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Sensor types

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  • Mike Robertson
    i need some ideas/schematics for sensors for my new bot....i want to have modular types that i can plug and swap to change the function of the bot. some i
    Message 1 of 4 , Jul 31 8:12 PM
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      i need some ideas/schematics for sensors for my new bot....i want to have modular types that i can plug and swap to change the function of the bot.
      some i thought of so far are
      hot/cold
      light/dark
      batt full/low
      edge detect
      tilt
      proximity
      and any other range by ir or emf
      oh and naturally the default touch switches....but they're easy...lol
       
      i need them to have high/low outputs to interface with the rest of the bot design
       
      thanks Mike
       
      i dont ask for much do i??   lol
       
       
      ----- Original Message -----
      From: Jesse
      Sent: Tuesday, July 31, 2007 8:14 PM
      Subject: [beam] Re: how to find capacity of solar cell?

      hello Bill. (ever seen the movie kill bill? JK)

      hooking up you meter in series is a way to read current, but you must
      remember that the load determines the current draw, well up to a max in
      this case.(im an electrician and you arent dealing with live power
      here)

      a way to calculate(someone correct me if need be)the current produced
      is to use I = E/R, which is current equals voltage divided by
      resistance. the current will be small, say in the miliamp range. Step
      one, measure the resistance of the solar cell. Step two, measure the
      voltage. Step three, do some math: voltaged divided the resistance to
      get the current. Step four, wish you had better solar cells hahahahaha

      peace out

      Jesse Meers
      just build it!

      --- In beam@yahoogroups. com, "Bill" <wjl82871@.. .> wrote:
      >
      > Hello,
      >
      > I have a few little solar cells laying around. I know how to find the
      > voltage of the cell, but how do I find the amp output? Do I need to
      > make some sort of load and then put the VMM in series with the
      circuit?
      >
      > Thank you for your help and time!
      >

    • wilf_nv
      Good idea! To provide interchangable sensor modules you can normalize all sensor outputs to proportional voltage outputs which can be compared and then
      Message 2 of 4 , Aug 1, 2007
      • 0 Attachment
        Good idea!

        To provide interchangable sensor modules you can normalize all sensor
        outputs to proportional voltage outputs which can be compared and
        then generate an open or closed "switch" contact.

        For example, use a series load resistor or potentiometer to condition
        resistive sensors such as potentiometers, PDs, thermistors and LDRs
        to generate a voltage output.

        Next use an opamp to compare the sensor voltage output to a reference
        voltage or to another sensor's output voltage. When a sensor output
        is above a threshold or is greater than the output voltage of a
        second sensor the comparator output goes high.

        Each opamp output signal controls two 4066 type analog gates.
        Finally, the analog gate I/O pins connect like simple switch contacts
        to the rest of the robot control circuit to provide signal inversion,
        change time constants, discharge delay capacitors, multiplex control
        signals (for reversersing) or implement wired AND/OR logic gates.

        These modules can be a complete subsystem that can be preconfigured
        and plug interchangably into a protoboard or PCB.

        Here is a suggested form factor and connector layout to make it
        compatible with protoboard or a PCB. I assume standard through hole
        components

        Each sensor module should be 1"x 1" with two IC sockets for mounting
        a LM358 and a CD4066 plus 4 resistors. External connections are made
        two 8 pin connectors made from single inline rows of IC machine
        sockets with 0.1 inch spacing between pins and positioned along the
        top and bottom edges of the module with 0.9 inch spacing between
        rows.

        The top 8 pin connector is used to connect two passive or active
        sensors and two threshold adjustment pots to the (+/-) inputs of the
        dual opamps and also provides pins for Vcc and gnd. The bottom 8 pin
        connector provides 4 independent 4066 switch contacts to be
        connecteted to the main part of the control circuit.

        This allows the module to be plugged into a proto board with the dual
        8 pin machine sockets pins and the socket acting as female input
        connetors or as feedthroughs for external sensors leads and internal
        jumpers for the control output signals.

        The module can be raised up above the protoboard to provide access to
        the hidden contact strips underneath the module by stacking up
        another pair of 8 pin machine sockets on the the two rows of
        connector pins.

        The module circuit does not have to be a standalone daughter board
        but can also be integrated into the main circuit protoboard or PCB if
        desired to interchangably accomodate a wide variety of sensors.

