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Anthophora male guide updated

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  • Michael Orr
    Hello, I m happy to announce the completion of the Anthophora male guide for all species found within the United States, with inclusion of those species
    Message 1 of 1 , Dec 12, 2011
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      Hello,


      I'm happy to announce the completion of the Anthophora male guide for all species found within the United States, with inclusion of those species' ranges in Canada and Mexico. The species that are known from Mexico but not the United States have not yet been added, but they hopefully will be in the near future. The guide was completed through primarily my own work, although some reference was made to the various works of Robert Brooks for additional character ideas. Presently the guide completely resolves all described species but there are a number of undescribed species which I plan to describe in my own work; when their descriptions are complete they will be added to the guide.

      As always, if there are any questions or suggestions then please contact me at michael.christopher.orr@.... I have used specimens from both the NMNH and USDA-ARS collection at this point, but there's always the possibility that some unrepresented population may exhibit unexpected variation. 

      As you may have noticed the Anthophora female guide is currently also under construction. It is possible that the female guide will be completed before the new year, but if not it will be shortly after. The Centris male and female guides are next after the Anthophora, and the Habropoda are another future project. 


      The characters are as follows:
      Subgenus
      Anthophora (plumipes)
      Anthophoroides (californica, linsleyi, marginata, phaceliae, signata, vallorum)
      Clisodon (terminalis)
      Heliophila (abroniae, albata, arthuri, cockerelli, columbariae, erythrothorax, estebana, exigua, flavocincta, flexipes, hololeuca, maculifrons, mortuaria, nigritula, pachyodonta, peritomae, petrophila, phenax, rhodothorax, salazariae, squammulosa)
      Lophanthophora (affabilis, ursina, coptognatha, dammersi, fedorica, neglecta, pacifica, porterae)
      Melea (abrupta, bomboides, occidentalis)
      Mystacanthophora (capistrata, montana, urbana, walshii)
      Paramegilla (centriformis, fulvicauda)
      Pyganthophora (crotchii, edwardsii, forbesi, lesquerellae, platti, vannigera)


      Head, mandible, proportion of the visible outer visible face that is yellow
      All dark, dark brown to black (affabilis, coptognatha, dammersi, edwardsii, fedorica, lesquerellae, neglecta, pacifica, porterae, terminalis, ursina, vannigera)
      With some amount of yellow coloration, BUT usually less than half of the mandible is yellow (abrupta, affabilis, bomboides, capistrata, centriformis, edwardsii, forbesi, fulvicauda, linsleyi, marginata, montana, occidentalis, phaceliae, platti, plumipes, porterae, urbana, walshii, vallorum, vannigera)
      With a great deal of yellow present on the mandible, only the very apical third or less of the mandible darkly colored (abroniae, albata, californica, centriformis, cockerelli, columbariae, crotchii, erythrothorax, estebana, exigua, flavocincta, flexipes, hololeuca, maculifrons, marginata, mortuaria, occidentalis, pachyodonta, peritomae, petrophila, phaceliae, phenax, rhodothorax, salazariae, squammulosa, urbana)


      Head, mandible, length and orientation  
      1. Short - The mandibles, when closed, overlap such that the tips do not extend beyond the lower edge of the mandible, this is similar to most species of bees (abroniae, abrupta, affabilis, bomboides, capistrata, centriformis, cockerelli, columbariae, coptognatha, edwardsii, erythrothorax, estebana, exigua, flavocincta, forbesi, fulvicauda, hololeuca, linsleyi, maculifrons, marginata, montana, mortuaria, occidentalis, pachyodonta, peritomae, petrophila, phaceliae, phenax, plumipes, rhodothorax, salazariae, signata, squammulosa, terminalis, urbana, vallorum, walshii)
      2. Moderate - The two mandibles cross only slightly, such that less than one fourth of their tips extend beyond the lower edge (abrupta, affabilis, albata, bomboides, capistrata, centriformis, cockerelli, crotchii, dammersi, erythrothorax, estebana, exigua, fedorica, flavocincta, flexipes, fulvicauda, hololeuca, maculifrons, mortuaria, occidentalis, pachyodonta, pacifica, petrophila, platti, plumipes, rhodothorax, salazariae, squammulosa, walshii) 
      3. Long - The two mandibles are so long that they cross and creating a clear X-shape with a fourth or more of their lengths extending past the lower edge of the opposing mandible (albata, fedorica, flexipes, lesquerellae, neglecta, pacifica, porterae, ursina, vannigera) 


