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Re: [beemonitoring] Squeeze boxes for insects

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  • karen@sevilleta.unm.edu
    If you put them in the freezer for a few minutes, you can slow them down without killing them. You can then put them on a flower and they will take a while to
    Message 1 of 18 , Feb 3, 2011
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      If you put them in the freezer for a few minutes, you can slow them down
      without killing them. You can then put them on a flower and they will
      take a while to get moving again. Cheers, Karen

      > Hello all,
      >
      > Thank you to everyone who has replied, your input is much appreciated.
      > Let me give a little background on my proposed project and myself... I am
      > an aquatic biologist (though I work with herps at the moment), my
      > specialty is aquatic arthropod and cephalopod husbandry. My hobby is
      > insect-watching and as of late I have become very interested in
      > pollinators, namely solitary bees. According to the experts I've spoken
      > with here in Texas, there has not been much research done in the Houston
      > area regarding what species are present.
      >
      > If my project is accepted, I will survey four gardens on Zoo grounds for
      > bees. I'm hoping that thoroughly documenting the species I find with
      > pictures may help entomologists identify the bees at least to genus.
      > Although many of you may frown on this, I am not interested in collecting
      > any specimens for ID. What I am interested in is getting our Zoo guests
      > excited about gardening for wildlife, which would create more bee habitat
      > in this incredibly over-developed city, lessen pesticide use and maybe
      > drum up a little respect for insects. Our Zoo does not have an insect
      > house, so this is the best project I could come up with for a small amount
      > of grant money.
      >
      > The photos taken will be available for all to see (at some point) so
      > interested parties can see what bees they might encounter in their yards.
      > I realize that ID to family or genus level only may not be of use to the
      > scientific community, but maybe someone out there will be inclined to do a
      > "real" survey after seeing what we have here. So once again, I thank you
      > all for the expertise and welcome any suggestions - it's great to learn so
      > much after being a group member for less than 24 hours!
      >
      >
      > Karen Sprague
      > Houston Zoo
      >
      >
      >
      > On Feb 3, 2011, at 9:29 AM, David_R_Smith@... wrote:
      >
      >>
      >> Not to sound pessimistic, but how do you intend to accurately ID live
      >> bees in hand or in a plastic squeeze box. Unless you are able to
      >> immobilize them and have one heck of a macro lens, how will key
      >> characters needed to ID even to genus be legible, much less suitable to
      >> ID to the species level?
      >>
      >> Would such photographic documentation meet the necessary standard to
      >> document a species presence? In one endangered bird survey,
      >> southwestern willow flycatcher, the biologist must hear the birds
      >> distinct call before it presence can be documented in a area. Empidonax
      >> flycatchers can't reliably be ID'd simply by sight. Given the color
      >> variations we see in Bombus specimens, would this even work for such a
      >> large bee?
      >>
      >> Dave Smith
      >> U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
      >> 323 N. Leroux St., Suite 101
      >> Flagstaff, AZ 86001
      >> (928) 226-0614 x 109
      >> "Field data is the best cure for a precarious prediction" Dave Rosgen
      >
      >
    • Pierre Martineau
      Hi Karen, Karen s proposed freezer solution is very quick and efficient, but you incur a high risk of accidentally killing the bee if you leave it for too long
      Message 2 of 18 , Feb 3, 2011
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        Hi Karen,

        Karen's proposed freezer solution is very quick and efficient, but you incur a high risk of accidentally killing the bee if you leave it for too long (too long may be a matter of a few minutes). If you have more time at hand, you may want to put the bee in a fridge to cool it down to ~ 2 to 4 degrees (Celcius) instead. Fifteen to 30min are usually sufficient (how long really depends on the size of the bee and how much air there is in the container that holds the bee), and the bee will most likely be still alive if you leave it accidentally overnight.

