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soil measures & bee nesting

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  • Kimberly N. Russell
    Dear All, I am wondering if any of you have some suggestions for low-tech (low-cost!) ways to approximate soil compaction and soil composition
    Message 1 of 21 , Jul 7, 2011
    • 0 Attachment
      Dear All,

      I am wondering if any of you have some suggestions for low-tech (low-cost!) ways to approximate soil compaction and soil composition (%sand/clay/silt/organic)? Has anyone tried suspending soil samples in water and measuring the separation (e.g., http://www.tulsamastergardeners.org/blackbox/soil_clas_calc.htm)? My goal is to characterize samples from various sites such that they can be compared with regards to compaction and composition.

      Also, I am interesting in counting stems in sample plots that could *potentially* be used by cavity nesting bees. How large must a stem be to be used by the smallest bee? I was thinking of a 3mm diameter minimum, but not sure if that makes sense.

      Thanks!
      Kim
      ********************************************************
      Dr. Kimberly N. Russell

      Research Scientist
      Department of Biology
      New Jersey Institute of Technology

      and

      Division of Invertebrate Zoology
      American Museum of Natural History

      phone: 1-973-642-7976
      E-mail: krussell@...
      Web: http://web.njit.edu/~krussell & http://research.amnh.org/invertzoo/spida
      ********************************************************
    • Cane, Jim
      Kim- I m attaching my 1991 bee soil survey, which uses differential sedimentation to classify soil textures (but do use the formal soil science techniques, as
      Message 2 of 21 , Jul 7, 2011

      Kim- I’m attaching my 1991 bee soil survey, which uses differential sedimentation to classify soil textures (but do use the formal soil science techniques, as otherwise carbonates can affect clay and silt fractions, as I recollect).  Compaction I have not measured, but you can be sure that soil scientists do!

       

      Yours,

       

      jim

       

      ===============================

      James H. Cane

      USDA-ARS Pollinating Insect Research Lab

      Utah State University, Logan, UT 84322 USA

      tel: 435-797-3879   FAX: 435-797-0461

      email: Jim.Cane@... 

      http://www.ars.usda.gov/npa/logan/beelab

      http://www.biology.usu.edu/people/facultyinfo.asp?username=jcane

      Gardening for Native Bees: http://extension.usu.edu/files/publications/factsheet/plants-pollinators09.pdf



       

    • Doug Yanega
      ... There s more to suitability than diameter, and any estimates based solely on diameter are going to vastly overestimate available nesting substrate. Only a
      Message 3 of 21 , Jul 7, 2011
      • 0 Attachment
        >Also, I am interesting in counting stems in sample plots that could
        >*potentially* be used by cavity nesting bees. How large must a stem
        >be to be used by the smallest bee? I was thinking of a 3mm diameter
        >minimum, but not sure if that makes sense.

        There's more to suitability than diameter, and any estimates based
        solely on diameter are going to vastly overestimate available nesting
        substrate. Only a fraction of the plants in a given area will have a
        pithy stem core suitable for burrows, and the requirement for the
        plant parts to be dry pretty much eliminates anything that isn't
        perennial (I've certainly never heard of bees nesting in the stems of
        any annuals). Otherwise, 3 mm seems like a perfectly reasonable
        cutoff, but you have to realize that not all stems are created
        equal...

        Peace,
        --

        Doug Yanega Dept. of Entomology Entomology Research Museum
        Univ. of California, Riverside, CA 92521-0314 skype: dyanega
        phone: (951) 827-4315 (standard disclaimer: opinions are mine, not UCR's)
        http://cache.ucr.edu/~heraty/yanega.html
        "There are some enterprises in which a careful disorderliness
        is the true method" - Herman Melville, Moby Dick, Chap. 82
      • Jack Neff
        Soil compaction meters are available from forestry supply outlets (like Ben Meadows), and presumably many other sources. best Jack   John L. Neff Central
        Message 4 of 21 , Jul 7, 2011
        • 0 Attachment
          Soil compaction meters are available from forestry supply outlets (like Ben Meadows), and presumably many other sources.

          best

          Jack
           
          John L. Neff
          Central Texas Melittological Institute
          7307 Running Rope
          Austin,TX 78731 USA
          512-345-7219

          From: "Cane, Jim" <Jim.Cane@...>
          To: Kimberly N. Russell <krussell@...>
          Cc: beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com
          Sent: Thursday, July 7, 2011 1:57 PM
          Subject: RE: [beemonitoring] soil measures & bee nesting [1 Attachment]

           
          Kim- I’m attaching my 1991 bee soil survey, which uses differential sedimentation to classify soil textures (but do use the formal soil science techniques, as otherwise carbonates can affect clay and silt fractions, as I recollect).  Compaction I have not measured, but you can be sure that soil scientists do!
           
          Yours,
           
          jim
           
          ===============================
          James H. Cane
          USDA-ARS Pollinating Insect Research Lab
          Utah State University, Logan, UT 84322 USA
          tel: 435-797-3879   FAX: 435-797-0461
          email: Jim.Cane@... 
          http://www.biology.usu.edu/people/facultyinfo.asp?username=jcane
          Gardening for Native Bees: http://extension.usu.edu/files/publications/factsheet/plants-pollinators09.pdf


           


        • Jack Neff
          I  have found megachilid nests in the dried stems and branches of a variety of annuals (giant ragweed and various other annuals with pithy stems) so I  don t
          Message 5 of 21 , Jul 7, 2011
          • 0 Attachment
            I  have found megachilid nests in the dried stems and branches of a variety of annuals (giant ragweed and various other annuals with pithy stems) so I  don't think the annual/perennial distinction is an absolute divide for nest site acceptability.  However, I certainly agree with Doug that diameter alone would be almost worthless in estimating nest site availability.  Even many plant species with pithy stems don't seem to be regularly perceived as acceptable nest sites by bees so one would have to restrict ones counts to species that are actually used for nests, not just things that meet some set of arbitrary criteria. 

            best

            Jack
             
            John L. Neff
            Central Texas Melittological Institute
            7307 Running Rope
            Austin,TX 78731 USA
            512-345-7219

            From: Doug Yanega <dyanega@...>
            To: beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com
            Sent: Thursday, July 7, 2011 3:23 PM
            Subject: Re: [beemonitoring] soil measures & bee nesting

             
            >Also, I am interesting in counting stems in sample plots that could
            >*potentially* be used by cavity nesting bees. How large must a stem
            >be to be used by the smallest bee? I was thinking of a 3mm diameter
            >minimum, but not sure if that makes sense.

