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Hoplitis male guide updated

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  • Michael Orr
    Hello, The Hoplitis guide on DiscoverLife has been updated. It now includes all described western species, save for a small number for which we do not have
    Message 1 of 1 , Mar 8, 2012
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      Hello,


      The Hoplitis guide on DiscoverLife has been updated. It now includes all described western species, save for a small number for which we do not have male specimens (although they are in the guide, they are not fully scored). This genus is extremely variable in body size and specific morphological characters, an example being T7. To address this issue, T7 is treated in the guide with a first stage general character to define whether or not there are projections present and how many, this then followed by characters for many of the different states of the first stage which become even more specific about the details of those states. I believe this is the best way to use DiscoverLife to address the issue of T7 as otherwise there would have been more than ten characters within the T7 character. 

      It should be noted that the Proteriades within Hoplitis may prove especially difficult. This is because we have one or very few males for many species. In such circumstances I typically choose to very liberally score the species just in case other localities have unexpected levels of variation for the characters. Since I had to do this for a number of Proteriades, they are harder to resolve in the key as a result and there are many species vs species characters to try and compensate for this. The male Proteriades ARE currently all resolved in the guide, but it may also be wise to use additional, alternative sources of information. One remedy for this is to use Hurd Jr. and Michener's 1955 publication on the Megachiline bees of California. This publication and others for California may be found here:
      http://essig.berkeley.edu/resources/cis_publications.shtml
      It does not contain all the current species of Proteriades but it should still prove to be a relatively valuable resource if you have trouble with the DiscoverLife guide. Keep in mind that since it only includes California bees, the keys will not encompass fully all species of Hoplitis.

      I should also note that since this will be a challenging guide I will be adding a number of pictures. I'm not sure about a timeframe on this as I will be personally taking the pictures and uploading them. They're in line after a number of other guides so I will likely take time to go back and take care of that for several guides once the Hoplitis female guide is completed.

      The guide itself may be found here:

      As always, any comments or suggestions should be directed to me at michael.christopher.orr@....



      A listing of the many characters used in the guide may be found below:

      Species not scored for this guide yet - Note, do not click either state of this character if you wish to include ALL species 
      Display species not scored (alboscopata, brachyodonta, evansi, imperfecta)
      RECOMMENDED - Remove these species from the guide (ALL BUT THOSE ABOVE)


      Subgenus
      Acrosmia (emarginata, laevibullata, orthognatha, paiute, plagiostoma)
      Alcidamea (colei, elongaticeps, grinnelli, pilosifrons, producta, sambuci, truncata, uvulalis)
      Cyrtosmia (hypocrita)
      Dasyosmia (biscutellae, paroselae)
      Formicapis (robusta)
      Hoplitina (bullifacies, bunocephala, howardi, linsdalei, mojavensis, torchioi)
      Hoplitis (anthocopoides)
      Monumetha (albifrons, fulgida, louisae, spoliata, viridimicans)
      Penteriades (incanescens, remotula)
      Proteriades (basingeri, bidenticauda, boharti, caudex, cryptanthae, deserticola, evansi, hamulicornis, jacintana, nanula, nigrella, palmarum, pygmaea, reducta, seminigra, semirubra, shoshone, similis, tristis, truicauda)
      Robertsonella (micheneri, nemophilae, simplex)
      Xerosmia (xerophila, zuni)
      UNPLACED - Note that these two species are likely synonyms (alboscopata, imperfecta)


      Body, overall integumental color 
      1. Brilliantly metallic green or bluish, similar to many bright green halictids (fulgida, louisae, viridimicans) 
      2. Primarily black, but with a reddened abdomen (bidenticauda, boharti, bullifacies, bunocephala, caudex, cryptanthae, deserticola, hamulicornis, howardi, incanescens, jacintana, linsdalei, mojavensis, nanula, nigrella, paiute, palmarum, producta, pygmaea, reducta, remotula, seminigra, semirubra, shoshone, torchioi, tristis, truicauda, xerophila) 
      3. Entirely black - If with any red then it is at the very base of the tergites and is usually hidden below the previous segment as a result (albifrons, anthocopoides, biscutellae, bullifacies, caudex, colei, elongaticeps, emarginata, grinnelli, howardi, hypocrita, jacintana, laevibullata, micheneri, nanula, nemophilae, nigrella, orthognatha, palmarum, paroselae, pilosifrons, plagiostoma, producta, robusta, sambuci, shoshone, simplex, spoliata, tristis, truicauda, truncata, uvulalis, xerophila, zuni) 


      Head, mandible, density of fringe of hair along the bottom edge - Do not score for this character if the hairs are matted, or if they arise from the FRONT face of the mandible rather than the bottom edge 
      1. Sparse throughout - There are relatively few hairs protruding from the bottom of the mandible, and these hairs as spaced out such that their bases are well separated from one another - Note that specimens of this state have only very slightly denser hair along the bottom of the mandible compared to the apical half (bidenticauda, biscutellae, boharti, bullifacies, bunocephala, caudex, colei, cryptanthae, deserticola, elongaticeps, fulgida, grinnelli, howardi, incanescens, jacintana, laevibullata, linsdalei, louisae, mojavensis, nanula, nigrella, orthognatha, paiute, palmarum, pilosifrons, plagiostoma, producta, pygmaea, reducta, remotula, robusta, sambuci, seminigra, semirubra, torchioi, tristis, truicauda, uvulalis, viridimicans, xerophila, zuni) 
      2. Moderately dense - There are many hairs but relatively few of the bases of these hairs appear to be touching, this leaves this fringe of hairs weak enough that the features behind it are usually visible (albifrons, anthocopoiodes, bidenticauda, boharti, bunocephala, caudex, colei, cryptanthae, hamulicornis, howardi, hypocrita, jacintana, linsdalei, louisae, micheneri, mojavensis, nemophilae, paiute, palmarum, pilosifrons, plagiostoma, reducta, remotula, sambuci, seminigra, semirubra, shoshone, tristis, truicauda, truncata, uvulalis, viridimicans, xerophila, zuni) 
      3. Very dense, often only basally - The majority of the hairs in this fringe are touching one another at their bases, this making the fringe capable of blocking view of features behind it - Note that for these specimens the hairs will be extremely obviously more dense near the base of the mandible than the apex (anthocopoides, hamulicornis, micheneri, nemophilae, shoshone, simplex, spoliata) 
      4. Very dense near the apex as well as the base - There is a fringe of hair which is primarily arising from below the apical half of the mandible, the density of which is so great that it obscures all the features behind it (paroselae) 