      Head, mandible, number and form of teeth present - Note that the teeth in males occur along the upper side of the mandible
      1. Mandible simple OR weakly bidentate - There is either no inferior tooth or there is a small tooth present basal to the tip of the mandible which IS NOT strongly divergent from the mandible and appears relatively parallel as such, note that often the tooth will be rounded in this state (abroniae, abrupta, affabilis, bomboides, californica, capistrata, centriformis, columbariae, coptognatha, crotchii, dammersi, edwardsii, erythrothorax, estebana, exigua, fedorica, flavocincta, forbesi, fulvicauda, hololeuca, linsleyi, maculifrons, marginata, montana, neglecta, occidentalis, pachyodonta, pacifica, peritomae, petrophila, phaceliae, phenax, platti, plumipes, porterae, rhodothorax, salazariae, signata, squammulosa, terminalis, urbana, ursina, vallorum, walshii)
      2. Mandible bidentate - There is a jutting spike-like tooth present basal to the tip of the mandible which is very clearly acute and this tooth nearly always diverges from the mandible with at least a forty-five degree angle (albata, californica, cockerelli, crotchii, estebana, exigua, flavocincta, flexipes, lesquerellae, marginata, mortuaria, petrophila, plumipes, rhodothorax, squammulosa, vannigera)


      Head, labrum, form of apical rim
      Labral rim convex or straight throughout, although often there is a very small indent medially which takes up far less than half the total width of the labral rim - Note that in some smaller species there may be a medial projection, if so then there is NOT a concavity to each side of it (abroniae, affabilis, bomboides, californica, capistrata, centriformis, columbariae, coptognatha, crotchii, dammersi, edwardsii, erythrothorax, fedorica, flavocincta, flexipes, fulvicauda, hololeuca, lesquerellae, linsleyi, maculifrons, marginata, montana, mortuaria, neglecta, occidentalis, pachyodonta, pacifica, petrophila, phaceliae, phenax, platti, plumipes, porterae, salazariae, signata, squammulosa, terminalis, urbana, ursina, vallorum, vannigera, walshii) 
      Labral rim obviously and deeply concave, the emargination usually filled with dense hairs (abrupta)
      Labral rim wavy, with AT LEAST TWO distinct concavities (albata, cockerelli, estebana, exigua, flexipes, maculifrons, mortuaria, pachyodonta, peritomae, petrophila, rhodothorax, squammulosa) 


      Head, clypeus, integumental color, not counting the thin apical rim
      1. All dark, dark brown to black (hololeuca)
      2. With some degree of yellow coloration, often a transverse strip of yellow along the rim of the clypeus, but still at least about a fourth black (abroniae, albata, capistrata, columbariae, edwardsii, erythrothorax, estebana, exigua, fedorica, flavocincta, flexipes, hololeuca, lesquerellae, maculifrons, marginata, montana, mortuaria, neglecta, pachyodonta, pacifica, peritomae, petrophila, platti, plumipes, porterae, rhodothorax, salazariae, signata, squammulosa, ursina, vannigera, walshii)
      3. Almost all yellow, but with a small amount of dark coloration EXTENDING ONTO the clypeus from the tentorial pits which is little more than a dot (abrupta, affabilis, albata, bomboides, californica, centriformis, coptognatha, dammersi, fedorica, flexipes, forbesi, fulvicauda, linsleyi, montana, occidentalis, phaceliae, terminalis, urbana, vallorum)
      4. Entirely yellow (abrupta, centriformis, cockerelli, crotchii, forbesi, fulvicauda, linsleyi, occidentalis, phaceliae, phenax, terminalis)


      Head, paraocular area, integumental color   
      1. All black (abroniae, albata, columbariae, erythrothorax, estebana, exigua, flavocincta, flexipes, hololeuca, maculifrons, mortuaria, pachyodonta, peritomae, petrophila, rhodothorax, salazariae, squammulosa)
      2. Yellow present, but not extending to the lower level of the antennal fossae (abrupta, bomboides, edwardsii, mortuaria, neglecta, pacifica, porterae, terminalis, vallorum)
      3. Yellow present, about equal to the lower level of the fossae (abrupta, bomboides, edwardsii, fedorica, forbesi, marginata, montana, neglecta, pacifica, phaceliae, phenax, plumipes, porterae, signata, terminalis, ursina, vallorum) 
      4. Yellow present, reaching BETWEEN bottom and top of the fossae (affabilis, bomboides, californica, capistrata, centriformis, cockerelli, fedorica, forbesi, fulvicauda, lesquerellae, linsleyi, marginata, montana, occidentalis, pacifica, phaceliaae, phenax, platti, plumipes, porterae, signata, urbana, ursina, vannigera, walshii)
      5. Yellow present, about equal to top of the fossae (californica, capistrata, centriformis, coptognatha, crotchii, dammersi, fulvicauda, lesquerellae, occidentalis, signata, urbana, vannigera, walshii)
      6. Yellow present, extending past top of the fossae (californica, coptognatha, crotchii, dammersi)


