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Centris male guide updated

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  • Michael Orr
    Hello, Yet another guide has been extended westward. This time it s the males of the genus Centris, with a little over thirty species. The female guide is
    Message 1 of 1 , Jan 17, 2012
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      Hello,


      Yet another guide has been extended westward. This time it's the males of the genus Centris, with a little over thirty species. The female guide is currently also in the works. This group is mainly southwestern, although three species are known from the eastern US. I have decided to include a number of species which are only known from Baja California and scored them for California and sometimes Arizona as well. It should also be noted that while I have scored species that are confirmedly or potentially in the US for the Mexican states, I have not scored those species which are ONLY found in Mexico and likely not the US. There are a number of species which I have not yet been able to see. They are as follows, with M or F indicating which are missing:
      C. angustifrons (M), C. ectypha (M+F), C. ferrisi (M+F), C. harbisoni (M+F), C. laevibullata (M), C. satana (M+F). 
      Several missing specimens (not listed above) are already to loaned from the AMNH and NMNH, for which I am grateful.

      As always, if there are any questions, comments, or suggestions you should direct them to michael.christopher.orr@...



      Species not scored for this guide yet - Do not click either state of this character if you wish to include ALL species
      Display species not scored (angustifrons, ectypha, ferrisi, harbisoni, laevibullata, ruthannae, satana)
      RECOMMENDED - Remove these species from the guide (all others)

      Species POTENTIALLY found in the United States - A number of the species in the guide were not found directly in the US but were included due to their proximity
      Display all species (all)
      Remove the species for which there are no confirmed US records (ALL BUT agameta, ectypha, ferrisi, fisheri, harbisoni, laevibullata, trigonoides, vanduzeei, varia)

      Subgenus
      Centris (decolorata, eisenii, errans, flavofasciata, varia) 
      Heterocentris (nitida, transversa, trigonoides)
      Paracentris (agameta, angustifrons, aterrima, atripes, caesalpiniae, californica, cockerelli, ectypha, ferrisi, fisheri, harbisoni, hoffmanseggiae, laevibullata, lanosa, mexicana, nigrocaerulea, pallida, rhodomelas, rhodopus, ruthannae, satana, tiburonensis, vanduzeei, zacateca) 

      Head, mandible, integumental color on the outer, most visible, face - Disregard the golden smear often present at the very tip of the mandible 
      1. Primarily yellow - The majority is yellow but roughly the apical third is dark (caesalpiniae, californica, errans, flavofasciata, hoffmanseggiae, nitida, pallida, rhodopus, tiburonensis, transversa, trigonoides, varia) 
      2. With some yellow - The base of the mandible is all yellow but the light color does not extend past the midpoint of the length of the mandible (atripes, californica, decolorata, eisenii, errans, pallida, tiburonensis) 
      3. With a thin stripe of yellow of variable length - This linear patch is found along the upper edge of the mandible only, leaving the lower part black - Although the length is variable it almost always fills less than half the width of the mandible where it occurs (californica, cockerelli, pallida, rhodomelas)
      4. All dark (agameta, aterrima, atripes, fisheri, lanosa, mexicana, nigrocaerulea, vanduzeei, zacateca) 

      Head, mandible, number of teeth IN THE APICAL HALF - The tip of the mandible counts as a tooth and note that the third tooth in from the tip may sometimes be bidentate or forked and SHOULD BE CONSIDERED two teeth and, as such, the total number of teeth would be four - If there is an extremely obtuse bump or angle in place of a third tooth it SHOULD NOT be scored as a tooth 
      1. Two (caesalpiniae, californica) 
      2. Three (agameta, aterrima, atripes, caesalpiniae, cockerelli, decolorata, eisenii, errans, fisheri, hoffmanseggiae, lanosa, mexicana, nigrocaerulea, nitida, pallida, rhodomelas, rhodopus, tiburonensis, transversa, trigonoides, vanduzeei, varia) 
      3. Four (decolorata, flavofasciata, zacateca)