      Head, clypeus, pit density 
      1. Dense - Pitting throughout is evenly spaced and less than a pit diameter apart, except sometimes right along the apical rim (albifrons, anthocopoides, bidenticauda, biscutellae, boharti, bunocephala, caudex, colei, cryptanthae, deserticola, elongaticeps, emarginata, fulgida, grinnelli, hamulicornis, howardi, hypocrita, incanescens, jacintana, laevibullata, linsdalei, louisae, micheneri, mojavensis, nanula, nemophilae, orthognatha, palmarum, pilosifrons, plagiostoma, producta, pygmaea, remotula, robusta, sambuci, seminigra, semirubra, simplex, spoliata, tristis, truicauda, truncata, uvulalis, viridimicans, xerophila, zuni) 
      2. Unpitted area - There is a medially unpitted line running at least halfway along the longitudinal length of the clypeus (bidenticauda, bullifacies, bunocephala, emarginata, hypocrita, laevibullata, orthognatha, torchioi) 


      Head, clypeus, hair orientation of the majority of hairs - Do not score this character if hairs have been rubbed off or are matted 
      1. Appressed - The hairs for the most part lie flat against the surface of the clypeus, or if slightly elevated then they lie closer to parallel with the surface than at a 45-degree angle with the integument (albifrons, bidenticauda, biscutellae, boharti, bullifacies, bunocephala, deserticola, fulgida, howardi, hypocrita, maura, mojavensis, nanula, nigrella, orthognatha, paiute, palmarum, pilosifrons, pygmaea, robusta, seminigra, shoshone, simplex, torchioi, tristis, xerophila) 
      2. Suberect - The hairs of the clypeus are largely held at a 45-degree angle in relation to the integument (anthocopoides, bidenticauda, biscutellae, boharti, bunocephala, caudex, colei, cryptanthae, elongaticeps, fulgida, grinnelli, howardi, hypocrita, incanescens, jacintana, laevibullata, louisae, micheneri, mojavensis, nanula, nemophilae, nigrella, orthognatha, paiute, paroselae, pilosifrons, plagiostoma, productra, reducta, sambuci, seminigra, semirubra, shoshone, torchioi, tristis, truicauda, viridimicans, xerophila, zuni) 
      3. Erect - The hairs of the clypeus are standing up straight or nearly so, roughly perpendicular to the integument (anthocopoides, boharti, caudex, colei, cryptanthae, fulgida, grinnelli, howardi, hypocrita, incanescens, jacintana, laevibullata, louisae, micheneri, mojavensis, nemophilae, orthognatha, paiute, pilosifrons, plagiostoma, producta, reducta, sambuci, semirubra, torchioi, tristis, truicauda, viridimicans, xerophila, zuni) 


      Head, gena or cheek, hair color in the area behind the compound eye but not above its top
      1. All pale (albifrons, anthocopoides, bidenticauda, biscutellae, boharti, bullifacies, bunocephala, caudex, colei, cryptanthae, deserticola, elongaticeps, emarginatus, fulgida, grinnelli, howardi, incanescens, jacintana, laevibullata, louisae, micheneri, mojavensis, nanula, nemophilae, nigrella, orthognatha, paiute, palmarum, paroselae, plagiostoma, pilosifrons, producta, pygmaea, reducta, remotula, robusta, sambuci, seminigra, semirubra, shoshone, simplex, torchioi, tristis, truicauda, viridimicans, xerophila, zuni) 
      2. With any dark hairs present (albifrons, hypocrita, louisae, maura) 


      Head, antennae, scape, width 
      1. The maximum width of the scape is about equal to half its length or sometimes very slightly more (albifrons, bidenticauda, biscutellae, bunocephala, caudex, colei, cryptanthae, elongaticeps, fulgida, grinnelli, hamulicornis, howardi, jacintana, linsdalei, louisae, nanula, paroselae, pilosifrons, producta, robusta, sambuci, semirubra, shoshone, spoliata, truicauda, truncata, uvulalis, viridimicans) 
      2. The maximum width of the scape is about equal to a third of its length (anthocopoides, bidenticauda, biscutellae, boharti, bunocephala, caudex, cryptanthae, deserticola, fulgida, grinnelli, hamulicornis, howardi, hypocrita, incanescens, jacintana, linsdalei, micheneri, mojavensis, nanula, nemophilae, paiute, palmarum, paroselae, plagiostoma, pygmaea, reducta, remotula, seminigra, semirubra, shoshone, simplex, torchioi, tristis, truicauda, truncata, zuni) 
      3. The maximum width of the scape is about equal to a fourth of its length (bullifacies, emarginata, incanescens, laevibullata, mojavensis, orthognatha, palmarum, plagiostoma, reducta, seminigra, torchioi, xerophila) 


      Head, antennae, degree to which the pedicel is hidden or overlapped by the scape - Note that you should view the pedicel from the side to judge whether or not it is hidden, and the length comparisons should be done when the scape and pedicel are linearly aligned 
      1. Obvious - The pedicel is visible from any side and it is not more hidden on any given side (albifrons, anthocopoides, bidenticauda, boharti, bullifacies, bunocephala, caudex, cryptanthae, deserticola, emaginata, fulgida, hamulicornis, howardi, hypocrita, incanescens, jacintana, laevibullata, linsdalei, micheneri, mojavensis, nanula, nemophilae, nigrella, orthognatha, paiute, palmarum, plagiostoma, pygmaea, reducta, remotula, robusta, seminigra, semirubra, shoshone, simplex, spoliata, torchioi, tristis, truicauda, xerophila, zuni) 
      2. Obvious, BUT scape with a weak projection - There is a slight, lobe-like projection off the top of the scape which at most reaches the middle of the pedicel (albifrons, anthocopoides, biscutellae, fulgida, louisae, paroselae, spoliata, viridimicans) 
      3. Partially hidden - At least one side of the pedicel is obscured for more than half its length, but the majority of its circumference is still visible (albifrons, colei, louisae, paroselae, pilosifrons, spoliata, viridimicans) 
      4. Hidden - The pedicel is either primarily or entirely hidden (colei, elongaticeps, grinnelli, pilosifrons, producta, sambuci, truncata, uvulalis) 