            There's more to suitability than diameter, and any estimates based
            solely on diameter are going to vastly overestimate available nesting
            substrate. Only a fraction of the plants in a given area will have a
            pithy stem core suitable for burrows, and the requirement for the
            plant parts to be dry pretty much eliminates anything that isn't
            perennial (I've certainly never heard of bees nesting in the stems of
            any annuals). Otherwise, 3 mm seems like a perfectly reasonable
            cutoff, but you have to realize that not all stems are created
            equal...

            Peace,
            --

            Doug Yanega Dept. of Entomology Entomology Research Museum
            Univ. of California, Riverside, CA 92521-0314 skype: dyanega
            phone: (951) 827-4315 (standard disclaimer: opinions are mine, not UCR's)
            http://cache.ucr.edu/~heraty/yanega.html
            "There are some enterprises in which a careful disorderliness
            is the true method" - Herman Melville, Moby Dick, Chap. 82


          • Sam Droege
            All: We are all familiar with the spring Osmia hole nesting species and there are plenty of websites to document that. An assumption in many of these
            Message 6 of 21 , Jul 7, 2011
            • 0 Attachment

              All:


              We are all familiar with the spring Osmia hole nesting species and there are plenty of websites to document that.  An assumption in many of these operations is that if it is good for Osmia it is good for all the other cavity nesting species.

              I know there are papers out there on species/hole sizes and I know that Frank Parker has used cut stems of various plants to attract nesting Ceratinas and Hoplitis, but those approaches rarely get incorporated into information for gardeners or the conservation minded and it wouldn't be hard to add that.

              It would be nice to see a more integrated cavity nesting approach and I would think it would make for a lovely Masters project to develop and test various approaches to increasing ALL cavity nesters.

              sam

              Sam Droege  sdroege@...                      
              w 301-497-5840 h 301-390-7759 fax 301-497-5624
              USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center
              BARC-EAST, BLDG 308, RM 124 10300 Balt. Ave., Beltsville, MD  20705
              Http://www.pwrc.usgs.gov

              PASSAGE          

              The hole sheared out of the roseleaf
              by the leaf-cutting bee,

              the jagged track above the grass
              as the insect finds its rhythm,
              dizzily trimming discs
              from the leafy air,

              the fencepost, still as a heron,
              simultaneously considered
              and rejected,

              the crevice between shingles
              also turned away from,

              an abrupt descent to earth
              below spear level,
              below the congregations
              of crickets,

              to a chipped stone in the dirt,
              its inviting lip,

              the cavity precisely dark
              and generous enough,

              the tunneling and rolling,
              the mixture of saliva and pollen,

              the stowing and masticating,
              the capping and cradling,
              an arrangement by age

              between meticulous forays
              to carve yet another green seal
              from the leaf of the rose,

              the redundant rose,
              its white weight
              hauling every stem away
              from a consenting trellis.

                -  Erica Funkhouser





              From:Jack Neff <jlnatctmi@...>
              To:Doug Yanega <dyanega@...>, "beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com" <beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com>
              Date:07/07/2011 06:36 PM
              Subject:Re: [beemonitoring] soil measures & bee nesting
              Sent by:beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com





               

              I  have found megachilid nests in the dried stems and branches of a variety of annuals (giant ragweed and various other annuals with pithy stems) so I  don't think the annual/perennial distinction is an absolute divide for nest site acceptability.  However, I certainly agree with Doug that diameter alone would be almost worthless in estimating nest site availability.  Even many plant species with pithy stems don't seem to be regularly perceived as acceptable nest sites by bees so one would have to restrict ones counts to species that are actually used for nests, not just things that meet some set of arbitrary criteria.


              best

              Jack
               
              John L. Neff
              Central Texas Melittological Institute
              7307 Running Rope
              Austin,TX 78731 USA
              512-345-7219


              From: Doug Yanega <dyanega@...>
              To:
              beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com
              Sent:
              Thursday, July 7, 2011 3:23 PM
              Subject:
              Re: [beemonitoring] soil measures & bee nesting


               
              >Also, I am interesting in counting stems in sample plots that could
              >*potentially* be used by cavity nesting bees. How large must a stem
              >be to be used by the smallest bee? I was thinking of a 3mm diameter
              >minimum, but not sure if that makes sense.

              There's more to suitability than diameter, and any estimates based
              solely on diameter are going to vastly overestimate available nesting
              substrate. Only a fraction of the plants in a given area will have a
              pithy stem core suitable for burrows, and the requirement for the
              plant parts to be dry pretty much eliminates anything that isn't
              perennial (I've certainly never heard of bees nesting in the stems of
              any annuals). Otherwise, 3 mm seems like a perfectly reasonable
              cutoff, but you have to realize that not all stems are created
              equal...

