I had one other question regarding groundnesting bees. I was asked if disturbance could cause them to emerge early. The question came from a teacher who had found that disturbing Lepidoptera pupae caused them to emerge early. I know that cavity nesting species are often "handled" but kept in cool places to keep them from emerging early, and would think groundnesting bees would be similar, but if you have insights or resources on this, would very much appreciate hearing from you.
Nancy Lee Adamson