      Head, antennae, form of hair along UNDERSIDE 
      1. Absent or VERY short - There are no longer hairs present, if with any hairs then they are reduced to barely noticeable stubble (albifrons, anthocopoides, bidenticauda, biscutellae, boharti, bullifacies, bunocephala, caudex, cryptanthae, deserticola, elongaticeps, fulgida, grinnelli, howardi, hypocrita, incanescens, jacintana, louisae, maura, micheneri, mojavensis, nanula, nemophilae, nigrella, palmarum, paroselae, pilosifrons, producta, pygmaea, reducta, remotula, robusta, sambuci, seminigra, semirubra, shoshone, simplex, torchioi, tristis, truicauda, viridimicans, xerophila, zuni) 
      2. Present - The hairs on the underside of the flagellomeres are equal to about half the width of their associated flagellomeres or more, often curved at tip (emarginatus, incanescens, laevibullata, orthognatha, paiute, plagiostoma) 


      Head, antennae, length of segment 1 - Use the maximum width and length 
      1. Broader than long (biscutellae, bunocephala, jacintana, producta, sambuci, shoshone, zuni) 
      2. About equal in terms of width and length (bidenticauda, boharti, bunocephala, caudex, colei, deserticola, hamulicornis, howardi, jacintana, laevibullata, mojavensis, nanula, nemophilae, nigrella, paiute, paroselae, pilosifrons, producta, pygmaea, reducta, sambuci, seminigra, shoshone, simplex, truncata, zuni) 
      3. Longer than broad, but not twice as long as broad (albifrons, anthocopoides, bidenticauda, boharti, bullifacies, caudex, colei, cryptanthae, deserticola, elongaticeps, emarginata, grinnelli, hamulicornis, howardi, incanescens, laevibullata, linsdalei, louisae, micheneri, mojavensis, nanula, nemophilae, nigrella, orthognatha, paiute, palmarum, paroselae, pilosifrons, plagiostoma, producta, pygmaea, remotula, robusta, seminigra, semirubra, simplex, spoliata, torchioi, tristis, truicauda, truncata, uvulalis, xerophila) 
      4. Twice as long as broad or very nearly so, sometimes longer (fulgida, hypocrita, linsdalei, louisae, plagiostoma, viridimicans) 


      Head, antennae, dimensions of individual segments 8-11
      1. Longer than wide (albifrons, anthocopoides, bidenticauda, boharti, bullifacies, caudex, cryptanthae, deserticola, fulgida, howardi, hypocrita, incanescens, jacintana, laevibullata, louisae, maura, micheneri, mojavensis, nanula, nemophilae, nigrella, orthognatha, paiute, palmarum, reducta, remotula, robusta, seminigra, semirubra, shoshone, simplex, torchioi, tristis, truicauda, viridimicans, xerophila, zuni)
      2. About equal in terms of length and width (albifrons, bidenticauda, boharti, bunocephala, cryptanthae, emarginatus, laevibullata, louisae, maura, mojavensis, nanula, nigrella, orthognatha, paiute, palmarum, paroselae, plagiostoma, pygmaea, reducta, remotula, sambuci, seminigra, truicauda, viridimicans, zuni) 
      3. Wider than long (biscutellae, bunocephala, colei, elongaticeps, emarginatus, grinnelli, laevibullata, nanula, paroselae, pilosifrons, producta, pygmaea, reducta, sambuci) 


      Head, antennae, last segment
      1. Blunt - The end of the antenna is either rounded or relatively flattened such that it does not come a sharp point (albifrons, anthocopoides, bidenticauda, boharti, bullifacies, bunocephala, caudex, cryptanthae, deserticola, fulgida, howardi, incanescens, jacintana, maura, micheneri, mojavensis, nanula, nemophilae, nigrella, palmarum, paroselae, plagiostoma, pygmaea, reducta, remotula, robusta, seminigra, semirubra, shoshone, simplex, torchioi, truicauda, viridimicans, xerophila, zuni) 
      2. Pointed - The last segment comes to a sharp point but it is not hooked at a strong angle, or at least the tip is angled closer to linear than perpindicular (albifrons, biscutellae, colei, elongaticeps, grinnelli, hypocrita, louisae, maura, paroselae, pilosifrons, producta, viridimicans) 
      3. Hooked - The last segment comes to a sharp point which curves into a hook of about 90 degrees or nearly so, the integument itself being relatively evenly rounded (colei, elongaticeps, grinnelli, hypocrita, laevibullata,  pilosifrons, producta, sambuci) 
      4. Hooked and enlarged - The last segment has a distinct, pointed hook AND the area basal to this hook is abnormally swollen such that it almost has a corner at the tip where it curves into the tip (emarginata, laevibullata, orthognatha, paiute, plagiostoma)


      Thorax, scutellum, presence or absence of a medial unpitted area 
      1. Absent - Pitting is relatively even throughout (albifrons, anthocopoides, bidenticauda, boharti, bullifacies, bunocephala, caudex, colei, cryptanthae,  deserticola, elongaticeps, grinnelli, howardi, hypocrita, incanescens, laevibullata, maura, mojavensis, nanula, nemophilae, paiute, paroselae, pilosifrons, plagiostoma, producta, pygmaea, reducta, remotula, robusta, sambuci, seminigra, simplex, spoliata, torchioi, truicauda) 
      2. Present, linear - There is an unpitted line running at least a third of the longitudinal length of the scutellum (albifrons, bidenticauda, biscutellae, boharti, caudex, emarginatus, fulgida, hypocrita, incanescens, jacintana, maura, micheneri, nemophilae, laevibullata, louisae, orthognatha, paiute, paroselae, plagiostoma, robusta, seminigra, semirubra, simplex, spoliata, tristis, truicauda, viridimicans, xerophila, zuni) 
      3. Present, amorphous - There is an unpitted region that spans at least several pit diameters, the pits hear this sparser than seen elsewhere on the scutellum (bidenticauda, biscutellae, bullifacies, jacintana, micheneri, nemophilae, nigrella, palmarum, pilosifrons, pygmaea, robusta, seminigra, truicauda) 


