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Re: [beemonitoring] Updates for List of Alien Bee Species in North America

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  • John S. Ascher
    Sam: Thanks for updating the manual. For the record, please note that the Pseudoanthidium [not Psuedoanthidium ] was first discovered by Sarah Kornbluth in
    Message 1 of 5 , Sep 3, 2010
    • 0 Attachment
      Sam:

      Thanks for updating the manual.

      For the record, please note that the Pseudoanthidium [not
      "Psuedoanthidium"] was first discovered by Sarah Kornbluth in New Jersey
      as reported in this news article:

      http://www.northjersey.com/news/98090334_Meadowlands_bee_variety_has_experts_buzzing.html

      Sarah also collected an exotic Hylaeus (Prosopis) native to North Africa,
      leading to its identification (the few previous specimens had been noted
      as remarkable but not reliably determined).

      Here is a particularly relevant section of the article [my comments in
      brackets]:

      "Two of the specimens [an anthidiine and a masked bee] completely
      befuddled Kornbluth and [Kim] Russell, so they turned for help to the
      American Museum of Natural History, which has a global bee collection of
      7,000 species. With aid from experts in Europe [Max Schwarz and Holger
      Dathe respectively], they were able to tentatively identify one species as
      a European thistle bee, black with yellow and orange markings. The other
      they believe is a North African bee with a yellow face and red tail, and
      is very obscure, even in its native land. Neither had been recorded in
      North America before."

      When Sarah brought in the mysterious Anthidiini "thistle bee" it was
      clearly a Pseudoanthidium (Pseudoanthidium), a taxon I am familiar with
      from collecting in Turkey. Although the subgeneric identification was
      easy, to this day we am having difficulties applying a species name with
      confidence due to byzantine problems of homonymy (the oldest name is a
      primary homonym so unavailable), synonymy (multiple published synonymies
      are now believed to be inaccurate or at least unverified), species
      concepts (multiple "subspecies" are involved), and typification (some of
      the oldest names have types not studied by modern workers). Terry Griswold
      and I are collaborating with the great European expert Max Schwarz in an
      effort to solve these problems.

      Subsequently, Kevin Matteson collected an additional specimen of this
      "thistle bee" in New York City, and most recently Sam Droege sent an
      additional report from his region.

      Sarah's Pseudoanthidium discovery is particularly significant because this
      species has no North American congeners (i.e. there are no native species
      in the same genus) whereas the many other introduced bees have congeners
      (close relatives) in North America. This map shows the native range of
      Pseudoanthidium:
      www.discoverlife.edu/mp/20m?kind=Pseudoanthidium

      Specimens of the second "North African bee with a yellow face and red
      tail" was first collected a decade or more ago Mary Yurlina and Parker
      Gambino. They were sent to the late Roy Snelling who recognized them as
      different from the North American species he had revised, and therefore as
      potentially a new species. At least one specimen of this species was
      erroneously det. by another bee specialist as a North American species,
      but upon inspection of these specimens and the one collected more recently
      by Sarah I recognized them as exotic and related to but certainly distinct
      from the well known Hylaeus (Prosopis) variegatus. The variegatus species
      group is exclusively Palearctic so I mailed specimens to Prof. Holger
      Dathe of Germany, the expert on Palearctic Hylaeus, who confirmed that the
      specimens belonged in the Hylaeus (Prosopis) variegatus species group (not
      species). The specific identification is not entirely clear because the
      specimens do not match any well known Palearctic species and instead
      appear to be conspecific with a very obscure North African species known
      more or less only from sparse type material. Original taxonomic work will
      be required before we can fully verify the name and publish the record.

      Given the rapid pace of discovery of introduced species in areas where I
      have lived recently, i.e. the Ithaca and NYC vicinities, I can only
      speculate how many species have arrived where few or no bee specialists
      reside and remain undetected.

      I think it noteworthy that these recent discoveries have been of
      taxonomically problematic species absent from England and Scandinavia,
      whereas most early introductions were of very well known northern European
      species.

