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Micralictoides, Neopasites, Paranomada, and Rhopalolemma guides

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  • Michael Orr
    Hello, Several more guides have been finished for western genera. Paranomada and Rhopalolemma both have very small numbers of constituent species with three
    Message 1 of 1 , Sep 24, 2011
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      Hello,


      Several more guides have been finished for western genera. Paranomada and Rhopalolemma both have very small numbers of constituent species with three and two respectively, while Micralictoides have slightly more with eight and five respectively. All guides were made with the use of reference materials published on the groups in addition to my own characters (some of them coincidental with prior keys, unsurprisingly). The Micralictoides guide was assisted by the work of Bohart and Griswold. The Neopasites and Paranomada guides were assisted by the work of Linsley. The Rhopalolemma guide was assisted by the works of Alexander, Roig-Alsina, and Rozen.

      As always, if there are any issues or suggestions with these new guides then please contact me at michael.christopher.orr@....


      Micralictoides characters:
      Locality where the bee was collected in California - Note that these distributions may be incomplete pending further sampling, use with caution
      In the Sierra Nevadas (grossus, linsleyi, quadriceps)
      Widespread throughout the central and southern coastal regions, although it should be noted that M. dinoceps is CURRENTLY ONLY known from the San Bernardino Mountains (altadenae, chaenactidis, dinoceps, mojavensis, ruficaudus)

      Flight Season - Month - This is for reference only and includes ONLY the known months of capture - All species are scored for ALL these months, but this information gives you an indication of which species might be captured in each month - Because this is an uncommon group it will not be definitive on its own
      3. III - March - M. ruficaudus
      4. IV - April - M. chaenactidis, M. dinoceps, M. mojavensis, M. ruficaudus
      5. V - May - M. altadenae, M. chaenactidis, M. dinoceps, M. grossus, M. mojavensis, M. ruficaudus
      6. VI - June - M. dinoceps, M. grossus, M. linsleyi, M. quadriceps
      7. VII - July - M. quadriceps
      (All of these states were scored for all species)

      Head, the relation of length to width - Length measured from top of head to apex of clypeus - Width measured between the midpoints of the eye
      CLEARLY AND OBVIOUSLY longer than wide, rectangular, usually about 1.5x as long as it is wide (quadriceps)
      The width and length of the head are roughly equal or with the length slightly greater than the width, often difficult to tell if one is greater than the other (altadenae, chaenactidis, dinoceps, grossus, linsleyi, mojavensis, ruficaudus)
      The width of the head greater than its length (altadenae, chaenactidis, dinoceps, ruficaudus)

      Forewing, distance from the top of the 1st recurrent vein to the bottom of the 1st transcutibal vein
      Short, about 1-2 vein widths apart (altadenae, chaenactidis, dinoceps, grossus, mojavensis, quadriceps, ruficaudus)
      Long, over 3 vein widths apart (chaenactidis, grossus, linsleyi, mojavensis)

      Abdomen, T1-2, distance between pits in the longitudinal center of the tergites between the unpitted apical rim and the often often densely pitted basal area
      Pitting dense, averaging under one pit diameter, the difference in the pit density in the basal and middle areas being slight if there is any (altadenae, chaenactidis, grossus, quadriceps)
      Pitting moderate, averaging about one pit diameter, usually with a noticeable difference in pit density between the basal and middle areas of T1-T2 (dinoceps, grossus, ruficaudus)
      Pitting sparse, averaging over one pit diameter and usually several, usually with a very significant difference in pit density between the basal and middle areas of T1-T2 (dinoceps, linsleyi, mojavensis, ruficaudus)

      Female, head, gena or cheek, interpit distances on the ventral area of the gena
      Dense, interpit distance averaging less than one pit diameter (dinoceps, grossus)
      Moderate, interpit distance averaging about one pit diameter (grossus, linsleyi, mojavensis, ruficaudus)
      Sparse, interpit distance averaging more than one pit diameter, often several (altadenae, chaenactidis, linsleyi, mojavensis, quadriceps, ruficaudus)

