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Re: [beemonitoring] Re: Native plants fail to increase beneficial insect rich...

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  • Ladadams@aol.com
    Can you point us to some published papers that demonstrate that domesticated honey bee colonies adversely affect native bees? Thanks, Laurie In a message
    Message 1 of 10 , Apr 22 6:45 AM
      Can you point us to some published papers that demonstrate that domesticated honey bee colonies adversely affect native bees?
       
      Thanks,
      Laurie
       
      In a message dated 4/22/2011 5:55:15 A.M. Pacific Daylight Time, daidunno@... writes:
       

      Peter Loring Borst wrote:
      >It is simply not the case that native pollinators in general are inextricably linked to native plants. We have already laid rest to the idea that there are tight plant/pollinator relationships except in rare occasions, and this sort of relationship can be considered to be an evolutionary dead end. 
       
      With the many examples of varying degrees of oligolecty, as well as specializations of plants and pollinators that make some pollinators much more efficient at pollinating some plants, I don't see how this is at all a true statement. 
       
      >The thesis that non-native bees somehow supplant native pollinators lacks real support. 

      I don't know about introduced, wild, non-natives but there is definitely evidence that domesticated honey bee colonies can adversely affect natives.
       

    • david almquist
      Most convincing ... Pretty convincing Paini, D. R. and J. D. Roberts. 2005. Commercial honey bees (Apis mellifera) reduce the fecundity of an Australian native
      Message 2 of 10 , Apr 22 6:51 AM

        Most convincing

        > DIANE THOMSON

        > COMPETITIVE INTERACTIONS BETWEEN THE INVASIVE EUROPEAN HONEY BEE AND

        > NATIVE BUMBLE BEES Ecology, 85(2), 2004, pp. 458–470

         

        Pretty convincing

        Paini, D. R. and J. D. Roberts. 2005. Commercial honey bees (Apis mellifera) reduce the fecundity of an Australian native bee (Hylaeus alcyoneus). Biological Conservation 123:103-112.

         

        Good review, although a bit outdated now.

        Paini, D. R. 2004. Impact of the introduced honey bee (Apis mellifera) (Hymenoptera: Apidae) on native bees: A review. Austral Ecology 29:399-407.

         

        This is more of a correlational study, but interesting.

        Goulson, D. and K. R. Sparrow. 2009. Evidence for competition between honeybees and bumblebees; effects on bumblebee worker size. Journal of Insect Conservation 13:177-181.

         

        This is anecdotal, and mainly about something else, but during a floral host study, individual honey bees were frequently observed displacing individual native bees at flowers.

        Deyrup, M., Edirisinghe, J. and B. Norden. 2002. The diversity and floral hosts of bees at the Archbold Biological Station, Florida (Hymenoptera: Apoidea). Insecta Mundi 16(1-3):87-120.

         


         

        To: daidunno@...; beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com
        From: Ladadams@...
        Date: Fri, 22 Apr 2011 09:45:57 -0400
        Subject: Re: [beemonitoring] Re: Native plants fail to increase beneficial insect rich...

         
        Can you point us to some published papers that demonstrate that domesticated honey bee colonies adversely affect native bees?
         
        Thanks,
        Laurie
         
        In a message dated 4/22/2011 5:55:15 A.M. Pacific Daylight Time, daidunno@... writes:
         

        Peter Loring Borst wrote:
        >It is simply not the case that native pollinators in general are inextricably linked to native plants. We have already laid rest to the idea that there are tight plant/pollinator relationships except in rare occasions, and this sort of relationship can be considered to be an evolutionary dead end. 
         
        With the many examples of varying degrees of oligolecty, as well as specializations of plants and pollinators that make some pollinators much more efficient at pollinating some plants, I don't see how this is at all a true statement. 
         
        >The thesis that non-native bees somehow supplant native pollinators lacks real support. 

        I don't know about introduced, wild, non-natives but there is definitely evidence that domesticated honey bee colonies can adversely affect natives.
         