      John





      > All:
      >
      > We are revising the Handy Bee Manual and have added L. zonulum and a
      > Psuedoanthidium sp. to the list of North American Alien bees. Are there
      > other bee species that need to be added? Does any of the information
      > presented below need to be updated or changed? Many thanks.
      >
      > sam
      >
      > Sam Droege sdroege@...
      > w 301-497-5840 h 301-390-7759 fax 301-497-5624
      > USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center
      > BARC-EAST, BLDG 308, RM 124 10300 Balt. Ave., Beltsville, MD 20705
      > Http://www.pwrc.usgs.gov
      >
      > The sun, too, shines into cesspools and is not polluted.--Diogenes
      > Laertius: Lib. vi. sect. 63.
      >
      >
      > North American (North of Mexico) Introduced and Alien Bee Species
      >
      > Information on distributions and status come from the literature, active
      > North American collectors, online collection data available via the global
      > mapper on www.discoverlife.org, and John Ascher?s compilation of
      > distributional data. Thanks for the contributions from Mike Arduser,
      > John Ascher, Rob Jean, Jack Neff, Cory Sheffield, Robbin Thorp.
      >
      > Updated: September 2010
      >
      > Account Layout: I = purposely introduced, A = accidental introduction or
      > possibly natural colonization (although this would be unlikely for most),
      > Genus, Species, Decade of Establishment, Probable Source Population,
      > Current Status in North America north of Mexico
      >
      > Apidae
      >
      > I Apis mellifera 1620. Europe, Mediterranean region. Feral colonies
      > present throughout North America. Colony numbers and persistence recently
      > have declined following the introduction of parasitic mites in the 1980s
      > and 1990s.
      > I Anthophora plumipes 1980. Europe and southern China. Introduced at
      > the USDA Beltsville, MD Honey Bee Laboratory. Numbers were initially low,
      > but this species is now found commonly in early spring throughout the
      > Washington D.C. metropolitan area where it nests in the ground under
      > porches or in the dirt of uprooted trees and frequents planted azaleas and
      > other garden flowers. Has the potential to spread throughout North
      > America.
      > A Ceratina cobaltina 1970. Mexico. While it is possible this is simply a
      > disjunct Texas population, specimens for this distinctive Mexican species
      > were only recently discovered in Travis and Hidalgo counties.
      > A Ceratina dallatoreana 1940. Mediterranean region. Central California.
      > I Ceratina smaragdula 1960. Pakistan, India, SE Asia. Introduced into
      > California but not found since its introduction.
      > A Centris nitida 2000. Southwestern U.S., Texas, Mexico, Central America
      > and Northwestern South America. Recently discovered in southern Florida.
      > Not expected to spread outside of Florida.
      > A Euglossa viridissima 2000. Mexico and Central America. Recently
      > discovered in southern Florida. Currently found only on the eastern side
      > of the state. Expected to spread to the western side but not invade much
      > further north.
      > A Xylocopa tabaniformis parkinsoniae Recent. South Texas. Recently
      > appears to have left its historical haunts along the Rio Grande and now
      > found commonly in urban areas of Central Texas, perhaps translocated there
      > via firewood, but possibly colonized naturally.
      >
      > Andrenidae
      >
      > A Andrena wilkella 1900s. Europe and northern Asia. Common throughout
      > the north central and northeastern U.S. and southern Canada.
      >
      > Colletidae
      >
      > A Hylaeus leptocephalus 1900. Europe. Found throughout the U.S. and
      > southern Canada. Particularly associated with gardens, urban and
      > disturbed sites. Often found on Melilotus.
      > A Hylaeus hyalinatus 1990. Europe. Currently found in urban areas from
      > New York City, southern Ontario, New Jersey, Pennslyvania. Has potential
      > to spread throughout North America.
      > A Hylaeus punctatus 1980. Europe. Currently found in central California,
      > southern South America, New York City, Washington D.C. Has potential to
      > spread throughout North America
      >
      > Halictidae
      >
      > A Lasioglossum eleutherense 1990. Bahamas and Cuba. Four individuals
      > found in the University of Miami Arboretum. Current status unknown. Not
      > expected to spread out of Florida.
      > A Lasioglossum leucozonium 1900s. Europe and northern China. Despite its
      > extensive range in Europe and Asia it is limited to the northern areas of
      > central and eastern U.S. and southern Canada.
      > A Halictus tectus 2000. Southern Europe to Mongolia. Known from 3 sites:
      > downtown Philadelphia, PA, Baltimore, MD and Beltsville, MD. Appears to
      > prefer highly disturbed sites with European weeds.
      > A Lasioglossum zonulum ?. Europe and SE China. A species similar to L.
      > leucozonium. Recently thought to possibly be an introduced rather than
      > native species. Records in North America go back many years
      >
      > Megachilidae
      >
      > A Anthidium manicatum 1960. Europe, North Africa, Near East, South
      > Central and South Eastern South America. Currently found predominantly in
      > northeastern U.S. and southern Canada, however, individuals have shown up
      > in the central states, Idaho, and on the West Coast where it is well
      > established in California. Likely to spread throughout North America.
      > Associated with large urban and suburban gardens, particularly planted
      > with Stachys.
      > A Anthidium oblongatum 1990. Europe and the Near East. Currently common
      > in northeastern U.S. and southern Canada and moving into the central
      > states and provinces. Found in most open habitats. Has potential to
      > spread throughout North America.
      > A Chelostoma campanularum 1960. Europe and the Near East. Found in
      > Upstate New York, Connecticut, and southern Ontario. Has potential to
      > spread throughout North America.
      > A Chelostoma rapunculi 1960. Europe and the Near East. Found in Upstate
      > New York and southern Ontario. Has potential to spread throughout North
      > America.
      > A Coelioxys coturnix 2000. Southwestern Europe, North Africa, India.
      > Currently found in the Baltimore-Washington D.C. corridor. Has potential
      > to spread throughout the range of Megachile rotundata (its presumed host).
      > A Hoplitis anthocopoides 1960. Europe. Found from West Virginia to
      > southern Ontario. Potential spread perhaps limited to the range of its
      > reported preferred pollen source, Viper?s Bugloss (Echium vulgare).
      > A Lithurgus chrysurus 1970. Europe, Near East, North Africa. Found only
      > in the Phillipsburg, New Jersey are and a 50 mile radius in Pennsylvania
      > and New Jersey. Until 2007 there were no recent records, but perhaps due
      > to nobody making an effort to look. Apparently oligolectic on Spotted
      > Knapweed (Centaurea maculosa) and burrows into wood to make a nest. This
      > species has the potential to be much more destructive than Xylocopa
      > virginica.
      > A Megachile apicalis 1930. Europe, North Africa, Near and Middle East.
      > Western and eastern U.S. Relatively few records in the East but
      > widespread in California and parts of the Pacific Northwest where it
      > specializes on star-thistle Centaurea solstitialis, and is often moved
      > around with Megachile rotundata pollinator tubes.
      > A Megachile concinna 1940. Africa. West Indies, Mexico, throughout the
      > southern U.S.
      > A Megachile ericetorum 2000. Europe, Near East, China. One recent record
      > from southern Ontario.
      > A Megachile lanata 1700-1800. India and China. Introduced into the West
      > Indies and northern South America where it possibly made its way
      > secondarily to Florida. Found throughout much of Florida but not likely
      > to spread farther unless it is brought to the southwestern deserts.
      > A Megachile rotundata 1920-1940. Europe to China. Throughout North
      > America to northern Mexico. Available commercially, used in alfalfa seed
      > production.
      > A Megachile sculpturalis 1990. Far eastern China, Korea, Japan. Eastern
      > and central U.S. and southern Canada. May move throughout the continent
      > as they use widely planted, introduced summer blooming leguminous trees
      > and shrubs.
      > A Osmia caerulescens 1800s. Europe, North Africa. Near East, India.
      > Northeastern and Northcentral U.S. and southern Canada. Appears to be less
      > common than it once was, at least towards the south. No recent records
      > for the mid-Atlantic area despite a great deal of collecting, but still
      > common in upstate New York.
      > I Osmia cornifrons 1960. Eastern China, Korea, and Japan. Introduced to
      > pollinate tree fruit crops. Feral populations established in the
      > Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern U.S. Available commercially.
      > I Osmia cornuta 1980. Europe, North Africa, Near East. Introduced as a
      > pollinator of tree fruit crops in California, but its establishment has
      > not been documented.
      > A Osmia taurus 2000. Eastern China, Japan. Mid-Atlantic area and
      > Appalachian Mountains. Males in particular are very similar to O.
      > cornifrons and may be confused. Appears to be rapidly spreading and often
      > abundant.
      > A Pseudoanthidium sp. 2000. Currently the exact name has not been
      > ascertained, however, it appears to be the common European species.
      > Currently found in Baltimore and another urban area on the East Coast. So
      > far only found in the most industrial, disturbed, and urban sites.


      --
      John S. Ascher, Ph.D.
      Bee Database Project Manager
      Division of Invertebrate Zoology
      American Museum of Natural History
      Central Park West @ 79th St.
      New York, NY 10024-5192
      work phone: 212-496-3447
      mobile phone: 917-407-0378
    • Cory Sheffield
      Hello all, It would be nice to barcode these specimens! As the number of bee species barcoded from all over the world increases, these specimens may
      Message 2 of 5 , Sep 3, 2010
      • 0 Attachment
        Hello all,

        It would be nice to barcode these specimens!  As the number of bee species barcoded from all over the world increases, these specimens may correspond to things in BOLD.  In essence, for problematic species (or even undescribed species) from around the globe, getting species with the same barcode may not only help recognize "foreign" species in North America (one of the promising areas of DNA barcoding), but may also help to pin point the area(s) of origin (for species with a narrow natural distribution).  As John correctly points out, some of these new introduced species are coming from areas outside of Europe.

        All the best,
        Cory
         
        Cory Sheffield, PhD
        Research Associate
        Department of Biology
        York University
        4700 Keele Street
        Toronto, ON
        Canada
        M3J 1P3



        From: John S. Ascher <ascher@...>
        To: Sam Droege <sdroege@...>
        Cc: beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com
        Sent: Fri, September 3, 2010 12:51:24 PM
        Subject: Re: [beemonitoring] Updates for List of Alien Bee Species in North America

         



        Sam:

        Thanks for updating the manual.

        For the record, please note that the Pseudoanthidium [not
        "Psuedoanthidium"] was first discovered by Sarah Kornbluth in New Jersey
        as reported in this news article:

        http://www.northjersey.com/news/98090334_Meadowlands_bee_variety_has_experts_buzzing.html

        Sarah also collected an exotic Hylaeus (Prosopis) native to North Africa,
        leading to its identification (the few previous specimens had been noted
        as remarkable but not reliably determined).

        Here is a particularly relevant section of the article [my comments in
        brackets]:

        "Two of the specimens [an anthidiine and a masked bee] completely
        befuddled Kornbluth and [Kim] Russell, so they turned for help to the
        American Museum of Natural History, which has a global bee collection of
        7,000 species. With aid from experts in Europe [Max Schwarz and Holger
        Dathe respectively], they were able to tentatively identify one species as
        a European thistle bee, black with yellow and orange markings. The other
        they believe is a North African bee with a yellow face and red tail, and
        is very obscure, even in its native land. Neither had been recorded in
        North America before."

