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DiscoverLife guide updates 6/10/11

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  • Michael Orr
    Hello all, Here are some more new characters added to the bee genera guide. This time, many of them are inspired by or taken from Michener s BOTW. These have
    Message 1 of 1 , Jun 10, 2011
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      Hello all,


      Here are some more new characters added to the bee genera guide. This time, many of them are inspired by or taken from Michener's BOTW. These have all been up for a few weeks now, so you may have already noticed them if you've recently used the guide. Any comments or suggestions may be sent to me. Expect many more characters to be added in the very near future.

      Dasypoda vs Macropis
      Dasypoda - Female hindleg with basitarsi SLENDER AND ELONGATE, very obviously more than twice as long as they are wide, most often closer to four times longer than wide - Forewing with either two or three submarginal cells, if with two then the second is about as long as the first when measuring by their greatest lengths - The first transcubital vein, the vein dividing the first and second submarginal cell, is roughly perpendicular to the veins above and below, the first recurrent vein usually located within about three vein diameters of the base of the first transcubital vein as a result - In general, these bees are LARGER than Macropis - This genus is only found in the old world
      Macropis - Female hindleg with basitarsi SHORT AND STOUT, most often close to only twice as long as they are wide, although sometimes they may appear slightly longer than this it does not approach four times as long as wide - Forewing with only two submarginal cells, the second of which is shorter than the first when measuring by their greatest lengths - The first transcubital vein, which divides the first and second submarginal cell, is slanted such that its lower end is at least five vein widths from the upper end of the first recurrent vein - In general, these bees are SMALLER than Dasypoda - This genus is found in both the Old World and North America


      Ericrocis vs Leiopodus
      Ericrocis - Midleg with a distinctly bidentate tibial spur that has both a short and long tip, with each tip sharply pointed - Forewing largely HAIRLESS within the interior of the veined cells, if with any hairs then they are very tiny, but distinctly papillate and located at the apex of the wing such that it appears to be speckled with small dots
      Leiopodus - Midleg with a relatively normal tibial spur that has only ONE TIP - Forewing HAIRY throughout


      Male, Emphorini vs Eucerini
      Emphorini - Males usually with much SHORTER antennae, when held at rest over the bee they usually extend no farther than the tegulae - In direct facial view, the vertex of the head appears evenly CONVEX throughout
      Eucerini - Males usually with much LONGER antennae, when held at rest over the bee they usually extend well beyond the tegulae and near the end of the abdomen - In direct facial view, the vertex of the head appears variable, often with the middle of the vertex, behind the ocelli, disproportionately raised in comparison to the rest of the integument and the overall vertex appearing more FLATTENED and not uniformly convex.


      Female, Ancyloscelis vs Gaesischia - This character is specific to the North American species of these two genera, although these states may partially apply to some Central or South American species
      Ancyloscelis - Dorsal area of the propodeal triangle bare of hairs, appearing finely tessellate, marked with microscopic lines - Tibial scopa composed of at least half BLACK hairs - Terga with DISTINCT white apical hair bands, the basal areas with only scattered darker hairs
      Gaesischia - Dorsal area of the propodeal triangle covered in long, dense whitish hairs which make it somewhat difficult to see the relatively smoother surface beneath - Tibial scopa composed of ENTIRELY LIGHT, whitish hairs - Terga with less distinct white apical hair bands, this due to the large amount of dense, light hairs present in the basal area of the terga, this most obvious from T3 onward to the tip of the abdomen


      Atoposmia vs Protosmia
      Atoposmia - Female clypeus variable, but not with a spatulate projection extending apicomedially from the rim  - At the middle of the base of the dorsal face of the propodeal enclosure, this being the area which borders the metanotum, the rear edge of this dorsal face is rounded over into the vertical face of the propodeum, although sometimes there may be a carina laterally, and there is often a small depression also found medially - T6 of male relatively evenly convex throughout, not noticeably more convex apicomedially, often with T7 visible beneath
      Protosmia - Female clypeus with a distinct apicomedial SPATULATE PROJECTION - The meeting of the dorsal and vertical faces of the propodeal enclosure are separated by a raised line or CARINA which may be somewhat weakened medially, with the dorsal face taking the form of a thin latitudinal strip in which longitudinal striations are present throughout - T6 of male strongly convex apicomedially, such that T7 below is normally not visible


