, BLDG 308, RM 124 10300 Balt. Ave., Beltsville, MD  20705
                        Http://www.pwrc.usgs.gov
                                                               
                        I sink back upon the ground, expecting to die. A voice speaks out of my ear, You are not
                        going to die, you are being changed into a zebra. You will have black and white stripes
                        up and down your back and you will love people as you do not now. That is why you
                        will be changed into a zebra that people will tame and exhibit in a zoo. You will be a
                        favorite among children and you will love the children in return whom you do not love
                        now. Zoo keepers will make a pet of you because of your round, sad eyes and musical
                        bray, and you will love your keeper as you do not now. All is well, then, I tell myself
                        silently, listening to the voice in my ear speak to me of my future. And what will happen
                        to you, voice in my ear, I ask silently, and the answer comes at once: I will be your
                        gentle, musical bray that will help you as a zebra all your days. I will mediate between
                        the world and you, and I will learn to love you as a zebra whom I did not love as a
                        human being. 

                            - David Ignatow



                        --
                        Bees are Not Optional


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