      Thorax, hind coxae, presence or absence of a ventral spine near or on the posterior tip of the inner edge that sometimes forms the tip of a ridge which runs longitudinally - Note that if there is a VERY defined ridge rising from here that does not come to a point at the end then it should also be scored as present  
      Absent (albifrons, anthocopoides, bidenticauda, bullifacies, bunocephala, colei, cryptanthae, deserticola, elongaticeps, fulgida, grinnelli, howardi, hypocrita, incanescens, laevibullata, linsdalei, louisae, micheneri, mojavensis, nanula, nemophilae, nigrella, orthognatha, pilosifrons, plagiostoma, pygmaea, reducta, remotula, robusta, sambuci, seminigra, semirubra, shoshone, simplex, spoliata, torchioi, tristis, truncata, uvulalis, viridimicans, zuni) 
      Present (biscutellae, boharti, bullifacies, caudex, cryptanthae, deserticola, hamulicornis, jacintana, linsdalei, palmarum, paroselae, pygmaea, seminigra, tristis, truicauda, xerophila, zuni) 


      Abdomen, dorsal integumental color, degree of red coloration if present ON THE TERGA - DO NOT SCORE this character if the abdomen is all black
      1. Primarily black (boharti, bullifacies, caudex, hamulicornis, howardi, jacintana, nigrella, palmarum, semirubra, shoshone, tristis, truicauda, xerophila)
      2. Mixed - There are about even amounts of black and red coloration (boharti, bullifacies, caudex, cryptanthae, hamulicornis, howardi, mojavensis, nanula, paiute, pygmaea, reducta, remotula, seminigra, semirubra, shoshone)
      3. Primarily red (bidenticauda, boharti, bullifacies, bunocephala, caudex, cryptanthae, deserticola, hamulicornis, howardi, incanescens, linsdalei, mojavensis, nanula, paiute, pygmaea, reducta, remotula, seminigra, semirubra, shoshone, torchioi)
      4. All red (bidenticauda, boharti, bullifacies, bunocephala, cryptanthae, deserticola, hamulicornis, incanescens, linsdalei, mojavensis, paiute, pygmaea, torchioi)


      Abdomen, T6, medial form of rim 
      1. Unmodified - The rim of T6 is evenly rounded throughout or sometimes somewhat straight or very slightly concave (albifrons, bidenticauda, boharti, bullifacies, bunocephala, colei, cryptanthae, deserticola, elongaticeps, emarginatus, fulgida, grinnelli, hamulicornis, howardi, incanescens, jacintana, laevibullata, linsdalei, louisae, maura, micheneri, mojavensis, nanula, nemophilae, nigrella, orthognatha, paiute, palmarum, pilosifrons, plagiostoma, producta, pygmaea, reducta, remotula, robusta, sambuci, seminigra, semirubra, shoshone, simplex, spoliata, torchioi, tristis, truicauda, truncata, uvulalis, viridimicans, xerophila, zuni) 
      2. Convex projection - There is an angularly-pointed, medial projection found on T6 (biscutellae, hypocrita, louisae, paroselae) 


      Abdomen, T7, form of rim for those species having T7 with NO LOBES OR LATERAL ANGLES OR APICAL POINTS - Do not score this character if this is not the case 
      1. Unmodified - Relatively evenly rounded throughout, the tip at least slightly convex, if with any constriction in the apical half then it is only slight and the sides are NEVER parallel (boharti, bunocephala, fulgida, hamulicornis, micheneri, nanula, nemophilae, palmarum, pygmaea, sambuci, spoliata) 
      2. Constricted apically - The base is widest and the sides of T7 are about parallel as they travel to the apex, which is usually either straight or convex BUT NOT POINTED (albifrons, bunocephala, fulgida, hamulicornis, maura, mojavensis, nanula, palmarum, pygmaea, sambuci, spoliata, truicauda, truncata) 
      3. Broadened at tip - There is a basal constriction, making the tip wider than the area anterior to it, the tip itself usually being either convex or straight (albifrons, maura, mojavensis, palmarum, truncata) 


      Abdomen, T7, form of the sides for those species having a SINGLE, APICAL POINT - Do not score this character if the tip is not pointed 
      1. Fully concave - The sides of T7 curve inward from base to tip such that they appear sunken in (colei, elongaticeps, grinnelli, pilosifrons, producta, uvulalis) 
      2. Straight - The sides of T7 remain largely straight to the tip, making it somewhat triangular as a result (grinnelli, paroselae, producta, uvulalis) 
      3. Convex - The sides of T7 are rounded outward such that it would appear unmodified if not for the point at the tip (fulgida, louisae, simplex, viridimicans) 
      4.  Concave in apical half - The base of T7 is relatively unmodified but the sides become abruptly concave in the apical half such that there may appear to be lateral lobes BUT T7 is still not tridentate because these lobes do not curve rearward (fulgida, lousiae, paroselae, viridimicans) 


      Abdomen, T7, positioning of the projections if they are species possessing a TRIDENTATE tip to T7- DO NOT score this character if not tridentate 
      1. Clustered at tip (hypocrita) 
      2. Two lateral and one medial, the medial projection much longer than the lateral projections (biscutellae) 
      3. Two lateral and one medial, the lateral projections much longer than the medial projection and sometimes there is a very reduced pair of projections hidden under the large lateral ones (xerophila, zuni) 
      4. There is a very broad medial projection that is similar to an unmodified T7 BUT there are also much smaller projections present laterally OR sometimes hidden below the medial one (cryptanthae, mojavensis, palmarum, seminigra) 


      Abdomen, T7, DEPTH of the medial concavity if it is a species that has T7 BIDENTATE OR QUADRIDENTATE, if quadridentate then only consider the middle pair - Do not score this character if there is not a MEDIAL pair of projections on T7  
      1. Shallow - The depth of the concavity between the projections is less than the width of one projection when this width is measured at the level of the deepest point of the concavity (bidenticauda, boharti, caudex, deserticola, emarginatus, hamulicornis, howardi, incanescens, jacintana, laevibullata, nanula, nigrella, paiute, palmarum, plagiostoma, pygmaea, reducta, remotula, robusta, seminigra, semirubra, shoshone, tristis) 
      2. Moderate - The depth of the concavity is about equal to or greater than the width of ONE projection measured at the deepest point of the concavity, BUT it is clearly less than double that width (bidenticauda, bullifacies, deserticola, howardi, incanescens, jacintana, linsdalei, orthognatha, paiute, plagiostoma, shoshone, torchioi) 
      3. Deep - The depth of the concavity is about equal to or greater than TWICE the width of one projection measured at the deepest point of the concavity (bullifacies, deserticola, incanescens, orthognatha, paiute, plagiostoma, shoshone, torchioi) 


