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Whoops, A little too quick on that Chrysurus email - final version

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  • Sam Droege
    Sorry hit send a little too quickly earlier, this is a cleaned up version....sam All: Today Anita Collins (Retired from the USDA ARS Bee Research Laboratory)
    Message 1 of 6 , Apr 11, 2008
    • 0 Attachment

      Sorry hit send a little too quickly earlier, this is a cleaned up version....sam

      All:

      Today Anita Collins (Retired from the USDA ARS Bee Research Laboratory) was down visiting our lab.  We have been looking through her collection, which includes specimens taken at Lehigh Gap Nature Reserve in Eastern Pennsylvania where the mountains end and the piedmont begins.  The Gap is an interesting site, nearly denuded due to about 100 years of zinc smelting.  Little grows and most of the site is bare soil.  A student group has been putting out bowl traps and we have been looking through the results.  Until a few moments ago we were looking through mostly standard open country stuff but then up popped a very out of place Lithurgus.  

      This species, Lithurgus chrysurus, was documented by R. B. Roberts as occurring in New Jersey.  However, no specimens had been seen subsequent to his publication of the article.

      Roberts R. B. 1978. The nesting biology, behavior and immature stages of Lithurge chrysurus, an adventitious wood-boring bee in New Jersey (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae). Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society. 51:735–745.

      I have the article on order so don't actually know where in NJ he found this species, but given that it is in an adjacent state, likely it simply went undetected.  Unlike the cacti loving species of Eastern North America this species is oligolectic on Centaurea pollen (see abstract below).  It is also a wood boring species and apparently can inflict a great deal of economic damage...see what Rust wrote below:

      Wood Destruction by L. chrysurus

      Carpenter bees are found in 2 families, Apidae with 3 genera (Xylocopa, Ceratina and Pithitis) and Lithurgus in the Megachilidae (O'Toole and Raw, 1991; Michener, 2000). Females in these genera excavate cavities in wood and thus can cause structural weakness to lumber used in construction. Although not of a common occurrence, the destruction of lumber by L. chrysurus can represent a serious problem to wooden structures. The pine support beam of the veranda roof of M. Le Roux's house had been weakened by the 3 years of L. chrysurus burrowing activities and continued nesting would certainly have resulted in the structural failure of the beam. Nesting had to be stopped either by eradicating the population or preventing access to the beam. Roberts (1978) reported that the adventive population of L. chysrusus to North America had nested in the compressed wood fiber siding (13 mm thick) and hardwood siding on a porch and structural beams, wall studs and roof beams, of a home in Phillipsburg, New Jersey. The homeowner had removed and discarded nearly all of the siding from where the bees were nesting and had treated the area with insecticide. Roberts (1978) observed hundreds of nests in the porch and determined that the bees had been nesting in the home for more than three years. They had not spread to any other homes of a similar type of construction in the area.

      It would be worth alerting local invasive species groups regarding this species and perhaps some quick eliminating could prevent its further spread.


      English Title: Nesting biology and foraging ecology of the wood-boring bee Lithurgus chrysurus (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae).
      Personal Authors: Rust, R. W., Cambon, G., Grossa, J. P. T., Vaissière, B. E.
      Author Affiliation: Biology Department, University of Nevada, Reno, NV 89557, USA.
      Editors: No editors
      Document Title: Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society, 2004   (Vol. 77)  (No. 3) 269-279

      Abstract:

      The biology of the wood-boring bee Lithurgus chrysurus is described and the biology of the genus Lithurgus is summarized. Lithurgus chrysurus is univoltine and overwinter as prepupae inside cocoons. The females excavate their own burrows in various dead woods and they do not reuse burrows. The cells are separated by partitions composed of cut wood pieces. To assess the diet breadth of L. chrysurus, pollen analyses were conducted on 8 samples of provisions from 3 nests and 2 faeces samples from one nest. The provisions averaged 30 600 pollen grains per mg of dry matter. The proportion of broken pollen grains averaged 3.3% and was consistent among nests and for provisions and faeces. Centaurea was the dominant pollen type found in all provisions and faeces, accounting for 98.0 to 99.9% of the pollen based on the number of grains. This proportion was similar among nests for both provisions and faeces. These results indicate that, at the study site, L. chrysurus was strictly oligolectic on Centaurea pollen while nectar was probably collected on other plant species as well.


      Publisher: Kansas Entomological Society

      sam


       Sam Droege  Sam_Droege@...                      
      w 301-497-5840 h 301-390-7759 fax 301-497-5624
      USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center
      BARC-EAST, BLDG 308, RM 124 10300 Balt. Ave., Beltsville, MD  20705
      Http://www.pwrc.usgs.gov
                                                   
      Left Open


      The shutters are rusted open on the north
      kitchen window ivy has grown over
      the fastenings the casements are hooked open
      in the stone frame high above the river
      looking out across the tops of plum trees
      tangled on their steep slope branches furred
      with green moss gray lichens the plums falling
      through them and beyond them the ancient
      walnut trees standing each alone on its
      own shadow in the plowed red field full
      of amber September light after so
      long unattended dead boughs still hold
      places of old seasons high out of the leaves
      under which in the still day the first walnuts
      from this last summer are starting to fall
      beyond the bare limbs the river looks
      motionless like the far clouds that were not
      there before and will not be there again


            - W. S. Merwin
    • Craig Tufts
      Sam: You ve probably done the mapping already but Roberts mention of the infestation of a house in Philipsburg NJ, on the Delaware River is just about 25-30
      Message 2 of 6 , Apr 11, 2008
      • 0 Attachment
        Sam:
         
        You've probably done the mapping already but Roberts' mention of the infestation of a house in Philipsburg NJ, on the Delaware River is just about 25-30 downstream of Lehigh Gap, PA and the Lehigh River, which passes through Lehigh Gap joins the Delaware at Phillipsburg, NJ.
         