        When Sarah brought in the mysterious Anthidiini "thistle bee" it was
        clearly a Pseudoanthidium (Pseudoanthidium), a taxon I am familiar with
        from collecting in Turkey. Although the subgeneric identification was
        easy, to this day we am having difficulties applying a species name with
        confidence due to byzantine problems of homonymy (the oldest name is a
        primary homonym so unavailable), synonymy (multiple published synonymies
        are now believed to be inaccurate or at least unverified), species
        concepts (multiple "subspecies" are involved), and typification (some of
        the oldest names have types not studied by modern workers). Terry Griswold
        and I are collaborating with the great European expert Max Schwarz in an
        effort to solve these problems.

        Subsequently, Kevin Matteson collected an additional specimen of this
        "thistle bee" in New York City, and most recently Sam Droege sent an
        additional report from his region.

        Sarah's Pseudoanthidium discovery is particularly significant because this
        species has no North American congeners (i.e. there are no native species
        in the same genus) whereas the many other introduced bees have congeners
        (close relatives) in North America. This map shows the native range of
        Pseudoanthidium:
        www.discoverlife.edu/mp/20m?kind=Pseudoanthidium

        Specimens of the second "North African bee with a yellow face and red
        tail" was first collected a decade or more ago Mary Yurlina and Parker
        Gambino. They were sent to the late Roy Snelling who recognized them as
        different from the North American species he had revised, and therefore as
        potentially a new species. At least one specimen of this species was
        erroneously det. by another bee specialist as a North American species,
        but upon inspection of these specimens and the one collected more recently
        by Sarah I recognized them as exotic and related to but certainly distinct
        from the well known Hylaeus (Prosopis) variegatus. The variegatus species
        group is exclusively Palearctic so I mailed specimens to Prof. Holger
        Dathe of Germany, the expert on Palearctic Hylaeus, who confirmed that the
        specimens belonged in the Hylaeus (Prosopis) variegatus species group (not
        species). The specific identification is not entirely clear because the
        specimens do not match any well known Palearctic species and instead
        appear to be conspecific with a very obscure North African species known
        more or less only from sparse type material. Original taxonomic work will
        be required before we can fully verify the name and publish the record.

        Given the rapid pace of discovery of introduced species in areas where I
        have lived recently, i.e. the Ithaca and NYC vicinities, I can only
        speculate how many species have arrived where few or no bee specialists
        reside and remain undetected.

        I think it noteworthy that these recent discoveries have been of
        taxonomically problematic species absent from England and Scandinavia,
        whereas most early introductions were of very well known northern European
        species.

        John

        > All:
        >
        > We are revising the Handy Bee Manual and have added L. zonulum and a
        > Psuedoanthidium sp. to the list of North American Alien bees. Are there
        > other bee species that need to be added? Does any of the information
        > presented below need to be updated or changed? Many thanks.
        >
        > sam
        >
        > Sam Droege sdroege@...
        > w 301-497-5840 h 301-390-7759 fax 301-497-5624
        > USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center
        > BARC-EAST, BLDG 308, RM 124 10300 Balt. Ave., Beltsville, MD 20705
        > Http://www.pwrc.usgs.gov
        >
        > The sun, too, shines into cesspools and is not polluted.--Diogenes
        > Laertius: Lib. vi. sect. 63.
        >
        >
        > North American (North of Mexico) Introduced and Alien Bee Species
        >
        > Information on distributions and status come from the literature, active
        > North American collectors, online collection data available via the global
        > mapper on www.discoverlife.org, and John Ascher?s compilation of
        > distributional data. Thanks for the contributions from Mike Arduser,
        > John Ascher, Rob Jean, Jack Neff, Cory Sheffield, Robbin Thorp.
        >
        > Updated: September 2010
        >
        > Account Layout: I = purposely introduced, A = accidental introduction or
        > possibly natural colonization (although this would be unlikely for most),
        > Genus, Species, Decade of Establishment, Probable Source Population,
        > Current Status in North America north of Mexico
        >
        > Apidae
        >
        > I Apis mellifera 1620. Europe, Mediterranean region. Feral colonies
        > present throughout North America. Colony numbers and persistence recently
        > have declined following the introduction of parasitic mites in the 1980s
        > and 1990s.
        > I Anthophora plumipes 1980. Europe and southern China. Introduced at
        > the USDA Beltsville, MD Honey Bee Laboratory. Numbers were initially low,
        > but this species is now found commonly in early spring throughout the
        > Washington D.C. metropolitan area where it nests in the ground under
        > porches or in the dirt of uprooted trees and frequents planted azaleas and
        > other garden flowers. Has the potential to spread throughout North
        > America.
        > A Ceratina cobaltina 1970. Mexico. While it is possible this is simply a
        > disjunct Texas population, specimens for this distinctive Mexican species
        > were only recently discovered in Travis and Hidalgo counties.
        > A Ceratina dallatoreana 1940. Mediterranean region. Central California.
        > I Ceratina smaragdula 1960. Pakistan, India, SE Asia. Introduced into
        > California but not found since its introduction.
        > A Centris nitida 2000. Southwestern U.S., Texas, Mexico, Central America
        > and Northwestern South America. Recently discovered in southern Florida.
        > Not expected to spread outside of Florida.
        > A Euglossa viridissima 2000. Mexico and Central America. Recently
        > discovered in southern Florida. Currently found only on the eastern side
        > of the state. Expected to spread to the western side but not invade much
        > further north.
        > A Xylocopa tabaniformis parkinsoniae Recent. South Texas. Recently
        > appears to have left its historical haunts along the Rio Grande and now
        > found commonly in urban areas of Central Texas, perhaps translocated there
        > via firewood, but possibly colonized naturally.
        >
        > Andrenidae
        >
        > A Andrena wilkella 1900s. Europe and northern Asia. Common throughout
        > the north central and northeastern U.S. and southern Canada.
        >
        > Colletidae
        >
        > A Hylaeus leptocephalus 1900. Europe. Found throughout the U.S. and
        > southern Canada. Particularly associated with gardens, urban and
        > disturbed sites. Often found on Melilotus.
        > A Hylaeus hyalinatus 1990. Europe. Currently found in urban areas from
        > New York City, southern Ontario, New Jersey, Pennslyvania. Has potential
        > to spread throughout North America.
        > A Hylaeus punctatus 1980. Europe. Currently found in central California,
        > southern South America, New York City, Washington D.C. Has potential to
        > spread throughout North America
        >
        > Halictidae
        >
        > A Lasioglossum eleutherense 1990. Bahamas and Cuba. Four individuals
        > found in the University of Miami Arboretum. Current status unknown. Not
        > expected to spread out of Florida.
        > A Lasioglossum leucozonium 1900s. Europe and northern China. Despite its
        > extensive range in Europe and Asia it is limited to the northern areas of
        > central and eastern U.S. and southern Canada.
        > A Halictus tectus 2000. Southern Europe to Mongolia. Known from 3 sites:
        > downtown Philadelphia, PA, Baltimore, MD and Beltsville, MD. Appears to
        > prefer highly disturbed sites with European weeds.
        > A Lasioglossum zonulum ?. Europe and SE China. A species similar to L.
        > leucozonium. Recently thought to possibly be an introduced rather than
        > native species. Records in North America go back many years
        >
        > Megachilidae
        >
        > A Anthidium manicatum 1960. Europe, North Africa, Near East, South
        > Central and South Eastern South America. Currently found predominantly in
        > northeastern U.S. and southern Canada, however, individuals have shown up
        > in the central states, Idaho, and on the West Coast where it is well
        > established in California. Likely to spread throughout North America.
        > Associated with large urban and suburban gardens, particularly planted
        > with Stachys.
        > A Anthidium oblongatum 1990. Europe and the Near East. Currently common
        > in northeastern U.S. and southern Canada and moving into the central
        > states and provinces. Found in most open habitats. Has potential to
        > spread throughout North America.
        > A Chelostoma campanularum 1960. Europe and the Near East. Found in
        > Upstate New York, Connecticut, and southern Ontario. Has potential to
        > spread throughout North America.
        > A Chelostoma rapunculi 1960. Europe and the Near East. Found in Upstate
        > New York and southern Ontario. Has potential to spread throughout North
        > America.
        > A Coelioxys coturnix 2000. Southwestern Europe, North Africa, India.
        > Currently found in the Baltimore-Washington D.C. corridor. Has potential
        > to spread throughout the range of Megachile rotundata (its presumed host).
        > A Hoplitis anthocopoides 1960. Europe. Found from West Virginia to
        > southern Ontario. Potential spread perhaps limited to the range of its
        > reported preferred pollen source, Viper?s Bugloss (Echium vulgare).
        > A Lithurgus chrysurus 1970. Europe, Near East, North Africa. Found only
        > in the Phillipsburg, New Jersey are and a 50 mile radius in Pennsylvania
        > and New Jersey. Until 2007 there were no recent records, but perhaps due
        > to nobody making an effort to look. Apparently oligolectic on Spotted
        > Knapweed (Centaurea maculosa) and burrows into wood to make a nest. This
        > species has the potential to be much more destructive than Xylocopa
        > virginica.
        > A Megachile apicalis 1930. Europe, North Africa, Near and Middle East.
        > Western and eastern U.S. Relatively few records in the East but
        > widespread in California and parts of the Pacific Northwest where it
        > specializes on star-thistle Centaurea solstitialis, and is often moved
        > around with Megachile rotundata pollinator tubes.
        > A Megachile concinna 1940. Africa. West Indies, Mexico, throughout the
        > southern U.S.
        > A Megachile ericetorum 2000. Europe, Near East, China. One recent record
        > from southern Ontario.
        > A Megachile lanata 1700-1800. India and China. Introduced into the West
        > Indies and northern South America where it possibly made its way
        > secondarily to Florida. Found throughout much of Florida but not likely
        > to spread farther unless it is brought to the southwestern deserts.
        > A Megachile rotundata 1920-1940. Europe to China. Throughout North
        > America to northern Mexico. Available commercially, used in alfalfa seed
        > production.
        > A Megachile sculpturalis 1990. Far eastern China, Korea, Japan. Eastern
        > and central U.S. and southern Canada. May move throughout the continent
        > as they use widely planted, introduced summer blooming leguminous trees
        > and shrubs.
        > A Osmia caerulescens 1800s. Europe, North Africa. Near East, India.
        > Northeastern and Northcentral U.S. and southern Canada. Appears to be less
        > common than it once was, at least towards the south. No recent records
        > for the mid-Atlantic area despite a great deal of collecting, but still
        > common in upstate New York.
        > I Osmia cornifrons 1960. Eastern China, Korea, and Japan. Introduced to
        > pollinate tree fruit crops. Feral populations established in the
        > Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern U.S. Available commercially.
        > I Osmia cornuta 1980. Europe, North Africa, Near East. Introduced as a
        > pollinator of tree fruit crops in California, but its establishment has
        > not been documented.
        > A Osmia taurus 2000. Eastern China, Japan. Mid-Atlantic area and
        > Appalachian Mountains. Males in particular are very similar to O.
        > cornifrons and may be confused. Appears to be rapidly spreading and often
        > abundant.
        > A Pseudoanthidium sp. 2000. Currently the exact name has not been
        > ascertained, however, it appears to be the common European species.
        > Currently found in Baltimore and another urban area on the East Coast. So
        > far only found in the most industrial, disturbed, and urban sites.