      Head, supraclypeus, light integumental markings 
      Absent - There are no light integumental markings present on the supraclypeus (abroniae, columbariae, erythrothorax, estebana, fedorica, hololeuca, marginata, mortuaria, pachyodonta, peritomae, petrophila, porterae, salazariae, squammulosa)
      Present, partial - Taking the form of a weak or obscure dot or patch which is limited apicomedially and does not extend across the width of the supraclypeus OR with a complete split in the middle (fedorica, flavocincta, marginata, mortuaria, phaceliae, porterae, rhodothorax, squammulosa, urbana, ursina, walshii)
      Present, entire or nearly so - Taking the form of a wide bar which covers nearly the entire supraclypeus at least in terms of width (abrupta, affabilis, albata, bomboides, californica, capistrata, centriformis, cockerelli, coptognatha, crotchii, dammersi, edwardsii, exigua, fedorica, flavocincta, flexipes, forbesi, fulvicauda, lesquerellae, linsleyi, maculifrons, montana, mortuaria, neglecta, occidentalis, pacifica, phaceliae, phenax, platti, plumipes, porterae, rhodothorax, signata, terminalis, urbana, ursina, vallorum, vannigera, walshii)


      Head, antennae, scape, integumental color
      All dark, brownish to black (abroniae, bomboides, columbariae, peritomae, salazariae, squammulosa, terminalis)
      With at least some yellowish coloration (abrupta, affabilis, albata, bomboides, californica, capistrata, centriformis, cockerelli, coptognatha, crotchii, dammersi, edwardsii, erythrothorax, estebana, exigua, fedorica, flavocincta, flexipes, forbesi, fulvicauda, linsleyi, maculifrons, marginata, montana, mortuaria, neglecta, occidentalis, pachyodonta, pacifica, petrophila, phaceliae, phenax, platti, plumipes, porterae, rhodothorax, signata, terminalis, urbana, ursina, vallorum, vannigera, walshii)


      Head, antennae, flagellomere length
      1. F1 short, less than the combined length of F2 and F3 (abrupta, bomboides, californica, columbariae, erythrothorax, estebana, flavocincta, hololeuca, linsleyi, maculifrons, marginata, montana, mortuaria, occidentalis, pachyodonta, peritomae, petrophila, phaceliae, phenax, salazariae, signata, urbana, vallorum, walshii)
      2. F1 of moderate length, about equal to or slightly greater than F2-F3 (abroniae, albata, bomboides, capistrata, centriformis, cockerelli, columbariae, dammersi, edwardsii, erythrothorax, exigua, flavocincta, flexipes, forbesi, fulvicauda, maculifrons, marginata, mortuaria, pachyodonta, platti, rhodothorax, squammulosa, terminalis)
      3. F1 long, about equal to F2-4 or greater (affabilis, coptognatha, dammersi, fedorica, lesquerellae, neglecta, pacifica, platti, plumipes, porterae,  terminalis, ursina)
      4. F1 extremely long, about equal to F2-5 or greater (crotchii, lesquerellae, neglecta, pacifica, plumipes)


      Head, face, color of the hair found below the antennal fossae
      ALL PALE, white to off-white or rarely orangish brown (abroniae, abrupta, affabilis, albata, bomboides, californica, centriformis, cockerelli, columbariae, coptognatha, crotchii, dammersi, erythrothorax, estebana, exigua, fedorica, flavocincta, flexipes, forbesi, fulvicauda, hololeuca, lesquerellae, linsleyi, maculifrons, montana, mortuaria, occidentalis, pachyodonta, peritomae, petrophila, phenax, rhodothorax, salazariae, signata, squammulosa, terminalis, urbana, vallorum, vannigera, walshii)
      With 
      SOME darker brownish or black hairs mixed in with the common pale hairs, sometimes only along the inner margin of the compound eyes, BUT the light hairs are still dominant or about equal in density to the dark hairs (abrupta, bomboides, capistrata, centriformis, coptognatha, edwardsii, erythrothorax, lesquerellae, marginata, neglecta, pacifica, phaceliae, platti, plumipes, porterae, terminalis, ursina)
      Darker brown or blackish hairs 
      DOMINATE, with CLEARLY less light hair than dark hair (marginata)