      Abdomen, T7, DISTANCE between the furthest points of the two medial projections IF IT IS BIDENTATE OR QUADRIDENTATE measured against the width of one of the projections - The width of the projection should be measured at the point where the medial concavity is deepest, BUT if there is a strong angle in the inner side of the projection then the width should instead be measured at that point - Do not score this character if there is not a pair of projections on T7
      Narrow - The width of a projection is greater than the distance between the tips (boharti, bullifacies, hamulicornis, howardi, nanula, orthognatha, pygmaea, tristis)
      Equal - The width of a projection is about equal to the distance between the tips (boharti, bullifacies, emarginata, hamulicornis, howardi, nanula, nigrella, orthognatha, plagiostoma, pygmaea, reducta, remotula, semirubra, torchioi, tristis)
      Moderate - The distance between the tips is greater than the width of a projection but it is not quite two times that width (boharti, bullifacies, caudex, emarginata, hamulicornis, howardi, incanescens, jacintana, laevibullata, linsdalei, nanula, nigrella, orthognatha, paiute, plagiostoma, pygmaea, reducta, remotula, robusta, semirubra, torchioi, tristis)
      Wide - The distance between the tips ranges from about 2x to 3x the width of a projection (caudex, incanescens, jacintana, laevibullata, nigrella, paiute, plagiostoma, robusta, torchioi)
      Very wide - The distance between the tips is greater than 3x the width of a projection, often with those projections being rather slender and reduced with a wide, straight rim between them (bidenticauda, deserticola, shoshone)


      Abdomen, T7, form of the tips of the medial projections IF IT IS BIDENTATE OR QUADRIDENTATE, if quadridentate then only consider the middle pair - Do not score this character if there is not a MEDIAL pair of projections on T7
      Rounded - The tips of T7 are evenly rounded over, this is most often the case when the projections are very slender (bidenticauda, boharti, bullifacies, bunocephala, deserticola, hamulicornis, mojavensis, nanula, nigrella, pygmaea, remotula, robusta, shoshone, torchioi)
      Weakly truncated - There are weak corners present where the sides and tips of the T7 projections meet, this due to the tip itself being only WEAKLY convex and the corners are NOT roughly 90 degree angles as a result - Note that this is more common when the projections are wide at the tips (boharti, caudex, emarginata, hamulicornis, jacintana, laevibullata, mojavensis, nanula, pygmaea, reducta, remotula, robusta, semirubra, torchioi, tristis)
      Truncated - The tips of T7 are relatively flattened and straight, if weakly convex here then at least some corners form roughly 90 degree angles - Note that sometimes only the interior corners are right angles - Note that this is more common when the projections are wide at the tips (boharti, caudex, emarginata, howardi, incanescens, jacintana, orthognatha, paiute, plagiostoma, reducta, semirubra, torchioi, tristis)


      Abdomen, S1 and S2, presence of a MEDIAN projection - Note that to be a projection it must either come to a point or if rounded it must take the form of an abrupt bump rather than a very gradual thickening
      1. Absent - Median spines absent on both segments, although there is often a slight recurving of S1 it DOES NOT curve into a clear medial projection and instead appears relatively similarly recurved along the rim (bidenticauda, boharti, bunocephala, deserticola, emarginata, fulgida, howardi, hypocrita, incanescens, jacintana, laevibullata, linsdalei, micheneri, mojavensis, nanula, nemophilae, nigrella, orthognatha, paiute, palmarum, paroselae, plagiostoma, pygmaea, reducta, remotula, robusta, sambuci, seminigra, semirubra, shoshone, simplex, spoliata, torchioi, tristis, truncata)
      2. Present on S1 (biscutellae, bullifacies, bunocephala, caudex, cryptanthae, fulgida, laevibullata, paroselae, spoliata, torchioi, xerophila, zuni)
      3. Present on S2 (bunocephala, colei, elongaticeps, fulgida, grinnelli, hypocrita, pilosifrons, producta, uvulalis)
      4. Present on S1 and S2 (albifrons, bunocephala, fulgida, louisae, maura, viridimicans)


      Abdomen, S1, form of projection - DO NOT SCORE this character if there is no projection on S1
      Arising from a strong medial recurving on then rim and pointing primarily ventrally (biscutellae, bullifacies, cryptanthae, xerophila, zuni)
      Posteriourly-directed spike arising from the middle of the rim (albifrons, bunocephala, fulgida, laevibullata, louisae, maura, paroselae, spoliata, torchioi, viridimicans)


      Abdomen, S2, form of projection - DO NOT SCORE this character if there is no projection on S2
      1. Bump - The projection of S2 is widely rounded at its tip, lacking any kind of point although it is still clearly elevated well off the rest of S2 (pilosifrons)
      2. Weakly pointed - There is a point to the projection of S2 but it is rather weak, forming an angle of about 90 degrees (colei, elongaticeps, grinnelli, producta, uvulalis)
      3. Strongly pointed - There is a distinctly acute point to the projection of S2 based upon the sides which lead to it, CLEARLY less than 90 degrees (colei, grinnelli, producta, uvulalis)
      4. Posterior spike - There is a spike on the rim of S2 which points back toward the tip of the abdomen (albifrons, bunocephala, fulgida, hypocrita, louisae, maura, viridimicans)


      Abdomen, S2, form of rim - Note that this character will not work if the abdomen has pulled stretched greatly as this will throw off the normal distances
      1. Variable, but not greatly obscuring S3 - The rim may be convex, straight, or concave but if convex then it is not so strongly convex that it protrudes far enough back to obscure even the middle of S3 (albifrons, bidenticauda, biscutellae, boharti, bullifacies, bunocephala, caudex, colei, cryptanthae, deserticola, elongaticeps, emarginata, fulgida, grinnelli, hamulicornis, howardi, hypocrita, jacintana, linsdalei, louisae, maura, mojavensis, nanula, nigrella, paiute, palmarum, paroselae, pilosifrons, producta, pygmaea, reducta, robusta, sambuci, seminigra, semirubra, shoshone, spoliata, tristis, truncata, uvulalis, viridimicans, xerophila, zuni)
      2. Strongly convex - The rim of S2 extends very far back medially, covering S3 entirely or at the very least obscuring the middle of the rim (boharti, bullifacies, deserticola, emarginata, grinnelli, incanescens, laevibullata, linsdalei, nigrella, orthognatha, paiute, plagiostoma, producta, reducta, remotula, shoshone, torchioi, truncata, xerophila, zuni)