        --
        John S. Ascher, Ph.D.
        Bee Database Project Manager
        Division of Invertebrate Zoology
        American Museum of Natural History
        Central Park West @ 79th St.
        New York, NY 10024-5192
        work phone: 212-496-3447
        mobile phone: 917-407-0378


      • John S. Ascher
        Hi Cory, I agree that we should barcode these specimens and any other interesting bee specimens as quickly as possible for the reasons you mention and others,
        Message 3 of 5 , Sep 3, 2010
        • 0 Attachment
          Hi Cory,

          I agree that we should barcode these specimens and any other interesting
          bee specimens as quickly as possible for the reasons you mention and
          others, especially if the DNA extraction can then be made available for
          studies of nuclear DNA other molecular markers. To this end I will be very
          happy to include available samples in my next batch of AMNH material for
          inclusion in BEE-BOL (please advise about when and how to send this).

          Now that foreign species from all over the globe are arriving at an
          unprecedented pace we urgently need improved reference collections from
          source areas of "our" exotic species (potentially these could come from
          almost anywhere, but areas of recently expanded trade could be
          priorities). Therefore we should support additional collecting of
          molecular grade bee specimens, particularly from type localities when
          feasible, from under-collected areas such as North Africa, Central Asia,
          the Caucasus, etc. Existing and pending barcode databases of European
          species will not suffice.