              Peace,
              --

              Doug Yanega Dept. of Entomology Entomology Research Museum
              Univ. of California, Riverside, CA 92521-0314 skype: dyanega
              phone: (951) 827-4315 (standard disclaimer: opinions are mine, not UCR's)

              http://cache.ucr.edu/~heraty/yanega.html
              "There are some enterprises in which a careful disorderliness
              is the true method" - Herman Melville, Moby Dick, Chap. 82




            • Laurence Packer
              raspberries, raspberries, raspberries! Old stems perfect for many bees (at least three genera in my garden), the flowers are perfect for many more bees and the
              Message 7 of 21 , Jul 7, 2011
              • 0 Attachment
                raspberries, raspberries, raspberries!
                Old stems perfect for many bees (at least three genera in my garden), the flowers are perfect for many more bees and the fruits go well with almost any meal.  I encourage responsible non-disposal of all old stems in all my talks to the general public.
                cheers

                laurence

                --- On Thu, 7/7/11, Sam Droege <sdroege@...> wrote:

                From: Sam Droege <sdroege@...>
                Subject: [beemonitoring] Trap nests for Ceratina and other orphans
                To: "Jack Neff" <jlnatctmi@...>
                Cc: "beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com" <beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com>, "Doug Yanega" <dyanega@...>
                Received: Thursday, July 7, 2011, 8:24 PM

                 


                All:


                We are all familiar with the spring Osmia hole nesting species and there are plenty of websites to document that.  An assumption in many of these operations is that if it is good for Osmia it is good for all the other cavity nesting species.

                I know there are papers out there on species/hole sizes and I know that Frank Parker has used cut stems of various plants to attract nesting Ceratinas and Hoplitis, but those approaches rarely get incorporated into information for gardeners or the conservation minded and it wouldn't be hard to add that.

                It would be nice to see a more integrated cavity nesting approach and I would think it would make for a lovely Masters project to develop and test various approaches to increasing ALL cavity nesters.

                sam

                Sam Droege  sdroege@...                      
                w 301-497-5840 h 301-390-7759 fax 301-497-5624
                USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center
                BARC-EAST, BLDG 308, RM 124 10300 Balt. Ave., Beltsville, MD  20705
                Http://www.pwrc.usgs.gov

                PASSAGE          

                The hole sheared out of the roseleaf
                by the leaf-cutting bee,

                the jagged track above the grass
                as the insect finds its rhythm,
                dizzily trimming discs
                from the leafy air,

                the fencepost, still as a heron,
                simultaneously considered
                and rejected,

                the crevice between shingles
                also turned away from,

                an abrupt descent to earth
                below spear level,
                below the congregations
                of crickets,

                to a chipped stone in the dirt,
                its inviting lip,

                the cavity precisely dark
                and generous enough,

                the tunneling and rolling,
                the mixture of saliva and pollen,

                the stowing and masticating,
                the capping and cradling,
                an arrangement by age

                between meticulous forays
                to carve yet another green seal
                from the leaf of the rose,

                the redundant rose,
                its white weight
                hauling every stem away
                from a consenting trellis.

                  -  Erica Funkhouser





                From:Jack Neff <jlnatctmi@...>
                To:Doug Yanega <dyanega@...>, "beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com" <beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com>
                Date:07/07/2011 06:36 PM
                Subject:Re: [beemonitoring] soil measures & bee nesting
                Sent by:beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com





                 

                I  have found megachilid nests in the dried stems and branches of a variety of annuals (giant ragweed and various other annuals with pithy stems) so I  don't think the annual/perennial distinction is an absolute divide for nest site acceptability.  However, I certainly agree with Doug that diameter alone would be almost worthless in estimating nest site availability.  Even many plant species with pithy stems don't seem to be regularly perceived as acceptable nest sites by bees so one would have to restrict ones counts to species that are actually used for nests, not just things that meet some set of arbitrary criteria.


                best

                Jack
                 
                John L. Neff
                Central Texas Melittological Institute
                7307 Running Rope
                Austin,TX 78731 USA
                512-345-7219


                From: Doug Yanega <dyanega@...>
                To:
                beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com
                Sent:
                Thursday, July 7, 2011 3:23 PM
                Subject:
                Re: [beemonitoring] soil measures & bee nesting


                 
                >Also, I am interesting in counting stems in sample plots that could
                >*potentially* be used by cavity nesting bees. How large must a stem
                >be to be used by the smallest bee? I was thinking of a 3mm diameter
                >minimum, but not sure if that makes sense.

                There's more to suitability than diameter, and any estimates based
                solely on diameter are going to vastly overestimate available nesting
                substrate. Only a fraction of the plants in a given area will have a
                pithy stem core suitable for burrows, and the requirement for the
                plant parts to be dry pretty much eliminates anything that isn't
                perennial (I've certainly never heard of bees nesting in the stems of
                any annuals). Otherwise, 3 mm seems like a perfectly reasonable
                cutoff, but you have to realize that not all stems are created
                equal...

                Peace,
                --

                Doug Yanega Dept. of Entomology Entomology Research Museum
                Univ. of California, Riverside, CA 92521-0314 skype: dyanega
                phone: (951) 827-4315 (standard disclaimer: opinions are mine, not UCR's)

                http://cache.ucr.edu/~heraty/yanega.html
                "There are some enterprises in which a careful disorderliness
                is the true method" - Herman Melville, Moby Dick, Chap. 82




              • Wilson, Michael E
                Yes, I follow that advise, after finding Ceratina both in the old stems of my wild blackberry stand and pollinating in my garden! -Michael
                Message 8 of 21 , Jul 8, 2011
                • 0 Attachment
                  Yes, I follow that advise, after finding Ceratina both in the old stems of my wild blackberry stand and pollinating in my garden!
                  -Michael

                  From: beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com [beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com] on behalf of Laurence Packer [laurencepacker@...]
                  Sent: Thursday, July 07, 2011 10:42 PM
                  To: Jack Neff; Sam Droege
                  Cc: beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com; Doug Yanega
                  Subject: Re: [beemonitoring] Trap nests for Ceratina and other orphans

                   

                  raspberries, raspberries, raspberries!
                  Old stems perfect for many bees (at least three genera in my garden), the flowers are perfect for many more bees and the fruits go well with almost any meal.  I encourage responsible non-disposal of all old stems in all my talks to the general public.
                  cheers

                  laurence

                  --- On Thu, 7/7/11, Sam Droege <sdroege@...> wrote:

                  From: Sam Droege <sdroege@...>
                  Subject: [beemonitoring] Trap nests for Ceratina and other orphans
                  To: "Jack Neff" <jlnatctmi@...>
                  Cc: "beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com" <beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com>, "Doug Yanega" <dyanega@...>
                  Received: Thursday, July 7, 2011, 8:24 PM

                   


                  All:


                  We are all familiar with the spring Osmia hole nesting species and there are plenty of websites to document that.  An assumption in many of these operations is that if it is good for Osmia it is good for all the other cavity nesting species.

