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Re: Sensor types

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  • wilf_nv
    Good idea! To provide interchangable sensor modules you can normalize all sensor outputs to proportional voltage outputs which can be compared and then
    Message 1 of 4 , Aug 1, 2007
    • 0 Attachment
      Good idea!

      To provide interchangable sensor modules you can normalize all sensor
      outputs to proportional voltage outputs which can be compared and
      then generate an open or closed "switch" contact.

      For example, use a series load resistor or potentiometer to condition
      resistive sensors such as potentiometers, PDs, thermistors and LDRs
      to generate a voltage output.

      Next use an opamp to compare the sensor voltage output to a reference
      voltage or to another sensor's output voltage. When a sensor output
      is above a threshold or is greater than the output voltage of a
      second sensor the comparator output goes high.

      Each opamp output signal controls two 4066 type analog gates.
      Finally, the analog gate I/O pins connect like simple switch contacts
      to the rest of the robot control circuit to provide signal inversion,
      change time constants, discharge delay capacitors, multiplex control
      signals (for reversersing) or implement wired AND/OR logic gates.

      These modules can be a complete subsystem that can be preconfigured
      and plug interchangably into a protoboard or PCB.

      Here is a suggested form factor and connector layout to make it
      compatible with protoboard or a PCB. I assume standard through hole
      components

      Each sensor module should be 1"x 1" with two IC sockets for mounting
      a LM358 and a CD4066 plus 4 resistors. External connections are made
      two 8 pin connectors made from single inline rows of IC machine
      sockets with 0.1 inch spacing between pins and positioned along the
      top and bottom edges of the module with 0.9 inch spacing between
      rows.

      The top 8 pin connector is used to connect two passive or active
      sensors and two threshold adjustment pots to the (+/-) inputs of the
      dual opamps and also provides pins for Vcc and gnd. The bottom 8 pin
      connector provides 4 independent 4066 switch contacts to be
      connecteted to the main part of the control circuit.

      This allows the module to be plugged into a proto board with the dual
      8 pin machine sockets pins and the socket acting as female input
      connetors or as feedthroughs for external sensors leads and internal
      jumpers for the control output signals.

      The module can be raised up above the protoboard to provide access to
      the hidden contact strips underneath the module by stacking up
      another pair of 8 pin machine sockets on the the two rows of
      connector pins.

      The module circuit does not have to be a standalone daughter board
      but can also be integrated into the main circuit protoboard or PCB if
      desired to interchangably accomodate a wide variety of sensors.

      A standardized sensor subsystem would require more discussion and
      consensus on the internal circuit and connector pin assigment. If a
      common interface is agreed on, it may go some way to creating a line
      of circuit modules that can be connected together to provide plug and
      play capability.

      wilf

      --- In beam@yahoogroups.com, "Mike Robertson" <mikerobe@...> wrote:
      >
      > i need some ideas/schematics for sensors for my new bot....i want
      to have modular types that i can plug and swap to change the function
      of the bot.
      > some i thought of so far are
      > hot/cold
      > light/dark
      > batt full/low
      > edge detect
      > tilt
      > proximity
      > and any other range by ir or emf
      > oh and naturally the default touch switches....but they're
      easy...lol
      >
      > i need them to have high/low outputs to interface with the rest of
      the bot design
      >
      > thanks Mike
      >
      > i dont ask for much do i?? lol
      >
      >
      > ----- Original Message -----
      > From: Jesse
      > To: beam@yahoogroups.com
      > Sent: Tuesday, July 31, 2007 8:14 PM
      > Subject: [beam] Re: how to find capacity of solar cell?
      >
      >
      > hello Bill. (ever seen the movie kill bill? JK)
      >
      > hooking up you meter in series is a way to read current, but you
      must
      > remember that the load determines the current draw, well up to a
      max in
      > this case.(im an electrician and you arent dealing with live
      power
      > here)
      >
      > a way to calculate(someone correct me if need be)the current
      produced
      > is to use I = E/R, which is current equals voltage divided by
      > resistance. the current will be small, say in the miliamp range.
      Step
      > one, measure the resistance of the solar cell. Step two, measure
      the
      > voltage. Step three, do some math: voltaged divided the
      resistance to
      > get the current. Step four, wish you had better solar cells
      hahahahaha
      >
      > peace out
      >
      > Jesse Meers
      > just build it!
      >
      > --- In beam@yahoogroups.com, "Bill" <wjl82871@> wrote:
      > >
      > > Hello,
      > >
      > > I have a few little solar cells laying around. I know how to
      find the
      > > voltage of the cell, but how do I find the amp output? Do I
      need to
      > > make some sort of load and then put the VMM in series with the
      > circuit?
      > >
      > > Thank you for your help and time!
      > >
      >
    • Mike Robertson
      ok.... how bout i start with temp sensor could we use a comparator with a volage divider to set the referance on the negative and a lm335z on the positive or
      Message 2 of 4 , Aug 1, 2007
      • 0 Attachment
        ok....
        how bout i start with temp sensor
        could we use a comparator with a volage divider to set the referance on the negative and a lm335z on the positive
         