          John


          > Hello all,
          >
          > It would be nice to barcode these specimens! As the number of bee species
          > barcoded from all over the world increases, these specimens may correspond
          > to
          > things in BOLD. In essence, for problematic species (or even undescribed
          > species) from around the globe, getting species with the same barcode may
          > not
          > only help recognize "foreign" species in North America (one of the
          > promising
          > areas of DNA barcoding), but may also help to pin point the area(s) of
          > origin
          > (for species with a narrow natural distribution). As John correctly
          > points out,
          > some of these new introduced species are coming from areas outside of
          > Europe.
          >
          > All the best,
          > Cory
          >
          > Cory Sheffield, PhD
          > Research Associate
          > Department of Biology
          > York University
          > 4700 Keele Street
          > Toronto, ON
          > Canada
          > M3J 1P3
          >
          >
          >
          >
          > ________________________________
          > From: John S. Ascher <ascher@...>
          > To: Sam Droege <sdroege@...>
          > Cc: beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com
          > Sent: Fri, September 3, 2010 12:51:24 PM
          > Subject: Re: [beemonitoring] Updates for List of Alien Bee Species in
          > North
          > America
          >
          >
          >
          >
          > Sam:
          >
          > Thanks for updating the manual.
          >
          > For the record, please note that the Pseudoanthidium [not
          > "Psuedoanthidium"] was first discovered by Sarah Kornbluth in New Jersey
          > as reported in this news article:
          >
          > http://www.northjersey.com/news/98090334_Meadowlands_bee_variety_has_experts_buzzing.html
          >
          >
          > Sarah also collected an exotic Hylaeus (Prosopis) native to North Africa,
          > leading to its identification (the few previous specimens had been noted
          > as remarkable but not reliably determined).
          >
          > Here is a particularly relevant section of the article [my comments in
          > brackets]:
          >
          > "Two of the specimens [an anthidiine and a masked bee] completely
          > befuddled Kornbluth and [Kim] Russell, so they turned for help to the
          > American Museum of Natural History, which has a global bee collection of
          > 7,000 species. With aid from experts in Europe [Max Schwarz and Holger
          > Dathe respectively], they were able to tentatively identify one species as
          > a European thistle bee, black with yellow and orange markings. The other
          > they believe is a North African bee with a yellow face and red tail, and
          > is very obscure, even in its native land. Neither had been recorded in
          > North America before."
          >
          > When Sarah brought in the mysterious Anthidiini "thistle bee" it was
          > clearly a Pseudoanthidium (Pseudoanthidium), a taxon I am familiar with
          > from collecting in Turkey. Although the subgeneric identification was
          > easy, to this day we am having difficulties applying a species name with
          > confidence due to byzantine problems of homonymy (the oldest name is a
          > primary homonym so unavailable), synonymy (multiple published synonymies
          > are now believed to be inaccurate or at least unverified), species
          > concepts (multiple "subspecies" are involved), and typification (some of
          > the oldest names have types not studied by modern workers). Terry Griswold
          > and I are collaborating with the great European expert Max Schwarz in an
          > effort to solve these problems.
          >
          > Subsequently, Kevin Matteson collected an additional specimen of this
          > "thistle bee" in New York City, and most recently Sam Droege sent an
          > additional report from his region.
          >
          > Sarah's Pseudoanthidium discovery is particularly significant because this
          > species has no North American congeners (i.e. there are no native species
          > in the same genus) whereas the many other introduced bees have congeners
          > (close relatives) in North America. This map shows the native range of
          > Pseudoanthidium:
          > www.discoverlife.edu/mp/20m?kind=Pseudoanthidium
          >
          > Specimens of the second "North African bee with a yellow face and red
          > tail" was first collected a decade or more ago Mary Yurlina and Parker
          > Gambino. They were sent to the late Roy Snelling who recognized them as
          > different from the North American species he had revised, and therefore as
          > potentially a new species. At least one specimen of this species was
          > erroneously det. by another bee specialist as a North American species,
          > but upon inspection of these specimens and the one collected more recently
          > by Sarah I recognized them as exotic and related to but certainly distinct
          > from the well known Hylaeus (Prosopis) variegatus. The variegatus species
          > group is exclusively Palearctic so I mailed specimens to Prof. Holger
          > Dathe of Germany, the expert on Palearctic Hylaeus, who confirmed that the
          > specimens belonged in the Hylaeus (Prosopis) variegatus species group (not
          > species). The specific identification is not entirely clear because the
          > specimens do not match any well known Palearctic species and instead
          > appear to be conspecific with a very obscure North African species known
          > more or less only from sparse type material. Original taxonomic work will
          > be required before we can fully verify the name and publish the record.
          >
          > Given the rapid pace of discovery of introduced species in areas where I
          > have lived recently, i.e. the Ithaca and NYC vicinities, I can only
          > speculate how many species have arrived where few or no bee specialists
          > reside and remain undetected.
          >
          > I think it noteworthy that these recent discoveries have been of
          > taxonomically problematic species absent from England and Scandinavia,
          > whereas most early introductions were of very well known northern European
          > species.
          >
          > John
          >
          >> All:
          >>
          >> We are revising the Handy Bee Manual and have added L. zonulum and a
          >> Psuedoanthidium sp. to the list of North American Alien bees. Are there
          >> other bee species that need to be added? Does any of the information
          >> presented below need to be updated or changed? Many thanks.
          >>
          >> sam
          >>
          >> Sam Droege sdroege@...
          >> w 301-497-5840 h 301-390-7759 fax 301-497-5624
          >> USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center
          >> BARC-EAST, BLDG 308, RM 124 10300 Balt. Ave., Beltsville, MD 20705
          >> Http://www.pwrc.usgs.gov
          >>
          >> The sun, too, shines into cesspools and is not polluted.--Diogenes
          >> Laertius: Lib. vi. sect. 63.
          >>
          >>
          >> North American (North of Mexico) Introduced and Alien Bee Species
          >>
          >> Information on distributions and status come from the literature, active
          >> North American collectors, online collection data available via the
          >> global
          >> mapper on www.discoverlife.org, and John Ascher?s compilation of
          >> distributional data. Thanks for the contributions from Mike Arduser,
          >> John Ascher, Rob Jean, Jack Neff, Cory Sheffield, Robbin Thorp.
          >>
          >> Updated: September 2010
          >>
          >> Account Layout: I = purposely introduced, A = accidental introduction
          >> or
          >> possibly natural colonization (although this would be unlikely for
          >> most),
          >> Genus, Species, Decade of Establishment, Probable Source Population,
          >> Current Status in North America north of Mexico
          >>
          >> Apidae
          >>
          >> I Apis mellifera 1620. Europe, Mediterranean region. Feral colonies
          >> present throughout North America. Colony numbers and persistence
          >> recently
          >> have declined following the introduction of parasitic mites in the 1980s
          >> and 1990s.
          >> I Anthophora plumipes 1980. Europe and southern China. Introduced at
          >> the USDA Beltsville, MD Honey Bee Laboratory. Numbers were initially
          >> low,
          >> but this species is now found commonly in early spring throughout the
          >> Washington D.C. metropolitan area where it nests in the ground under
          >> porches or in the dirt of uprooted trees and frequents planted azaleas
          >> and
          >> other garden flowers. Has the potential to spread throughout North
          >> America.
          >> A Ceratina cobaltina 1970. Mexico. While it is possible this is simply a
          >> disjunct Texas population, specimens for this distinctive Mexican
          >> species
          >> were only recently discovered in Travis and Hidalgo counties.
          >> A Ceratina dallatoreana 1940. Mediterranean region. Central California.
          >> I Ceratina smaragdula 1960. Pakistan, India, SE Asia. Introduced into
          >> California but not found since its introduction.
          >> A Centris nitida 2000. Southwestern U.S., Texas, Mexico, Central
          >> America
          >> and Northwestern South America. Recently discovered in southern
          >> Florida.
          >> Not expected to spread outside of Florida.
          >> A Euglossa viridissima 2000. Mexico and Central America. Recently
          >> discovered in southern Florida. Currently found only on the eastern
          >> side
          >> of the state. Expected to spread to the western side but not invade much
          >> further north.
          >> A Xylocopa tabaniformis parkinsoniae Recent. South Texas. Recently
          >> appears to have left its historical haunts along the Rio Grande and now
          >> found commonly in urban areas of Central Texas, perhaps translocated
          >> there
          >> via firewood, but possibly colonized naturally.
          >>
          >> Andrenidae
          >>
          >> A Andrena wilkella 1900s. Europe and northern Asia. Common throughout
          >> the north central and northeastern U.S. and southern Canada.
          >>
          >> Colletidae
          >>
          >> A Hylaeus leptocephalus 1900. Europe. Found throughout the U.S. and
          >> southern Canada. Particularly associated with gardens, urban and
          >> disturbed sites. Often found on Melilotus.
          >> A Hylaeus hyalinatus 1990. Europe. Currently found in urban areas from
          >> New York City, southern Ontario, New Jersey, Pennslyvania. Has
          >> potential
          >> to spread throughout North America.
          >> A Hylaeus punctatus 1980. Europe. Currently found in central
          >> California,
          >> southern South America, New York City, Washington D.C. Has potential to
          >> spread throughout North America
          >>
          >> Halictidae
          >>
          >> A Lasioglossum eleutherense 1990. Bahamas and Cuba. Four individuals
          >> found in the University of Miami Arboretum. Current status unknown.
          >> Not
          >> expected to spread out of Florida.
          >> A Lasioglossum leucozonium 1900s. Europe and northern China. Despite
          >> its
          >> extensive range in Europe and Asia it is limited to the northern areas
          >> of
          >> central and eastern U.S. and southern Canada.
          >> A Halictus tectus 2000. Southern Europe to Mongolia. Known from 3
          >> sites:
          >> downtown Philadelphia, PA, Baltimore, MD and Beltsville, MD. Appears to
          >> prefer highly disturbed sites with European weeds.
          >> A Lasioglossum zonulum ?. Europe and SE China. A species similar to L.
          >> leucozonium. Recently thought to possibly be an introduced rather than
          >> native species. Records in North America go back many years
          >>
          >> Megachilidae
          >>
          >> A Anthidium manicatum 1960. Europe, North Africa, Near East, South
          >> Central and South Eastern South America. Currently found predominantly
          >> in
          >> northeastern U.S. and southern Canada, however, individuals have shown
          >> up
          >> in the central states, Idaho, and on the West Coast where it is well
          >> established in California. Likely to spread throughout North America.
          >> Associated with large urban and suburban gardens, particularly planted
          >> with Stachys.
          >> A Anthidium oblongatum 1990. Europe and the Near East. Currently
          >> common
          >> in northeastern U.S. and southern Canada and moving into the central
          >> states and provinces. Found in most open habitats. Has potential to
          >> spread throughout North America.
          >> A Chelostoma campanularum 1960. Europe and the Near East. Found in
          >> Upstate New York, Connecticut, and southern Ontario. Has potential to
          >> spread throughout North America.
          >> A Chelostoma rapunculi 1960. Europe and the Near East. Found in
          >> Upstate
          >> New York and southern Ontario. Has potential to spread throughout North
          >> America.
          >> A Coelioxys coturnix 2000. Southwestern Europe, North Africa, India.
          >> Currently found in the Baltimore-Washington D.C. corridor. Has
          >> potential
          >> to spread throughout the range of Megachile rotundata (its presumed
          >> host).
          >> A Hoplitis anthocopoides 1960. Europe. Found from West Virginia to
          >> southern Ontario. Potential spread perhaps limited to the range of its
          >> reported preferred pollen source, Viper?s Bugloss (Echium vulgare).
          >> A Lithurgus chrysurus 1970. Europe, Near East, North Africa. Found only
          >> in the Phillipsburg, New Jersey are and a 50 mile radius in Pennsylvania
          >> and New Jersey. Until 2007 there were no recent records, but perhaps
          >> due
          >> to nobody making an effort to look. Apparently oligolectic on Spotted
          >> Knapweed (Centaurea maculosa) and burrows into wood to make a nest.
          >> This
          >> species has the potential to be much more destructive than Xylocopa
          >> virginica.
          >> A Megachile apicalis 1930. Europe, North Africa, Near and Middle East.
          >> Western and eastern U.S. Relatively few records in the East but
          >> widespread in California and parts of the Pacific Northwest where it
          >> specializes on star-thistle Centaurea solstitialis, and is often moved
          >> around with Megachile rotundata pollinator tubes.
          >> A Megachile concinna 1940. Africa. West Indies, Mexico, throughout the
          >> southern U.S.
          >> A Megachile ericetorum 2000. Europe, Near East, China. One recent
          >> record
          >> from southern Ontario.
          >> A Megachile lanata 1700-1800. India and China. Introduced into the
          >> West
          >> Indies and northern South America where it possibly made its way
          >> secondarily to Florida. Found throughout much of Florida but not likely
          >> to spread farther unless it is brought to the southwestern deserts.
          >> A Megachile rotundata 1920-1940. Europe to China. Throughout North
          >> America to northern Mexico. Available commercially, used in alfalfa
          >> seed
          >> production.
          >> A Megachile sculpturalis 1990. Far eastern China, Korea, Japan.
          >> Eastern
          >> and central U.S. and southern Canada. May move throughout the continent
          >> as they use widely planted, introduced summer blooming leguminous trees
          >> and shrubs.
          >> A Osmia caerulescens 1800s. Europe, North Africa. Near East, India.
          >> Northeastern and Northcentral U.S. and southern Canada. Appears to be
          >> less
          >> common than it once was, at least towards the south. No recent records
          >> for the mid-Atlantic area despite a great deal of collecting, but still
          >> common in upstate New York.
          >> I Osmia cornifrons 1960. Eastern China, Korea, and Japan. Introduced
          >> to
          >> pollinate tree fruit crops. Feral populations established in the
          >> Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern U.S. Available commercially.
          >> I Osmia cornuta 1980. Europe, North Africa, Near East. Introduced as a
          >> pollinator of tree fruit crops in California, but its establishment has
          >> not been documented.
          >> A Osmia taurus 2000. Eastern China, Japan. Mid-Atlantic area and
          >> Appalachian Mountains. Males in particular are very similar to O.
          >> cornifrons and may be confused. Appears to be rapidly spreading and
          >> often
          >> abundant.
          >> A Pseudoanthidium sp. 2000. Currently the exact name has not been
          >> ascertained, however, it appears to be the common European species.
          >> Currently found in Baltimore and another urban area on the East Coast.
          >> So
          >> far only found in the most industrial, disturbed, and urban sites.
          >
          > --
          > John S. Ascher, Ph.D.
          > Bee Database Project Manager
          > Division of Invertebrate Zoology
          > American Museum of Natural History
          > Central Park West @ 79th St.
          > New York, NY 10024-5192
          > work phone: 212-496-3447
          > mobile phone: 917-407-0378
          >
          >
          >
          >
          >