                  I know there are papers out there on species/hole sizes and I know that Frank Parker has used cut stems of various plants to attract nesting Ceratinas and Hoplitis, but those approaches rarely get incorporated into information for gardeners or the conservation minded and it wouldn't be hard to add that.

                  It would be nice to see a more integrated cavity nesting approach and I would think it would make for a lovely Masters project to develop and test various approaches to increasing ALL cavity nesters.

                  sam

                  Sam Droege  sdroege@...                      
                  w 301-497-5840 h 301-390-7759 fax 301-497-5624
                  USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center
                  BARC-EAST, BLDG 308, RM 124 10300 Balt. Ave., Beltsville, MD  20705
                  Http://www.pwrc.usgs.gov

                  PASSAGE          

                  The hole sheared out of the roseleaf
                  by the leaf-cutting bee,

                  the jagged track above the grass
                  as the insect finds its rhythm,
                  dizzily trimming discs
                  from the leafy air,

                  the fencepost, still as a heron,
                  simultaneously considered
                  and rejected,

                  the crevice between shingles
                  also turned away from,

                  an abrupt descent to earth
                  below spear level,
                  below the congregations
                  of crickets,

                  to a chipped stone in the dirt,
                  its inviting lip,

                  the cavity precisely dark
                  and generous enough,

                  the tunneling and rolling,
                  the mixture of saliva and pollen,

                  the stowing and masticating,
                  the capping and cradling,
                  an arrangement by age

                  between meticulous forays
                  to carve yet another green seal
                  from the leaf of the rose,

                  the redundant rose,
                  its white weight
                  hauling every stem away
                  from a consenting trellis.

                    -  Erica Funkhouser





                  From:Jack Neff <jlnatctmi@...>
                  To:Doug Yanega <dyanega@...>, "beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com" <beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com>
                  Date:07/07/2011 06:36 PM
                  Subject:Re: [beemonitoring] soil measures & bee nesting
                  Sent by:beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com





                   

                  I  have found megachilid nests in the dried stems and branches of a variety of annuals (giant ragweed and various other annuals with pithy stems) so I  don't think the annual/perennial distinction is an absolute divide for nest site acceptability.  However, I certainly agree with Doug that diameter alone would be almost worthless in estimating nest site availability.  Even many plant species with pithy stems don't seem to be regularly perceived as acceptable nest sites by bees so one would have to restrict ones counts to species that are actually used for nests, not just things that meet some set of arbitrary criteria.


                  best

                  Jack
                   
                  John L. Neff
                  Central Texas Melittological Institute
                  7307 Running Rope
                  Austin,TX 78731 USA
                  512-345-7219


                  From: Doug Yanega <dyanega@...>
                  To:
                  beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com
                  Sent:
                  Thursday, July 7, 2011 3:23 PM
                  Subject:
                  Re: [beemonitoring] soil measures & bee nesting


                   
                  >Also, I am interesting in counting stems in sample plots that could
                  >*potentially* be used by cavity nesting bees. How large must a stem
                  >be to be used by the smallest bee? I was thinking of a 3mm diameter
                  >minimum, but not sure if that makes sense.

                  There's more to suitability than diameter, and any estimates based
                  solely on diameter are going to vastly overestimate available nesting
                  substrate. Only a fraction of the plants in a given area will have a
                  pithy stem core suitable for burrows, and the requirement for the
                  plant parts to be dry pretty much eliminates anything that isn't
                  perennial (I've certainly never heard of bees nesting in the stems of
                  any annuals). Otherwise, 3 mm seems like a perfectly reasonable
                  cutoff, but you have to realize that not all stems are created
                  equal...

                  Peace,
                  --

                  Doug Yanega Dept. of Entomology Entomology Research Museum
                  Univ. of California, Riverside, CA 92521-0314 skype: dyanega
                  phone: (951) 827-4315 (standard disclaimer: opinions are mine, not UCR's)

                  http://cache.ucr.edu/~heraty/yanega.html
                  "There are some enterprises in which a careful disorderliness
                  is the true method" - Herman Melville, Moby Dick, Chap. 82




                • Deana Crumbling
                  Is it important to the bees that the stems be allowed to stand through the winter? Or can they be cut and laid horizontal in a central location? --Deana From:
                  Message 9 of 21 , Jul 8, 2011
                  Is it important to the bees that the stems be allowed to stand through
                  the winter? Or can they be cut and laid horizontal in a central
                  location?