      Abdomen, S3, presence or absence of distinct lateral bumps on the integument BEFORE the rim - Note that these are independent bumps that are ABSENT MEDIALLY, this contrasting with some species where there is a swollen line running transversely across the entire sterna or nearly so, such species SHOULD NOT be scored for present
      1. Present - (albifrons, bidenticauda, colei, cryptanthae, elongaticeps, fulgida, linsdalei, louisae, maura, paroselae, shoshone, spoliata, truncata, viridimicans, zuni)
      2. Absent - (bidenticauda, biscutellae, boharti, bullifacies, bunocephala, caudex, colei, cryptanthae, deserticola, elongaticeps, emarginata, fulgida, grinnelli, hamulicornis, howardi, hypocrita, incanescens, jacintana, laevibullata, louisae, micheneri, mojavensis, nanula, nemophilae, nigrella, orthognatha, paiute, palmarum, pilosifrons, plagiostoma, producta, pygmaea, reducta, remotula, robusta, seminigra, semirubra, shoshone, simplex, spoliata, torchioi, tristis, truncata, viridimicans, xerophila, zuni)


      Abdomen, S3, medial rim emargination - Be careful, hair may often make S3 appear emarginate even if it is not - Note that if there is a clear rim to S3 which extends beyond the opaque rim then it should be ignored and the darker integument should be used
      1. Convex or straight - Clearly rounded outward along the rim OR running straight across (albifrons, biscutellae, bullifacies, colei, cryptanthae, elongaticeps, fulgida, grinnelli, hamulicornis, hypocrita, jacintana, linsdalei, louisae, maura, palmarum, pilosifrons, producta, robusta, sambuci, seminigra, spoliata, uvulalis, viridimicans)
      2. Weakly concave - There is a slight, angular bend inward toward the center of S3 and it IS NOT roundedly concave OR if roundedly concave then it takes up a fourth of the rim or less (bidenticauda, boharti, bunocephala, cryptanthae, deserticola, emarginata, fulgida, howardi, laevibullata, linsdalei, louisae, maura, nanula, orthognatha, paiute, palmarum, paroselae, plagiostoma, pygmaea, reducta, sambuci, semirubra, shoshone, spoliata, tristis, truncata, uvulalis, viridimicans, xerophila, zuni)
      3. Strongly concave - S3 is roundedly, concavely emarginate centrally that takes up at least about a third of the width of the rim (boharti, bunocephala, caudex, deserticola, emarginata, howardi, incanescens, laevibullata, linsdalei, mojavensis, nanula, nigrella, orthognatha, paiute, paroselae, plagiostoma, pygmaea, reducta, remotula, semirubra, shoshone, tristis, truncata, xerophila, zuni)


      Abdomen, S3, density of APICAL hair fringe along the rim - Make sure you do not consider the bit of hair which often extends from the rim inward at the middle and note that the hairs may sometimes appear thicker medially despite being uniform IF the hairs are matted together
      Thicker in center (boharti, bullifacies, bunocephala, colei, cryptanthae, elongaticeps, emarginatus, grinnelli, hypocrita, incanescens, jacintana, micheneri, nemophilae, nigrella, orthognatha, paiute, pilosifrons, plagiostoma, producta, remotula, robusta, sambuci, seminigra, shoshone, simplex)
      Uniform throughout (albifrons, anthocopoides, bidenticauda, biscutellae, boharti, bullifacies, bunocephala, caudex, colei, cryptanthae, deserticola, emarginatus, fulgida, howardi, hypocrita, incanescens, jacintana, louisae, maura, mojavensis, nanula, nigrella, orthognatha, paiute, palmarum, paroselae, plagiostoma, pygmaea, reducta, remotula, sambuci, seminigra, semirubra, torchioi, tristis, truicauda, viridimicans, xerophila, zuni) 


      The old genus Proteriades, which is now part of Hoplitis as the subgenera Penteriades, Proteriades, and Xerosmia VS the rest of the Hoplitis - Head, mouthparts, length of galea
      1. Short - The galea barely, if at all, surpass the end of the fossa in which they fit in repose (basingeri, bidenticauda, boharti, caudex, cryptanthae, deserticola, evansi, hamulicornis, incanescens, jacintana, nanula, nigrella, palmarum, pygmaea, reducta, remotula, seminigra, semirubra, shoshone, tristis, truicauda, xerophila, zuni)
      2. Longer - The galea quite obviously extends much farther back than the end of the fossa in which it rests in repose (albifrons, anthocopoides, biscutellae, brachyodonta, bullifacies, bunocephala, colei, elongaticeps, emarginata, fulgida, grinnelli, howardi, hypocrita, laevibullata, linsdalei, louisae, micheneri, mojavensis, nemophilae, orthognatha, paiute, paroselae, pilosifrons, plagiostoma, producta, robusta, sambuci, simplex, spoliata, torchioi, truncata, uvulalis, viridimicans)


      Green bees - H. fulgida vs H. louisae vs H. viridimicans - DO NOT use size alone, Hoplitis uncommonly has much smaller than normal specimens
      H. fulgida - The majority of the hairs on the terga are pale, white to slightly off-white - The shape of T7 is highly variable, ranging from evenly rounded over its entirety in H. fulgida platyura to being constricted only in the apical third such that the medial process is clearly more narrow than the base of T7 BUT the tip is flat or convex and it DOES NOT come to a point as is seen in H. fulgida fulgida - The medial spines of S1 and S2 are much more weakly pointed, the rims of those segments gradually coming to a broad point that does not project off the rim - This species is about the size of H. viridimicans, about 10mm, making it considerably smaller than H. louisae in direct comparison
      H. louisae - The majority of the hairs on the terga are dark, blackish - T7 begins widely at the base until about a third of its length from the tip, where it suddenly becomes concave to a medial point along the rim, this abrupt transition usually but not always marked by an angular corner - The medial spines of S1 and S2 are very pronounced, clearly projecting off the rims of the segments in the form of very sharp points - This species is larger than either H. fulgida or H. viridimicans in direct comparison, averaging about 12-13mm
      H. viridimicans - The majority of the hairs on the terga are pale, white to slightly off-white - T7 begins widely at the base until about a third of its length from the tip, where it suddenly becomes concave to a medial point along the rim, this abrupt transition usually but not always marked by an angular corner - The medial spines of S1 and S2 are very pronounced, clearly projecting off the rims of the segments in the form of very sharp points - This species is about the size of H. fulgida, about 10mm, making it considerably smaller than H. louisae in direct comparison