      • Peter Loring Borst
        Hi all, I certainly do not wish to engage in a battle of wit over which papers more accurately represent reality regarding this contentious topic. However, I
        Message 3 of 10 , Apr 22 7:28 AM
          Hi all,
          I certainly do not wish to engage in a battle of wit over which papers more accurately represent reality regarding this contentious topic. However, I personally believe that many studies demonstrate a distinct bias which renders them useless. So, I would suggest that objectivity and lack of agenda are paramount in teasing out the truth in these conjectures. Also, I would tend to gravitate toward more recent work, such as:

          Overall, these studies suggest that plant – pollinator interaction
          networks are quite plastic and permeable to invasion by
          alien species, but the structure of networks is relatively robust
          to invasion. However, there is some evidence to suggest the
          function of invaded networks in terms of pollination services
          may be compromised. Even less is known about the effects of
          alien pollinators on network structure and function or of alien
          species on plant and pollinator reproduction. Additional empirical
          work, ideally with interaction data pre-invasion, during invasion,
          and post-removal, is sorely needed. In particular, we
          may be facing unexpected consequences for plant – pollinator
          networks from management and removal of invaders. The magnitude
          and direction of the effects of invader removal may depend
          on the density and spatiotemporal extent of invasion and
          removal, the degree of invader integration into community interactions,
          and effects on native plant and pollinator population
          dynamics since invasion.

          THE FUTURE OF PLANT – POLLINATOR DIVERSITY:
          UNDERSTANDING INTERACTION NETWORKS ACROSS
          TIME, SPACE, AND GLOBAL CHANGE
          Laura A. Burkle and Ruben Alarcon
          American Journal of Botany 98(3): 528–538. 2011.
        • Peter Loring Borst
          Hi all, I certainly do not wish to engage in a battle of wit over which papers more accurately represent reality regarding this contentious topic. However, I
          Message 4 of 10 , Apr 22 7:28 AM
            Hi all,
            I certainly do not wish to engage in a battle of wit over which papers more accurately represent reality regarding this contentious topic. However, I personally believe that many studies demonstrate a distinct bias which renders them useless. So, I would suggest that objectivity and lack of agenda are paramount in teasing out the truth in these conjectures. Also, I would tend to gravitate toward more recent work, such as:

            Overall, these studies suggest that plant – pollinator interaction
            networks are quite plastic and permeable to invasion by
            alien species, but the structure of networks is relatively robust
            to invasion. However, there is some evidence to suggest the
            function of invaded networks in terms of pollination services
            may be compromised. Even less is known about the effects of
            alien pollinators on network structure and function or of alien
            species on plant and pollinator reproduction. Additional empirical
            work, ideally with interaction data pre-invasion, during invasion,
            and post-removal, is sorely needed. In particular, we
            may be facing unexpected consequences for plant – pollinator
            networks from management and removal of invaders. The magnitude
            and direction of the effects of invader removal may depend
            on the density and spatiotemporal extent of invasion and
            removal, the degree of invader integration into community interactions,
            and effects on native plant and pollinator population
            dynamics since invasion.

            THE FUTURE OF PLANT – POLLINATOR DIVERSITY:
            UNDERSTANDING INTERACTION NETWORKS ACROSS
            TIME, SPACE, AND GLOBAL CHANGE
            Laura A. Burkle and Ruben Alarcon
            American Journal of Botany 98(3): 528–538. 2011.
          • Laurence Packer
            Greetings Sam is right about Lasioglossum leucozonium as being abundant and probably having arrived as a single female (the genetic data supporting that view
            Message 5 of 10 , Apr 22 7:53 AM
              Greetings

              Sam is right about Lasioglossum leucozonium as being abundant and probably having arrived as a single female (the genetic data supporting that view is outlined in the attached paper).

              I would very much like to test the possibility of similarly small original invasion forces with additional introduced species. If anyone has access to ( or can get) 20 or more individuals of any non-native species from anywhere in North America I would be very grateful.  I hope to start performing genetic studies along the lines of those in the attached paper starting in 2012.

