L. zonulum and L. leucozonium belong to the palearctic leucozonium species
group of Lasioglossum sensu stricto as demonstrated by the morphological
phylogeny of Ron McGinley, and later by DNA phylogenies such as that of
Danforth and Ji, 2001
. See also the
European literature by authors such as Ebmer (e.g., 1987). Unlike
naturally holarctic species such as L. rufitarse, both L. zonulum and L.
leucozonium are absent from Alaska, the Yukon, and NWT (see maps in
McGinley, 1986). This evidence, rather than any population genetic data,
was the original basis for my hypothesis, published in Bees of the Black
Rock Forest Preserve, New York (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) (Giles, V., and J.
S. Ascher. 2006. Journal of Hymenoptera Research 15(2): 208-231), that
these two species are introduced from Europe rather than native to North
America. This paper was also the source of the hypothesis, as yet not
adequately tested, that Megachile centuncularis may also have been
introduced to North America long ago.
In the same year, Zayed (2006)
microsatellite loci of Lasioglossum leucozonium without mentioning
anything about it being introduced to North America.
A later Zayed et al paper in PLoS ONE (2007)
entitled "Successful Biological Invasion despite a Severe Genetic Load"
provided additional evidence that Lasioglossum leucozonium was introduced.
This paper cited Giles and Ascher (2006) as the first citation of its
status as an introduced species: "Until recently, this bee was commonly
considered native to NA ".
To my knowledge no population genenetic work on L. zonulum has been
published yet, but DNA sequences in Genbank (which include those from
Bryan Danforth's phylogenetic studies [e.g., AF264846 from France,
AF264847 from NY, published in Danforth and Ji, 2001, and now perhaps
others) and barcodes in BOLD may be informative.
The list of North American Introduced bee species in the Handy Bee Manual
and in all published sources is now significantly incomplete for various
reasons, most notably the fact that we keep finding new records of
introduced species faster than we can publish them.
> Hello all,
> I have been working on The bees of Indiana (almost finished) and I was
> if anyone had any information on whether Lasioglossum zonulum was an
> species or simply holarctic. Wolf and Ascher list it as introduced in
> of Wisconsin but I have seen no literature otherwise that would confirm
> it does not appear on the list of North American Introduced bee species
> the Handy Bee Manual. I have seen the Zayed et al paper on Lasioglossum
leucozonium using DNA evidence but was hoping someone might know about
> zonulum. Any thoughts would be appreciated.
> Rob Jean
> Indiana State University
> Terre Haute, IN
John S. Ascher, Ph.D.
Bee Database Project Manager
Division of Invertebrate Zoology
American Museum of Natural History
Central Park West @ 79th St.
New York, NY 10024-5192
work phone: 212-496-3447
mobile phone: 917-407-0378