        Pierre
        ----------
        Pierre Martineau
        pierrem at stanford dot edu

        ----- Original Message -----
        From: karen@...
        To: "Karen Sprague" <panulirus@...>
        Cc: beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com
        Sent: Thursday, February 3, 2011 3:34:12 PM
        Subject: Re: [beemonitoring] Squeeze boxes for insects






        If you put them in the freezer for a few minutes, you can slow them down
        without killing them. You can then put them on a flower and they will
        take a while to get moving again. Cheers, Karen

        > Hello all,
        >
        > Thank you to everyone who has replied, your input is much appreciated.
        > Let me give a little background on my proposed project and myself... I am
        > an aquatic biologist (though I work with herps at the moment), my
        > specialty is aquatic arthropod and cephalopod husbandry. My hobby is
        > insect-watching and as of late I have become very interested in
        > pollinators, namely solitary bees. According to the experts I've spoken
        > with here in Texas, there has not been much research done in the Houston
        > area regarding what species are present.
        >
        > If my project is accepted, I will survey four gardens on Zoo grounds for
        > bees. I'm hoping that thoroughly documenting the species I find with
        > pictures may help entomologists identify the bees at least to genus.
        > Although many of you may frown on this, I am not interested in collecting
        > any specimens for ID. What I am interested in is getting our Zoo guests
        > excited about gardening for wildlife, which would create more bee habitat
        > in this incredibly over-developed city, lessen pesticide use and maybe
        > drum up a little respect for insects. Our Zoo does not have an insect
        > house, so this is the best project I could come up with for a small amount
        > of grant money.
        >
        > The photos taken will be available for all to see (at some point) so
        > interested parties can see what bees they might encounter in their yards.
        > I realize that ID to family or genus level only may not be of use to the
        > scientific community, but maybe someone out there will be inclined to do a
        > "real" survey after seeing what we have here. So once again, I thank you
        > all for the expertise and welcome any suggestions - it's great to learn so
        > much after being a group member for less than 24 hours!
        >
        >
        > Karen Sprague
        > Houston Zoo
        >
        >
        >
        > On Feb 3, 2011, at 9:29 AM, David_R_Smith@... wrote:
        >
        >>
        >> Not to sound pessimistic, but how do you intend to accurately ID live
        >> bees in hand or in a plastic squeeze box. Unless you are able to
        >> immobilize them and have one heck of a macro lens, how will key
        >> characters needed to ID even to genus be legible, much less suitable to
        >> ID to the species level?
        >>
        >> Would such photographic documentation meet the necessary standard to
        >> document a species presence? In one endangered bird survey,
        >> southwestern willow flycatcher, the biologist must hear the birds
        >> distinct call before it presence can be documented in a area. Empidonax
        >> flycatchers can't reliably be ID'd simply by sight. Given the color
        >> variations we see in Bombus specimens, would this even work for such a
        >> large bee?
        >>
        >> Dave Smith
        >> U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
        >> 323 N. Leroux St., Suite 101
        >> Flagstaff, AZ 86001
        >> (928) 226-0614 x 109
        >> "Field data is the best cure for a precarious prediction" Dave Rosgen
        >
        >
      • Karen Sprague
        You people are a wealth of information!!! Thank you so much for all your help - I m sure I ll have many more questions along the way... Karen Sprague Houston
        Message 3 of 18 , Feb 3, 2011
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          You people are a wealth of information!!!  Thank you so much for all your help - I'm sure I'll have many more questions along the way...

          Karen  Sprague
          Houston Zoo


          On Feb 3, 2011, at 3:07 PM, Karen Sprague wrote:

           

          Hello all,


          Thank you to everyone who has replied, your input is much appreciated.  Let me give a little background on my proposed project and myself...  I am an aquatic biologist (though I work with herps at the moment), my specialty is aquatic arthropod and cephalopod husbandry.  My hobby is insect-watching and as of late I have become very interested in pollinators, namely solitary bees.  According to the experts I've spoken with here in Texas, there has not been much research done in the Houston area regarding what species are present.

          If my project is accepted, I will survey four gardens on Zoo grounds for bees.   I'm hoping that thoroughly documenting the species I find with pictures may help entomologists identify the bees at least to genus.  Although many of you may frown on this, I am not interested in collecting any specimens for ID.  What I am interested in is getting our Zoo guests excited about gardening for wildlife, which would create more bee habitat in this incredibly over-developed city, lessen pesticide use and maybe drum up a little respect for insects.  Our Zoo does not have an insect house, so this is the best project I could come up with for a small amount of grant money.  

          The photos taken will be available for all to see (at some point) so interested parties can see what bees they might encounter in their yards.  I realize that ID to family or genus level only may not be of use to the scientific community, but maybe someone out there will be inclined to do a "real" survey after seeing what we have here.  So once again, I thank you all for the expertise and welcome any suggestions - it's great to learn so much after being a group member for less than 24 hours!