                  --Deana



                  From: "Wilson, Michael E" <mwilso14@...>
                  To: Laurence Packer <laurencepacker@...>
                  Cc: "beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com"
                  <beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com>
                  Date: 07/08/2011 07:08 AM
                  Subject: RE: [beemonitoring] Trap nests for Ceratina and other
                  orphans
                  Sent by: beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com



                  Yes, I follow that advise, after finding Ceratina both in the old stems
                  of my wild blackberry stand and pollinating in my garden!
                  -Michael

                  From: beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com [beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com] on
                  behalf of Laurence Packer [laurencepacker@...]
                  Sent: Thursday, July 07, 2011 10:42 PM
                  To: Jack Neff; Sam Droege
                  Cc: beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com; Doug Yanega
                  Subject: Re: [beemonitoring] Trap nests for Ceratina and other orphans







                  raspberries, raspberries, raspberries!
                  Old stems perfect for many bees (at least three genera in my garden), the flowers are perfect for many more bees and the fruits go well with
                  almost any meal. I encourage responsible non-disposal of all old stems in all my talks to the general public.
                  cheers

                  laurence

                  --- On Thu, 7/7/11, Sam Droege <sdroege@...> wrote:

                  From: Sam Droege <sdroege@...>
                  Subject: [beemonitoring] Trap nests for Ceratina and other orphans
                  To: "Jack Neff" <jlnatctmi@...>
                  Cc: "beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com" <beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com>, "Doug Yanega" <dyanega@...>
                  Received: Thursday, July 7, 2011, 8:24 PM





                  All:

                  We are all familiar with the spring Osmia hole nesting species and there are plenty of websites to document that. An assumption in many
                  of these operations is that if it is good for Osmia it is good for all the other cavity nesting species.

                  I know there are papers out there on species/hole sizes and I know that Frank Parker has used cut stems of various plants to attract
                  nesting Ceratinas and Hoplitis, but those approaches rarely get incorporated into information for gardeners or the conservation minded
                  and it wouldn't be hard to add that.

                  It would be nice to see a more integrated cavity nesting approach and I would think it would make for a lovely Masters project to
                  develop and test various approaches to increasing ALL cavity nesters.

                  sam

                  Sam Droege sdroege@...
                  w 301-497-5840 h 301-390-7759 fax 301-497-5624
                  USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center
                  BARC-EAST, BLDG 308, RM 124 10300 Balt. Ave., Beltsville, MD 20705
                  Http://www.pwrc.usgs.gov

                  PASSAGE

                  The hole sheared out of the roseleaf
                  by the leaf-cutting bee,

                  the jagged track above the grass
                  as the insect finds its rhythm,
                  dizzily trimming discs
                  from the leafy air,

                  the fencepost, still as a heron,
                  simultaneously considered
                  and rejected,

                  the crevice between shingles
                  also turned away from,

                  an abrupt descent to earth
                  below spear level,
                  below the congregations
                  of crickets,

                  to a chipped stone in the dirt,
                  its inviting lip,

                  the cavity precisely dark
                  and generous enough,

                  the tunneling and rolling,
                  the mixture of saliva and pollen,

                  the stowing and masticating,
                  the capping and cradling,
                  an arrangement by age

                  between meticulous forays
                  to carve yet another green seal
                  from the leaf of the rose,

                  the redundant rose,
                  its white weight
                  hauling every stem away
                  from a consenting trellis.

                  - Erica Funkhouser







                  From:
                  Jack Neff <jlnatctmi@...>
                  To:
                  Doug Yanega <dyanega@...>, "beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com" <beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com>
                  Date:
                  07/07/2011 06:36 PM
                  Subject:
                  Re: [beemonitoring] soil measures & bee nesting
                  Sent by:
                  beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com









                  I have found megachilid nests in the dried stems and branches of a variety of annuals (giant ragweed and various other annuals with
                  pithy stems) so I don't think the annual/perennial distinction is an absolute divide for nest site acceptability. However, I certainly
                  agree with Doug that diameter alone would be almost worthless in estimating nest site availability. Even many plant species with pithy
                  stems don't seem to be regularly perceived as acceptable nest sites by bees so one would have to restrict ones counts to species that
                  are actually used for nests, not just things that meet some set of arbitrary criteria.



                  best

                  Jack

                  John L. Neff
                  Central Texas Melittological Institute
                  7307 Running Rope
                  Austin,TX 78731 USA
                  512-345-7219


                  From: Doug Yanega <dyanega@...>
                  To: beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com
                  Sent: Thursday, July 7, 2011 3:23 PM
                  Subject: Re: [beemonitoring] soil measures & bee nesting


                  >Also, I am interesting in counting stems in sample plots that could
                  >*potentially* be used by cavity nesting bees. How large must a stem
                  >be to be used by the smallest bee? I was thinking of a 3mm diameter
                  >minimum, but not sure if that makes sense.

                  There's more to suitability than diameter, and any estimates based
                  solely on diameter are going to vastly overestimate available nesting
                  substrate. Only a fraction of the plants in a given area will have a
                  pithy stem core suitable for burrows, and the requirement for the
                  plant parts to be dry pretty much eliminates anything that isn't
                  perennial (I've certainly never heard of bees nesting in the stems of
                  any annuals). Otherwise, 3 mm seems like a perfectly reasonable
                  cutoff, but you have to realize that not all stems are created
                  equal...

                  Peace,
                  --

                  Doug Yanega Dept. of Entomology Entomology Research Museum
                  Univ. of California, Riverside, CA 92521-0314 skype: dyanega
                  phone: (951) 827-4315 (standard disclaimer: opinions are mine, not UCR's)
                  http://cache.ucr.edu/~heraty/yanega.html
                  "There are some enterprises in which a careful disorderliness
                  is the true method" - Herman Melville, Moby Dick, Chap. 82
                • Cane, Jim
                  Folks- I can echo Laurence s advocacy for retaining the previous year s cut raspberry stems for Ceratina. It is working here in my yard in Utah, and on 300
                  Message 10 of 21 , Jul 8, 2011
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                    Folks- I can echo Laurence’s advocacy for retaining the previous year’s cut raspberry stems for Ceratina.  It is working here in my yard in Utah, and on 300 contiguous acres of commercial raspberries in western Oregon, the Ceratina were literally >10x more common than sweat bees!  I’ve adopted that grower’s method, which is to cut off the old canes about a foot high and just leaving them, rather than cutting them to the ground like most everyone else does.  Our tiny Ceratina here also have adopted cut stems of our Perovskia (Russian sage).