      Subgenus Robertsonella - H. micheneri vs H. nemophilae vs H. simplex
      H. micheneri - The fringe of hairs which extends down off the bottom of the mandible is much more sparse and the hairs are shorter, appearing about equal in length to the long hairs of the clypeus - S3 is broadly and relatively deeply emarginate medially on the rim, the total emargination about equal to one fourth the width of S3 or more 
      H. nemophilae - The fringe of hairs which extends down off the bottom of the mandible is much more sparse and the hairs are shorter, appearing about equal in length to the long hairs of the clypeus - The rim of S3 is most often completely straight or nearly so, if with any emargination then it is extremely weak despite the white hairs along the midline that may obscure the integument 
      H. simplex - The fringe of hairs extending down off the bottom of the mandible is very dense and long, this exaggerated by the shorter hairs of the clypeus, the hairs of the mandibular fringe appearing at least twice as long as those of the clypeus - S3 is WEAKLY emarginate at the middle of the rim, often nearly a straight line, although the presence of white hairs along the midline of S3 can make the emargination appear deeper than it actually is


      H. jacintana vs other species from the subgenera Penteriades, Proteriades, and Xerosmia
      H. jacintana - The mandible is very long, clearly longer than the fore tibia - Mandible virtually tridentate, behind the second tooth in from the tip there is a long edge with a very slight angle on it which some might consider a third tooth - The rim of the clypeus seems to extend the furthest down medially, relatively straight or slightly curved to each side - There is a slight medial ridge present on the clypeus, running longitudinally without disrupting pit density except sometimes at the top - At its size of about 7-10mm, this species is larger than many other bees of the subgenus Proteriades save for a few, although many members of Penteriades and Xerosmia are about this size or larger
      Other species - Mandible length variable, sometimes reaching about even in length with the fore tibia, but never CLEARLY longer - Mandible bidentate - The rim of the clypeus is variable, usually irregularly wavy or bumpy - Clypeus lacks longitudinal ridge - Size variable


      H. bidenticauda vs H. deserticola
      H. bidenticauda - On S2, the area just behind the rim is strongly swollen ONLY AT THE SIDES such that the middle appears much more sunken in - The rim of S5 is lacking hairs, appearing quite translucent, this contrasting with the preceding segments which have hair along their apices - There are no apical hair bands on the terga - The rim of T7 between the projections runs roughly straight across 
      H. deserticola - On S2, almost the entire width of the segment is strongly swollen just behind the rim, usually most swollen medially - The rim of S5 is lined with hairs, much like the preceding segments - There are apical hair bands on the terga, although in some cases these may be rubbed off - The rim of T7 between the projections is a bit concave throughout, usually this is apparent although sometimes it may be VERY slight


      H. boharti vs H. pygmaea
      H. boharti - The ventral ridge on the hind coxa is extremely strongly produced, the posterior tip protruding off the coxa in the form of an acute spike - The lateral ocelli are far from the rear edge of the vertex, this distance equal to AT LEAST two ocellar diameters and often more - T5 has a large number of erect to slightly suberect simple, white hairs found throughout its surface, but there are only thicker hairs present along the rim - This species appears slightly larger than H. pygmaea, averaging about 6mm
      H. pygmaea - The ventral ridge on the hind coxa is relatively weak, sometimes even hard to find, and the posterior tip of it is rounded - The lateral ocelli are relatively close to the rear edge of the vertex, the distance being slightly more than one ocellar diameter or sometimes less - Although there are relatively more of the thicker, somewhat plumose hairs present along the rim, they also arise throughout the rest of the surface of T5 among the simple hairs - This species appears slightly smaller than H. boharti, averaging about 4-5mm


      H. bunocephala vs H. mojavensis
      H. bunocephala - There is a very strong bump present on the middle of the clypeus, defined by a weak ridge running longitudinally where the pitting is more sparse, the hairs of the clypeus unable to obscure the bump - There is a weak posterior-directed angle present at the middle of the rim on S2
      H. mojavensis - The middle of the clypeus is slightly protuberant although usually the present hairs are still able to fully cover it - The apical rim of S2 is roughly straight across its width, lacking a medial angle


      H. emarginata vs H. laevibullata vs H. plagiostoma
      H. emarginata - The sides of the medial pair of projections of T7 are about parallel, this due to the presence of corners of roughly equal degree being present on each side of the projections, although sometimes the OUTER side projections are very slightly more obtuse they still never approach being rounded over - There are no lateral lobes on the rim of S6, instead the pointed medial projection has two rather small lobes arising from its base - The pitting of T2 is more sparse medially, interpit diameter averaging clearly over one pit diameter and often around two
      H. laevibullata - If with any hint of corners on the sides of the medial projections of T7 then they are very weak, the projections generally appearing relatively evenly rounded over to each side although sometimes there appear to be corners on the OUTER sides the inner sides are always quite smoothly rounded - The medial projection on the apex of S6 is strongly pointed and to each side there is a lobe which DOES NOT arise from the base of the medial projection as there is a clear indent between the medial projection and the lateral lobes - The pitting of T2 is more dense medially, interpit diameter averaging around one pit diameter
      H. plagiostoma - The inner sides of the medial projections of T7 have much stronger corners than on the outside, these inner corners often MORE acute than right angles, this contrasting with the corners of the outer sides which are usually slightly more obtuse than right angles - The medial projection on the rim of S6 is rounded in the form of a bump, the tip of this bump only projecting slightly farther than the tips of the distinct lateral lobes - The pitting of T2 is more sparse medially, interpit diameter averaging clearly over one pit diameter and often around two