        or would a window compartor connected to a flip flop work better...at least with the flip flop you can easily select if you want a high or low output to trigger the bots function
        if that works then simply changing the sensor type and divider should work for different detection types
         
        mike
        ----- Original Message -----
        From: wilf_nv
        Sent: Wednesday, August 01, 2007 12:12 PM
        Subject: [beam] Re: Sensor types

        Good idea!

        To provide interchangable sensor modules you can normalize all sensor
        outputs to proportional voltage outputs which can be compared and
        then generate an open or closed "switch" contact.

        For example, use a series load resistor or potentiometer to condition
        resistive sensors such as potentiometers, PDs, thermistors and LDRs
        to generate a voltage output.

        Next use an opamp to compare the sensor voltage output to a reference
        voltage or to another sensor's output voltage. When a sensor output
        is above a threshold or is greater than the output voltage of a
        second sensor the comparator output goes high.

        Each opamp output signal controls two 4066 type analog gates.
        Finally, the analog gate I/O pins connect like simple switch contacts
        to the rest of the robot control circuit to provide signal inversion,
        change time constants, discharge delay capacitors, multiplex control
        signals (for reversersing) or implement wired AND/OR logic gates.

        These modules can be a complete subsystem that can be preconfigured
        and plug interchangably into a protoboard or PCB.

        Here is a suggested form factor and connector layout to make it
        compatible with protoboard or a PCB. I assume standard through hole
        components

        Each sensor module should be 1"x 1" with two IC sockets for mounting
        a LM358 and a CD4066 plus 4 resistors. External connections are made
        two 8 pin connectors made from single inline rows of IC machine
        sockets with 0.1 inch spacing between pins and positioned along the
        top and bottom edges of the module with 0.9 inch spacing between
        rows.

        The top 8 pin connector is used to connect two passive or active
        sensors and two threshold adjustment pots to the (+/-) inputs of the
        dual opamps and also provides pins for Vcc and gnd. The bottom 8 pin
        connector provides 4 independent 4066 switch contacts to be
        connecteted to the main part of the control circuit.

        This allows the module to be plugged into a proto board with the dual
        8 pin machine sockets pins and the socket acting as female input
        connetors or as feedthroughs for external sensors leads and internal
        jumpers for the control output signals.

        The module can be raised up above the protoboard to provide access to
        the hidden contact strips underneath the module by stacking up
        another pair of 8 pin machine sockets on the the two rows of
        connector pins.

        The module circuit does not have to be a standalone daughter board
        but can also be integrated into the main circuit protoboard or PCB if
        desired to interchangably accomodate a wide variety of sensors.

        A standardized sensor subsystem would require more discussion and
        consensus on the internal circuit and connector pin assigment. If a
        common interface is agreed on, it may go some way to creating a line
        of circuit modules that can be connected together to provide plug and
        play capability.

