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3481Origin-Evolution Apis?

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  • Peter Bernhardt
    Aug 8, 2014
      Would someone please send me the full citation for a standard reference on the origin and biogeography of the genus Apis?  A colleague in Yunnan China is writing a very good review comparing traditional culture of the native Apis cerana to introduced A. mellifera in Yunnan.  The commercial A. mellifera was not introduced to China wholesale until the second half of the 19th century.  My colleague is trying to verify two points.

      1) Subtropical-tropical Asia remains the center of diversity for the genus Apis even though the pre-domesticated distribution of A. mellifera is Eurasian-African.

      2)  Southeastern Asia is most likely the center of origin for this genus but are there any fossil record of Apis from southern China southwards into the Asian paleotropics?

      What is the up-to-date literature on these interrelated topics?