              Another ground-nester that has become increasingly abundant here is Andrena wilkella.

              best wishes

              laurence

              --- On Fri, 4/22/11, Peter Loring Borst <peterlborst1@...> wrote:

              From: Peter Loring Borst <peterlborst1@...>
              Subject: [beemonitoring] THE FUTURE OF PLANT – POLLINATOR DIVERSITY
              To: beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com
              Received: Friday, April 22, 2011, 10:28 AM

               

              Hi all,
              I certainly do not wish to engage in a battle of wit over which papers more accurately represent reality regarding this contentious topic. However, I personally believe that many studies demonstrate a distinct bias which renders them useless. So, I would suggest that objectivity and lack of agenda are paramount in teasing out the truth in these conjectures. Also, I would tend to gravitate toward more recent work, such as:

              Overall, these studies suggest that plant – pollinator interaction
              networks are quite plastic and permeable to invasion by
              alien species, but the structure of networks is relatively robust
              to invasion. However, there is some evidence to suggest the
              function of invaded networks in terms of pollination services
              may be compromised. Even less is known about the effects of
              alien pollinators on network structure and function or of alien
              species on plant and pollinator reproduction. Additional empirical
              work, ideally with interaction data pre-invasion, during invasion,
              and post-removal, is sorely needed. In particular, we
              may be facing unexpected consequences for plant – pollinator
              networks from management and removal of invaders. The magnitude
              and direction of the effects of invader removal may depend
              on the density and spatiotemporal extent of invasion and
              removal, the degree of invader integration into community interactions,
              and effects on native plant and pollinator population
              dynamics since invasion.

              THE FUTURE OF PLANT – POLLINATOR DIVERSITY:
              UNDERSTANDING INTERACTION NETWORKS ACROSS
              TIME, SPACE, AND GLOBAL CHANGE
              Laura A. Burkle and Ruben Alarcon
              American Journal of Botany 98(3): 528–538. 2011.

            • Sam Droege
              I had forgotten about Andrena wilkella....and agree that to the south of Canada it also can be dominant in late spring early/mid summer when many other Andrena
              Message 6 of 10 , Apr 22 8:56 AM

                I had forgotten about Andrena wilkella....and agree that to the south of Canada it also can be dominant in late spring early/mid summer when many other Andrena are, interestingly, gone.


                sam
                P Bees are not optional.


                From:Laurence Packer <laurencepacker@...>
                To:beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com
                Date:04/22/2011 10:54 AM
                Subject:[beemonitoring] Lasioglossum leucozonium
                Sent by:beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com





                 

                Greetings

                Sam is right about Lasioglossum leucozonium as being abundant and probably having arrived as a single female (the genetic data supporting that view is outlined in the attached paper).

                I would very much like to test the possibility of similarly small original invasion forces with additional introduced species. If anyone has access to ( or can get) 20 or more individuals of any non-native species from anywhere in North America I would be very grateful.  I hope to start performing genetic studies along the lines of those in the attached paper starting in 2012.

                Another ground-nester that has become increasingly abundant here is Andrena wilkella.

                best wishes

                laurence

                --- On Fri, 4/22/11, Peter Loring Borst <peterlborst1@...> wrote:


                From: Peter Loring Borst <peterlborst1@...>
                Subject: [beemonitoring] THE FUTURE OF PLANT – POLLINATOR DIVERSITY
                To: beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com
                Received: Friday, April 22, 2011, 10:28 AM

                 

                Hi all,
                I certainly do not wish to engage in a battle of wit over which papers more accurately represent reality regarding this contentious topic. However, I personally believe that many studies demonstrate a distinct bias which renders them useless. So, I would suggest that objectivity and lack of agenda are paramount in teasing out the truth in these conjectures. Also, I would tend to gravitate toward more recent work, such as:

                Overall, these studies suggest that plant – pollinator interaction
                networks are quite plastic and permeable to invasion by
                alien species, but the structure of networks is relatively robust
                to invasion. However, there is some evidence to suggest the
                function of invaded networks in terms of pollination services
                may be compromised. Even less is known about the effects of
                alien pollinators on network structure and function or of alien
                species on plant and pollinator reproduction. Additional empirical
                work, ideally with interaction data pre-invasion, during invasion,
                and post-removal, is sorely needed. In particular, we
                may be facing unexpected consequences for plant – pollinator
                networks from management and removal of invaders. The magnitude
                and direction of the effects of invader removal may depend
                on the density and spatiotemporal extent of invasion and
                removal, the degree of invader integration into community interactions,
                and effects on native plant and pollinator population
                dynamics since invasion.