          --
          John S. Ascher, Ph.D.
          Bee Database Project Manager
          Division of Invertebrate Zoology
          American Museum of Natural History
          Central Park West @ 79th St.
          New York, NY 10024-5192
          work phone: 212-496-3447
          mobile phone: 917-407-0378
        • Laurence Packer
          Greetings At present, capacity for us to deal with barcoding bees is likely to soon decrease substantially.  I may have a few months of full time funds left
          Message 4 of 5 , Sep 3, 2010
          • 0 Attachment
            Greetings
             
            At present, capacity for us to deal with barcoding bees is likely to soon decrease substantially.  I may have a few months of full time funds left (I need to do some budgetary calculations, but this is impossible until the university replies to some requests about news for small amounts of money to help me pay undergraduates to work for 10 hours a week on such things).  I expect to have 10-20 hours of undergraduate part-time assistance indefinitely, but this would not suffice for all the requests we are getting - these are getting to be nicely substantial, but without an infusion of funds from somewhere, we will soon not be able to deal with them all.  As is the case in other situations, the people with money are interested only in the dna, despite years of arguing, barcoding's main funder will give no money for people to pull legs from bees, let alone storage and identification costs!  I have been doing this from funds from the canadian grant that are now almost exhausted.  I have subsidised the barcoding enterprise from funds that were meant to be for other purposes, but soon will not  be able to do so because costs charged to me per non-scholarship graduate student for stipends increased by a factor of 4 this month!
             
            I have several potential solutions, but for the time being, if there's anything of great interest to any of you that needs a barcode, it would be best to get it sent asap!
             
            cheers
             
            laurence


            From: John S. Ascher <ascher@...>
            To: Cory Sheffield <corysheffield@...>
            Cc: John <ascher@...>; Sam Droege <sdroege@...>; Laurence Packer <laurencepacker@...>; beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com
            Sent: Fri, September 3, 2010 2:03:14 PM
            Subject: Re: [beemonitoring] Updates for List of Alien Bee Species in North America



            Hi Cory,

            I agree that we should barcode these specimens and any other interesting
            bee specimens as quickly as possible for the reasons you mention and
            others, especially if the DNA extraction can then be made available for
            studies of nuclear DNA other molecular markers. To this end I will be very
            happy to include available samples in my next batch of AMNH material for
            inclusion in BEE-BOL (please advise about when and how to send this).

            Now that foreign species from all over the globe are arriving at an
            unprecedented pace we urgently need improved reference collections from
            source areas of "our" exotic species (potentially these could come from
            almost anywhere, but areas of recently expanded trade could be
            priorities). Therefore we should support additional collecting of
            molecular grade bee specimens, particularly from type localities when
            feasible, from under-collected areas such as North Africa, Central Asia,
            the Caucasus, etc. Existing and pending barcode databases of European
            species will not suffice.