        wilf

        --- In beam@yahoogroups. com, "Mike Robertson" <mikerobe@.. .> wrote:
        >
        > i need some ideas/schematics for sensors for my new bot....i want
        to have modular types that i can plug and swap to change the function
        of the bot.
        > some i thought of so far are
        > hot/cold
        > light/dark
        > batt full/low
        > edge detect
        > tilt
        > proximity
        > and any other range by ir or emf
        > oh and naturally the default touch switches.... but they're
        easy...lol
        >
        > i need them to have high/low outputs to interface with the rest of
        the bot design
        >
        > thanks Mike
        >
        > i dont ask for much do i?? lol
        >
        >
        > ----- Original Message -----
        > From: Jesse
        > To: beam@yahoogroups. com
        > Sent: Tuesday, July 31, 2007 8:14 PM
        > Subject: [beam] Re: how to find capacity of solar cell?
        >
        >
        > hello Bill. (ever seen the movie kill bill? JK)
        >
        > hooking up you meter in series is a way to read current, but you
        must
        > remember that the load determines the current draw, well up to a
        max in
        > this case.(im an electrician and you arent dealing with live
        power
        > here)
        >
        > a way to calculate(someone correct me if need be)the current
        produced
        > is to use I = E/R, which is current equals voltage divided by
        > resistance. the current will be small, say in the miliamp range.
        Step
        > one, measure the resistance of the solar cell. Step two, measure
        the
        > voltage. Step three, do some math: voltaged divided the
        resistance to
        > get the current. Step four, wish you had better solar cells
        hahahahaha
        >
        > peace out
        >
        > Jesse Meers
        > just build it!
        >
        > --- In beam@yahoogroups. com, "Bill" <wjl82871@> wrote:
        > >
        > > Hello,
        > >
        > > I have a few little solar cells laying around. I know how to
        find the
        > > voltage of the cell, but how do I find the amp output? Do I
        need to
        > > make some sort of load and then put the VMM in series with the
        > circuit?
        > >
        > > Thank you for your help and time!
        > >
        >

      • wilf_nv
        Good example of the difficulty of reaching consensus on standards. It is all a matter of defining the organization a complex system into meaningful layers or
        Message 3 of 4 , Aug 3, 2007
        • 0 Attachment
          Good example of the difficulty of reaching consensus on standards.

          It is all a matter of defining the organization a complex system into
          meaningful layers or subsystems.

          In biological systems this is incredibly difficult just think of how
          long it took to get to the current understanding of the organization
          of biological functions of the human body and this knowledge is still
          only the tip of the iceberg of how it actually functions.

          Because BEAM systems are so simple it should be possible to do a
          useful definition of the organization of subsystems on which many of
          these simple autonomous electromechanical designs are based.

          Flip flops, delays or memories should probably be considered part of
          a deeper part of the control circuit. However you can broaden the
          sensor subsystem definition to include these functions or define a
          separate sensor processing or "signal conditioning" layer as distinct
          from the motor control layer.

          Perhaps a diagram that follows the signal flow will describe the
          model I am using.