                THE FUTURE OF PLANT – POLLINATOR DIVERSITY:
                UNDERSTANDING INTERACTION NETWORKS ACROSS
                TIME, SPACE, AND GLOBAL CHANGE
                Laura A. Burkle and Ruben Alarcon
                American Journal of Botany 98(3): 528–538. 2011.



              • T'ai Roulston
                Laurence: I shouldn t have any trouble getting you 20 Osmia taurus and Megachile sculpturalis, if you want. Pure ethanol? Preference of gender? T ai ... T ai
                Message 7 of 10 , Apr 22 9:14 AM
                  Laurence:

                  I shouldn't have any trouble getting you 20 Osmia taurus and Megachile sculpturalis, if you want. Pure ethanol? Preference of gender?

                  T'ai
                  On Apr 22, 2011, at 10:53 AM, Laurence Packer wrote:

                   

                  Greetings

                  Sam is right about Lasioglossum leucozonium as being abundant and probably having arrived as a single female (the genetic data supporting that view is outlined in the attached paper).

                  I would very much like to test the possibility of similarly small original invasion forces with additional introduced species. If anyone has access to ( or can get) 20 or more individuals of any non-native species from anywhere in North America I would be very grateful.  I hope to start performing genetic studies along the lines of those in the attached paper starting in 2012.

                  Another ground-nester that has become increasingly abundant here is Andrena wilkella.

                  best wishes

                  laurence

                  --- On Fri, 4/22/11, Peter Loring Borst <peterlborst1@...> wrote:

                  From: Peter Loring Borst <peterlborst1@...>
                  Subject: [beemonitoring] THE FUTURE OF PLANT – POLLINATOR DIVERSITY
                  To: beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com
                  Received: Friday, April 22, 2011, 10:28 AM

                   

                  Hi all,
                  I certainly do not wish to engage in a battle of wit over which papers more accurately represent reality regarding this contentious topic. However, I personally believe that many studies demonstrate a distinct bias which renders them useless. So, I would suggest that objectivity and lack of agenda are paramount in teasing out the truth in these conjectures. Also, I would tend to gravitate toward more recent work, such as:

                  Overall, these studies suggest that plant – pollinator interaction
                  networks are quite plastic and permeable to invasion by
                  alien species, but the structure of networks is relatively robust
                  to invasion. However, there is some evidence to suggest the
                  function of invaded networks in terms of pollination services
                  may be compromised. Even less is known about the effects of
                  alien pollinators on network structure and function or of alien
                  species on plant and pollinator reproduction. Additional empirical
                  work, ideally with interaction data pre-invasion, during invasion,
                  and post-removal, is sorely needed. In particular, we
                  may be facing unexpected consequences for plant – pollinator
                  networks from management and removal of invaders. The magnitude
                  and direction of the effects of invader removal may depend
                  on the density and spatiotemporal extent of invasion and
                  removal, the degree of invader integration into community interactions,
                  and effects on native plant and pollinator population
                  dynamics since invasion.

                  THE FUTURE OF PLANT – POLLINATOR DIVERSITY:
                  UNDERSTANDING INTERACTION NETWORKS ACROSS
                  TIME, SPACE, AND GLOBAL CHANGE
                  Laura A. Burkle and Ruben Alarcon
                  American Journal of Botany 98(3): 528–538. 2011.


                  T'ai Roulston
                  Curator, State Arboretum of Virginia
                  Research Assoc. Prof., Dept of Envi. Sci.
                  University of Virginia



                • Matthias Buck
                  Interestingly, alien ground-nesting aculeate wasps seem to have been less successful in colonizing the North American continent. The only species I can think
                  Message 8 of 10 , Apr 22 9:15 AM
                    Interestingly, alien ground-nesting aculeate wasps seem to have been less successful in colonizing the North American continent. The only species I can think of right now is Oxybelus bipunctatus (Crabronidae). Kurczewski published a paper on its spread in the northeastern Nearctic years ago. If anyone knows of any other ground-nesting introduced aculeate wasps I would love to hear about it.