        A standardized sensor subsystem would require more discussion and
        consensus on the internal circuit and connector pin assigment. If a
        common interface is agreed on, it may go some way to creating a line
        of circuit modules that can be connected together to provide plug and
        play capability.

        wilf

        --- In beam@yahoogroups.com, "Mike Robertson" <mikerobe@...> wrote:
        >
        > i need some ideas/schematics for sensors for my new bot....i want
        to have modular types that i can plug and swap to change the function
        of the bot.
        > some i thought of so far are
        > hot/cold
        > light/dark
        > batt full/low
        > edge detect
        > tilt
        > proximity
        > and any other range by ir or emf
        > oh and naturally the default touch switches....but they're
        easy...lol
        >
        > i need them to have high/low outputs to interface with the rest of
        the bot design
        >
        > thanks Mike
        >
        > i dont ask for much do i?? lol
        >
        >
        > ----- Original Message -----
        > From: Jesse
        > To: beam@yahoogroups.com
        > Sent: Tuesday, July 31, 2007 8:14 PM
        > Subject: [beam] Re: how to find capacity of solar cell?
        >
        >
        > hello Bill. (ever seen the movie kill bill? JK)
        >
        > hooking up you meter in series is a way to read current, but you
        must
        > remember that the load determines the current draw, well up to a
        max in
        > this case.(im an electrician and you arent dealing with live
        power
        > here)
        >
        > a way to calculate(someone correct me if need be)the current
        produced
        > is to use I = E/R, which is current equals voltage divided by
        > resistance. the current will be small, say in the miliamp range.
        Step
        > one, measure the resistance of the solar cell. Step two, measure
        the
        > voltage. Step three, do some math: voltaged divided the
        resistance to
        > get the current. Step four, wish you had better solar cells
        hahahahaha
        >
        > peace out
        >
        > Jesse Meers
        > just build it!
        >
        > --- In beam@yahoogroups.com, "Bill" <wjl82871@> wrote:
        > >
        > > Hello,
        > >
        > > I have a few little solar cells laying around. I know how to
        find the
        > > voltage of the cell, but how do I find the amp output? Do I
        need to
        > > make some sort of load and then put the VMM in series with the
        > circuit?
        > >
        > > Thank you for your help and time!
        > >
        >
      • Mike Robertson
        ok.... how bout i start with temp sensor could we use a comparator with a volage divider to set the referance on the negative and a lm335z on the positive or
        Message 3 of 4 , Aug 1, 2007
        • 0 Attachment
          ok....
          how bout i start with temp sensor
          could we use a comparator with a volage divider to set the referance on the negative and a lm335z on the positive
           
          or would a window compartor connected to a flip flop work better...at least with the flip flop you can easily select if you want a high or low output to trigger the bots function
          if that works then simply changing the sensor type and divider should work for different detection types
           
          mike
          ----- Original Message -----
          From: wilf_nv
          Sent: Wednesday, August 01, 2007 12:12 PM
          Subject: [beam] Re: Sensor types

          Good idea!

          To provide interchangable sensor modules you can normalize all sensor
          outputs to proportional voltage outputs which can be compared and
          then generate an open or closed "switch" contact.

          For example, use a series load resistor or potentiometer to condition
          resistive sensors such as potentiometers, PDs, thermistors and LDRs
          to generate a voltage output.

          Next use an opamp to compare the sensor voltage output to a reference
          voltage or to another sensor's output voltage. When a sensor output
          is above a threshold or is greater than the output voltage of a
          second sensor the comparator output goes high.

          Each opamp output signal controls two 4066 type analog gates.
          Finally, the analog gate I/O pins connect like simple switch contacts
          to the rest of the robot control circuit to provide signal inversion,
          change time constants, discharge delay capacitors, multiplex control
          signals (for reversersing) or implement wired AND/OR logic gates.

          These modules can be a complete subsystem that can be preconfigured
          and plug interchangably into a protoboard or PCB.

          Here is a suggested form factor and connector layout to make it
          compatible with protoboard or a PCB. I assume standard through hole
          components

          Each sensor module should be 1"x 1" with two IC sockets for mounting
          a LM358 and a CD4066 plus 4 resistors. External connections are made
          two 8 pin connectors made from single inline rows of IC machine
          sockets with 0.1 inch spacing between pins and positioned along the
          top and bottom edges of the module with 0.9 inch spacing between
          rows.

          The top 8 pin connector is used to connect two passive or active
          sensors and two threshold adjustment pots to the (+/-) inputs of the
          dual opamps and also provides pins for Vcc and gnd. The bottom 8 pin
          connector provides 4 independent 4066 switch contacts to be
          connecteted to the main part of the control circuit.

          This allows the module to be plugged into a proto board with the dual
          8 pin machine sockets pins and the socket acting as female input
          connetors or as feedthroughs for external sensors leads and internal
          jumpers for the control output signals.

          The module can be raised up above the protoboard to provide access to
          the hidden contact strips underneath the module by stacking up
          another pair of 8 pin machine sockets on the the two rows of
          connector pins.