        Craig

        >>> Sam Droege <sdroege@...> 4/11/2008 12:48 PM >>>


        Sorry hit send a little too quickly earlier, this is a cleaned up version....sam

        All:

        Today Anita Collins (Retired from the USDA ARS Bee Research Laboratory) was down visiting our lab.  We have been looking through her collection, which includes specimens taken at Lehigh Gap Nature Reserve in Eastern Pennsylvania where the mountains end and the piedmont begins.  The Gap is an interesting site, nearly denuded due to about 100 years of zinc smelting.  Little grows and most of the site is bare soil.  A student group has been putting out bowl traps and we have been looking through the results.  Until a few moments ago we were looking through mostly standard open country stuff but then up popped a very out of place Lithurgus.  

        This species, Lithurgus chrysurus, was documented by R. B. Roberts as occurring in New Jersey.  However, no specimens had been seen subsequent to his publication of the article.

        Roberts R. B. 1978. The nesting biology, behavior and immature stages of Lithurge chrysurus, an adventitious wood-boring bee in New Jersey (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) . Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society. 51:735-745

        I have the article on order so don't actually know where in NJ he found this species, but given that it is in an adjacent state, likely it simply went undetected.  Unlike the cacti loving species of Eastern North America this species is oligolectic on Centaurea pollen (see abstract below).  It is also a wood boring species and apparently can inflict a great deal of economic damage...see what Rust wrote below:

        Wood Destruction by L. chrysurus

        Carpenter bees are found in 2 families, Apidae with 3 genera (Xylocopa, Ceratina and Pithitis) and Lithurgus in the Megachilidae (O'Toole and Raw, 1991; Michener, 2000). Females in these genera excavate cavities in wood and thus can cause structural weakness to lumber used in construction. Although not of a common occurrence, the destruction of lumber by L. chrysurus can represent a serious problem to wooden structures. The pine support beam of the veranda roof of M. Le Roux's house had been weakened by the 3 years of L. chrysurus burrowing activities and continued nesting would certainly have resulted in the structural failure of the beam. Nesting had to be stopped either by eradicating the population or preventing access to the beam. Roberts (1978) reported that the adventive population of L. chysrusus to North America had nested in the compressed wood fiber siding (13 mm thick) and hardwood siding on a porch and structural beams, wall studs and roof beams, of a home in Phillipsburg, New Jersey. The homeowner had removed and discarded nearly all of the siding from where the bees were nesting and had treated the area with insecticide. Roberts (1978) observed hundreds of nests in the porch and determined that the bees had been nesting in the home for more than three years. They had not spread to any other homes of a similar type of construction in the area.

        It would be worth alerting local invasive species groups regarding this species and perhaps some quick eliminating could prevent its further spread.


        English Title: Nesting biology and foraging ecology of the wood-boring bee Lithurgus chrysurus (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) .
        Personal Authors: Rust, R. W., Cambon, G., Grossa, J. P. T., Vaissière, B. E.
        Author Affiliation: Biology Department, University of Nevada, Reno, NV 89557, USA.
        Editors: No editors
        Document Title: Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society, 2004   (Vol. 77)  (No. 3) 269-279

        Abstract:

        The biology of the wood-boring bee Lithurgus chrysurus is described and the biology of the genus Lithurgus is summarized. Lithurgus chrysurus is univoltine and overwinter as prepupae inside cocoons. The females excavate their own burrows in various dead woods and they do not reuse burrows. The cells are separated by partitions composed of cut wood pieces. To assess the diet breadth of L. chrysurus, pollen analyses were conducted on 8 samples of provisions from 3 nests and 2 faeces samples from one nest. The provisions averaged 30 600 pollen grains per mg of dry matter. The proportion of broken pollen grains averaged 3.3% and was consistent among nests and for provisions and faeces. Centaurea was the dominant pollen type found in all provisions and faeces, accounting for 98.0 to 99.9% of the pollen based on the number of grains. This proportion was similar among nests for both provisions and faeces. These results indicate that, at the study site, L. chrysurus was strictly oligolectic on Centaurea pollen while nectar was probably collected on other plant species as well.


        Publisher: Kansas Entomological Society

        sam


         Sam Droege  Sam_Droege@USGS. GOV                      
        w 301-497-5840 h 301-390-7759 fax 301-497-5624
        USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center
        BARC-EAST, BLDG 308, RM 124 10300 Balt. Ave., Beltsville, MD  20705
        Http://www.pwrc. usgs.gov
                                                     
        Left Open


        The shutters are rusted open on the north
        kitchen window ivy has grown over
        the fastenings the casements are hooked open
        in the stone frame high above the river
        looking out across the tops of plum trees
        tangled on their steep slope branches furred
        with green moss gray lichens the plums falling
        through them and beyond them the ancient
        walnut trees standing each alone on its
        own shadow in the plowed red field full
        of amber September light after so
        long unattended dead boughs still hold
        places of old seasons high out of the leaves
        under which in the still day the first walnuts
        from this last summer are starting to fall
        beyond the bare limbs the river looks
        motionless like the far clouds that were not
        there before and will not be there again


              - W. S. Merwin

      • Sam Droege
        Thanks Craig: I hadn t done the city search thing, thanks for pointing that out. I now have Roberts article and know that the original site was along the
        Message 3 of 6 , Apr 11, 2008
        • 0 Attachment
          Thanks Craig:

          I hadn't done the city search thing, thanks for pointing that out.  