                    Is there a list of the ground-nesting alien bees for North America?

                    Cheers,

                                      Matthias

                    On Fri, Apr 22, 2011 at 8:53 AM, Laurence Packer <laurencepacker@...> wrote:
                     

                    Greetings

                    Sam is right about Lasioglossum leucozonium as being abundant and probably having arrived as a single female (the genetic data supporting that view is outlined in the attached paper).

                    I would very much like to test the possibility of similarly small original invasion forces with additional introduced species. If anyone has access to ( or can get) 20 or more individuals of any non-native species from anywhere in North America I would be very grateful.  I hope to start performing genetic studies along the lines of those in the attached paper starting in 2012.

                    Another ground-nester that has become increasingly abundant here is Andrena wilkella.

                    best wishes

                    laurence

                    --- On Fri, 4/22/11, Peter Loring Borst <peterlborst1@...> wrote:

                    From: Peter Loring Borst <peterlborst1@...>
                    Subject: [beemonitoring] THE FUTURE OF PLANT – POLLINATOR DIVERSITY
                    To: beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com
                    Received: Friday, April 22, 2011, 10:28 AM

                     

                    Hi all,
                    I certainly do not wish to engage in a battle of wit over which papers more accurately represent reality regarding this contentious topic. However, I personally believe that many studies demonstrate a distinct bias which renders them useless. So, I would suggest that objectivity and lack of agenda are paramount in teasing out the truth in these conjectures. Also, I would tend to gravitate toward more recent work, such as:

                    Overall, these studies suggest that plant – pollinator interaction
                    networks are quite plastic and permeable to invasion by
                    alien species, but the structure of networks is relatively robust
                    to invasion. However, there is some evidence to suggest the
                    function of invaded networks in terms of pollination services
                    may be compromised. Even less is known about the effects of
                    alien pollinators on network structure and function or of alien
                    species on plant and pollinator reproduction. Additional empirical
                    work, ideally with interaction data pre-invasion, during invasion,
                    and post-removal, is sorely needed. In particular, we
                    may be facing unexpected consequences for plant – pollinator
                    networks from management and removal of invaders. The magnitude
                    and direction of the effects of invader removal may depend
                    on the density and spatiotemporal extent of invasion and
                    removal, the degree of invader integration into community interactions,
                    and effects on native plant and pollinator population
                    dynamics since invasion.

                    THE FUTURE OF PLANT – POLLINATOR DIVERSITY:
                    UNDERSTANDING INTERACTION NETWORKS ACROSS
                    TIME, SPACE, AND GLOBAL CHANGE
                    Laura A. Burkle and Ruben Alarcon
                    American Journal of Botany 98(3): 528–538. 2011.




                    --
                    Dr. Matthias Buck
                    Invertebrate Zoology
                    Royal Alberta Museum
                    12845-102nd Avenue
                    Edmonton, Alberta
                    Canada, T5N 0M6
                    Phone: (780) 453-9122
                    www.royalalbertamuseum.ca
                  • Charley Eiseman
                    Check this list on BugGuide.Net: http://bugguide.net/node/view/248891#Anchor_Hymeno It only includes species for which BugGuide has images, so it is missing
                    Message 9 of 10 , Apr 22 9:28 AM
                      Check this list on BugGuide.Net: http://bugguide.net/node/view/248891#Anchor_Hymeno
                      It only includes species for which BugGuide has images, so it is missing O. bipunctatus, and presumably others.  I'm not sure if you would count Larra as a ground nester... it lays eggs on paralyzed mole crickets in their own burrows.