            John


            > Hello all,
            >
            > It would be nice to barcode these specimens!  As the number of bee species
            > barcoded from all over the world increases, these specimens may correspond
            >
            to
            > things in BOLD.  In essence, for problematic species (or even undescribed
            > species) from around the globe, getting species with the same barcode may
            > not
            > only help recognize "foreign" species in North America (one of the
            > promising
            > areas of DNA barcoding), but may also help to pin point the area(s) of
            > origin
            > (for species with a narrow natural distribution).  As John correctly
            > points out,
            > some of these new introduced species are coming from areas outside of
            > Europe.
            >
            > All the best,
            > Cory
            >
            >  Cory Sheffield, PhD
            > Research Associate
            > Department of Biology
            > York University
            > 4700 Keele Street
            > Toronto, ON
            > Canada
            > M3J 1P3
            >
            >
            >
            >
            > ________________________________
            > From: John S. Ascher <
            ymailto="mailto:ascher@...">ascher@...>
            > To: Sam Droege <sdroege@...>
            > Cc: beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com
            > Sent: Fri, September 3, 2010 12:51:24 PM
            > Subject: Re: [beemonitoring] Updates for List of Alien Bee Species in
            > North
            > America
            >
            >
            >
            >
            > Sam:
            >
            > Thanks for updating the manual.
            >
            > For the record, please note that the Pseudoanthidium [not
            > "Psuedoanthidium"] was first discovered by Sarah Kornbluth in New Jersey
            > as reported in this news article:
            >
            >
            target=_blank>http://www.northjersey.com/news/98090334_Meadowlands_bee_variety_has_experts_buzzing.html
            >
            >
            > Sarah also collected an exotic Hylaeus (Prosopis) native to North Africa,
            > leading to its identification (the few previous specimens had been noted
            > as remarkable but not reliably determined).
            >
            > Here is a particularly relevant section of the article [my comments in
            > brackets]:
            >
            > "Two of the specimens [an anthidiine and a masked bee] completely
            > befuddled Kornbluth and [Kim] Russell, so they turned for help to the
            > American Museum of Natural History, which has a global bee collection of
            > 7,000 species. With aid from experts in Europe [Max Schwarz and Holger
            > Dathe respectively], they were able to tentatively identify one species as
            > a European thistle bee, black with yellow and orange markings. The other
            > they believe is a North
            African bee with a yellow face and red tail, and
            > is very obscure, even in its native land. Neither had been recorded in
            > North America before."
            >
            > When Sarah brought in the mysterious Anthidiini "thistle bee" it was
            > clearly a Pseudoanthidium (Pseudoanthidium), a taxon I am familiar with
            > from collecting in Turkey. Although the subgeneric identification was
            > easy, to this day we am having difficulties applying a species name with
            > confidence due to byzantine problems of homonymy (the oldest name is a
            > primary homonym so unavailable), synonymy (multiple published synonymies
            > are now believed to be inaccurate or at least unverified), species
            > concepts (multiple "subspecies" are involved), and typification (some of
            > the oldest names have types not studied by modern workers). Terry Griswold
            > and I are collaborating with the great European expert Max Schwarz in
            an
            > effort to solve these problems.
            >
            > Subsequently, Kevin Matteson collected an additional specimen of this
            > "thistle bee" in New York City, and most recently Sam Droege sent an
            > additional report from his region.
            >
            > Sarah's Pseudoanthidium discovery is particularly significant because this
            > species has no North American congeners (i.e. there are no native species
            > in the same genus) whereas the many other introduced bees have congeners
            > (close relatives) in North America. This map shows the native range of
            > Pseudoanthidium:
            > www.discoverlife.edu/mp/20m?kind=Pseudoanthidium
            >
            > Specimens of the second "North African bee with a yellow face and red
            > tail" was first collected a decade or more ago Mary Yurlina and Parker
            > Gambino. They were sent to the late Roy Snelling who recognized them as
            > different from the North American species he had
            revised, and therefore as
            > potentially a new species. At least one specimen of this species was
            > erroneously det. by another bee specialist as a North American species,
            > but upon inspection of these specimens and the one collected more recently
            > by Sarah I recognized them as exotic and related to but certainly distinct
            > from the well known Hylaeus (Prosopis) variegatus. The variegatus species
            > group is exclusively Palearctic so I mailed specimens to Prof. Holger
            > Dathe of Germany, the expert on Palearctic Hylaeus, who confirmed that the
            > specimens belonged in the Hylaeus (Prosopis) variegatus species group (not
            > species). The specific identification is not entirely clear because the
            > specimens do not match any well known Palearctic species and instead
            > appear to be conspecific with a very obscure North African species known
            > more or less only from sparse type material.
            Original taxonomic work will
            > be required before we can fully verify the name and publish the record.
            >
            > Given the rapid pace of discovery of introduced species in areas where I
            > have lived recently, i.e. the Ithaca and NYC vicinities, I can only
            > speculate how many species have arrived where few or no bee specialists
            > reside and remain undetected.
            >
            > I think it noteworthy that these recent discoveries have been of
            > taxonomically problematic species absent from England and Scandinavia,
            > whereas most early introductions were of very well known northern European
            > species.
            >
            > John
            >
            >> All:
            >>
            >> We are revising the Handy Bee Manual and have added L. zonulum and a
            >> Psuedoanthidium sp. to the list of North American Alien bees.  Are there
            >> other bee species that need to be added?  Does any of the
            information
            >> presented below need to be updated or changed?  Many thanks.
            >>
            >> sam
            >>
            >> Sam Droege sdroege@...
            >> w 301-497-5840 h 301-390-7759 fax 301-497-5624
            >> USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center
            >> BARC-EAST, BLDG 308, RM 124 10300 Balt. Ave., Beltsville, MD  20705
            >> Http://www.pwrc.usgs.gov
            >>
            >> The sun, too, shines into cesspools and is not polluted.--Diogenes
            >> Laertius: Lib. vi. sect. 63.
            >>
            >>
            >> North American (North of Mexico) Introduced and Alien Bee Species
            >>
            >> Information on distributions and status come from the literature, active
            >> North American collectors, online collection data available via the
            >>
            global
            >> mapper on www.discoverlife.org, and John Ascher?s compilation of
            >> distributional data.  Thanks for the contributions from Mike Arduser,
            >> John Ascher, Rob Jean, Jack Neff, Cory Sheffield, Robbin Thorp.
            >>
            >> Updated: September 2010
            >>
            >> Account Layout:  I = purposely introduced, A = accidental introduction
            >> or
            >> possibly natural colonization (although this would be unlikely for
            >> most),
            >> Genus, Species, Decade of Establishment, Probable Source Population,
            >> Current Status in North America north of Mexico
            >>
            >> Apidae
            >>
            >> I Apis mellifera  1620.  Europe, Mediterranean region.  Feral colonies
            >> present throughout North America.  Colony numbers and persistence
            >> recently
            >> have declined following the introduction of parasitic mites
            in the 1980s
            >> and 1990s.
            >> I Anthophora plumipes  1980.  Europe and southern China.  Introduced at
            >> the USDA Beltsville, MD Honey Bee Laboratory.  Numbers were initially
            >> low,
            >> but this species is now found commonly in early spring throughout the
            >> Washington D.C. metropolitan area where it nests in the ground under
            >> porches or in the dirt of uprooted trees and frequents planted azaleas
            >> and
            >> other garden flowers.  Has the potential to spread throughout North
            >> America.
            >> A Ceratina cobaltina 1970. Mexico. While it is possible this is simply a