          Karen Sprague
          Houston Zoo



          On Feb 3, 2011, at 9:29 AM, David_R_Smith@... wrote:


          Not to sound pessimistic, but how do you intend to accurately ID live bees in hand or in a plastic squeeze box.  Unless you are able to immobilize them and have one heck of a macro lens, how will key characters needed to ID even to genus be legible, much less suitable to ID to the species level?

          Would such photographic documentation meet the necessary standard to document a species presence?  In one endangered bird survey, southwestern willow flycatcher, the biologist must hear the birds distinct call before it presence can be documented in a area.  Empidonax flycatchers can't reliably be ID'd simply by sight.  Given the color variations we see in Bombus specimens, would this even work for such a large bee?

          Dave Smith
          U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
          323 N. Leroux St., Suite 101
          Flagstaff, AZ  86001
          (928) 226-0614 x 109
          "Field data is the best cure for a precarious prediction"  Dave Rosgen



        • barbara.abraham@hamptonu.edu
          All, Does anyone have an electronic copy of Southwick s original lucky hits paper (J. Biol. Comp. Physiol. Ecol. Vol 7, 1982? Thanks! Barb Barbara J.
          Message 4 of 18 , Feb 7, 2011
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            All,

             

            Does anyone have an electronic copy of Southwick’s original “lucky hits” paper (J. Biol. Comp. Physiol. Ecol. Vol 7,  1982?

             

            Thanks!

             

            Barb

             

            Barbara J. Abraham, Ph.D.

            Associate Professor

            SEEDS Ecology Chapter Advisor

            Department of Biological Sciences

            Hampton University

            Hampton, VA  23668

            757-727-5283

            barbara.abraham@...

             

            The information contained in this message is intended only for the recipient, and may otherwise be privileged and confidential. If the reader of this message is not the intended recipient, or an employee or agent responsible for delivering this message to the intended recipient, please be aware that any dissemination or copying of this communication is strictly prohibited. If you have received this communication in error, please immediately notify us by replying to the message and deleting it from your computer. This footnote also confirms that this email has been scanned for all viruses by the Hampton University Center for Information Technology Enterprise Systems service.
          • T'ai Roulston
            Bee Nest Afficionados: I received this photo today from someone who attended a bee talk I gave. The photo was taken in northern Virginia May 10, 2006 and the
            Message 5 of 18 , Mar 4, 2011
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              Bee Nest Afficionados:

              I received this photo today from someone who attended a bee talk I gave. The photo was taken in northern Virginia May 10, 2006 and the nest cells were between two pieces of siding. I presume the yellow is pollen and these are bee cells, but I've never seen a nest structure like this. The top is all mud.

              Does this look familiar to anyone?

              T'ai




              T'ai Roulston
              Curator, State Arboretum of Virginia
              Research Assoc. Prof., Dept of Envi. Sci.
              University of Virginia



            • Eric Mader
              Hi T ai, This looks exactly like the nests my Osmia (both lignaria and cornifrons) commonly produce when tunnel-like cavities are not available. This is very
              Message 6 of 18 , Mar 4, 2011
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                Hi T'ai,

                This looks exactly like the nests my Osmia (both lignaria and cornifrons) commonly produce when tunnel-like cavities are not available. This is very very familiar!

                Cheers!

                -Eric

                On Fri, Mar 4, 2011 at 1:09 PM, T'ai Roulston <thr8z@...> wrote:
                Bee Nest Afficionados:

                I received this photo today from someone who attended a bee talk I gave. The photo was taken in northern Virginia May 10, 2006 and the nest cells were between two pieces of siding. I presume the yellow is pollen and these are bee cells, but I've never seen a nest structure like this. The top is all mud.

                Does this look familiar to anyone?

                T'ai




                T'ai Roulston
                Curator, State Arboretum of Virginia
                Research Assoc. Prof., Dept of Envi. Sci.
                University of Virginia






                --
                ----------------------------------------------------------------------
                Eric Mader
                Assistant Pollinator Program Director
                    The Xerces Society for Invertebrate Conservation
                Assistant Professor of Extension
                    University of Minnesota, Department of Entomology

                The Xerces Society for Invertebrate Conservation
                1971 – 2011: Forty Years of Conservation!