      Head, clypeus, integumental color 
      1. All yellow -  However, sometimes a very small amount of black intrudes from the tentorial pits (agameta, atripes, caesalpiniae, californica, cockerelli, eisenii, errans, fisheri, flavofasciata, hoffmanseggiae, lanosa, nigrocaerulea, pallida, rhodomelas, rhodopus, tiburonensis)  
      2. Nearly all yellow - The only black portions of the clypeus are found at the top of the clypeus, lateral to the yellow markings that reach the supraclypeus medially (agameta, decolorata, errans, flavofasciata, varia) 
      3. Primarily yellow but dark near supraclypeus - The majority of the clypeus is yellow or pale-colored including the rim, but the upper half of the clypeus contains dark integument which runs over the top of the clypeus and partially down the sides as a continuous bar (agameta, nitida, transversa, trigonoides) 
      4. Primarily yellow with dark areas at rim and base - The apical rim and the base of the clypeus have dark integument, SOMETIMES with the yellow portion greatly restricted largely to a medial line or block (nitida, trigonoides) 
       5. All black or nearly so, if with any yellow then it is just barely present on the apical rim but not on the main area of the clypeus above (aterrima, mexicana, vanduzeei, zacateca) 

      Head, supraclypeus, light integumental markings 
      Present - Light integumental markings are present on the supraclypeus, often coming to a distinct triangular point medially but sometimes the markings may be thin and linear or even interrupted (agameta, atripes, caesalpiniae, californica, cockerelli, decolorata, eisenii, errans, fisheri, flavofasciata, hoffmanseggiae, lanosa, nigrocaerulea, pallida, rhodomelas, rhodopus, tiburonensis, varia) 
      Absent - There are no light integumental markings present on the supraclypeus (agameta, aterrima, caesalpiniae, mexicana, nitida, pallida, rhodopus, tiburonensis, transversa, trigonoides, vanduzeei, zacateca) 

      Head, paraocular area, presence or absence of any degree of light integumental markings 
      1. Present, strong - Equal to or extending past the top of the clypeus, obvious in doing so because it fills more than half of the width of the paraocular area (atripes, caesalpiniae, decolorata, eisenii, errans, flavofasciata, lanosa, varia) 
      2. Present, thin - Usually reaching the top of the clypeus, although this may be hard to see because AT LEAST HALF OF ITS LENGTH takes the form of a very thin line running up along the inner edge of the compound eye (caesalpiniae, eisenii, lanosa, nitida, rhodopus, trigonoides) 
      3. Present, moderate - Clearly more than a dot but clearly not coming within the top fourth of the clypeus (agameta, eisenii, lanosa) 
      4. Present, limited - Little more than a dot, often hard to notice (agameta, pallida, tiburonensis, transversa) 
      5. Absent (agameta, aterrima, californica, cockerelli, fisheri, hoffmanseggiae, mexicana, nigrocaerulea, pallida, rhodomelas, tiburonensis, transversa, vanduzeei, zacateca) 

      Head, antennae, integumental color of scape 
      1. All black (agameta, aterrima, cockerelli, fisheri, hoffmanseggiae, mexicana, nigrocaerulea, nitida, pallida, tiburonensis, transversa, trigonoides, vanduzeei, zacateca) 
      2. Yellow, limited - There are yellow markings present but they take up LESS THAN OR EQUAL TO half the length of the scape (atripes, eisenii, lanosa) 
      3. Yellow, complete - With yellow markings present from the base to the tip of the scape or nearly so (atripes, caesalpiniae, decolorata, eisenii, errans, flavofasciata, lanosa, rhodomelas, rhodopus, varia) 

      Head, antennae, length of F1 
      1. Short - Shorter than F2-3 combined (atripes, caesalpiniae, fisheri, lanosa, rhodopus) 
      2. Moderate - As long as or SLIGHTLY longer than the combined lengths of F2-3 (aterrima, atripes, caesalpiniae, cockerelli, fisheri, zacateca) 
      3. Long - About equal to the combined lengths of F2-4 or longer, sometimes SLIGHTLY shorter (agameta, californica, cockerelli, decolorata, eisenii, errans, flavofasciata, hoffmanseggiae, mexicana, nigrocaerulea, nitida, pallida, rhodomelas, tiburonensis, transversa, trigonoides, vanduzeei, varia) 