            >> disjunct Texas population, specimens for this distinctive Mexican
            >> species
            >> were only recently discovered in Travis and Hidalgo counties.
            >> A Ceratina dallatoreana 1940. Mediterranean region.  Central California.
            >> I
            Ceratina smaragdula 1960.  Pakistan, India, SE Asia.  Introduced into
            >> California but not found since its introduction.
            >> A Centris nitida 2000.  Southwestern U.S., Texas, Mexico, Central
            >> America
            >> and Northwestern South America.  Recently discovered in southern
            >> Florida.
            >>  Not expected to spread outside of Florida.
            >> A Euglossa viridissima 2000. Mexico and Central America.  Recently
            >> discovered in southern Florida.  Currently found only on the eastern
            >> side
            >> of the state. Expected to spread to the western side but not invade much
            >> further north.
            >> A Xylocopa tabaniformis parkinsoniae Recent.  South Texas.  Recently
            >> appears to have left its historical haunts along the Rio Grande and now
            >> found commonly in urban areas of Central Texas, perhaps
            translocated
            >> there
            >> via firewood, but possibly colonized naturally.
            >>
            >> Andrenidae
            >>
            >> A Andrena wilkella 1900s.  Europe and northern Asia.  Common throughout
            >> the north central and northeastern U.S. and southern Canada.
            >>
            >> Colletidae
            >>
            >> A Hylaeus leptocephalus 1900.  Europe.  Found throughout the U.S. and
            >> southern Canada.  Particularly associated with gardens, urban and
            >> disturbed sites.  Often found on Melilotus.
            >> A Hylaeus hyalinatus 1990. Europe.  Currently found in urban areas from
            >> New York City, southern Ontario, New Jersey, Pennslyvania.  Has
            >> potential
            >> to spread throughout North America.
            >> A Hylaeus punctatus 1980.  Europe.  Currently found in central
            >> California,
            >> southern South
            America, New York City, Washington D.C.  Has potential to
            >> spread throughout North America
            >>
            >> Halictidae
            >>
            >> A Lasioglossum eleutherense 1990.  Bahamas and Cuba.  Four individuals
            >> found in the University of Miami Arboretum.  Current status unknown.
            >> Not
            >> expected to spread out of Florida.
            >> A Lasioglossum leucozonium 1900s.  Europe and northern China.  Despite
            >> its
            >> extensive range in Europe and Asia it is limited to the northern areas
            >> of
            >> central and eastern U.S. and southern Canada.
            >> A Halictus tectus 2000.  Southern Europe to Mongolia.  Known from 3
            >> sites:
            >> downtown Philadelphia, PA, Baltimore, MD and Beltsville, MD.  Appears to
            >> prefer highly disturbed sites with European weeds.
            >> A Lasioglossum zonulum ?. 
            Europe and SE China.  A species similar to L.
            >> leucozonium. Recently thought to possibly be an introduced rather than
            >> native species.  Records in North America go back many years
            >>
            >>  Megachilidae
            >>
            >> A Anthidium manicatum 1960.  Europe, North Africa, Near East, South
            >> Central and South Eastern South America.  Currently found predominantly
            >> in
            >> northeastern U.S. and southern Canada, however, individuals have shown
            >> up
            >> in the central states, Idaho, and on the West Coast where it is well
            >> established in California.  Likely to spread throughout North America.
            >> Associated with large urban and suburban gardens, particularly planted
            >> with Stachys.
            >> A Anthidium oblongatum 1990.  Europe and the Near East.  Currently
            >> common
            >> in northeastern
            U.S. and southern Canada and moving into the central
            >> states and provinces.  Found in most open habitats.  Has potential to
            >> spread throughout North America.
            >> A Chelostoma campanularum 1960.  Europe and the Near East.  Found in
            >> Upstate New York, Connecticut, and southern Ontario. Has potential to
            >> spread throughout North America.
            >> A Chelostoma rapunculi 1960.  Europe and the Near East.  Found in
            >> Upstate
            >> New York and southern Ontario. Has potential to spread throughout North
            >> America.
            >> A Coelioxys coturnix 2000.  Southwestern Europe, North Africa, India.
            >> Currently found in the Baltimore-Washington D.C. corridor.  Has
            >> potential
            >> to spread throughout the range of Megachile rotundata (its presumed
            >> host).
            >> A Hoplitis anthocopoides 1960. 
            Europe.  Found from West Virginia to
            >> southern Ontario.  Potential spread perhaps limited to the range of its
            >> reported preferred pollen source, Viper?s Bugloss (Echium vulgare).
            >> A Lithurgus chrysurus 1970.  Europe, Near East, North Africa. Found only
            >> in the Phillipsburg, New Jersey are and a 50 mile radius in Pennsylvania
            >> and New Jersey.  Until 2007 there were no recent records, but perhaps
            >> due
            >> to nobody making an effort to look. Apparently oligolectic on Spotted
            >> Knapweed (Centaurea maculosa) and burrows into wood to make a nest.
            >> This
            >> species has the potential to be much more destructive than Xylocopa
            >> virginica.
            >> A Megachile apicalis 1930.  Europe, North Africa, Near and Middle East.
            >> Western and eastern U.S.  Relatively few records in the East but
            >> widespread in
            California and parts of the Pacific Northwest where it
            >> specializes on star-thistle Centaurea solstitialis, and is often moved
            >> around with Megachile rotundata pollinator tubes.
            >> A Megachile concinna 1940.  Africa.  West Indies, Mexico, throughout the
            >> southern U.S.
            >> A Megachile ericetorum 2000.  Europe, Near East, China.  One recent
            >> record
            >> from southern Ontario.
            >> A Megachile lanata 1700-1800.  India and China.  Introduced into the
            >> West
            >> Indies and northern South America where it possibly made its way
            >> secondarily to Florida.  Found throughout much of Florida but not likely
            >> to spread farther unless it is brought to the southwestern deserts.
            >> A Megachile rotundata 1920-1940.  Europe to China.  Throughout North
            >> America to northern Mexico.  Available
            commercially, used in alfalfa
            >> seed
            >> production.
            >> A Megachile sculpturalis 1990.  Far eastern China, Korea, Japan.
            >> Eastern
            >> and central U.S. and southern Canada.  May move throughout the continent
            >> as they use widely planted, introduced summer blooming leguminous trees
            >> and shrubs.
            >> A Osmia caerulescens 1800s.  Europe, North Africa. Near East, India.
            >> Northeastern and Northcentral U.S. and southern Canada. Appears to be
            >> less
            >> common than it once was, at least towards the south.  No recent records
            >> for the mid-Atlantic area despite a great deal of collecting, but still
            >> common in upstate New York.
            >> I Osmia cornifrons 1960.  Eastern China, Korea, and Japan.  Introduced
            >> to
            >> pollinate tree fruit crops.  Feral populations established in
            the
            >> Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern U.S.  Available commercially.
            >> I Osmia cornuta 1980.  Europe, North Africa, Near East.  Introduced as a
            >> pollinator of tree fruit crops in California, but its establishment has
            >> not been documented.
            >> A Osmia taurus 2000.  Eastern China, Japan.  Mid-Atlantic area and
            >> Appalachian Mountains.  Males in particular are very similar to O.
            >> cornifrons and may be confused.  Appears to be rapidly spreading and
            >> often
            >> abundant.
            >> A Pseudoanthidium sp. 2000.  Currently the exact name has not been
            >> ascertained, however, it appears to be the common European species.
            >> Currently found in Baltimore and another urban area on the East Coast.
            >> So
            >> far only found in the most industrial, disturbed, and urban sites.
            >
            > --
            > John S.
            Ascher, Ph.D.
            > Bee Database Project Manager
            > Division of Invertebrate Zoology
            > American Museum of Natural History
            > Central Park West @ 79th St.
            > New York, NY 10024-5192
            > work phone: 212-496-3447
            > mobile phone: 917-407-0378
            >
            >
            >
            >
            >


            --
            John S. Ascher, Ph.D.
            Bee Database Project Manager
            Division of Invertebrate Zoology
            American Museum of Natural History
            Central Park West @ 79th St.
            New York, NY 10024-5192
            work phone: 212-496-3447
            mobile phone: 917-407-0378


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