      Head, vertex, hair color - Be sure to check 
      behind and to the sides of the lateralocelli
      ALL LIGHT, whitish to yellowish and sometimes rarely orangish (abroniae, albata, californica, centriformis, cockerelli, columbariae, crotchii, exigua, fedorica, flavocincta, flexipes, fulvicauda, hololeuca, montana, mortuaria, occidentalis, pachyodonta, peritomae, petrophila, salazariae)
      PRIMARILY LIGHT, but with some dark hairs also present (abrupta, affabilis, bomboides, californica, capistrata, centriformis, coptognatha, crotchii, dammersi, edwardsii, erythrothorax, estebana, fedorica, flavocincta, forbesi, fulvicauda, lesquerellae, linsleyi, maculifrons, montana, neglecta, pacifica, phaceliae, phenax, platti, plumipes, porterae, rhodothorax, signata, squammulosa, terminalis, urbana, ursina, vallorum, vannigera, walshii)
      A mixture of light and dark hairs present, 
      ABOUT EQUAL in density or hard to tell (abrupta, bomboides, capistrata, dammersi, lesquerellae, marginata, pacifica, plumipes, porterae, ursina)
      PRIMARILY DARK, but with some light hairs also present, very rarely entirely dark (bomboides, marginata, pacifica, plumipes)


      Thorax, pronotal lobe, hair color
      LIGHT, white or yellow to very pale brownish orange (abroniae, abrupta, albata, bomboides, centriformis, cockerelli, columbariae, coptognatha, crotchii, dammersi, erythrothorax, estebana, exigua, fedorica, flavocincta, flexipes, forbesi, fulvicauda, hololeuca, lesquerellae, linsleyi, maculifrons, montana, mortuaria, neglecta, occidentalis, pachyodonta, peritomae, petrophila, phenax, porterae, rhodothorax, salazariae, signata, squammulosa, terminalis, urbana, ursina, vannigera, walshii)
      BOTH light and dark hairs present (californica, capistrata, dammersi, edwardsii, fulvicauda, linsleyi, marginata, pacifica, phaceliae, platti, plumipes, porterae, ursina, vallorum, vannigera)


      Thorax, tegulae, integumental color - Ignore hair color
      Light tan to slightly brown, usually clearly transparent (abroniae, affabilis, albata, californica, capistrata, centriformis, cockerelli, columbariae, dammersi, erythrothorax, estebana, exigua, fedorica, flavocincta, flexipes, forbesi, fulvicauda, hololeuca, linsleyi, maculifrons, montana, mortuaria, pachyodonta, peritomae, petrophila, phaceliae, phenax, rhodothorax, salazariae, signata, squammulosa, urbana, vallorum, walshii)
      Dark brownish to black, usually entirely opaque or nearly so (abrupta, affabilis, bomboides, californica, capistrata, coptognatha, crotchii, dammersi, edwardsii, estebana, exigua, flavocincta, flexipes, forbesi, lesquerellae, linsleyi, maculifrons, marginata, montana, neglecta, occidentalis, pacifica, phaceliae, phenax, platti, plumipes, porterae, rhodothorax, signata, squammulosa, terminalis, urbana, ursina, vannigera, walshii)


      Thorax, scutum, hair color
      ALL LIGHT, whitish to yellowish or VERY light brownish orange (abroniae, abrupta, affabilis, albata, bomboides, californica, centriformis, cockerelli, columbariae, crotchii, exigua, fedorica, flavocincta, flexipes, hololeuca, montana, mortuaria, neglecta, occidentalis, pachyodonta, peritomae, petrophila, phenax, salazariae, urbana, walshii)
      PRIMARILY LIGHT, whitish or yellowish, but with some very small number of darker hairs which may be easily overlooked if not careful, these limited dark hairs often ONLY found medially so the rims of the scutum appear only lightly haired (bomboides, californica, capistrata, centriformis, columbariae, coptognatha, crotchii, estebana, forbesi, fulvicauda, lesquerellae, maculifrons, phaceliae, porterae, rhodothorax, signata, squammulosa, terminalis, urbana, vallorum)
      MIXTURE of light and dark hairs, with the presence of both colors readily apparent throughout (capistrata, coptognatha, dammersi, edwardsii, erythrothorax, forbesi, fulvicauda, lesquerellae, linsleyi, maculifrons, marginata, pacifica, phaceliae, platti, plumipes, porterae, rhodothorax, squammulosa, terminalis, ursina, vallorum)


      Thorax, mesepisternum, hair color
      ALL LIGHT, white to off-white or yellowish to orangish (abroniae, abrupta, affabilis, albata, bomboides, californica, centriformis, cockerelli, columbariae, coptognatha, crotchii, erythrothorax, estebana, exigua, fedorica, flavocincta, flexipes, forbesi, fulvicauda, hololeuca, lesquerellae, linsleyi, maculifrons, montana, mortuaria, neglecta, occidentalis, pachyodonta, peritomae, petrophila, phaceliae, phenax, porterae, rhodothorax, salazariae, signata, squammulosa, terminalis, urbana, ursina, vallorum, vannigera, walshii)
      With light hairs present 
      PRIMARILY, but with a VERY SMALL number of darker hairs present near the top of the mesepisternum which are usually easily overlooked (bomboides, californica, dammersi, edwardsii, maculifrons, phaceliae, platti, porterae, ursina)
      With both light and dark hairs present in appreciable numbers, but the dark hairs are USUALLY limited to the 
      TOP HALF (californica, dammersi, edwardsii, marginata, pacifica, plumipes, porterae)
      With both light and dark hairs present in appreciable numbers, the dark hairs restricted 
      to the bottom and the light hairs on top (bomboides)