          The module circuit does not have to be a standalone daughter board
          but can also be integrated into the main circuit protoboard or PCB if
          desired to interchangably accomodate a wide variety of sensors.

          A standardized sensor subsystem would require more discussion and
          consensus on the internal circuit and connector pin assigment. If a
          common interface is agreed on, it may go some way to creating a line
          of circuit modules that can be connected together to provide plug and
          play capability.

          wilf

          --- In beam@yahoogroups. com, "Mike Robertson" <mikerobe@.. .> wrote:
          >
          > i need some ideas/schematics for sensors for my new bot....i want
          to have modular types that i can plug and swap to change the function
          of the bot.
          > some i thought of so far are
          > hot/cold
          > light/dark
          > batt full/low
          > edge detect
          > tilt
          > proximity
          > and any other range by ir or emf
          > oh and naturally the default touch switches.... but they're
          easy...lol
          >
          > i need them to have high/low outputs to interface with the rest of
          the bot design
          >
          > thanks Mike
          >
          > i dont ask for much do i?? lol
          >
          >
          > ----- Original Message -----
          > From: Jesse
          > To: beam@yahoogroups. com
          > Sent: Tuesday, July 31, 2007 8:14 PM
          > Subject: [beam] Re: how to find capacity of solar cell?
          >
          >
          > hello Bill. (ever seen the movie kill bill? JK)
          >
          > hooking up you meter in series is a way to read current, but you
          must
          > remember that the load determines the current draw, well up to a
          max in
          > this case.(im an electrician and you arent dealing with live
          power
          > here)
          >
          > a way to calculate(someone correct me if need be)the current
          produced
          > is to use I = E/R, which is current equals voltage divided by
          > resistance. the current will be small, say in the miliamp range.
          Step
          > one, measure the resistance of the solar cell. Step two, measure
          the
          > voltage. Step three, do some math: voltaged divided the
          resistance to
          > get the current. Step four, wish you had better solar cells
          hahahahaha
          >
          > peace out
          >
          > Jesse Meers
          > just build it!
          >
          > --- In beam@yahoogroups. com, "Bill" <wjl82871@> wrote:
          > >
          > > Hello,
          > >
          > > I have a few little solar cells laying around. I know how to
          find the
          > > voltage of the cell, but how do I find the amp output? Do I
          need to
          > > make some sort of load and then put the VMM in series with the
          > circuit?
          > >
          > > Thank you for your help and time!
          > >
          >

        • wilf_nv
          Good example of the difficulty of reaching consensus on standards. It is all a matter of defining the organization a complex system into meaningful layers or
          Message 4 of 4 , Aug 3, 2007
          • 0 Attachment
            Good example of the difficulty of reaching consensus on standards.

            It is all a matter of defining the organization a complex system into
            meaningful layers or subsystems.

            In biological systems this is incredibly difficult just think of how
            long it took to get to the current understanding of the organization
            of biological functions of the human body and this knowledge is still
            only the tip of the iceberg of how it actually functions.

            Because BEAM systems are so simple it should be possible to do a
            useful definition of the organization of subsystems on which many of
            these simple autonomous electromechanical designs are based.

            Flip flops, delays or memories should probably be considered part of
            a deeper part of the control circuit. However you can broaden the
            sensor subsystem definition to include these functions or define a
            separate sensor processing or "signal conditioning" layer as distinct
            from the motor control layer.

            Perhaps a diagram that follows the signal flow will describe the
            model I am using.