      Female, M. linsleyi vs M. mojavensis
      M. linsleyi - The area of the face between the antennal sockets and ocelli is marked by microscopic lines throughout, making this area appear somewhat dulled - The basal sculpting of the propodeal triangle, just posterior to the metanotum, is largely linear, forming striations running longitudinally from the base, and they DO NOT form a network of lines basally
      M. mojavensis - The area of the face between the antennal sockets and ocelli is smooth and shiny between the dense pits - The basal sculpting of the propodeal triangle is at least somewhat reticulate, with the lines crossing each other and forming small cells, this most common near the base and sides although it sometimes continues throughout the entirety of the sculpted area

      Male, thorax, propodeum, pattern of basal sculpting in the propodeal triangle - BE CAREFUL as any debris on the surface can be very problematic here
      Linear, with raised longitudinal lines or striations that remain roughly straight throughout their entirety, if with any reticulation then it is limited only to the basal fourth of the sculpted area (altadenae, dinoceps, linsleyi, quadriceps, ruficaudus)
      Weakly reticulate, with a series of raised intersecting lines which form a network that extends back about half the longitudinal length of the sculpted area (chaenactidis, dinoceps, mojavensis, quadriceps, ruficaudus)
      Strongly reticulate, with a network of cells throughout the entire sculpted area or nearly so (chaenactidis, grossus, mojavensis, ruficaudus)

      Male, abdomen, S7, presence or absence of inward-facing projection about halfway along the lateral arms - This character is often difficult to see, a dissection may be necessary for positive identification
      Present (altadenae, dinoceps, mojavensis, ruficaudus)
      Absent (altadenae, chaenactidis, grossus, linsleyi, quadriceps, ruficaudus)

      Male, abdomen, S7, orientation of the tips of the lateral arms - This character is often difficult to see, a dissection may be necessary for positive identification
      Curled inward and forward, the tips bent around such that they point to the anterior of the bee (dinoceps, linsleyi, mojavensis, ruficaudus)
      Curled inward in opposition, the tips essentially pointing at each other (altadenae, chaenactidis, grossus, mojavensis, quadriceps)

      Male, abdomen, S7, form of the interior arms found between the lateral arms - This character is often difficult to see, a dissection may be necessary for positive identification
      The interior arms are separated from their bases to their apices (altadenae, chaenactidis, grossus, mojavensis, quadriceps, ruficaudus)
      The interior arms are touching within the apical halves of their lengths (dinoceps, linsleyi, quadriceps)

      Male, abdomen, S8, form of the medial projection on the rim - This character is often difficult to see, a dissection may be necessary for positive identification
      Sharp, much wider at base than tip such that it appears pointed (grossus, mojavensis, ruficaudus)
      Rounded at the tip, with the sides of the projection wholly or almost entirely parallel in their length (altadenae, chaenactidis, dinoceps, linsleyi, mojavensis, quadriceps)

      Male, M. grossus vs other species
      M. grossus - On the rim of S6 there is an integumental bump near the middle which is usually at least partially obscured by hairs that often take the form of a fan of sorts - The lateral arms of S7 are short and stout, with the distance from their bases to apices distinctly less than the distance from their base to their farthest lateral points
      Other species - Although the hairiness of S6 is variable among the other species, the rim itself is relatively flat and unmodified near the middle of the rim - The lateral arms of S7 are variable in length, but the measurement from their base to apical tip is almost always greater than that of their base to the farthest lateral point

      M. ruficaudus vs other species
      M. ruficaudus - The majority of the abdomen is a PALE reddish to orangish color, often with only parts of T1 and  the lateral sides of the tergites and the tip of the abdomen appearing darker brownish or black - T2 usually with a blackish spot on each side near the lateral edge of the tergite, although in males T2 is often all reddish
      Other species - Although some reddening may be present on the tergites, it is usually only a DARK reddish color which suggests slight paling of the darker brownish to black integument - T2 is usually entirely or nearly entirely dark brownish or black - It should be noted that M. quadriceps sometimes displays paler integumental color, but this is most often more brown than reddish and the species may be distinguished easily by its very long, rectangular head shape