                      Charley

                      On Fri, Apr 22, 2011 at 12:15 PM, Matthias Buck <buckmb@...> wrote:
                       

                      Interestingly, alien ground-nesting aculeate wasps seem to have been less successful in colonizing the North American continent. The only species I can think of right now is Oxybelus bipunctatus (Crabronidae). Kurczewski published a paper on its spread in the northeastern Nearctic years ago. If anyone knows of any other ground-nesting introduced aculeate wasps I would love to hear about it.

                      Is there a list of the ground-nesting alien bees for North America?

                      Cheers,

                                        Matthias



                      On Fri, Apr 22, 2011 at 8:53 AM, Laurence Packer <laurencepacker@...> wrote:
                       

                      Greetings

                      Sam is right about Lasioglossum leucozonium as being abundant and probably having arrived as a single female (the genetic data supporting that view is outlined in the attached paper).

                      I would very much like to test the possibility of similarly small original invasion forces with additional introduced species. If anyone has access to ( or can get) 20 or more individuals of any non-native species from anywhere in North America I would be very grateful.  I hope to start performing genetic studies along the lines of those in the attached paper starting in 2012.

                      Another ground-nester that has become increasingly abundant here is Andrena wilkella.

                      best wishes

                      laurence

                      --- On Fri, 4/22/11, Peter Loring Borst <peterlborst1@...> wrote:

                      From: Peter Loring Borst <peterlborst1@...>
                      Subject: [beemonitoring] THE FUTURE OF PLANT – POLLINATOR DIVERSITY
                      To: beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com
                      Received: Friday, April 22, 2011, 10:28 AM

                       

                      Hi all,
                      I certainly do not wish to engage in a battle of wit over which papers more accurately represent reality regarding this contentious topic. However, I personally believe that many studies demonstrate a distinct bias which renders them useless. So, I would suggest that objectivity and lack of agenda are paramount in teasing out the truth in these conjectures. Also, I would tend to gravitate toward more recent work, such as:

                      Overall, these studies suggest that plant – pollinator interaction
                      networks are quite plastic and permeable to invasion by
                      alien species, but the structure of networks is relatively robust
                      to invasion. However, there is some evidence to suggest the
                      function of invaded networks in terms of pollination services
                      may be compromised. Even less is known about the effects of
                      alien pollinators on network structure and function or of alien
                      species on plant and pollinator reproduction. Additional empirical
                      work, ideally with interaction data pre-invasion, during invasion,
                      and post-removal, is sorely needed. In particular, we
                      may be facing unexpected consequences for plant – pollinator
                      networks from management and removal of invaders. The magnitude
                      and direction of the effects of invader removal may depend
                      on the density and spatiotemporal extent of invasion and
                      removal, the degree of invader integration into community interactions,
                      and effects on native plant and pollinator population
                      dynamics since invasion.

                      THE FUTURE OF PLANT – POLLINATOR DIVERSITY:
                      UNDERSTANDING INTERACTION NETWORKS ACROSS
                      TIME, SPACE, AND GLOBAL CHANGE
                      Laura A. Burkle and Ruben Alarcon
                      American Journal of Botany 98(3): 528–538. 2011.




                      --
                      Dr. Matthias Buck
                      Invertebrate Zoology
                      Royal Alberta Museum
                      12845-102nd Avenue
                      Edmonton, Alberta
                      Canada, T5N 0M6
                      Phone: (780) 453-9122
                      www.royalalbertamuseum.ca



                      --
                      www.charleyeiseman.com
                      bugtracks.wordpress.com
                      www.northernnaturalists.com

                    • Matthias Buck
                      Thanks for the list! I was actually referring to the accidentally introduced species. Larra bicolor was deliberately introduced for the control of mole
                      Message 10 of 10 , Apr 22 9:51 AM
                        Thanks for the list! I was actually referring to the accidentally introduced species. Larra bicolor was deliberately introduced for the control of mole crickets. Pison is a cavity nester. I forgot to mention that there are quite a few introduced cavity-nesting aculeate wasps (probably just as many as bees).

                        On Fri, Apr 22, 2011 at 10:28 AM, Charley Eiseman <ceiseman@...> wrote:
                        Check this list on BugGuide.Net: http://bugguide.net/node/view/248891#Anchor_Hymeno
                        It only includes species for which BugGuide has images, so it is missing O. bipunctatus, and presumably others.  I'm not sure if you would count Larra as a ground nester... it lays eggs on paralyzed mole crickets in their own burrows.