          I now have Roberts article and know that the original site was along the railroad tracks in Phillipsburg and was located in a single very heavily infested house with no signs of infestations in nearby other houses despite the fact they were made of the same material, however, it also appears that all the bees may not have been killed.

          L. chrysurus was out from June-August.

          The coordinants for Lehigh Gap collection locality are roughly:  40.7897°  -75.6127°

          Which is 22.39 miles from Phillipsburg.

          Note that Lehigh Gap is also located along train tracks (maybe just coincidence?).

          Also note that this is where Viereck grew up and collected a series of Nomada that became N. lehighensis.

          sam

          Sam Droege  Sam_Droege@...                      
          w 301-497-5840 h 301-390-7759 fax 301-497-5624
          USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center
          BARC-EAST, BLDG 308, RM 124 10300 Balt. Ave., Beltsville, MD  20705
          Http://www.pwrc.usgs.gov


          ADLESTROP

          Yes, I remember Adlestrop -
          The name, because one afternoon
          Of heat the express-train drew up there
          Unwontedly. It was late June.


          The steam hissed. Someone cleared his throat.
          No one left and no one came
          On the bare platform. What I saw
          Was Adlestrop - only the name


          And willows, willow-herb, and grass,
          And meadowsweet, and haycocks dry,
          No whit less still and lonely fair
          Than the high cloudlets in the sky.


          And for that minute a blackbird sang
          Close by, and round him, mistier,
          Farther and farther, all the birds
          Of Oxfordshire and Gloucestershire.
               - Edward Thomas





          "Craig Tufts" <tufts@...>
          Sent by: beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com

          04/11/2008 02:17 PM

          Please respond to
          beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com

          To
          beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com
          cc
          Subject
          Re: [beemonitoring] Whoops, A little too quick on that Chrysurus        email - final version





          Sam:
           
          You've probably done the mapping already but Roberts' mention of the infestation of a house in Philipsburg NJ, on the Delaware River is just about 25-30 downstream of Lehigh Gap, PA and the Lehigh River, which passes through Lehigh Gap joins the Delaware at Phillipsburg, NJ.
           
          Craig

          >>> Sam Droege <sdroege@...> 4/11/2008 12:48 PM >>>


          Sorry hit send a little too quickly earlier, this is a cleaned up version....sam


          All:


          Today Anita Collins (Retired from the USDA ARS Bee Research Laboratory) was down visiting our lab.  We have been looking through her collection, which includes specimens taken at Lehigh Gap Nature Reserve in Eastern Pennsylvania where the mountains end and the piedmont begins.  The Gap is an interesting site, nearly denuded due to about 100 years of zinc smelting.  Little grows and most of the site is bare soil.  A student group has been putting out bowl traps and we have been looking through the results.  Until a few moments ago we were looking through mostly standard open country stuff but then up popped a very out of place Lithurgus.  


          This species, Lithurgus chrysurus, was documented by R. B. Roberts as occurring in New Jersey.  However, no specimens had been seen subsequent to his publication of the article.


          Roberts R. B. 1978. The nesting biology, behavior and immature stages of
          Lithurge chrysurus, an adventitious wood-boring bee in New Jersey (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae). Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society. 51:735-745

          I have the article on order so don't actually know where in NJ he found this species, but given that it is in an adjacent state, likely it simply went undetected.  Unlike the cacti loving species of Eastern North America this species is oligolectic on Centaurea pollen (see abstract below).  It is also a wood boring species and apparently can inflict a great deal of economic damage...see what Rust wrote below:


          Wood Destruction by
          L. chrysurus

          Carpenter bees are found in 2 families, Apidae with 3 genera (Xylocopa, Ceratina and Pithitis) and Lithurgus in the Megachilidae (O'Toole and Raw, 1991; Michener, 2000). Females in these genera excavate cavities in wood and thus can cause structural weakness to lumber used in construction. Although not of a common occurrence, the destruction of lumber by L. chrysurus can represent a serious problem to wooden structures. The pine support beam of the veranda roof of M. Le Roux's house had been weakened by the 3 years of L. chrysurus burrowing activities and continued nesting would certainly have resulted in the structural failure of the beam. Nesting had to be stopped either by eradicating the population or preventing access to the beam. Roberts (1978) reported that the adventive population of L. chysrusus to North America had nested in the compressed wood fiber siding (13 mm thick) and hardwood siding on a porch and structural beams, wall studs and roof beams, of a home in Phillipsburg, New Jersey. The homeowner had removed and discarded nearly all of the siding from where the bees were nesting and had treated the area with insecticide. Roberts (1978) observed hundreds of nests in the porch and determined that the bees had been nesting in the home for more than three years. They had not spread to any other homes of a similar type of construction in the area.

          It would be worth alerting local invasive species groups regarding this species and perhaps some quick eliminating could prevent its further spread.