                     

                    Yours,

                     

                    Jim cane

                     

                     

                  • Nichola E. Thompson
                    hi all i was at the xerces training recently. we were reminded that some stems that are too tuff yet have pithy cores, may make good nesting sites. you d use
                    Message 11 of 21 , Jul 8, 2011
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                      hi all
                      i was at the xerces training recently. we were reminded that some stems that are too tuff yet have pithy cores, may make good nesting sites. you'd use your large drill bit to bore a hole in the stem's side. this isn't a 'natural' way, perhaps, to propagate natives. yet it may allow a boost in populations, occasionally. also for small berry-less gardeners, it's an alternative.
                      praying mantids seem to like the taller sorts of stems, waving about  at 5-10 ft, like joe pye and ironweed.
                      this week got stung for the 1st time by a native somebody. ouch!
                      lastly, i circle my cold yard waste compost with old stumps of all sizes rather than wire or other materials. rearranging the layout every spring, i can use them for years before they rot completely. they are quite the bee condo! there were many brilliant emerald green metallic body parts scattered on one stump this spring.
                      nikki thompson
                      hyattsville, md
                       

                      From: beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com [beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of Cane, Jim [Jim.Cane@...]
                      Sent: Friday, July 08, 2011 11:58 AM
                      To: Laurence Packer; Jack Neff; Sam Droege
                      Cc: beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com; Doug Yanega
                      Subject: RE: [beemonitoring] Trap nests for Ceratina and other orphans

                       

                      Folks- I can echo Laurence’s advocacy for retaining the previous year’s cut raspberry stems for Ceratina.  It is working here in my yard in Utah, and on 300 contiguous acres of commercial raspberries in western Oregon, the Ceratina were literally >10x more common than sweat bees!  I’ve adopted that grower’s method, which is to cut off the old canes about a foot high and just leaving them, rather than cutting them to the ground like most everyone else does.  Our tiny Ceratina here also have adopted cut stems of our Perovskia (Russian sage).

                       

                      Yours,

                       

                      Jim cane

                       

                       

                    • Kimberly N. Russell
                      Thanks to all who have reponded so far. Very useful information. ... Believe me, I am completely aware of this. I just need something to start with that an
                      Message 12 of 21 , Jul 8, 2011
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                        Thanks to all who have reponded so far. Very useful information.

                        > There's more to suitability than diameter, and any estimates based

                        Believe me, I am completely aware of this. I just need something to start with that an undergraduate can do for part of her undergrad research experience -- so we are attempting a protocol that will measure many things, one of which is stem number. This is just a first step, with much refining to come when there is more time.

                        Best to all,
                        Kim

                        > solely on diameter are going to vastly overestimate available nesting
                        > substrate. Only a fraction of the plants in a given area will have a
                        > pithy stem core suitable for burrows, and the requirement for the
                        > plant parts to be dry pretty much eliminates anything that isn't
                        > perennial (I've certainly never heard of bees nesting in the stems of
                        > any annuals). Otherwise, 3 mm seems like a perfectly reasonable
                        > cutoff, but you have to realize that not all stems are created
                        > equal...
                        >
                        > Peace,
                        > --
                        >
                        > Doug Yanega Dept. of Entomology Entomology Research Museum
                        > Univ. of California, Riverside, CA 92521-0314 skype: dyanega
                        > phone: (951) 827-4315 (standard disclaimer: opinions are mine, not UCR's)
                        > http://cache.ucr.edu/~heraty/yanega.html
                        > "There are some enterprises in which a careful disorderliness
                        > is the true method" - Herman Melville, Moby Dick, Chap. 82
                        >
                      • Matthew McKinney
                        I have been trying to attract Anthidium to nest in artificial nesting blocks but haven t had much luck. Has anyone else tried this? -Matt
                        Message 13 of 21 , Jul 9, 2011
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                          I have been trying to attract Anthidium to nest in artificial nesting
                          blocks but haven't had much luck. Has anyone else tried this?

                          -Matt
                        • J. Scott MacIvor
                          Hi All, I m in the first year of a multi-year PhD project (under the supervision of Dr. Laurence Packer) using nestboxes made from PVC piping and paper tubes -
                          Message 14 of 21 , Jul 9, 2011
                          Hi All,

                          I'm in the first year of a multi-year PhD project (under the supervision of Dr. Laurence Packer) using nestboxes made from PVC piping and paper tubes - very inexpensive and fairly durable. See pictures attached. There are about 210 boxes set up all over the city of Toronto and surrounding areas, and about 50 more I've mailing them out to participants in cities all over North America (this component of the project focuses on nestboxes on green roofs). I anticipate the latter component of the study to expand in 2012. All of this will be tracked on the website www.TObee.ca.

                          So far the nestboxes have been very well colonized - with lots of Hylaeus, Hoplitis, several Megachile and Osmia species, and possibly Anthidium. Wasps of course too. These groups of bees I've listed is based on observations of bees at nestboxes (all in Toronto), and the materials used to plug-up completed tubes. My design does not permit open-and-close viewing of colonization throughout the study season without disrupting the nests, meaning I won't know for sure which species are using the nestboxes until Winter or so. It'll be a surprise - and I'll keep the group posted. 

                          Take care,

                          Scott



                          On Sat, Jul 9, 2011 at 10:30 AM, Matthew McKinney <mm.entomology@...> wrote:
                           

                          I have been trying to attract Anthidium to nest in artificial nesting
                          blocks but haven't had much luck. Has anyone else tried this?

                          -Matt




                          --
                          J. Scott MacIvor
                          PhD. Candidate
                          Biology Department
                          York University
                          Toronto ON
                          M3J 1P3
                          Mobile: (416) 844-8093

                          Website: www.TObee.ca

                        • L B
                          Hi Matt, I ve had luck with trap-nesting *Dianthidium* in British Columbia, however I have not recorded any nests of *Anthidium *despite their co-occurrence
                          Message 15 of 21 , Jul 10, 2011
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                            Hi Matt,

                            I've had luck with trap-nesting Dianthidium in British Columbia, however I have not recorded any nests of Anthidium despite their co-occurrence and ample opportunity.