      H. nanula vs H. pygmaea - Be careful, this can be a hard species pair to separate
      H. nanula - In profile, the widest point of the cheek is about equal to the widest point of the compound eye - The distance between the posterior edge of the lateral ocelli and the rear of the vertex is somewhere around two ocellar diameters - In direct comparison, there is USUALLY a SMALLER proportion of thicker white hairs present on T5-6 - This species is very slightly larger than H. pygmaea in general, averaging about 4-6mm
      H. pygmaea - In profile, the widest point of the cheek is clearly narrower than the widest point of the compound eye - There is a relatively sudden downward turn in the integument as you travel to the posterior edge of the vertex from the posterior edge of the lateral ocelli, this making the APPARENT distance between the posterior edge of the laterall ocelli and the posterior margin of the vertex APPEAR to be just about one ocellar diameter, although if one were to count the area past this sunken area it would be slightly larger - In direct comparison, there is USUALLY a LARGER proportion of thicker white hairs present on T5-6 - The species is very slightly smaller than H. nanula in general, averaging about 4-5mm


      H. orthognatha vs other species of the subgenus Acrosmia, species with enlarged terminal antennal segments that are hooked with points and corners basal to those points 
      H. orthognatha - The mandible is highly modified, the tooth closer to the clypeus being reduced and lacking a point, instead taking the form of a very round ball which actually widens at the tip and appears club-like - The mandible is unusually straight in its outline when compared to other members of the group, this best viewed from below
      Other species - Although the tooth of the mandible closer to the clypeus is highly reduced, it still retains a distinct point and DOES NOT widen into a club at the tip - There is almost always a very distinct, strong curve in the general outline of the mandible as a whole (emarginata, laevibullata, paiute, plagiostoma)


      H. sambuci vs H. truncata 
      H. sambuci - F1 is about equal in length and width in terms of maximum distances - The apex of T7 is much narrower, equal to about half the basal width of the segment or less - This species is primarily western in its distribution, anything farther west than Utah is likely this species although both it and H. truncata are found within Utah
      H. truncata - F1 is longer than wide when measuring the maximum distances for both - The apex of T7 is much wider, equal to about a third the basal width of the segment or often more - This species is primarily eastern in its distribution, anything east of Colorado is very likely this species although it also found in UT where H. sambuci may be collected



      Note that some members of the subgenus Alcidamea were exceptionally difficult and that since I don't have quite all of the subspecies of H. producta that I've decided to leave H. producta and H. uvulalis relatively poorly resolved pending a much-needed revision of the subgenus. Characters for this group are below:
      H. colei vs H. elongaticeps, H. grinnelli, H. producta, and H. uvulalis
      H. colei - The scape is about twice as long as its maximum width - The galea is about as long as the head - The angle formed by the tip of the ventral projection of S2, viewed from behind, is clearly angular, USUALLY about 60 degrees or less - In terms of size H. colei is about 6-7mm, making it on average slightly larger than H. elongaticeps and about the size of H. grinnelli, although it is smaller than most H. producta and definitely smaller than all but the unusually small specimens of H. uvulalis
      Other species - The scape is usually more than 2.5x as long as its greatest width, except sometimes in H. elongaticeps, H. producta, and H. uvulalis where it is about 2.5x or sometimes less, although H. colei is much smaller than normal H. uvulalis so that distinction is simple and the galea is longer than is seen in the larger subspecies of H. producta - Galeal length variable - The range of the angle the tip of the ventral S2 projection forms when viewed from behind is much more variable, ranging from obtuse to strongly acute - The average size of H. elongaticeps is about 5-6mm, the average size of H. grinnelli is about 6-7mm, the average size of H. producta is 6-9mm, and the average size of H. uvulalis is about 10mm


      H. elongaticeps vs H. colei, H. grinnelli, H. producta, and H. uvulalis
      H. elongaticeps - The head is longer than broad - In a direct view of the face, the distance between an imaginary line across the tops of the compound eyes and the top of the head is longer, usually over 2 middle ocellar diameters - The projection on S2 is much more triangular and usually shorter, the sides of which very gradually rise from near the lateral edges of S2 such that you cannot really find a clear angular turn in either side of the projection - The tip of S2 forms about a right angle when viewed from behind - Note that the T2 characters are only useful when comparing against the larger species of H. producta and H. uvulalis, for smaller species like H. colei and H. grinnelli the head shape is more useful
      Other species - The head is about equal in terms of length and width, or wider than long  - In a direct view of the face, the distance between an imaginary line across the tops of the compound eyes and the top of the head is less, usually equal to 1-2 middle ocellar diameters - The projection of S2 is taller and more narrow, if triangular then the width of the triangle is about half that of S2 or less, measured at the base where the sides angle ventrally toward the central tip - The tip of S2 is acute, usually about 60 degrees or less when viewed from behind - Note that the T2 characters are only useful when comparing against the larger species of H. producta and H. uvulalis, for smaller species like H. colei and H. grinnelli the head shape is more useful


      H. grinnelli vs H. producta and H. uvulalis
      H. grinnelli - The scape is about 3x as long as its greatest width, sometimes longer - F3 of the antenna is about as long as it is wide - H. grinnelli is usually smaller than either H. producta or H. uvulalis, averaging about 6-7mm in length
      H. producta and H. uvulalis - The scape is less than 2.5x its greatest width - F3 of the antenna is clearly wider than it is long - H. producta and H. uvulalis are usually larger than H. grinnelli, the average size of H. producta being about 6-9mm and the average size of H. uvulalis being about 10mm


      H. producta vs H. uvulalis - This is a mess and Hurd Jr and Michener, 1955 suggests that H. uvulalis is yet another subspecies of H. producta, although it is also likely that AT LEAST one of the subspecies of H. producta is worthy of species-level classification - The author of this guide suggests that species distinction within this group not be attempted until someone revises the subgenus Alcidamea, having looked over specimens from AT LEAST four of the six H. producta subspecies and around 20 PRESUMED specimens of H. uvulalis - The size character given below is taken directly from Hurd Jr and Michener, 1955, although it cannot account for either H. producta panamintana or unusually small specimens of H. uvulalis
      H. producta - Length 8mm or less - This species is present, in one subspecific form or another, in all of the contiguous United States with the possible exception of Florida
      H. uvulalis - Length 9mm or more - The range of H. uvulalis according to Hurd Jr and Michener, 1955 is believed to be from the western side of the Sierra Nevada Mountains in California up along into mid and northern Oregon around the Blue Mountains, where it then crosses through mid-Idaho before dropping down into central Utah along the ID-WY border


      -Michael

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