          English Title: Nesting biology and foraging ecology of the wood-boring bee
          Lithurgus chrysurus (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae).
          Personal Authors: Rust, R. W., Cambon, G., Grossa, J. P. T., Vaissière, B. E.
          Author Affiliation: Biology Department, University of Nevada, Reno, NV 89557, USA.
          Editors: No editors
          Document Title: Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society, 2004   (Vol. 77)  (No. 3) 269-279

          Abstract:

          The biology of the wood-boring bee Lithurgus chrysurus is described and the biology of the genus Lithurgus is summarized. Lithurgus chrysurus is univoltine and overwinter as prepupae inside cocoons. The females excavate their own burrows in various dead woods and they do not reuse burrows. The cells are separated by partitions composed of cut wood pieces. To assess the diet breadth of L. chrysurus, pollen analyses were conducted on 8 samples of provisions from 3 nests and 2 faeces samples from one nest. The provisions averaged 30 600 pollen grains per mg of dry matter. The proportion of broken pollen grains averaged 3.3% and was consistent among nests and for provisions and faeces. Centaurea was the dominant pollen type found in all provisions and faeces, accounting for 98.0 to 99.9% of the pollen based on the number of grains. This proportion was similar among nests for both provisions and faeces. These results indicate that, at the study site, L. chrysurus was strictly oligolectic on Centaurea pollen while nectar was probably collected on other plant species as well.


          Publisher: Kansas Entomological Society

          sam


          Sam Droege  Sam_Droege@...                      
          w 301-497-5840 h 301-390-7759 fax 301-497-5624
          USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center
          BARC-EAST, BLDG 308, RM 124 10300 Balt. Ave., Beltsville, MD  20705
          Http://www.pwrc.usgs.gov
                                                       
          Left Open

          The shutters are rusted open on the north
          kitchen window ivy has grown over
          the fastenings the casements are hooked open
          in the stone frame high above the river
          looking out across the tops of plum trees
          tangled on their steep slope branches furred
          with green moss gray lichens the plums falling
          through them and beyond them the ancient
          walnut trees standing each alone on its
          own shadow in the plowed red field full
          of amber September light after so
          long unattended dead boughs still hold
          places of old seasons high out of the leaves
          under which in the still day the first walnuts
          from this last summer are starting to fall
          beyond the bare limbs the river looks
          motionless like the far clouds that were not
          there before and will not be there again

               - W. S. Merwin

        • Craig Tufts
          Cool info. What I don t know is if this bee is native to the US or invasive from Asia/Europe or is a disjunct if present at Lehigh Gap or is considered
          Message 4 of 6 , Apr 11, 2008
          • 0 Attachment
            Cool info. What I don't know is if this bee is native to the US or invasive from Asia/Europe or is a disjunct if present at Lehigh Gap or is considered invasive from some other part of the US.
             
            We are doing Wildlife Watch again this year. It is a little better and is up despite needing a lot more content. Take a look if you have a chance. We have a new web developer coming in next week. See:
             
             
            Remember, this ain't no citizen Science effort...
             
            Craig

            >>> Sam Droege <sdroege@...> 4/11/2008 3:09 PM >>>


            Thanks Craig:

            I hadn't done the city search thing, thanks for pointing that out.  

            I now have Roberts article and know that the original site was along the railroad tracks in Phillipsburg and was located in a single very heavily infested house with no signs of infestations in nearby other houses despite the fact they were made of the same material, however, it also appears that all the bees may not have been killed.

            L. chrysurus was out from June-August.

            The coordinants for Lehigh Gap collection locality are roughly:  40.7897°  -75.6127°

            Which is 22.39 miles from Phillipsburg.

            Note that Lehigh Gap is also located along train tracks (maybe just coincidence? ).

            Also note that this is where Viereck grew up and collected a series of Nomada that became N. lehighensis.

            sam


            Sam Droege  Sam_Droege@USGS. GOV                      
            w 301-497-5840 h 301-390-7759 fax 301-497-5624
            USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center
            BARC-EAST, BLDG 308, RM 124 10300 Balt. Ave., Beltsville, MD  20705
            Http://www.pwrc. usgs.gov


            ADLESTROP

            Yes, I remember Adlestrop -
            The name, because one afternoon
            Of heat the express-train drew up there
            Unwontedly. It was late June.


            The steam hissed. Someone cleared his throat.
            No one left and no one came
            On the bare platform. What I saw
            Was Adlestrop - only the name


            And willows, willow-herb, and grass,
            And meadowsweet, and haycocks dry,
            No whit less still and lonely fair
            Than the high cloudlets in the sky.


            And for that minute a blackbird sang
            Close by, and round him, mistier,
            Farther and farther, all the birds
            Of Oxfordshire and Gloucestershire.
                 - Edward Thomas





            "Craig Tufts" <tufts@...>
            Sent by: beemonitoring@ yahoogroups. com

            04/11/2008 02:17 PM

            Please respond to
            beemonitoring@ yahoogroups. com

            To
            beemonitoring@ yahoogroups. com
            cc
            Subject
            Re: [beemonitoring] Whoops, A little too quick on that Chrysurus        email - final version





            Sam:
             
            You've probably done the mapping already but Roberts' mention of the infestation of a house in Philipsburg NJ, on the Delaware River is just about 25-30 downstream of Lehigh Gap, PA and the Lehigh River, which passes through Lehigh Gap joins the Delaware at Phillipsburg, NJ.
             
            Craig

            >>> Sam Droege <sdroege@usgs. gov> 4/11/2008 12:48 PM >>>


            Sorry hit send a little too quickly earlier, this is a cleaned up version....sam


            All:


            Today Anita Collins (Retired from the USDA ARS Bee Research Laboratory) was down visiting our lab.  We have been looking through her collection, which includes specimens taken at Lehigh Gap Nature Reserve in Eastern Pennsylvania where the mountains end and the piedmont begins.  The Gap is an interesting site, nearly denuded due to about 100 years of zinc smelting.  Little grows and most of the site is bare soil.  A student group has been putting out bowl traps and we have been looking through the results.  Until a few moments ago we were looking through mostly standard open country stuff but then up popped a very out of place Lithurgus.  