      Head, vertex, hair color 
      1. All light - With only yellow to off-white hairs (atripes, caesalpiniae, californica, cockerelli, eisenii, errans, hoffmanseggiae, lanosa, pallida, rhodopus, tiburonensis, transversa, trigonoides, vanduzeei) 
      2. Primarily light - With some limited dark hairs present (agameta, cockerelli, decolorata, eisenii, errans, fisheri, flavofasciata, lanosa, nitida, pallida, rhodomelas, rhodopus, transversa, trigonoides, varia, zacateca) 
      3. Intermixed - There are roughly equal amounts of light and dark hairs (agameta, decolorata, eisenii, flavofasciata, nitida, zacateca) 
      4. Primarily dark - There are more dark hairs than light hairs (agameta, decolorata, flavofasciata, zacateca) 
      5. All dark (agameta, aterrima, mexicana, nigrocaerulea) 

      Thorax, pronotal lobe, hair color 
      1. All light (agameta, atripes, caesalpiniae, californica, cockerelli, decolorata, eisenii, errans, fisheri, flavofasciata, hoffmanseggiae, lanosa, nitida, pallida, rhodomelas, rhodopus, tiburonensis, transversa, trigonoides, vanduzeei, varia, zacateca) 
      2. Intermixed light and dark hairs present (agameta, eisenii, mexicana) 
      3. All dark (aterrima, mexicana, nigrocaerulea) 

      Thorax, scutum, hair color 
      1. All light, yellow to white - With only yellow to off-white hairs (agameta, atripes, caesalpiniae, californica, cockerelli, errans, fisheri, hoffmanseggiae, lanosa, mexicana, nitida, pallida, rhodopus, tiburonensis, transversa, trigonoides, vanduzeei, varia, zacateca) 
      2. All light, orange to brown - Deeply orange or brown at least in part, clearly darker than the hairs of the mesepisternum if they are light BUT not dark brown or blackish (decolorata, eisenii, errans, hoffmanseggiae, pallida, rhodomelas) 
      3. With SOME dark hairs - Ranging from few dark hairs to primarily dark hairs, BUT always with at least some light hairs present (eisenii, flavofasciata) 
      4. All dark (aterrima, nigrocaerulea) 

      Thorax, mesepisternum, hair color 
      1. All light - With only yellow to off-white hairs (atripes, caesalpiniae, californica, cockerelli, decolorata, eisenii, errans, hoffmanseggiae, nitida, pallida, rhodomelas, rhodopus, tiburonensis, transversa, trigonoides, vanduzeei, varia) 
      2. Primarily light - With some limited dark hairs present, often ventral (agameta, atripes, decolorata, eisenii, flavofasciata, lanosa, nitida) 
      3. Intermixed - There are roughly equal amounts of light and dark hairs (agameta, eisenii, fisheri, lanosa) 
      4. Primarily dark - There are more dark hairs than light hairs (agameta, fisheri, mexicana, zacateca) 
      All dark (agameta, aterrima, mexicana, nigrocaerulea) 

      Fore leg, tibia, presence and extent of yellow markings on the outer face - Note that these may be hidden if the joint of the femur and tibia is straightened 
      1. Present, strongly linear - There is a line of light integument which runs along the entire length of the tibia or nearly so, although sometimes it may be briefly interrupted near the base (decolorata, flavofasciata, varia) 
      2. Present, dot - There is a small dot of light integument present at the very base of the fore tibia (atripes, caesalpiniae, cockerelli, eisenii, errans, fisheri, lanosa, nigrocaerulea, nitida, rhodopus, tiburonensis, transversa, trigonoides) 
      3. Absent - There are no light integumental markings on the fore tibia (agameta, aterrima, californica, hoffmanseggiae, mexicana, nigrocaerulea, pallida, rhodomelas, tiburonesis, vanduzeei, zacateca) 