      Neopasites characters:
      Subgenera - Gnathopasites vs Micropasites
      Gnathopasites - First submarginal cell longer than second - Maxillary palp longer, with four free segments - In direct comparison these species are larger, ranging from about 6-8mm in length (fulviventris, sierrae)
      Micropasites - First and second submarginal cells equal in length - Maxillary palp shorter, with only one or two free segments - In direct comparison these species are smaller, usually ranging from about 3-5mm in length (cressoni, mojavensis, timberlakei)

      Female, head, antennae, flagellomere length
      First segment about twice as long as second (mojavensis, timberlakei)
      First segment usually longer than second segment but clearly not twice as long (cressoni, fulviventris, sierrae)

      Thorax, legs, tarsal claw dentation
      All legs have bidentate tarsal claws (fulviventris, sierrae, timberlakei)
      The tarsal claws of the forelegs are bidentate but the tarsal claws of the mid and hind legs are simple (cressoni, mojavensis, sierrae)

      Thorax, pronotal lobes, integumental coloration
      Lighter, reddish or orangish (cressoni, fulviventris, sierrae)
      Darker, brownish or blackish (mojavensis, timberlakei)

      Head, mouthparts, maxillary palpi, number of free segments - Be careful, this can be a VERY DIFFICULT character to use and often requires extraction of the tongue
      1 free segment (mojavensis, timberlakei)
      2 free segments (cressoni)
      4 free segments (fulviventris, sierrae)

      N. fulviventris vs N. sierrae
      N. fulviventris - With much larger pits on the scutellum, most often at least twice as large as those of the scutum - Female tibiae entirely reddish or nearly so - Male clypeus straight along the rim - In direct comparison this species is larger, ranging from about 7-8mm in length - This species is found in the more coastal areas of California
      N. sierrae - With smaller pits on the scutellum, these scarcely larger than those of the scutum if at all - Female tibiae entirely black or nearly so - Male clypeus shallowly notched at the middle of the rim - In direct comparison this species is smaller, ranging from about 5-6mm in length - This species is found in the Sierra Nevadas


      Paranomada characters:
      Primary integumental color - Note that these colors extend to ALL of the integument except sometimes where noted
      BLACK, often with some paler brownish integument on the abdomen (californica, velutina)
      RED, often with some darkening on the head or abdomen (nitida)

      P. californica vs P. velutina
      P. californica - The color of the apical hair bands of the terga are white - The apical hair bands on the terga of the female are widely interrupted in the center of T2 and more narrowly interrupted on T3 - The apical hair bands on the terga of the male are widely interrupted and then decreasingly interrupted on the centers of T3 through T5 - In direct comparison this species is smaller than P. velutina, usually averaging about 7mm in length
      P. velutina - The color of the apical hair bands of the terga is yellowish to goldish - The apical hair bands on the terga are complete, uninterrupted medially, in both the females and males - In direct comparison this species is larger than P. californica, ranging from 8-11mm in length


      Rhopalolemma characters:
      R. robertsi vs R. rotundiceps
      R. robertsi - The labrum is unmodified near the base - From a frontal view of the head it may be seen that the vertex is flatter and less rounded - The medial ocellus is either in line with or below the top of the eyes - In females there is a smaller amount of appressed, whitish hair present laterally on T5 - In direct comparison this species is larger than R. rotundiceps, usually about 8mm in length
      R. rotundiceps - The labrum is transversely ridged near the base - From a frontal view it may be seen that the vertex is about evenly rounded throughout, rising above the ocelli as a result - The medial ocellus is found just above the top of the eyes - In females there is a larger amount of appressed, whitish hair present laterally on T5 - In direct comparison this species is smaller than R. robertsi, ranging about 5-6mm in length


      -Michael Orr
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