            This species, Lithurgus chrysurus, was documented by R. B. Roberts as occurring in New Jersey.  However, no specimens had been seen subsequent to his publication of the article.


            Roberts R. B. 1978. The nesting biology, behavior and immature stages of
            Lithurge chrysurus, an adventitious wood-boring bee in New Jersey (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society. 51:735-745

            I have the article on order so don't actually know where in NJ he found this species, but given that it is in an adjacent state, likely it simply went undetected.  Unlike the cacti loving species of Eastern North America this species is oligolectic on Centaurea pollen (see abstract below).  It is also a wood boring species and apparently can inflict a great deal of economic damage...see what Rust wrote below:


            Wood Destruction by
            L. chrysurus

            Carpenter bees are found in 2 families, Apidae with 3 genera (Xylocopa, Ceratina and Pithitis) and Lithurgus in the Megachilidae (O'Toole and Raw, 1991; Michener, 2000). Females in these genera excavate cavities in wood and thus can cause structural weakness to lumber used in construction. Although not of a common occurrence, the destruction of lumber by L. chrysurus can represent a serious problem to wooden structures. The pine support beam of the veranda roof of M. Le Roux's house had been weakened by the 3 years of L. chrysurus burrowing activities and continued nesting would certainly have resulted in the structural failure of the beam. Nesting had to be stopped either by eradicating the population or preventing access to the beam. Roberts (1978) reported that the adventive population of L. chysrusus to North America had nested in the compressed wood fiber siding (13 mm thick) and hardwood siding on a porch and structural beams, wall studs and roof beams, of a home in Phillipsburg, New Jersey. The homeowner had removed and discarded nearly all of the siding from where the bees were nesting and had treated the area with insecticide. Roberts (1978) observed hundreds of nests in the porch and determined that the bees had been nesting in the home for more than three years. They had not spread to any other homes of a similar type of construction in the area.

            It would be worth alerting local invasive species groups regarding this species and perhaps some quick eliminating could prevent its further spread.


            English Title: Nesting biology and foraging ecology of the wood-boring bee
            Lithurgus chrysurus (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) .
            Personal Authors: Rust, R. W., Cambon, G., Grossa, J. P. T., Vaissière, B. E.
            Author Affiliation: Biology Department, University of Nevada, Reno, NV 89557, USA.
            Editors: No editors
            Document Title: Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society, 2004   (Vol. 77)  (No. 3) 269-279

            Abstract:

            The biology of the wood-boring bee Lithurgus chrysurus is described and the biology of the genus Lithurgus is summarized. Lithurgus chrysurus is univoltine and overwinter as prepupae inside cocoons. The females excavate their own burrows in various dead woods and they do not reuse burrows. The cells are separated by partitions composed of cut wood pieces. To assess the diet breadth of L. chrysurus, pollen analyses were conducted on 8 samples of provisions from 3 nests and 2 faeces samples from one nest. The provisions averaged 30 600 pollen grains per mg of dry matter. The proportion of broken pollen grains averaged 3.3% and was consistent among nests and for provisions and faeces. Centaurea was the dominant pollen type found in all provisions and faeces, accounting for 98.0 to 99.9% of the pollen based on the number of grains. This proportion was similar among nests for both provisions and faeces. These results indicate that, at the study site, L. chrysurus was strictly oligolectic on Centaurea pollen while nectar was probably collected on other plant species as well.


            Publisher: Kansas Entomological Society

            sam


            Sam Droege  Sam_Droege@USGS. GOV                      
            w 301-497-5840 h 301-390-7759 fax 301-497-5624
            USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center
            BARC-EAST, BLDG 308, RM 124 10300 Balt. Ave., Beltsville, MD  20705
            Http://www.pwrc. usgs.gov
                                                         
            Left Open

            The shutters are rusted open on the north
            kitchen window ivy has grown over
            the fastenings the casements are hooked open
            in the stone frame high above the river
            looking out across the tops of plum trees
            tangled on their steep slope branches furred
            with green moss gray lichens the plums falling
            through them and beyond them the ancient
            walnut trees standing each alone on its
            own shadow in the plowed red field full
            of amber September light after so
            long unattended dead boughs still hold
            places of old seasons high out of the leaves
            under which in the still day the first walnuts
            from this last summer are starting to fall
            beyond the bare limbs the river looks
            motionless like the far clouds that were not
            there before and will not be there again

                 - W. S. Merwin

          • Sam Droege
            Its from the Mediterranean region and its favorite pollen sources are spotted knapweed and star thistle! sam Craig Tufts Sent by:
            Message 5 of 6 , Apr 11, 2008
            • 0 Attachment
              Its from the Mediterranean region and its favorite pollen sources are spotted knapweed and star thistle!

              sam




              "Craig Tufts" <tufts@...>
              Sent by: beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com

              04/11/2008 03:17 PM

              Please respond to
              beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com

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              Subject
              Re: [beemonitoring] L. chrysurus - Roberts article





              Cool info. What I don't know is if this bee is native to the US or invasive from Asia/Europe or is a disjunct if present at Lehigh Gap or is considered invasive from some other part of the US.
               
              We are doing Wildlife Watch again this year. It is a little better and is up despite needing a lot more content. Take a look if you have a chance. We have a new web developer coming in next week. See:
               
              http://www.nwf.org/wildlifewatch/
               
              Remember, this ain't no citizen Science effort...
               