          REALWORLD->SENSORS->SIGNALCONDITIONING->WORLDMODEL->CPG->MOTORS-
          >REALWORLD

          wilf


          --- In beam@yahoogroups.com, "Mike Robertson" <mikerobe@...> wrote:
          >
          > ok....
          > how bout i start with temp sensor
          > could we use a comparator with a volage divider to set the
          referance on the negative and a lm335z on the positive
          >
          > or would a window compartor connected to a flip flop work
          better...at least with the flip flop you can easily select if you
          want a high or low output to trigger the bots function
          > if that works then simply changing the sensor type and divider
          should work for different detection types
          >
          > mike
          > ----- Original Message -----
          > From: wilf_nv
          > To: beam@yahoogroups.com
          > Sent: Wednesday, August 01, 2007 12:12 PM
          > Subject: [beam] Re: Sensor types
          >
          >
          > Good idea!
          >
          > To provide interchangable sensor modules you can normalize all
          sensor
          > outputs to proportional voltage outputs which can be compared and
          > then generate an open or closed "switch" contact.
          >
          > For example, use a series load resistor or potentiometer to
          condition
          > resistive sensors such as potentiometers, PDs, thermistors and
          LDRs
          > to generate a voltage output.
          >
          > Next use an opamp to compare the sensor voltage output to a
          reference
          > voltage or to another sensor's output voltage. When a sensor
          output
          > is above a threshold or is greater than the output voltage of a
          > second sensor the comparator output goes high.
          >
          > Each opamp output signal controls two 4066 type analog gates.
          > Finally, the analog gate I/O pins connect like simple switch
          contacts
          > to the rest of the robot control circuit to provide signal
          inversion,
          > change time constants, discharge delay capacitors, multiplex
          control
          > signals (for reversersing) or implement wired AND/OR logic gates.
          >
          > These modules can be a complete subsystem that can be
          preconfigured
          > and plug interchangably into a protoboard or PCB.
          >
          > Here is a suggested form factor and connector layout to make it
          > compatible with protoboard or a PCB. I assume standard through
          hole
          > components
          >
          > Each sensor module should be 1"x 1" with two IC sockets for
          mounting
          > a LM358 and a CD4066 plus 4 resistors. External connections are
          made
          > two 8 pin connectors made from single inline rows of IC machine
          > sockets with 0.1 inch spacing between pins and positioned along
          the
          > top and bottom edges of the module with 0.9 inch spacing between
          > rows.
          >
          > The top 8 pin connector is used to connect two passive or active
          > sensors and two threshold adjustment pots to the (+/-) inputs of
          the
          > dual opamps and also provides pins for Vcc and gnd. The bottom 8
          pin
          > connector provides 4 independent 4066 switch contacts to be
          > connecteted to the main part of the control circuit.
          >
          > This allows the module to be plugged into a proto board with the
          dual
          > 8 pin machine sockets pins and the socket acting as female input
          > connetors or as feedthroughs for external sensors leads and
          internal
          > jumpers for the control output signals.
          >
          > The module can be raised up above the protoboard to provide
          access to
          > the hidden contact strips underneath the module by stacking up
          > another pair of 8 pin machine sockets on the the two rows of
          > connector pins.
          >
          > The module circuit does not have to be a standalone daughter
          board
          > but can also be integrated into the main circuit protoboard or
          PCB if
          > desired to interchangably accomodate a wide variety of sensors.
          >
          > A standardized sensor subsystem would require more discussion and
          > consensus on the internal circuit and connector pin assigment. If
          a
          > common interface is agreed on, it may go some way to creating a
          line
          > of circuit modules that can be connected together to provide plug
          and
          > play capability.
          >
          > wilf
          >
          > --- In beam@yahoogroups.com, "Mike Robertson" <mikerobe@> wrote:
          > >
          > > i need some ideas/schematics for sensors for my new bot....i
          want
          > to have modular types that i can plug and swap to change the
          function
          > of the bot.
          > > some i thought of so far are
          > > hot/cold
          > > light/dark
          > > batt full/low
          > > edge detect
          > > tilt
          > > proximity
          > > and any other range by ir or emf
          > > oh and naturally the default touch switches....but they're
          > easy...lol
          > >
          > > i need them to have high/low outputs to interface with the rest
          of
          > the bot design
          > >
          > > thanks Mike
          > >
          > > i dont ask for much do i?? lol
          > >
          > >
          > > ----- Original Message -----
          > > From: Jesse
          > > To: beam@yahoogroups.com
          > > Sent: Tuesday, July 31, 2007 8:14 PM
          > > Subject: [beam] Re: how to find capacity of solar cell?
          > >
          > >
          > > hello Bill. (ever seen the movie kill bill? JK)
          > >
          > > hooking up you meter in series is a way to read current, but
          you
          > must
          > > remember that the load determines the current draw, well up to
          a
          > max in
          > > this case.(im an electrician and you arent dealing with live
          > power
          > > here)
          > >
          > > a way to calculate(someone correct me if need be)the current
          > produced
          > > is to use I = E/R, which is current equals voltage divided by
          > > resistance. the current will be small, say in the miliamp
          range.
          > Step
          > > one, measure the resistance of the solar cell. Step two,
          measure
          > the
          > > voltage. Step three, do some math: voltaged divided the
          > resistance to
          > > get the current. Step four, wish you had better solar cells
          > hahahahaha
          > >
          > > peace out
          > >
          > > Jesse Meers
          > > just build it!
          > >
          > > --- In beam@yahoogroups.com, "Bill" <wjl82871@> wrote:
          > > >
          > > > Hello,
          > > >
          > > > I have a few little solar cells laying around. I know how to
          > find the
          > > > voltage of the cell, but how do I find the amp output? Do I
          > need to
          > > > make some sort of load and then put the VMM in series with
          the
          > > circuit?
          > > >
          > > > Thank you for your help and time!
          > > >
          > >
          >
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