                        Charley

                        On Fri, Apr 22, 2011 at 12:15 PM, Matthias Buck <buckmb@...> wrote:
                         

                        Interestingly, alien ground-nesting aculeate wasps seem to have been less successful in colonizing the North American continent. The only species I can think of right now is Oxybelus bipunctatus (Crabronidae). Kurczewski published a paper on its spread in the northeastern Nearctic years ago. If anyone knows of any other ground-nesting introduced aculeate wasps I would love to hear about it.

                        Is there a list of the ground-nesting alien bees for North America?

                        Cheers,

                                          Matthias



                        On Fri, Apr 22, 2011 at 8:53 AM, Laurence Packer <laurencepacker@...> wrote:
                         

                        Greetings

                        Sam is right about Lasioglossum leucozonium as being abundant and probably having arrived as a single female (the genetic data supporting that view is outlined in the attached paper).

                        I would very much like to test the possibility of similarly small original invasion forces with additional introduced species. If anyone has access to ( or can get) 20 or more individuals of any non-native species from anywhere in North America I would be very grateful.  I hope to start performing genetic studies along the lines of those in the attached paper starting in 2012.

                        Another ground-nester that has become increasingly abundant here is Andrena wilkella.

                        best wishes

                        laurence

                        --- On Fri, 4/22/11, Peter Loring Borst <peterlborst1@...> wrote:

                        From: Peter Loring Borst <peterlborst1@...>
                        Subject: [beemonitoring] THE FUTURE OF PLANT – POLLINATOR DIVERSITY
                        To: beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com
                        Received: Friday, April 22, 2011, 10:28 AM

                         

                        Hi all,
                        I certainly do not wish to engage in a battle of wit over which papers more accurately represent reality regarding this contentious topic. However, I personally believe that many studies demonstrate a distinct bias which renders them useless. So, I would suggest that objectivity and lack of agenda are paramount in teasing out the truth in these conjectures. Also, I would tend to gravitate toward more recent work, such as:

                        Overall, these studies suggest that plant – pollinator interaction
                        networks are quite plastic and permeable to invasion by
                        alien species, but the structure of networks is relatively robust
                        to invasion. However, there is some evidence to suggest the
                        function of invaded networks in terms of pollination services
                        may be compromised. Even less is known about the effects of
                        alien pollinators on network structure and function or of alien
                        species on plant and pollinator reproduction. Additional empirical
                        work, ideally with interaction data pre-invasion, during invasion,
                        and post-removal, is sorely needed. In particular, we
                        may be facing unexpected consequences for plant – pollinator
                        networks from management and removal of invaders. The magnitude
                        and direction of the effects of invader removal may depend
                        on the density and spatiotemporal extent of invasion and
                        removal, the degree of invader integration into community interactions,
                        and effects on native plant and pollinator population
                        dynamics since invasion.

                        THE FUTURE OF PLANT – POLLINATOR DIVERSITY:
                        UNDERSTANDING INTERACTION NETWORKS ACROSS
                        TIME, SPACE, AND GLOBAL CHANGE
                        Laura A. Burkle and Ruben Alarcon
                        American Journal of Botany 98(3): 528–538. 2011.




                        --
                        Dr. Matthias Buck
                        Invertebrate Zoology
                        Royal Alberta Museum
                        12845-102nd Avenue
                        Edmonton, Alberta
                        Canada, T5N 0M6
                        Phone: (780) 453-9122
                        www.royalalbertamuseum.ca



                        --
                        www.charleyeiseman.com
                        bugtracks.wordpress.com
                        www.northernnaturalists.com




                        --
                        Dr. Matthias Buck
                        Invertebrate Zoology
                        Royal Alberta Museum
                        12845-102nd Avenue
                        Edmonton, Alberta
                        Canada, T5N 0M6
                        Phone: (780) 453-9122
                        www.royalalbertamuseum.ca
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