      Mid leg, tibia, hair color on the OUTER FACE
      ENTIRELY PALE, white to yellowish, sometimes orangish, BUT sometimes there may be a very slightly darker spot near the apex which is at most a very light brownish tan color (abroniae, affabilis, albata, californica, capistrata, centriformis, cockerelli, columbariae, coptognatha, crotchii, dammersi, erythrothorax, estebana, flavocincta, flexipes, forbesi, fulvicauda, hololeuca, lesquerellae, linsleyi, maculifrons, marginata, montana, mortuaria, neglecta, occidentalis, pachyodonta, peritomae, petrophila, phenax, platti, rhodothorax, salazariae, signata, squammulosa, terminalis, urbana, ursina, vallorum, vannigera, walshii)
      Primarily pale, white to off-white, but with a darker brownish or blackish patch near the apex OR with dark hairs appreciably present throughout (coptognatha, edwardsii, fedorica, phaceliae, plumipes, porterae)
      Entirely dark, brownish or black, or nearly so, sometimes with a small light spot at the tip (abrupta, bomboides, pacifica, phaceliae, porterae)


      Mid leg, trochanter, hair color on the ventral surface
      1. There are only light hairs present, ranging from white or yellow to a light tan color - If there is any patch of darker hairs then it is at the tip and composed of shorter hairs such that it is usually nearly impossible to see (abroniae, affabilis, californica, capistrata, centriformis, cockerelli, columbariae, coptognatha, crotchii, dammersi, erythrothorax, estebana, exigua, fedorica, flavocincta, forbesi, fulvicauda, hololeuca, lesquerellae, linsleyi, maculifrons, marginata, montana, mortuaria, occidentalis, pachyodonta, peritomae, petrophila, phaceliae, phenax, platti, plumipes, rhodothorax, salazariae, signata, squammulosa, terminalis, urbana, ursina, walshii)
      2. Primarily light, but with some noticeable number of black hairs present (albata, cockerelli, coptognatha, crotchii, edwardsii, flavocincta, flexipes, pacifica, phaceliae, phenax, plumipes, porterae, squammulosa, terminalis, vallorum, vannigera)
      3. A thorough mix of light and dark hairs throughout, proportions roughly even (albata, bomboides, pacifica, porterae, vallorum, vannigera)
      4. Entirely dark, black, but sometimes the tips may appear faded (abrupta, bomboides, neglecta)


      Rear leg, basitarsus, shape of inner margin
      1. Inner margin straight, unmodified, lacking a tooth or angle (abroniae, affabilis, capistrata, cockerelli, columbariae, coptognatha, crotchii, dammersi, erythrothorax, estebana, exigua, fedorica, flavocincta, forbesi, hololeuca, lesquerellae, maculifrons, montana, mortuaria, neglecta, pachyodonta, pacifica, peritomae, petrophila, phenax, platti, plumipes, porterae, rhodothorax, salazariae, squammulosa, terminalis, urbana, ursina, vannigera, walshii)
       
      2. Inner margin with a tooth or angle about 1/3 of the way from the base, this tooth short and protruding from the margin of the basitarsus by about half the width of the basitarsus or less (abrupta, bomboides, centriformis, edwardsii, flexipes, fulvicauda, linsleyi, marginata, occidentalis, vallorum) 
      3. Inner margin with a tooth or angle about 1/3 of the way from the base which projects off the basitarsus by clearly more than half its width, often by as much or more than the width of the basitarsus (albata, bomboides, californica, flexipes, linsleyi, phaceliae, signata)


      Rear leg, outer tibial spur, point of origin
      Outer tibial spur arising from the tibia normally (abroniae, abrupta, affabilis, albata, bomboides, capistrata, centriformis, cockerelli, columbariae, coptognatha, crotchii, dammersi, edwardsii, erythrothorax, estebana, exigua, fedorica, flavocincta, flexipes, forbesi, fulvicauda, hololeuca, lesquerellae, maculifrons, montana, mortuaria, neglecta, occidentalis, pachyodonta, pacifica, peritomae, petrophila, phaceliae, phenax, platti, plumipes, porterae, rhodothorax, salazariae, squammulosa, terminalis, urbana, ursina, vannigera, walshii)
      Outer tibial spur arising from a spike-like projection (californica, linsleyi, marginata, phaceliae, signata, vallorum)