                            Aside from nesting preferences, a potential issue could be the availability of nesting galleries in the summer due to substantial occupation from spring cavity nesters (Osmia!).


                            Cheers,

                            Lincoln

                            --
                            Lincoln R. Best
                            MSc Candidate
                            York University
                            4700 Keele St.
                            Toronto, ON
                            M3J1P3
                            (416)736-2100
                            ex. 66524

                            ***************************************************************************
                            This message, including any attachments, is privileged and may contain confidential information intended only for the person(s) named above. Any other distribution, copying or disclosure is strictly prohibited. Communication by email is not a secure medium and, as part of the transmission process, this message may be copied to servers operated by third parties while in transit. Unless you advise us to the contrary, by accepting communications that may contain your personal information from us via email, you are deemed to provide your consent to our transmission of the contents of this message in this manner. If you are not the intended recipient or have received this message in error, please notify us immediately by reply email and permanently delete the original transmission from us, including any attachments, without making a copy.
                            ******************************
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                          • Jack Neff
                            Most Anthidium seem to nest in prexisting cavities in the soil so most species  won t show up in standard trap nest arrays.  Some people have had success by
                            Message 16 of 21 , Jul 11, 2011
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                              Most Anthidium seem to nest in prexisting cavities in the soil so most species  won't show up in standard trap nest arrays.  Some people have had success by partially burying trap nests or creating artificial soil banks with cavities in them.

                              best

                              Jack
                               
                              John L. Neff
                              Central Texas Melittological Institute
                              7307 Running Rope
                              Austin,TX 78731 USA
                              512-345-7219

                              From: L B <lrbest@...>
                              To: beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com
                              Sent: Sunday, July 10, 2011 5:36 PM
                              Subject: [beemonitoring] Re: Trap nests for Ceratina and other orphans

                               
                              Hi Matt,

                              I've had luck with trap-nesting Dianthidium in British Columbia, however I have not recorded any nests of Anthidium despite their co-occurrence and ample opportunity.

                              Aside from nesting preferences, a potential issue could be the availability of nesting galleries in the summer due to substantial occupation from spring cavity nesters (Osmia!).


                              Cheers,

                              Lincoln

                              --
                              Lincoln R. Best
                              MSc Candidate
                              York University
                              4700 Keele St.
                              Toronto, ON
                              M3J1P3
                              (416)736-2100
                              ex. 66524

                              ***************************************************************************
                              This message, including any attachments, is privileged and may contain confidential information intended only for the person(s) named above. Any other distribution, copying or disclosure is strictly prohibited. Communication by email is not a secure medium and, as part of the transmission process, this message may be copied to servers operated by third parties while in transit. Unless you advise us to the contrary, by accepting communications that may contain your personal information from us via email, you are deemed to provide your consent to our transmission of the contents of this message in this manner. If you are not the intended recipient or have received this message in error, please notify us immediately by reply email and permanently delete the original transmission from us, including any attachments, without making a copy.
                              ******************************
                              *********************************************




                            • Messinger, Wes NWP
                              Classification: UNCLASSIFIED Caveats: NONE Please pass refs for these 2 methods below? Thx --W -- Wes Messinger Botanist, USACE Willamette Valley Projects
                              Message 17 of 21 , Jul 12, 2011
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                                Classification: UNCLASSIFIED
                                Caveats: NONE

                                Please pass refs for these 2 methods below? Thx --W

                                --
                                Wes Messinger
                                Botanist, USACE Willamette Valley Projects
                                541-688-8147

                                -----Original Message-----
                                From: beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com [mailto:beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com] On
                                Behalf Of Jack Neff
                                Sent: Monday, July 11, 2011 7:25 AM
                                To: L B; beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com
                                Subject: Re: [beemonitoring] Re: Trap nests for Ceratina and other orphans



                                Most Anthidium seem to nest in prexisting cavities in the soil so most
                                species won't show up in standard trap nest arrays. Some people have had
                                success by partially burying trap nests or creating artificial soil banks
                                with cavities in them.


                                best


                                Jack

                                John L. Neff
                                Central Texas Melittological Institute
                                7307 Running Rope
                                Austin,TX 78731 USA
                                512-345-7219




                                Classification: UNCLASSIFIED
                                Caveats: NONE
                              • Messinger, Wes NWP
                                Classification: UNCLASSIFIED Caveats: NONE Woohoo this is fun. Idle notes from W OR: _Ceratina_ are at least investigating or bivouacking in _Perowskia_,
                                Message 18 of 21 , Jul 12, 2011
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                                  Classification: UNCLASSIFIED
                                  Caveats: NONE

                                  Woohoo this is fun. Idle notes from W OR:

                                  _Ceratina_ are at least investigating or bivouacking in _Perowskia_,
                                  _Sidalcea cusickii_, and _Epilobium (=Chamerion) angustifolium_ stems that
                                  remain standing from previous seasons in my yard. I've noted only _Ceratina_
                                  so far this season in my horizontal teasel trap nests (2-18mm).

                                  Widely various (3-7mm?) holes in firewood all filled last year, late June
                                  _Osmia_ are now re-using some of them, but many still have pebble covers in
                                  place, for which I assume _Hoplitis_. Neither these trap nests or pilot
                                  blocks this year at work really started picking anything up until June, so
                                  all the fruit trees were done and I assume no early _Osmia_ have got the hint
                                  so far.