            REALWORLD->SENSORS->SIGNALCONDITIONING->WORLDMODEL->CPG->MOTORS-
            >REALWORLD

            wilf


            --- In beam@yahoogroups.com, "Mike Robertson" <mikerobe@...> wrote:
            >
            > ok....
            > how bout i start with temp sensor
            > could we use a comparator with a volage divider to set the
            referance on the negative and a lm335z on the positive
            >
            > or would a window compartor connected to a flip flop work
            better...at least with the flip flop you can easily select if you
            want a high or low output to trigger the bots function
            > if that works then simply changing the sensor type and divider
            should work for different detection types
            >
            > mike
            > ----- Original Message -----
            > From: wilf_nv
            > To: beam@yahoogroups.com
            > Sent: Wednesday, August 01, 2007 12:12 PM
            > Subject: [beam] Re: Sensor types
            >
            >
            > Good idea!
            >
            > To provide interchangable sensor modules you can normalize all
            sensor
            > outputs to proportional voltage outputs which can be compared and
            > then generate an open or closed "switch" contact.
            >
            > For example, use a series load resistor or potentiometer to
            condition
            > resistive sensors such as potentiometers, PDs, thermistors and
            LDRs
            > to generate a voltage output.
            >
            > Next use an opamp to compare the sensor voltage output to a
            reference
            > voltage or to another sensor's output voltage. When a sensor
            output
            > is above a threshold or is greater than the output voltage of a
            > second sensor the comparator output goes high.
            >
            > Each opamp output signal controls two 4066 type analog gates.
            > Finally, the analog gate I/O pins connect like simple switch
            contacts
            > to the rest of the robot control circuit to provide signal
            inversion,
            > change time constants, discharge delay capacitors, multiplex
            control
            > signals (for reversersing) or implement wired AND/OR logic gates.
            >
            > These modules can be a complete subsystem that can be
            preconfigured
            > and plug interchangably into a protoboard or PCB.
            >
            > Here is a suggested form factor and connector layout to make it
            > compatible with protoboard or a PCB. I assume standard through
            hole
            > components
            >
            > Each sensor module should be 1"x 1" with two IC sockets for
            mounting
            > a LM358 and a CD4066 plus 4 resistors. External connections are
            made
            > two 8 pin connectors made from single inline rows of IC machine
            > sockets with 0.1 inch spacing between pins and positioned along
            the
            > top and bottom edges of the module with 0.9 inch spacing between
            > rows.
            >
            > The top 8 pin connector is used to connect two passive or active
            > sensors and two threshold adjustment pots to the (+/-) inputs of
            the
            > dual opamps and also provides pins for Vcc and gnd. The bottom 8
            pin
            > connector provides 4 independent 4066 switch contacts to be
            > connecteted to the main part of the control circuit.
            >
            > This allows the module to be plugged into a proto board with the
            dual
            > 8 pin machine sockets pins and the socket acting as female input
            > connetors or as feedthroughs for external sensors leads and
            internal
            > jumpers for the control output signals.
            >
            > The module can be raised up above the protoboard to provide
            access to
            > the hidden contact strips underneath the module by stacking up
            > another pair of 8 pin machine sockets on the the two rows of
            > connector pins.
            >
            > The module circuit does not have to be a standalone daughter
            board
            > but can also be integrated into the main circuit protoboard or
            PCB if
            > desired to interchangably accomodate a wide variety of sensors.
            >
            > A standardized sensor subsystem would require more discussion and
            > consensus on the internal circuit and connector pin assigment. If
            a
            > common interface is agreed on, it may go some way to creating a
            line
            > of circuit modules that can be connected together to provide plug
            and
            > play capability.
            >
            > wilf
            >
            > --- In beam@yahoogroups.com, "Mike Robertson" <mikerobe@> wrote:
            > >
            > > i need some ideas/schematics for sensors for my new bot....i
            want
            > to have modular types that i can plug and swap to change the
            function
            > of the bot.
            > > some i thought of so far are
            > > hot/cold
            > > light/dark
            > > batt full/low
            > > edge detect
            > > tilt
            > > proximity
            > > and any other range by ir or emf
            > > oh and naturally the default touch switches....but they're
            > easy...lol
            > >
            > > i need them to have high/low outputs to interface with the rest
            of
            > the bot design
            > >
            > > thanks Mike
            > >
            > > i dont ask for much do i?? lol
            > >
            > >
            > > ----- Original Message -----
            > > From: Jesse
            > > To: beam@yahoogroups.com
            > > Sent: Tuesday, July 31, 2007 8:14 PM
            > > Subject: [beam] Re: how to find capacity of solar cell?
            > >
            > >
            > > hello Bill. (ever seen the movie kill bill? JK)
            > >
            > > hooking up you meter in series is a way to read current, but
            you
            > must
            > > remember that the load determines the current draw, well up to
            a
            > max in
            > > this case.(im an electrician and you arent dealing with live
            > power
            > > here)
            > >
            > > a way to calculate(someone correct me if need be)the current
            > produced
            > > is to use I = E/R, which is current equals voltage divided by
            > > resistance. the current will be small, say in the miliamp
            range.
            > Step
            > > one, measure the resistance of the solar cell. Step two,
            measure
            > the
            > > voltage. Step three, do some math: voltaged divided the
            > resistance to
            > > get the current. Step four, wish you had better solar cells
            > hahahahaha
            > >
            > > peace out
            > >
            > > Jesse Meers
            > > just build it!
            > >
            > > --- In beam@yahoogroups.com, "Bill" <wjl82871@> wrote:
            > > >
            > > > Hello,
            > > >
            > > > I have a few little solar cells laying around. I know how to
            > find the
            > > > voltage of the cell, but how do I find the amp output? Do I
            > need to
            > > > make some sort of load and then put the VMM in series with
            the
            > > circuit?
            > > >
            > > > Thank you for your help and time!
            > > >
            > >
            >
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