      Abdomen, T1, hair color
      All light, whitish to yellowish or sometimes orangish (abroniae, affabilis, albata, bomboides, californica, capistrata, centriformis, cockerelli, columbariae, coptognatha, crotchii, dammersi, edwardsii, erythrothorax, exigua, fedorica, flavocincta, flexipes, forbesi, fulvicauda, hololeuca, lesquerellae, linsleyi, maculifrons, montana, mortuaria, neglecta, occidentalis, pachyodonta, peritomae, petrophila, phaceliae, phenax, platti, plumipes, porterae, rhodothorax, salazariae, signata, squammulosa, terminalis, urbana, ursina, vallorum, vannigera, walshii)
      Usually primarily light but with some darker brownish or black hairs, which are often very short and hard to see, although sometimes these short black hairs may even exceed the light hair but because the light hair is long the appearance is still one of overall lightness (abrupta, bomboides, capistrata, estebana, lesquerellae, marginata, pacifica, rhodothorax)


      Abdomen, T2, color of hair - Be careful of worn specimens with hair RUBBED OFF or the presence of very short hairs 
      All light, white or yellowish or
      , rarely, somewhat orangish (abroniae, albata, bomboides, columbariae, forbesi, hololeuca, linsleyi, montana, mortuaria, occidentalis, pachyodonta, petrophila, salazariae, signata, terminalis, walshii)
      Primarily light, although some darker hairs are also present, these dark hairs sometimes much shorter and harder to see than the light hairs (albata, bomboides, californica, cockerelli, columbariae, coptognatha, edwardsii, erythrothorax, exigua, fedorica, flavocincta, flexipes, lesquerellae, maculifrons, marginata, neglecta, pacifica, peritomae, phenax, platti, plumipes, porterae, rhodothorax, squammulosa, ursina, vallorum, vannigera, walshii)
      A thorough mix of light and dark hairs, hard to tell which is dominant (affabilis, californica, crotchii, dammersi, erythrothorax, estebana, fedorica, flavocincta, fulvicauda,  lesquerellae, maculifrons, marginata, pacifica, peritomae, plumipes, rhodothorax, squammulosa, ursina, vallorum)
      Primarily dark, although some lighter hairs are also present (affabilis, californica, capistrata, centriformis, crotchii, dammersi, estebana, fedorica, flavocincta, fulvicauda, maculifrons, marginata, pacifica, phaceliae, plumipes, urbana)
      All dark, brown or black (abrupta, phaceliae)


      Abdomen, S5, the long hairs found along the apical rim, hair color
      1. All light (affabilis, californica, centriformis, dammersi, erythrothorax, estebana, fedorica, fulvicauda, linsleyi, marginata, mortuaria, occidentalis, pachyodonta, phenax, rhodothorax, signata, squammulosa)
      2. Mixed light and dark (californica, capistrata, coptognatha, edwardsii, exigua, fedorica, flavocincta, lesquerellae, linsleyi, maculifrons, montana, pacifica, phenax, platti, porterae, ursina, vallorum, vannigera, walshii)
      3. All dark (abrupta, albata, bomboides, cockerelli, crotchii, edwardsii, flexipes, montana, neglecta, phaceliae, platti, plumipes, ursina, vallorum)
      4. Without longer hairs along the rim, hair length about equal throughout the segment - This is the case with many smaller species (abroniae, albata, cockerelli, columbariae, erythrothorax, exigua, flavocincta, flexipes, hololeuca, maculifrons, mortuaria, pachyodonta, peritomae, petrophila, rhodothorax, salazariae, signata, squammulosa, terminalis, urbana)


      Abdomen, S6, form of apical rim
      Straight or nearly so, sometimes convex (abrupta, affabilis, capistrata, coptognatha, dammersi, fedorica, maculifrons, marginata, petrophila, phaceliae, plumipes)
      Concave or emarginate (abroniae, abrupta,affabilis, albata, bomboides, californica, capistrata, centriformis, cockerelli, columbariae, coptognatha, crotchii, dammersi, edwardsii, erythrothorax, estebana, fedorica, flexipes, forbesi, fulvicauda, hololeuca, lesquerellae, linsleyi, maculifrons, marginata, montana, mortuaria, neglecta, occidentalis, pachyodonta, peritomae, phenax, platti, plumipes, rhodothorax, salazariae, signata, squammulosa, terminalis, urbana, ursina, vallorum, vannigera, walshii)