                                  Whee. --Wes

                                  --
                                  Wes Messinger
                                  Botanist, USACE Willamette Valley Projects
                                  541-688-8147

                                  -----Original Message-----
                                  From: beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com [mailto:beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com] On
                                  Behalf Of Laurence Packer
                                  Sent: Thursday, July 07, 2011 7:43 PM
                                  To: Jack Neff; Sam Droege
                                  Cc: beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com; Doug Yanega
                                  Subject: Re: [beemonitoring] Trap nests for Ceratina and other orphans



                                  raspberries, raspberries, raspberries!
                                  Old stems perfect for many bees (at least three genera in my garden), the
                                  flowers are perfect for many more bees and the fruits go well with almost any
                                  meal. I encourage responsible non-disposal of all old stems in all my talks
                                  to the general public.
                                  cheers

                                  laurence




                                  Classification: UNCLASSIFIED
                                  Caveats: NONE
                                • Matthew McKinney
                                  Hey thanks for the tip. Next year I will try to bury my observation nests in the ground. -Matt
                                  Message 19 of 21 , Jul 12, 2011
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                                    Hey thanks for the tip. Next year I will try to bury my observation nests in the ground.
                                     
                                    -Matt
                                  • Jack Neff
                                    The only actual reference I m aware of for using partially buried trap nests for Anthidium is Jaycox, 1966 (Pan-Pacific Entomologist 42:18-26)  for a study of
                                    Message 20 of 21 , Jul 12, 2011
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                                      The only actual reference I'm aware of for using partially buried trap nests for Anthidium is Jaycox, 1966 (Pan-Pacific Entomologist 42:18-26)  for a study of Dioxys parasitizing nest of Anthidium utahense.  I don't have the ref handy but I don't think it is  particularly clear about methods.  He apparently partially buried wooden blocks with straws.  Krombein found Anthidium maculosum in trap nest stations placed on the desert floor in Arizona so maybe just low placement is sufficient for some taxa.  Most of the Anthidium nests I've encountered have been in banks so those might have a different search pattern and need a vertical soil surface.  Batra (1994) used adobe blocks as nest sites for Anthophora pilipes (Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 96: 98-119).  Those bees excavate their own nests but one can create cavities in adobe by inserting dowels when pouring the stuff.  I've made "adobe" blocks for the benefit of bank nesting bees (like Lasioglossum zephyrum) by filling wooden forms with mud and letting them harden, then covering the top (to minimize erosion from rain) and exposing one of the sides to give the bees access.  Never did get Anthophora but the Lasioglossum liked them.  Did not try for Anthidium but they are not common locally.

                                      best

                                      Jack
                                       
                                      John L. Neff
                                      Central Texas Melittological Institute
                                      7307 Running Rope
                                      Austin,TX 78731 USA
                                      512-345-7219

                                      From: "Messinger, Wes NWP" <Wes.Messinger@...>
                                      To: beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com
                                      Sent: Tuesday, July 12, 2011 12:06 PM
                                      Subject: RE: [beemonitoring] Re: Trap nests for Ceratina and other orphans (UNCLASSIFIED)

                                       
                                      Classification: UNCLASSIFIED
                                      Caveats: NONE

                                      Please pass refs for these 2 methods below? Thx --W

                                      --
                                      Wes Messinger
                                      Botanist, USACE Willamette Valley Projects
                                      541-688-8147

                                      -----Original Message-----
                                      From: beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com [mailto:beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com] On
                                      Behalf Of Jack Neff
                                      Sent: Monday, July 11, 2011 7:25 AM
                                      To: L B; beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com
                                      Subject: Re: [beemonitoring] Re: Trap nests for Ceratina and other orphans



                                      Most Anthidium seem to nest in prexisting cavities in the soil so most
                                      species won't show up in standard trap nest arrays. Some people have had
                                      success by partially burying trap nests or creating artificial soil banks
                                      with cavities in them.


                                      best


                                      Jack

                                      John L. Neff
                                      Central Texas Melittological Institute
                                      7307 Running Rope
                                      Austin,TX 78731 USA
                                      512-345-7219




                                      Classification: UNCLASSIFIED
                                      Caveats: NONE



                                    • Peter Kwapong
                                      Dear all, I ve been trying to find our the foraging behavior of my stingless bees.  Efforts to attract them to a feeder of sugar solution with vanilla essence
                                      Message 21 of 21 , Jun 7, 2012
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                                        Dear all,
                                        I've been trying to find our the foraging behavior of my stingless bees.  Efforts to attract them to a feeder of sugar solution with vanilla essence has not been successful. Not even their own honey will attract them.  Is anybody familiar with the set up and can please help? What should I do?
                                        Best wishes.
                                        Peter
                                         
                                        Dr. Peter K. Kwapong, Department of Entomology & Wildlife - International Stingless Bee Centre (ISBC), School of Biological Sciences, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast. GHANA. Office Tel. +233 3321 31191 Home Tel. +233 3321 30102 Cell. +233 20 9764697, Fax +233 3321 35323. www.ucc.edu.gh


                                        From: Kimberly N. Russell <krussell@...>
                                        To: beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com
                                        Sent: Thursday, 7 July 2011, 17:26
                                        Subject: [beemonitoring] soil measures & bee nesting

                                         
                                        Dear All,

                                        I am wondering if any of you have some suggestions for low-tech (low-cost!) ways to approximate soil compaction and soil composition (%sand/clay/silt/organic)? Has anyone tried suspending soil samples in water and measuring the separation (e.g., http://www.tulsamastergardeners.org/blackbox/soil_clas_calc.htm)? My goal is to characterize samples from various sites such that they can be compared with regards to compaction and composition.

                                        Also, I am interesting in counting stems in sample plots that could *potentially* be used by cavity nesting bees. How large must a stem be to be used by the smallest bee? I was thinking of a 3mm diameter minimum, but not sure if that makes sense.

                                        Thanks!
                                        Kim
                                        ********************************************************
                                        Dr. Kimberly N. Russell

                                        Research Scientist
                                        Department of Biology
                                        New Jersey Institute of Technology

                                        and

                                        Division of Invertebrate Zoology
                                        American Museum of Natural History

                                        phone: 1-973-642-7976
                                        E-mail: krussell@...
                                        Web: http://web.njit.edu/~krussell & http://research.amnh.org/invertzoo/spida
                                        ********************************************************



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