                4828 SE Hawthorne Blvd., Portland, OR 97215, USA
                eric@...
                Tel: (503) 232-6639
                Toll free: 1-855-232-6639
                Cell: (503) 989-3649
                Skype: eric_mader_xerces_society
                (日本語でどうぞ)

                Find all the information you need to conserve pollinator habitat at: www.xerces.org/pollinator-resource-center/

                The Xerces Society for Invertebrate Conservation is an international nonprofit organization that protects wildlife through the conservation of invertebrates and their habitat.

                To join the Society, make a contribution, or read about our work, please visit www.xerces.org.

                NEW BOOK NOW AVAILABLE:
                Attracting Native Pollinators. Protecting North America’s Bees and Butterflies
                ----------------------------------------------------------------------
              • Dave Hunter
                I agree with Eric. You’re probably looking at 3 different Osmia (same species) results. However, what is interesting is that you have 3 different types of
                Message 7 of 18 , Mar 4, 2011
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                  I agree with Eric.  You’re probably looking at 3 different Osmia (same species) results. 

                   

                  However, what is interesting is that you have 3 different types of wall building.  Complete mud encasement, reworking all walls (double walls) on the lower left, and mostly single walls on the right.  Different mud in each case.  …and different pollen source between lower left and right.

                   

                  Dave Hunter

                  O. 425.949.7954

                  C. 206.851.1263

                  www.crownbees.com

                   Click below to hear the buzz!

                  Description: cid:image002.png@...4545C0Description: cid:image003.png@...4545C0Description: cid:image004.png@...4545C0

                   

                   

                  From: beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com [mailto:beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of Eric Mader
                  Sent: Friday, March 04, 2011 1:27 PM
                  To: T'ai Roulston
                  Cc: beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com
                  Subject: Re: [beemonitoring] id bee nest from photo

                   

                   

                  Hi T'ai,

                  This looks exactly like the nests my Osmia (both lignaria and cornifrons) commonly produce when tunnel-like cavities are not available. This is very very familiar!

                  Cheers!

                  -Eric

                  On Fri, Mar 4, 2011 at 1:09 PM, T'ai Roulston <thr8z@...> wrote:

                  Bee Nest Afficionados:

                   

                  I received this photo today from someone who attended a bee talk I gave. The photo was taken in northern Virginia May 10, 2006 and the nest cells were between two pieces of siding. I presume the yellow is pollen and these are bee cells, but I've never seen a nest structure like this. The top is all mud.

                   

                  Does this look familiar to anyone?

                   

                  T'ai

                   

                   

                  Description: cid:4B396076-59C7-45B9-A691-FE65BBFD9235@Blandy

                   

                  T'ai Roulston

                  Curator, State Arboretum of Virginia

                  Research Assoc. Prof., Dept of Envi. Sci.

                  University of Virginia

                   

                   

                   




                  --
                  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
                  Eric Mader
                  Assistant Pollinator Program Director
                      The Xerces Society for Invertebrate Conservation
                  Assistant Professor of Extension
                      University of Minnesota, Department of Entomology

                  The Xerces Society for Invertebrate Conservation
                  1971 – 2011: Forty Years of Conservation!

                  4828 SE Hawthorne Blvd., Portland, OR 97215, USA
                  eric@...
                  Tel: (503) 232-6639
                  Toll free: 1-855-232-6639
                  Cell: (503) 989-3649
                  Skype: eric_mader_xerces_society
                  (日本語でどうぞ)

                  Find all the information you need to conserve pollinator habitat at: www.xerces.org/pollinator-resource-center/

                  The Xerces Society for Invertebrate Conservation is an international nonprofit organization that protects wildlife through the conservation of invertebrates and their habitat.

                  To join the Society, make a contribution, or read about our work, please visit www.xerces.org.