      Abdomen, T7, presence of rear-facing teeth on the far LATERAL sides, these in addition to the possible presence of a medial projection or projections - Note that you will often need to remove hairs and may sometimes need to spread the terminal sclerites to use this character
      Present - 
      Forming a thin CLEARLY ACUTE projection, often sharp (centriformis, fulvicauda, erythrothorax, estebana, exigua, flavocincta, peritomae, petrophila, rhodothorax, squammulosa)
      Present - Forming a SLIGHTLY ACUTE or RIGHT angle (albata, centriformis, fulvicauda, flexipes, hololeuca, maculifrons, neglecta, pachyodonta, pacifica, porterae, ursina, vannigera)
      Present - Forming an OBTUSE angle, note that this is less of a tooth than a reshaping of the curve of the rim of the lateral sides of T7 (affabilis, albata, capistrata, cockerelli, edwardsii, fedorica, hololeuca, mortuaria, pachyodonta, pacifica, porterae, signata, terminalis, ursina, vannigera)
      Absent - 
      Segment evenly curved laterally (abroniae, abrupta, bomboides, californica, capistrata, cockerelli, columbariae, crotchii, edwardsii, forbesi, linsleyi, marginata, montana, occidentalis, phaceliae, phenax, platti, plumipes, salazariae, signata, urbana, vallorum, walshii)


      Abdomen, T7, rim, the form of the medial concavity, if present - Do not score this character if the pygidial plate is present
      1. 
      Absent - Convexly rounded outward or STRAIGHT ACROSS (bomboides, peritomae, phenax, plumipes, walshii)
      2. 
      Present - Angularly concave such that an indented point is present medially (abroniae, capistrata, cockerelli, columbariae, exigua, flexipes, maculifrons, montana, occidentalis, petrophila, rhodothorax, salazariae,  terminalis, urbana, vallorum)
      3. 
      Present - Smoothly concave throughout (abrupta, albata, bomboides, capistrata, cockerelli, columbariae, erythrothorax, estebana, exigua, flavocincta, flexipes, linsleyi, marginata, mortuaria, occidentalis, pachyodonta, peritomae, petrophila, phaceliae, phenax, rhodothorax, signata, terminalis, urbana, vallorum)


      Abdomen, T7, form of the rim of the pygidial plate - Do not score for this character if the pygidial plate is not present
      Convex
      , pointed, or straight across and sometimes unevenly bumpy, if emarginate then only very slightly so and restricted to the middle (affabilis, centriformis, coptognatha, crotchii, dammersi, edwardsii, forbesi, fulvicauda, hololeuca, pacifica, porterae, squammulosa, walshii)
      Deeply emarginate medially such that the entire rim appears caved inward (forbesi, lesquerellae, montana, neglecta, salazariae, ursina, vannigera)
      (FIG neglecta)


      Subgenus Heliophila vs other subgenera - Fore wing, first submarginal cell, presence or absence of hairs - Make sure to view the wing from both sides
      Heliophila - Absent, note that some male A. squammulosa from Jalisco, Mexico have been seen to have hairs in the first submarginal cell (abroniae, albata, cockerelli, columbariae, erythrothorax, estebana, exigua, flavocincta, flexipes, hololeuca, maculifrons, mortuaria, pachyodonta, peritomae, petrophila, phenax, rhodothorax, salazariae, squammulosa)
      Other subgenera - Present (abrupta, affabilis, bomboides, californica, capistrata, centriformis, coptognatha, crotchii, dammersi, edwardsii, fedorica, forbesi, fulvicauda, lesquerellae, linsleyi, marginata, montana, neglecta, occidentalis, pacifica, phaceliae, platti, plumipes, porterae, signata, squammulosa, terminalis, urbana, ursina, vallorum, vannigera, walshii)


      Subgenus Heliophila - Abdomen, T7, longitudinal ridge running to the apex medially - Note that the ridge may not run all the way to the base
      Absent (albata, cockerelli, erythrothorax, estebana, exigua, flavocincta, flexipes, hololeuca, maculifrons, mortuaria, peritomae, petrophila, phenax, rhodothorax, squammulosa)
      Present (abroniae, columbariae, mortuaria, pachyodonta, salazariae, squammulosa)


      Subgenus Heliophila - Mid leg, length
      1. Normal - When the leg is held up and folded downward at the joint of the femur and tibia such that the tip of the leg is directed posteriorly, the tip often reaches back to some point before the tip of the abdomen but never all the way to the tip (abroniae, cockerelli, columbariae, erythrothorax, estebana, exigua, flavocincta, hololeuca, maculifrons, mortuaria, pachyodonta, peritomae, petrophila, phenax, rhodothorax, salazariae, squammulosa)
      2. Extremely long - When the leg is held up and folded downward at the joint of the femur and tibia such that the tip of the leg is directed posteriorly, the tip fully reaches or surpasses the tip of the abdomen (albata, flexipes)


      Subgenus Mystacanthophora 
      - Abdomen, S5, form and number of hair tufts at the middle near the rim - Be careful, matted or missing hairs can be extremely misleading here
      Four distinct tufts of roughly equal size - Two medial and one to either side of them (montana)
      Three distinct tufts - One large medial tuft and one to each side (walshii)
      Two distinct tufts - Two elongate tufts which appear indented basally and can be mistaken for four tufts if not careful (capistrata)
      No tufts - S5 is covered in short white hairs of roughly even length throughout (urbana)