              Craig

              >>> Sam Droege <sdroege@...> 4/11/2008 3:09 PM >>>


              Thanks Craig:


              I hadn't done the city search thing, thanks for pointing that out.  


              I now have Roberts article and know that the original site was along the railroad tracks in Phillipsburg and was located in a single very heavily infested house with no signs of infestations in nearby other houses despite the fact they were made of the same material, however, it also appears that all the bees may not have been killed.


              L. chrysurus was out from June-August.


              The coordinants for Lehigh Gap collection locality are roughly:  40.7897°  -75.6127°


              Which is 22.39 miles from Phillipsburg.


              Note that Lehigh Gap is also located along train tracks (maybe just coincidence?).


              Also note that this is where Viereck grew up and collected a series of Nomada that became N. lehighensis.


              sam


              Sam Droege  Sam_Droege@...                      
              w 301-497-5840 h 301-390-7759 fax 301-497-5624
              USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center
              BARC-EAST, BLDG 308, RM 124 10300 Balt. Ave., Beltsville, MD  20705
              Http://www.pwrc.usgs.gov


              ADLESTROP


              Yes, I remember Adlestrop -
              The name, because one afternoon
              Of heat the express-train drew up there
              Unwontedly. It was late June.


              The steam hissed. Someone cleared his throat.
              No one left and no one came
              On the bare platform. What I saw
              Was Adlestrop - only the name


              And willows, willow-herb, and grass,
              And meadowsweet, and haycocks dry,
              No whit less still and lonely fair
              Than the high cloudlets in the sky.


              And for that minute a blackbird sang
              Close by, and round him, mistier,
              Farther and farther, all the birds
              Of Oxfordshire and Gloucestershire.
                  - Edward Thomas




              "Craig Tufts" <tufts@...>
              Sent by: beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com

              04/11/2008 02:17 PM

              Please respond to
              beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com


              To
              beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com
              cc
              Subject
              Re: [beemonitoring] Whoops, A little too quick on that Chrysurus        email - final version







              Sam:
               
              You've probably done the mapping already but Roberts' mention of the infestation of a house in Philipsburg NJ, on the Delaware River is just about 25-30 downstream of Lehigh Gap, PA and the Lehigh River, which passes through Lehigh Gap joins the Delaware at Phillipsburg, NJ.
               
              Craig

              >>> Sam Droege <sdroege@...> 4/11/2008 12:48 PM >>>


              Sorry hit send a little too quickly earlier, this is a cleaned up version....sam


              All:


              Today Anita Collins (Retired from the USDA ARS Bee Research Laboratory) was down visiting our lab.  We have been looking through her collection, which includes specimens taken at Lehigh Gap Nature Reserve in Eastern Pennsylvania where the mountains end and the piedmont begins.  The Gap is an interesting site, nearly denuded due to about 100 years of zinc smelting.  Little grows and most of the site is bare soil.  A student group has been putting out bowl traps and we have been looking through the results.  Until a few moments ago we were looking through mostly standard open country stuff but then up popped a very out of place Lithurgus.  


              This species, Lithurgus chrysurus, was documented by R. B. Roberts as occurring in New Jersey.  However, no specimens had been seen subsequent to his publication of the article.


              Roberts R. B. 1978. The nesting biology, behavior and immature stages of
              Lithurge chrysurus, an adventitious wood-boring bee in New Jersey (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society. 51:735-745

              I have the article on order so don't actually know where in NJ he found this species, but given that it is in an adjacent state, likely it simply went undetected.  Unlike the cacti loving species of Eastern North America this species is oligolectic on Centaurea pollen (see abstract below).  It is also a wood boring species and apparently can inflict a great deal of economic damage...see what Rust wrote below:


              Wood Destruction by
              L. chrysurus

              Carpenter bees are found in 2 families, Apidae with 3 genera (Xylocopa, Ceratina and Pithitis) and Lithurgus in the Megachilidae (O'Toole and Raw, 1991; Michener, 2000). Females in these genera excavate cavities in wood and thus can cause structural weakness to lumber used in construction. Although not of a common occurrence, the destruction of lumber by L. chrysurus can represent a serious problem to wooden structures. The pine support beam of the veranda roof of M. Le Roux's house had been weakened by the 3 years of L. chrysurus burrowing activities and continued nesting would certainly have resulted in the structural failure of the beam. Nesting had to be stopped either by eradicating the population or preventing access to the beam. Roberts (1978) reported that the adventive population of L. chysrusus to North America had nested in the compressed wood fiber siding (13 mm thick) and hardwood siding on a porch and structural beams, wall studs and roof beams, of a home in Phillipsburg, New Jersey. The homeowner had removed and discarded nearly all of the siding from where the bees were nesting and had treated the area with insecticide. Roberts (1978) observed hundreds of nests in the porch and determined that the bees had been nesting in the home for more than three years. They had not spread to any other homes of a similar type of construction in the area.

              It would be worth alerting local invasive species groups regarding this species and perhaps some quick eliminating could prevent its further spread.