                  NEW BOOK NOW AVAILABLE:
                  Attracting Native Pollinators. Protecting North America’s Bees and Butterflies
                  ----------------------------------------------------------------------

                • Jack Neff
                  Although they are not typical, Osmia lignaria occasionally make nests like that in larger cavities. They usually do a better job with cell symmetry than that
                  Message 8 of 18 , Mar 4, 2011
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                    Although they are not typical, Osmia lignaria occasionally make nests like that in larger cavities. They usually do a better job with cell symmetry than that though.  The pale, dusty pollen could be oak or some other anemophilous thing.

                    best

                    Jack
                     
                    John L. Neff
                    Central Texas Melittological Institute
                    7307 Running Rope
                    Austin,TX 78731 USA
                    512-345-7219



                    From: T'ai Roulston <thr8z@...>
                    To: beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com
                    Sent: Fri, March 4, 2011 3:09:15 PM
                    Subject: [beemonitoring] id bee nest from photo

                    Bee Nest Afficionados:

                    I received this photo today from someone who attended a bee talk I gave. The photo was taken in northern Virginia May 10, 2006 and the nest cells were between two pieces of siding. I presume the yellow is pollen and these are bee cells, but I've never seen a nest structure like this. The top is all mud.

                    Does this look familiar to anyone?

                    T'ai




                    T'ai Roulston
                    Curator, State Arboretum of Virginia
                    Research Assoc. Prof., Dept of Envi. Sci.
                    University of Virginia




                  • Eric Mader
                    Hi Jil, I think the color variation in the mud is just a matter of the different patches of soil where the mother bee(s) collected mud (variations in clay
                    Message 9 of 18 , Mar 9, 2011
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                      Hi Jil,

                      I think the color variation in the mud is just a matter of the
                      different patches of soil where the mother bee(s) collected mud
                      (variations in clay content, minerals, etc.). The yellow is obviously
                      pollen.

                      I am guessing that all of the cells were provisioned and capped, but
                      the open/empty ones on the bottom are the result of the photographer
                      lifting away the covering surface (maybe a stone or a brick, or
                      something), and probably dislodging the provisions (making them appear
                      empty).

                      T'ai can probably clarify the circumstances under which he found this.

                      Cheers!

                      -Eric

                      On Wed, Mar 9, 2011 at 10:33 AM, <Jil_Swearingen@...> wrote:
                      > Eric,
                      > Can you explain what I'm seeing here - the various colors of the cells and
                      > the full vs empty and the red-brick cells at the top? It's really
                      > fascinating and I'd like to understand what's going on here. You can reply
                      > to the whole group if you like...
                      > Thanks,
                      > Jil
                      >
                      >
                      >
                      >
                      > Eric Mader
                      > <eric@...>
                      > Sent by: To
                      > beemonitoring@yah "T'ai Roulston"
                      > oogroups.com <thr8z@...>
                      > cc
                      > beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com
                      > 03/04/2011 04:26 Subject
                      > PM Re: [beemonitoring] id bee nest
                      > from photo
                      >
                      >
                      >
                      >
                      >
                      >
                      >
                      >
                      >
                      >
                      >
                      >
                      >
                      > Hi T'ai,
                      >
                      > This looks exactly like the nests my Osmia (both lignaria and cornifrons)
                      > commonly produce when tunnel-like cavities are not available. This is very
                      > very familiar!
                      >
                      > Cheers!
                      >
                      > -Eric
                      >
                      > On Fri, Mar 4, 2011 at 1:09 PM, T'ai Roulston <thr8z@...> wrote:
                      > Bee Nest Afficionados:
                      >
                      >
                      >
                      > I received this photo today from someone who attended a bee talk I
                      > gave. The photo was taken in northern Virginia May 10, 2006 and the
                      > nest cells were between two pieces of siding. I presume the yellow is
                      > pollen and these are bee cells, but I've never seen a nest structure
                      > like this. The top is all mud.
                      >
                      > Does this look familiar to anyone?
                      >
                      > T'ai
                      >
                      >
                      > (Embedded image moved to file: pic16731.jpg)
                      >
                      > T'ai Roulston
                      > Curator, State Arboretum of Virginia
                      > Research Assoc. Prof., Dept of Envi. Sci.
                      > University of Virginia
                      > tai.roulston@...
                      >
                      >
                      >
                      >
                      >
                      >
                      > --
                      > ----------------------------------------------------------------------
                      > Eric Mader
                      > Assistant Pollinator Program Director The Xerces Society for
                      > Invertebrate Conservation
                      > Assistant Professor of Extension University of Minnesota, Department of
                      > Entomology
                      >
                      > The Xerces Society for Invertebrate Conservation
                      > 1971 - 2011: Forty Years of Conservation!
                      >
                      > 4828 SE Hawthorne Blvd., Portland, OR 97215, USA
                      > eric@...
                      > Tel: (503) 232-6639
                      > Toll free: 1-855-232-6639
                      > Cell: (503) 989-3649
                      > Skype: eric_mader_xerces_society
                      > (日本語でどうぞ)
                      >
                      > Find all the information you need to conserve pollinator habitat at:
                      > www.xerces.org/pollinator-resource-center/
                      >
                      > The Xerces Society for Invertebrate Conservation is an international
                      > nonprofit organization that protects wildlife through the conservation of
                      > invertebrates and their habitat.
                      >
                      > To join the Society, make a contribution, or read about our work, please
                      > visit www.xerces.org.
                      >
                      > NEW BOOK NOW AVAILABLE:
                      > Attracting Native Pollinators. Protecting North America’s Bees and
                      > Butterflies
                      > ----------------------------------------------------------------------
                      >
                      >
                      >