      Hoplitis vs Protosmia
      Hoplitis - Female clypeus variable, usually slightly concave medially, but not with a strongly-projecting spatulate process apicomedially - The anterior face of T1, which faces the vertical face of the propodeum, is broadly convex such that it appears about evenly rounded in profile
      Protosmia - Female clypeus with an apicomedial spatulate projection - The anterior face of T1 is broadly concave, the border between the anterior face and the dorsal face represented by a line that is well-defined at least medially


      Odyneropsis vs Xeromelecta
      Odyneropsis - Forewings relatively evenly covered with minute hairs throughout - Abdomen with scattered dark hairs dorsally, although in some species there may be dense whitish hair patches present at the far sides of the tergites, if present then these patches are separated in the middle by well over half the latitudinal width of the terga - In terms of general body shape, this slender-bodied genus closely resembles paper wasps
      Xeromelecta - Forewing largely HAIRLESS within the interior of the veined cells, although there may be some distinct hairs just below the radius and along its length before its intersection with the basal vein - Abdomen with light-colored hair patches found commonly interrupted narrowly at the middle of each tergite where they are present, although in some species this may seem less obvious due to these hairs being darker or more sparse - In direct comparison, this genus is much more robustly-bodied than Odyneropsis


      Nesosphecodes vs Sphecodes
      Nesosphecodes - Mandibles simple and long,  about equal in length or longer than the compound eye - Pitting on the scutum is sparse medially, the interspacing between pits often exceeding two pit diameters - The abdomen is always black - This genus is known only from the Caribbean
      Sphecodes - Mandible can either be simple or often with a subapical tooth set back slightly from the tip, length variable but often shorter than the compound eye - Pitting on the scutum is usually dense, the interspacing between pits rarely if ever exceeding one pit diameter - The abdomen is often reddened either partially or wholly, although an all black abdomen is possible - This genus is found essentially worldwide


      Neopasites vs selected other genera
      Neopasites - Scape shorter, its length equal to twice its own maximum width at most, but usually shorter than this - T6 rim deeply emarginated and concave medially with no sign of a pygidial plate, the lateral sides of T6 coming to a point at each side
      Other genera - Scape longer, its length equal to about 2.5x its maximum width or more - T6 variable in form, but WITH a pygidial plate that is at least weakly defined and WITHOUT a deep medial concavity (Brachynomada, Hexepeolus)


      Oxaeinae vs other Andrenidae
      Oxaeinae - First antennal flagellomere about as long as the scape - Stigma nearly absent, if apparent then very small - Marginal cell of forewing extremely long, clearly more than five times as long as it is wide, with the width of the marginal cell equal to only about half that of the widest submarginal cell
      Other Andrenidae - First antennal flagellomere shorter than scape, rarely about equal - Stigma present and obvious - Marginal cell of forewing less than five times as long as it is wide, with the width of the marginal cell about equal to that of the widest submarginal cell


      Andreninae vs Panurginae
      Andreninae - Facial foveae of the female, when present, HAIRY and usually dulled as a result - Forewing with marginal cell either pointed or slightly rounded, the tip on or near the upper margin of the wing
      Panurginae - Facial foveae, when present, HAIRLESS and usually shiny - Forewing with marginal cell truncated such that the tip is not on or near the upper margin of the wing, or if not bluntly truncated then with the tip of the marginal cell clearly pointed away from the margin


      Microsphecodes vs Nesosphecodes
      Microsphecodes - Often with yellow markings on the face or thorax - Pitting on scutum more dense on average, usually about equal to one pit diameter, although in some species the interspacing may be more sparse - In direct comparison, smaller on average, ranging about 3-7mm
      Nesosphecodes - Never with yellow markings on the face or thorax - Pitting on scutum more sparse, with pit interspacing of at least 1-2 pit diameters and often up to 3-4 pit diameters - In direct comparison, larger on average, ranging 7.8-9.2mm according to Engel 2006


      -Michael Orr
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