              English Title: Nesting biology and foraging ecology of the wood-boring bee
              Lithurgus chrysurus (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae).
              Personal Authors: Rust, R. W., Cambon, G., Grossa, J. P. T., Vaissière, B. E.
              Author Affiliation: Biology Department, University of Nevada, Reno, NV 89557, USA.
              Editors: No editors
              Document Title: Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society, 2004   (Vol. 77)  (No. 3) 269-279

              Abstract:

              The biology of the wood-boring bee Lithurgus chrysurus is described and the biology of the genus Lithurgus is summarized. Lithurgus chrysurus is univoltine and overwinter as prepupae inside cocoons. The females excavate their own burrows in various dead woods and they do not reuse burrows. The cells are separated by partitions composed of cut wood pieces. To assess the diet breadth of L. chrysurus, pollen analyses were conducted on 8 samples of provisions from 3 nests and 2 faeces samples from one nest. The provisions averaged 30 600 pollen grains per mg of dry matter. The proportion of broken pollen grains averaged 3.3% and was consistent among nests and for provisions and faeces. Centaurea was the dominant pollen type found in all provisions and faeces, accounting for 98.0 to 99.9% of the pollen based on the number of grains. This proportion was similar among nests for both provisions and faeces. These results indicate that, at the study site, L. chrysurus was strictly oligolectic on Centaurea pollen while nectar was probably collected on other plant species as well.


              Publisher: Kansas Entomological Society

              sam


              Sam Droege  Sam_Droege@...                      
              w 301-497-5840 h 301-390-7759 fax 301-497-5624
              USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center
              BARC-EAST, BLDG 308, RM 124 10300 Balt. Ave., Beltsville, MD  20705
              Http://www.pwrc.usgs.gov
                                                         
              Left Open

              The shutters are rusted open on the north
              kitchen window ivy has grown over
              the fastenings the casements are hooked open
              in the stone frame high above the river
              looking out across the tops of plum trees
              tangled on their steep slope branches furred
              with green moss gray lichens the plums falling
              through them and beyond them the ancient
              walnut trees standing each alone on its
              own shadow in the plowed red field full
              of amber September light after so
              long unattended dead boughs still hold
              places of old seasons high out of the leaves
              under which in the still day the first walnuts
              from this last summer are starting to fall
              beyond the bare limbs the river looks
              motionless like the far clouds that were not
              there before and will not be there again

                  - W. S. Merwin

            • Craig Tufts
              When the lit you sent mentioned it was oligolectic on Centaurea, guess that should have been a clue. Thanks. Sounds like if this critter isn t in the western
              Message 6 of 6 , Apr 11, 2008
              • 0 Attachment
                When the lit you sent mentioned it was oligolectic on Centaurea, guess that should have been a clue. Thanks.
                 
                Sounds like if this critter isn't in the western US yet, it's food preferences are rampaging forward and ready to feed it.
                 
                I included 4 or more Bombus species in Wildlife Watch this spring and will likely link them or Wildlife Watch in some manner to Xerces Wanted: Bombus Campaign and the Great Sunflower Project for summer.
                 
                Craig
                 

                >>> Sam Droege <sdroege@...> 4/11/2008 3:50 PM >>>


                Its from the Mediterranean region and its favorite pollen sources are spotted knapweed and star thistle!

                sam




                "Craig Tufts" <tufts@...>
                Sent by: beemonitoring@ yahoogroups. com

                04/11/2008 03:17 PM

                Please respond to
                beemonitoring@ yahoogroups. com

                To
                beemonitoring@ yahoogroups. com
                cc
                Subject
                Re: [beemonitoring] L. chrysurus - Roberts article





                Cool info. What I don't know is if this bee is native to the US or invasive from Asia/Europe or is a disjunct if present at Lehigh Gap or is considered invasive from some other part of the US.
                 
                We are doing Wildlife Watch again this year. It is a little better and is up despite needing a lot more content. Take a look if you have a chance. We have a new web developer coming in next week. See:
                 
                http://www.nwf. org/wildlifewatc h/
                 
                Remember, this ain't no citizen Science effort...
                 
                Craig

                >>> Sam Droege <sdroege@usgs. gov> 4/11/2008 3:09 PM >>>


                Thanks Craig:


                I hadn't done the city search thing, thanks for pointing that out.  


                I now have Roberts article and know that the original site was along the railroad tracks in Phillipsburg and was located in a single very heavily infested house with no signs of infestations in nearby other houses despite the fact they were made of the same material, however, it also appears that all the bees may not have been killed.


                L. chrysurus was out from June-August.


                The coordinants for Lehigh Gap collection locality are roughly:  40.7897°  -75.6127°


                Which is 22.39 miles from Phillipsburg.


                Note that Lehigh Gap is also located along train tracks (maybe just coincidence? ).


                Also note that this is where Viereck grew up and collected a series of Nomada that became N. lehighensis.


                sam


                Sam Droege  Sam_Droege@USGS. GOV                      
                w 301-497-5840 h 301-390-7759 fax 301-497-5624
                USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center
                BARC-EAST, BLDG 308, RM 124 10300 Balt. Ave., Beltsville, MD  20705
                Http://www.pwrc. usgs.gov


                ADLESTROP


                Yes, I remember Adlestrop -
                The name, because one afternoon
                Of heat the express-train drew up there
                Unwontedly. It was late June.


                The steam hissed. Someone cleared his throat.
                No one left and no one came
                On the bare platform. What I saw
                Was Adlestrop - only the name


                And willows, willow-herb, and grass,
                And meadowsweet, and haycocks dry,
                No whit less still and lonely fair
                Than the high cloudlets in the sky.


                And for that minute a blackbird sang
                Close by, and round him, mistier,
                Farther and farther, all the birds
                Of Oxfordshire and Gloucestershire.
                    - Edward Thomas




                "Craig Tufts" <tufts@...>
                Sent by: beemonitoring@ yahoogroups. com

                04/11/2008 02:17 PM

                Please respond to
                beemonitoring@ yahoogroups. com


                To
                beemonitoring@ yahoogroups. com
                cc
                Subject
                Re: [beemonitoring] Whoops, A little too quick on that Chrysurus        email - final version







                Sam:
                 
                You've probably done the mapping already but Roberts' mention of the infestation of a house in Philipsburg NJ, on the Delaware River is just about 25-30 downstream of Lehigh Gap, PA and the Lehigh River, which passes through Lehigh Gap joins the Delaware at Phillipsburg, NJ.
                 