                      --
                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------
                      Eric Mader
                      Assistant Pollinator Program Director
                      The Xerces Society for Invertebrate Conservation
                      Assistant Professor of Extension
                      University of Minnesota, Department of Entomology

                      The Xerces Society for Invertebrate Conservation
                      1971 - 2011: Forty Years of Conservation!

                      4828 SE Hawthorne Blvd., Portland, OR 97215, USA
                      eric@...
                      Tel: (503) 232-6639
                      Toll free: 1-855-232-6639
                      Cell: (503) 989-3649
                      Skype: eric_mader_xerces_society
                      (日本語でどうぞ)

                      Find all the information you need to conserve pollinator habitat at:
                      www.xerces.org/pollinator-resource-center/

                      The Xerces Society for Invertebrate Conservation is an international
                      nonprofit organization that protects wildlife through the conservation
                      of invertebrates and their habitat.

                      To join the Society, make a contribution, or read about our work,
                      please visit www.xerces.org.

                      NEW BOOK NOW AVAILABLE:
                      Attracting Native Pollinators. Protecting North America’s Bees and Butterflies
                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------
                    • Sandra_Lary@fws.gov
                      Interesting native bee article: http://www.gardendesign.com/yellow/bee-season?cmpid=enews030811 Sandra ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Sandra J. Lary, Senior
                      Message 10 of 18 , Mar 9, 2011
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                        Interesting native bee article:  

                        http://www.gardendesign.com/yellow/bee-season?cmpid=enews030811


                        Sandra

                        ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
                        Sandra J. Lary, Senior Fish & Wildlife Biologist
                        U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service

                        Ecological Services-Coastal Program
                        4R Fundy Rd, Falmouth ME 04105

                        207-781-8364, ext. 19

                      • Charley Eiseman
                        Hi Eric (and other bee nest aficionados), I m curious to hear how you would rule out the possibility that the closed cells in the top row were made by spider
                        Message 11 of 18 , Mar 10, 2011
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                          Hi Eric (and other bee nest aficionados),

                          I'm curious to hear how you would rule out the possibility that the closed cells in the top row were made by spider wasps (Auplopus or Phanagenia)--if, for instance, they had not been found in association with these obviously pollen-filled cells.  The examples of pompilid nests I have seen tend to have smoother walls and not be so neatly arranged, but I don't know if this is always the case.  Is this very lumpy appearance, with each individual mud pellet visible, typical of Osmia nests?

                          Thanks,

                          Charley Eiseman

                          www.NorthernNaturalists.com

                          2011/3/9 Eric Mader <eric@...>
                           

                          Hi Jil,

                          I think the color variation in the mud is just a matter of the
                          different patches of soil where the mother bee(s) collected mud
                          (variations in clay content, minerals, etc.). The yellow is obviously
                          pollen.

                          I am guessing that all of the cells were provisioned and capped, but
                          the open/empty ones on the bottom are the result of the photographer
                          lifting away the covering surface (maybe a stone or a brick, or
                          something), and probably dislodging the provisions (making them appear
                          empty).

                          T'ai can probably clarify the circumstances under which he found this.

                          Cheers!