      Mid leg, tibia, presence and extent of yellow markings on the outer face - Note that these may be hidden if the joint of the femur and tibia is straightened 
      1. Present, more extensive - In addition to the basal dot there is also some amount of light integument elsewhere on the outer face of the tibia, this often disconnected from the basal dot and sometimes faint enough that it is hard to notice (flavofasciata, varia) 
      2. Present, dot - There is a small dot of light integument present at the very base of the mid tibia (atripes, caesalpiniae, cockerelli, decolorata, eisenii, errans, fisheri, lanosa, nigrocaerulea, nitida, rhodopus, transversa, trigonoides) 
      3. Absent - There are no light integumental markings on the mid tibia (agameta, aterrima, californica, hoffmanseggiae, mexicana, nigrocaerulea, pallida, rhodomelas, tiburonensis, vanduzeei, zacateca) 

      Rear leg, femur, hair color 
      1. All light - With only yellow or off-white to light brownish hairs (caesalpiniae, californica, eisenii, errans, hoffmanseggiae, pallida, rhodopus, tiburonensis, transversa, vanduzeei) 
      2. Intermixed - With both light and dark hairs present (cockerelli, decolorata, eisenii, flavofasciata, nitida, rhodomelas, rhodopus, transversa, trigonoides, varia) 
      3. All dark (agameta, aterrima, atripes, cockerelli, fisheri, lanosa, mexicana, nigrocaerulea, nitida, varia, zacateca) 

      Rear leg, basitarsus, hair color on the outer face
      1. All dark, black or sometimes DARK brown (agameta, aterrima, atripes, cockerelli, fisheri, flavofasciata, lanosa, mexicana, nigrocaerulea, nitida, transversa, zacateca) 
      2. With mixed LIGHT brownish to whitish hairs and clearly darker hairs (eisenii, errans, flavofasciata, rhodomelas, tiburonensis, trigonoides, varia) 
      3. With lighter brown or off-white to yellowish hairs, if with any darker hairs then they are restricted to the lower edge (caesalpiniae, californica, decolorata, errans, hoffmanseggiae, pallida, rhodopus, tiburonensis, vanduzeei, varia) 

      Abdomen, integumental color - Use with caution and close inspection 
      1. Blackish - All or nearly all BLACK or VERY dark brown (agameta, aterrima, atripes, caesalpiniae, californica, cockerelli, fisheri, hoffmanseggiae, lanosa, mexicana, nigrocaerulea, nitida, pallida, rhodomelas, rhodopus, tiburonensis, transversa, vanduzeei, zacateca) 
      2. Dark Metallic Blue - At first often appearing black, but upon closer inspection it is primarily a very dark blue with metallic reflections (agameta, decolorata, flavofasciata, lanosa, nigrocaerulea, varia) 
      3. Reddish Brown - With a significant degree of reddish-brown integument, although sometimes the reddish-brown may be limited only to the lateral sides of the basal terga and on the sterna (agameta, caesalpiniae, errans, trigonoides, vanduzeei, varia) 
      4. Yellow - The primary color of the integument is yellow due to the exaggerated extent of the yellow integumental markings that are normally much more limited, at least on the terga (eisenii, flavofasciata) 

      Abdomen, terga, presence or absence of pale, OPAQUE integumental markings rather than a simple lightening due to translucence of the integument as is often seen along the rim
      1. Extensive - There are pale markings on more than just T2, these markings may or may not be continuous across any particular tergite (eisenii, flavofasciata)  
      2. Present on T2, weak - There are pale marks on ONLY T2 and these markings are interrupted medially (decolorata, varia) 
      3. Absent - No light integumental markings are present (agameta, aterrima, atripes, caesalpiniae, californica, cockerelli, errans, fisheri, hoffmanseggiae, lanosa, mexicana, nigrocaerulea, nitida, pallida, rhodomelas, rhodopus, tiburonensis, transversa, trigonoides, vanduzeei, zacateca) 