                Craig

                >>> Sam Droege <sdroege@usgs. gov> 4/11/2008 12:48 PM >>>


                Sorry hit send a little too quickly earlier, this is a cleaned up version....sam


                All:


                Today Anita Collins (Retired from the USDA ARS Bee Research Laboratory) was down visiting our lab.  We have been looking through her collection, which includes specimens taken at Lehigh Gap Nature Reserve in Eastern Pennsylvania where the mountains end and the piedmont begins.  The Gap is an interesting site, nearly denuded due to about 100 years of zinc smelting.  Little grows and most of the site is bare soil.  A student group has been putting out bowl traps and we have been looking through the results.  Until a few moments ago we were looking through mostly standard open country stuff but then up popped a very out of place Lithurgus.  


                This species, Lithurgus chrysurus, was documented by R. B. Roberts as occurring in New Jersey.  However, no specimens had been seen subsequent to his publication of the article.


                Roberts R. B. 1978. The nesting biology, behavior and immature stages of
                Lithurge chrysurus, an adventitious wood-boring bee in New Jersey (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society. 51:735-745

                I have the article on order so don't actually know where in NJ he found this species, but given that it is in an adjacent state, likely it simply went undetected.  Unlike the cacti loving species of Eastern North America this species is oligolectic on Centaurea pollen (see abstract below).  It is also a wood boring species and apparently can inflict a great deal of economic damage...see what Rust wrote below:


                Wood Destruction by
                L. chrysurus

                Carpenter bees are found in 2 families, Apidae with 3 genera (Xylocopa, Ceratina and Pithitis) and Lithurgus in the Megachilidae (O'Toole and Raw, 1991; Michener, 2000). Females in these genera excavate cavities in wood and thus can cause structural weakness to lumber used in construction. Although not of a common occurrence, the destruction of lumber by L. chrysurus can represent a serious problem to wooden structures. The pine support beam of the veranda roof of M. Le Roux's house had been weakened by the 3 years of L. chrysurus burrowing activities and continued nesting would certainly have resulted in the structural failure of the beam. Nesting had to be stopped either by eradicating the population or preventing access to the beam. Roberts (1978) reported that the adventive population of L. chysrusus to North America had nested in the compressed wood fiber siding (13 mm thick) and hardwood siding on a porch and structural beams, wall studs and roof beams, of a home in Phillipsburg, New Jersey. The homeowner had removed and discarded nearly all of the siding from where the bees were nesting and had treated the area with insecticide. Roberts (1978) observed hundreds of nests in the porch and determined that the bees had been nesting in the home for more than three years. They had not spread to any other homes of a similar type of construction in the area.

                It would be worth alerting local invasive species groups regarding this species and perhaps some quick eliminating could prevent its further spread.


                English Title: Nesting biology and foraging ecology of the wood-boring bee
                Lithurgus chrysurus (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) .
                Personal Authors: Rust, R. W., Cambon, G., Grossa, J. P. T., Vaissière, B. E.
                Author Affiliation: Biology Department, University of Nevada, Reno, NV 89557, USA.
                Editors: No editors
                Document Title: Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society, 2004   (Vol. 77)  (No. 3) 269-279

                Abstract:

                The biology of the wood-boring bee Lithurgus chrysurus is described and the biology of the genus Lithurgus is summarized. Lithurgus chrysurus is univoltine and overwinter as prepupae inside cocoons. The females excavate their own burrows in various dead woods and they do not reuse burrows. The cells are separated by partitions composed of cut wood pieces. To assess the diet breadth of L. chrysurus, pollen analyses were conducted on 8 samples of provisions from 3 nests and 2 faeces samples from one nest. The provisions averaged 30 600 pollen grains per mg of dry matter. The proportion of broken pollen grains averaged 3.3% and was consistent among nests and for provisions and faeces. Centaurea was the dominant pollen type found in all provisions and faeces, accounting for 98.0 to 99.9% of the pollen based on the number of grains. This proportion was similar among nests for both provisions and faeces. These results indicate that, at the study site, L. chrysurus was strictly oligolectic on Centaurea pollen while nectar was probably collected on other plant species as well.


                Publisher: Kansas Entomological Society

                sam


                Sam Droege  Sam_Droege@USGS. GOV                      
                w 301-497-5840 h 301-390-7759 fax 301-497-5624
                USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center
                BARC-EAST, BLDG 308, RM 124 10300 Balt. Ave., Beltsville, MD  20705
                Http://www.pwrc. usgs.gov
                                                           
                Left Open

                The shutters are rusted open on the north
                kitchen window ivy has grown over
                the fastenings the casements are hooked open
                in the stone frame high above the river
                looking out across the tops of plum trees
                tangled on their steep slope branches furred
                with green moss gray lichens the plums falling
                through them and beyond them the ancient
                walnut trees standing each alone on its
                own shadow in the plowed red field full
                of amber September light after so
                long unattended dead boughs still hold
                places of old seasons high out of the leaves
                under which in the still day the first walnuts
                from this last summer are starting to fall
                beyond the bare limbs the river looks
                motionless like the far clouds that were not
                there before and will not be there again

                    - W. S. Merwin

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