                          -Eric

                          On Wed, Mar 9, 2011 at 10:33 AM, <Jil_Swearingen@...> wrote:
                          > Eric,
                          > Can you explain what I'm seeing here - the various colors of the cells and
                          > the full vs empty and the red-brick cells at the top? It's really
                          > fascinating and I'd like to understand what's going on here. You can reply
                          > to the whole group if you like...
                          > Thanks,
                          > Jil
                          >
                          >
                          >
                          >
                          > Eric Mader
                          > <eric@...>
                          > Sent by: To
                          > beemonitoring@yah "T'ai Roulston"
                          > oogroups.com <thr8z@...>
                          > cc
                          > beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com
                          > 03/04/2011 04:26 Subject
                          > PM Re: [beemonitoring] id bee nest
                          > from photo
                          >
                          >
                          >
                          >
                          >
                          >
                          >
                          >
                          >
                          >
                          >
                          >
                          >


                          > Hi T'ai,
                          >
                          > This looks exactly like the nests my Osmia (both lignaria and cornifrons)
                          > commonly produce when tunnel-like cavities are not available. This is very
                          > very familiar!
                          >
                          > Cheers!
                          >
                          > -Eric
                          >
                          > On Fri, Mar 4, 2011 at 1:09 PM, T'ai Roulston <thr8z@...> wrote:
                          > Bee Nest Afficionados:
                          >
                          >
                          >
                          > I received this photo today from someone who attended a bee talk I
                          > gave. The photo was taken in northern Virginia May 10, 2006 and the
                          > nest cells were between two pieces of siding. I presume the yellow is
                          > pollen and these are bee cells, but I've never seen a nest structure
                          > like this. The top is all mud.
                          >
                          > Does this look familiar to anyone?
                          >
                          > T'ai
                          >
                          >
                          > (Embedded image moved to file: pic16731.jpg)

                          >
                          > T'ai Roulston
                          > Curator, State Arboretum of Virginia
                          > Research Assoc. Prof., Dept of Envi. Sci.
                          > University of Virginia
                          > tai.roulston@...
                          >
                          >
                          >
                          >
                          >
                          >
                          > --
                          > ----------------------------------------------------------
                          > Eric Mader
                          > Assistant Pollinator Program Director The Xerces Society for
                          > Invertebrate Conservation
                          > Assistant Professor of Extension University of Minnesota, Department of
                          > Entomology
                          >
                          > The Xerces Society for Invertebrate Conservation
                          > 1971 - 2011: Forty Years of Conservation!
                          >
                          > 4828 SE Hawthorne Blvd., Portland, OR 97215, USA
                          > eric@...
                          > Tel: (503) 232-6639
                          > Toll free: 1-855-232-6639
                          > Cell: (503) 989-3649
                          > Skype: eric_mader_xerces_society
                          > (日本語でどうぞ)
                          >
                          > Find all the information you need to conserve pollinator habitat at:
                          > www.xerces.org/pollinator-resource-center/
                          >
                          > The Xerces Society for Invertebrate Conservation is an international
                          > nonprofit organization that protects wildlife through the conservation of
                          > invertebrates and their habitat.
                          >
                          > To join the Society, make a contribution, or read about our work, please
                          > visit www.xerces.org.
                          >
                          > NEW BOOK NOW AVAILABLE:
                          > Attracting Native Pollinators. Protecting North America’s Bees and
                          > Butterflies
                          > ----------------------------------------------------------
                          >
                          >
                          >

                          --
                          ----------------------------------------------------------
                          Eric Mader
                          Assistant Pollinator Program Director
                          The Xerces Society for Invertebrate Conservation
                          Assistant Professor of Extension
                          University of Minnesota, Department of Entomology

                          The Xerces Society for Invertebrate Conservation
                          1971 - 2011: Forty Years of Conservation!

                          4828 SE Hawthorne Blvd., Portland, OR 97215, USA
                          eric@...
                          Tel: (503) 232-6639
                          Toll free: 1-855-232-6639
                          Cell: (503) 989-3649
                          Skype: eric_mader_xerces_society
                          (日本語でどうぞ)

                          Find all the information you need to conserve pollinator habitat at:
                          www.xerces.org/pollinator-resource-center/

                          The Xerces Society for Invertebrate Conservation is an international
                          nonprofit organization that protects wildlife through the conservation
                          of invertebrates and their habitat.

                          To join the Society, make a contribution, or read about our work,
                          please visit www.xerces.org.

                          NEW BOOK NOW AVAILABLE:
                          Attracting Native Pollinators. Protecting North America’s Bees and Butterflies
                          ----------------------------------------------------------

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