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3081RE: [beemonitoring] Anesthetization of bees for identification

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  • Weber, Don
    Dec 6, 2013
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      Thank you David for this nice set of citations.  I wish that those working with ALL insects using CO2, in particular with undefined durations and concentrations, would be cognizant of the potentially radical effects, especially for behavioral studies.

      The title of the first one puzzled me; The journal citation is correct, but the title should be:
      "Beeinflussung des Gedächtnisses der Honigbiene durch Narkose, Kühlung und Streß."
      = Impact on memories in the honeybee through narcosis, cooling, and stress


      Donald C. Weber, Research Entomologist & Lead Scientist

      USDA Agricultural Research Service

      Invasive Insect Biocontrol & Behavior Laboratory

      Bldg. 011A, Rm. 107, BARC-West Beltsville, MD 20705  USA


      From: beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com [beemonitoring@yahoogroups.com] on behalf of David Inouye [inouye@...]
      Sent: Friday, December 06, 2013 12:34 PM
      To: Bee monitoring Group
      Subject: Re: [beemonitoring] Anesthetization of bees for identification


      Some papers about effects of CO2.


      Beckmann, H. (1974). "Beeinflussung des Gedder Honigbiene durch Narkose, Kund Stress." Journal of Comparative Physiology 94: 249-266.

               Retrograde amnesia occurs if, shortly after training, bees are exposed to supercooling, CO2 narcosis, or to a stress situation caused by captivity. Memory loss was about 50%, and memory was not recovered within 24 hours.

      Ebadi, R., et al. (1980). "Effects of carbon dioxide and low temperature narcosis on honey bees, Apis mellifera." Environmental Entomology 9(1): 144-147.
              Short exposure of < 2 min to pure CO2 or 3 min to -20C did not alter the orientation or return of released foragers to colonies. CO2 treatments of 30, 60, and 120 sec reduced survival and pollen-gathering behavior.

      Hoover, S. E. R., et al. (2012). "Warming, CO2, and nitrogen deposition interactively affect a plant-pollinator mutualism." Ecology Letters 15(3): 227-234.
               Environmental changes threaten plant-pollinator mutualisms and their critical ecosystem service. Drivers such as land use, invasions and climate change can affect pollinator diversity or species encounter rates. However, nitrogen deposition, climate warming and CO2 enrichment could interact to disrupt this crucial mutualism by altering plant chemistry in ways that alter floral attractiveness or even nutritional rewards for pollinators. Using a pumpkin model system, we show that these drivers non-additively affect flower morphology, phenology, flower sex ratios and nectar chemistry (sugar and amino acids), thereby altering the attractiveness of nectar to bumble bee pollinators and reducing worker longevity. Alarmingly, bees were attracted to, and consumed more, nectar from a treatment that reduced their survival by 22%. Thus, three of the five major drivers of global environmental change have previously unknown interactive effects on plant-pollinator mutualisms that could not be predicted from studies of individual drivers in isolation.

      Kukuk, P. F., et al. (1997). "Larval ejection behavior in Bombus occidentalis in response to CO
      2 - or N2 -induced narcosis." Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 70(4): 359-361.

               Previous studies have suggested that CO2 narcosis results in larval ejection by bumble bees. An experiment is described demonstrating that both CO2- and N2-induced narcosis result in chewing of the waxen larval envelope, a distinctive behavior that precedes larval ejection, in the bumble bee, Bombus occidentalis. These observations suggest that a lack of O2 rather than an excess of CO2 may be responsible for the behavioral changes following CO2 narcosis. Although the proximate and ultimate factors leading to larval ejection are not well understood, they could possibly be related to regulation of respiratory gases in the underground burrows of Bombus occidentalis.

      Shalimov, I. I., et al. (1994). "Influence of carbon-dioxide narcotization on bumble bees behaviour." Vestnik Zoologii 28(3): 82-84.
               Narcotization of a bumble bee family with carbon dioxide results in decrease of its foraging activity and increase of food demand, causing energetic balance shift to the negative side.  As a result of starvation, a part of brood is ejected from the nest.

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