      Abdomen, presence and form of light-colored apical hair bands - Make note that specimens with matted hairs should not be scored for this character 
      1. Absent - No apical hair bands, hair color either intermixed thoroughly or hairs completely and uniformly cover the tergite without a clear increase in density along the rim (agameta, aterrima, atripes, cockerelli, decolorata, eisenii, errans, fisheri, flavofasciata, hoffmanseggiae, lanosa, mexicana, nigrocaerulea, nitida, rhodomelas, transversa, trigonoides, varia, zacateca) 
      2. Appearing present due to occurrence of appressed hairs - Although all hairs on the tergites are light, those along the apical rim are prone and appressed such that they appear much thicker and give the impression of hair bands - Note that this type of presence is most obvious when viewed without a microscope and can be hard to see if the specimen's hairs are matted (californica, hoffmanseggiae, pallida, rhodomelas, tiburonensis)  
      3. Appearing present due to integumental color - The apical rims of the terga are distinctly lighter in color than the basal portions, creating the illusion of hair bands despite intermixed or uniform hair color throughout - Note that if both the integument is light and hairs along the rim are more appressed then only this state should be scored (caesalpiniae) 
      4. Present - There are darker hairs basally and lighter hairs for a clear band along the rim - Even if the rim is lighter or the hairs there are more appressed you should score for only this character if it fits (rhodopus) 

      Abdomen, T1, hair color 
      1. All light - With only yellow to off-white hairs (caesalpiniae, californica, cockerelli, eisenii, hoffmanseggiae, nitida, pallida, rhodomelas, rhodopus, tiburonensis, transversa, trigonoides, vanduzeei) 
      2. Primarily light - With some limited dark hairs present (agameta, atripes, cockerelli, decolorata, eisenii, errans, fisheri, flavofasciata, lanosa, nitida, rhodomelas, transversa, trigonoides, varia, zacateca) 
      3. Intermixed - There are roughly equal amounts of light and dark hairs (agameta, atripes, decolorata, flavofasciata, mexicana, nitida) 
      4. Primarily dark - There are more dark hairs than light hairs (agameta, atripes, decolorata, mexicana, nitida) 
      5. All dark (aterrima, nigrocaerulea) 

      Abdomen, T2, hair color ON THE DORSAL FACE, ignoring the sides
      1. All light - With only yellow to off-white hairs (caesalpiniae, californica, hoffmanseggiae, pallida, tiburonensis, vanduzeei) 
      2. Intermixed - With both light and dark hairs present (rhodomelas, rhodopus, trigonoides) 
      3. All dark (agameta, aterrima, atripes, cockerelli, decolorata, eisenii, errans, fisheri, flavofasciata, lanosa, mexicana, nigrocaerulea, nitida, transversa, trigonoides, varia, zacateca) 

      Abdomen, T5, hair color 
      1. All light (caesalpiniae, californica, decolorata, eisenii, errans, flavofasciata, pallida, tiburonensis, trigonoides, vanduzeei, varia) 
      2. Primarily light - With dark hairs only found at the lateral sides (nitida, pallida, transversa, trigonoides) 
      3. Intermixed light and dark hairs throughout - Hard to tell which is dominant (hoffmanseggiae, rhodopus, trigonoides) 
      4. All black or nearly so - If with any light hairs present then they are far outnumbered by dark hairs (agameta, aterrima, atripes, cockerelli, fisheri, lanosa, mexicana, nigrocaerulea, rhodomelas, rhodopus, zacateca) 

      C. atripes vs C. lanosa
      C. atripes - The face is more broad medially and this is a consequence of the inner margins of the eye being parallel or nearly so, if at all convergent around the longitudinal midpoint of the face then only very slightly so
      C. lanosa - The face is narrowed around the middle of its longitudinal length, this due to the strong curving toward the center of the face seen in the inner margins of the compound eyes 

      C. pallida vs C. tiburonensis
      C. pallida – The compound eyes are more convergent above, their inner margins appearing roughly parallel until just barely before the top if at all, this giving the impression that they are convergent throughout the upper half of the eye
      C. tiburonensis – The space between the compound eyes is clearly least around the antennal bases and from here the inner eye margins gradually increases all the way to the top of the eyes such that they appear much more convergent at the middle than at the top


      -Michael Orr





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