      Subgenus Paramegilla 
      - A. centriformis vs A. fulvicauda
      A. centriformis - The base of the mandible has a 
      GREATER area of light integumental color extending all the way to the impressed lower rim of the mandible - The hind basitarsus is densely hairy at the interior of its apex, with no sign of an integumental spike directed distally - The basitarsal bump is located about three-fourths down the length of the lower surface of the basitarsus - The apical hair bands on the terga are thinner, to the point that they may sometimes be hard to see with the naked eye - In direct comparison, this species is usually larger than A. fulvicauda
      (FIG basitarsal bump pic)
      A. fulvicauda - The base of the mandible has a LESSER 
      amount of light integumental color, this color ending BEFORE the impressed lower rim of the mandible - The apex of the hind basitarsus is less densely hairy, with a small spike directed distally from which several spiky hairs often arise - The basitarsal bump is located about two-thirds down the length of the lower surface of the basitarsus - The apical hair bands of the terga are thicker, often taking up to a fourth of the length of the tergites - In direct comparison, this species is usually smaller than A. centriformis
      (FIG basitarsal bump pic)


      A. abroniae vs A. columbariae
      A. abroniae - T5-6 appearing lighter due to pale hairs spread over its surface - The indent at the middle of T7 between the two projections is clearly concavely curved inward throughout such that it appears U-shaped - The two projections found medially on the rim of T7 are more widely separated
      (PIC)
      A. columbariae - T5-6 appearing darker due to many brownish hairs spread over its surface - The medial indent on the rim of T7 is more angular, slightly V-shaped as a result - The area between the two projections found medially on T7 is narrower than in A. abroniae
      (PIC)


      A. lesquerellae vs A. vannigera
      A. lesquerellae - The width of the labrum is only slightly less along the rim than at the base, clearly more than half its width - The rim of the labrum outside of the yellow center is a solid black color 
      A. vannigera - The width of the labrum is significantly less along the apical rim than at the base, usually about half or less - The rim of the labrum outside of the yellow center is a somewhat transparent orangish-brown color


      A. albata vs A. flexipes - Note that these are potentially the same species
      A. albata - All the hairs on the clypeus or paraocular areas, near the ocelli and on the vertex are the same color, a very plain white - According to Cockerell 1906, the eyes are yellow and the apicomedial pair of projections on T7 are shorter and more parallel, although this is not consistently apparent to the author of this key
      A. flexipes - The hairs on the clypeus and paraocular areas are a different color than those found near the ocelli and vertex, with the former having plainly white hairs and the latter having off-white to yellowish hairs - According to Cockerell 1906, the eyes are green and the apicomedial pair of projections on T7 are longer and more divergent at the tips, although this is not consistently apparent to the author of this key


      A. columbariae vs A. salazariae - A dissection will likely be necessary
      A. columbariae - On S8 there is an apicomedial projection to the sides of which lobes are found, each of these lobes curving concavely inward as you travel laterally from the apicomedial projection BUT THEN they curve outward once more such that there appears to be a semi-circular indent between the apicomedial projection and the lobe - The lateral corners of the apicomedial projection of S7 are rounded, not coming to apical points - The hairs on T5-6 are largely dark brown or black such that they appear more dark overall regardless of the angle at which the bee is viewed
      A. salazariae - On S8 there is an apicomedial projection to the sides of which lobes are found, these lobes curving concavely inward as you travel laterally from the apicomedial projection, before eventually leveling off at the tip of the lobe such that there appears to be only a very broad and shallow indent between the apicomedial projection and lobe if any - The lateral corners of the apicomedial projection of S7 are acutely pointed - The hairs on T5-6 are largely pale, somewhat tan, although these terga appear slightly darker than the preceding terga due to the lack of appressed, pale hairs, note that sometimes these light hairs only appear as such from certain angles


      A. lesquerellae vs A. ursina
      A. lesquerellae - The rear edge of the mid basitarsus is fringed with very long, intermixed black and white hairs - On the outer face of the tarsal segments of the mid leg there are white hairs - The fan present on the last tarsal segment of the mid leg is much more well-developed, usually at least tripling the width of the segment - In direct comparison, usually smaller than A. ursina 
      A. ursina - The rear edge of the mid basitarsus is fringed with very long light, whitish hairs only - On the outer face of the tarsal segments of the mid leg there are long, prominent orangish hairs - The fan present on the last tarsal segment of the mid leg is only weakly developed, often not even doubling the width of the segment - In direct comparison, usually larger than A. lesquerellae


      Species not scored for this guide yet
      RECOMMENDED - Remove these species from the guide (all but arthuri, nigritula, urbana clementina)
      Display all species (all species)
        


      -Michael Orr
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